created stagging directory for PROV-XML WD 2012-12-11
authorStephan Zednik <zednis@rpi.edu>
Mon, 26 Nov 2012 17:03:10 -0700
changeset 5148 e635d28ee0ae
parent 5147 eebc933c8bfe
child 5150 3b7770c9f1d5
created stagging directory for PROV-XML WD 2012-12-11
xml/prov-xml.html
xml/releases/WD-prov-xml-20121211/Overview.html
xml/releases/WD-prov-xml-20121211/schema/prov.xsd
--- a/xml/prov-xml.html	Mon Nov 26 15:55:50 2012 -0700
+++ b/xml/prov-xml.html	Mon Nov 26 17:03:10 2012 -0700
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@
       };
       var respecConfig = {
           // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
-          specStatus:           "ED",
+          specStatus:           "WD",
           
           // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
           shortName:            "prov-xml",
@@ -101,11 +101,11 @@
 
  
           // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
-          // publishDate:  "2011-10-18",
+          publishDate:  "2012-12-11",
  
           // if the specification's copyright date is a range of years, specify
           // the start date here:
-          // copyrightStart: "2005"
+          copyrightStart: "2012",
  
           // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
           // and its maturity status
@@ -114,6 +114,8 @@
  
           // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
           edDraftURI:           "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/xml/prov-xml.html",
+
+		  implementationReportURI: "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html",
  
           // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
           // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/xml/releases/WD-prov-xml-20121211/Overview.html	Mon Nov 26 17:03:10 2012 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,2768 @@
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd'>
+<html dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" typeof="bibo:Document">
+<head> 
+    <title>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</title> 
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> 
+    
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+
+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8" /></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" /></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</h1><h2 id="subtitle">initial ideas for PROV XML schema</h2><h2 id="w3c-working-draft-11-december-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Working Draft 11 December 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-xml/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-xml/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/xml/prov-xml.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/xml/prov-xml.html</a></dd><dt>Implementation report:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd>none</dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><span>(In alphabetical order)</span></dd>
+<dd><span>Hook Hua</span>, Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Technology</dd>
+<dd><span>Curt Tilmes</span>, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/StephanZednik">Stephan Zednik</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dt>Author:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+</dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2012-2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr /></div> 
+
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> provenance (PROV) family of specifications. It defines a concepts for expressing provenance information enabling interchange. This document introduces an XML schema for the PROV data model (PROV-DM), allowing instances of the PROV data model to be serialized in XML.
+</p>
+<p>The  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
+<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are:
+<ul>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">PROV-O</a> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">PROV-DM</a> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">PROV-N</a> (Candidate Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Candidate Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/">PROV-AQ</a> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>].</li>
+
+</ul>
+<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-documents">How to read the PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+<ul>
+<li>[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] overviews the PROV family of documents. </li>
+<li>The primer [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>] is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </li>
+<li>The XML community should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM and [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</li>
+<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>].</li>
+<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on PROV-DM and [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<h4 id="please-comment-by-january-31--2013">Please Comment By January 31, 2013</h4>
+
+The Provenance Working Group seeks to gather experience from <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvImplementations">implementations</a> in order to increase confidence in the specifications and meet specific <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvCRExitCriteria">exit criteria</a>. This document will remain a Candidate Recommendation until at least 31 January 31, 2013. After that date, when and if the exit criteria are met, the group intends to request <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#RecsPR">Proposed Recommendation</a> status.
+<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Working Draft. This document is intended to become a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-namespace" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>PROV Namespace</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#schema-design" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>XML Schema Design</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#schema-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV XML Schema</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Primary-Source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Alternate</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Collection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.2 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#further-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#attribute-Identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#element-Label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#element-Location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#element-Role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#element-Type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.5 </span>Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#element-Value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.6 </span>Value</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#media-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Media Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-xml-schema" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Full XML Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>  
+<!--  end abstract  -->
+
+
+ 
+<!--  end sotd  -->
+
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section"> 
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2> 
+
+<p> 
+For the purpose of this specification, <dfn id="dfn-provenance">provenance</dfn> is defined as a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.  In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its originators when reusing it.  In an open and inclusive environment such as the Web, where users find information that is often contradictory or questionable, provenance can help those users to make trust judgements.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The PROV data model, PROV-DM, presents a generic data model for provenance that allows domain and application specific representations of provenance to be translated into such a data model and <em>interchanged</em> between systems.  Thus, heterogeneous systems can export their native provenance into such a core data model, and applications that need to make sense of provenance can then import it,
+process it, and reason over it.</p>
+
+<p>
+The PROV data model distinguishes <em>core structures</em> from <em>extended structures</em>: core structures form the essence of provenance information, and are commonly found in various domain-specific vocabularies that deal with provenance or similar kinds of information [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Mappings">Mappings</a></cite>].  Extended structures enhance and refine core structures with more expressive capabilities to cater for more advanced uses of provenance.  The PROV data model, comprising both core and extended structures, is a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and application-specific extensions to be defined.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The PROV data model has a modular design and is structured according to six components covering various facets of provenance:</p>
+<ul>
+<li> component 1: entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
+</li><li> component 2: derivations of entities from others;
+</li><li> component 3: agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+</li><li> component 4: bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance;
+</li><li> component 5: properties to link entities that refer to a same thing;
+</li><li> component 6: collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+This specification goal is to provide a succinct definition of the XML form of PROV-DM, thus, we refer the reader to the PROV-DM to provide overall justification and context to the definitions presented here.  
+</p>
+
+
+<!-- 
+<section id="structure-of-this-document"> 
+<h3>Structure of this Document</h3>
+<p><a href="#schema-components">Section 2</a> provides an overview of the PROV XML Schema elements and types</p>
+<p><a href="#prov-xml-schema">Appendix A</a> contains the full PROV-XML Schema</p>
+</section> <!-- end structure-of-this-document  -->
+
+
+<div id="prov-namespace" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>PROV Namespace</h3>
+<p>The PROV namespace is <span class="name">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>.</p>
+<p> All the concepts, reserved names and attributes introduced in this specification belong to the PROV namespace.</p>
+</div> 
+<!--  end prov-namespace  -->
+
+
+<div id="conventions" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Conventions</h3>
+
+<p>The key words &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="shall
+      not">shall
+      not</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>&quot;, &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>&quot;,  &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>&quot;, and
+      &quot;<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>&quot; in this document are to be interpreted as described in
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
+</div> 
+<!--  end conventions  -->
+
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end introduction  -->
+
+
+<div id="schema-design" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>XML Schema Design</h2>
+
+<p>Several general design principles and patterns were used in the
+construction of the PROV XML Schema.
+</p>
+
+<h3 id="salami-slice-design-pattern"><i>Salami Slice</i> Design Pattern</h3>
+
+<p>The general design pattern for the XML schema has been
+called <i>Salami Slice Design</i> (cite?).  With this design, the
+individual components are each defined at the top level as separate
+elements with distinct types.  This allows the types to be easily
+reusable for domain specific extensions.
+</p>
+
+<h3 id="elements-vs.-attributes">Elements vs. Attributes</h3>
+
+<p>The general PROV-N syntax patterns for expressing provenance
+concepts are:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">thing(id, elem1, elem2, ..., [attr1=val1, attr2=val2])
+concept(id; elem1, elem2, ... [attr1=val2, attr2=val2])
+</pre>
+
+<p>In both cases (required id or optional id), the PROV-N id is
+treated as an XML attribute, the PROV-N &quot;elements&quot; are treated as XML
+elements, always with the same required order (position) as the
+PROV-DM/PROV-N description, and optional PROV-N &quot;attributes&quot;, if
+allowed, always follow and are also represented by XML elements.  As
+in PROV-N, the attributes can be specified multiple times, and in any
+order, as long as they are all at the end of the encompassing element.
+</p>
+
+<p>Wherever an &quot;id&quot; is referenced from a later concept, the id is
+referenced as a prov:ref attribute of the element within the concept.
+</p>
+
+<p>This transformation technique yields a general XML pattern:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">&lt;prov:thing prov:id=&quot;id&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;prov:elem1 /&gt;
+  &lt;prov:elem2 /&gt;
+  ...
+  &lt;prov:attr1&gt;val1&lt;/prov:attr1&gt;
+  &lt;prov:attr2&gt;val2&lt;/prov:attr2&gt;
+  ...
+&lt;/prov:thing&gt;
+</pre>
+
+<p>Most of the concepts described below follow this general pattern.
+</p>
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>REVIEW QUESTION:</p>
+<p>Is this ordering of elements/attributes reasonable/satisfactory?</p>
+<p>Would it be better to loosen the ordering requirement allowing any mix
+of elements/attributes, or to tighten the ordering requirement,
+requiring all &quot;prov:&quot; namespace attributes to precede all non-&quot;prov:&quot;
+namespace attributes when expressed as XML elements?
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>REVIEW QUESTION:</p>
+
+<p>The current design has mirrored the naming from PROV-N.  This often
+involves reliance on the &quot;prov:type&quot; attribute to distinguish some
+relations.  In order to simplify the overall expression of those
+concepts in XML, we are considering adding additional explicitly named
+top level elements rather than requiring &quot;prov:type&quot;.
+</p>
+
+<p>For example, a Quotation is currently expressed in PROV-N as a type
+of Derivation like this:</p>
+<div class="codeexample">
+wasDerivedFrom(a, b, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
+</div>
+
+<p>which is transformed to:</p>
+
+<div class="codeexample">
+&lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;<br />
+  &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;<br />
+  &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;b&quot;/&gt;<br />
+  &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Quotation&lt;/prov:type&gt;<br />
+&lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+</div>
+
+<p>This proposal would replace that with an explicit &quot;Quotation&quot; element:
+</p>
+
+<div class="codeexample">
+&lt;prov:Quotation&gt;<br />
+  &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;<br />
+  &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;b&quot;/&gt;<br />
+&lt;/prov:Quotation&gt;
+</div>
+
+<p>Other &quot;typed&quot; concepts and relations would be handled similarly.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<!--  should we instead break the schema down into complex types and elements?  -->
+
+<div id="schema-components" class="section">
+
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV XML Schema</h2>
+
+<p>Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.</p>
+
+<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
+<ul>
+<li><b>Component 1: entities and activities.</b> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </li>
+<li><b>Component 2: derivations.</b>  The second component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</li>
+<li><b>Component 3: agents, responsibility, and influence.</b> The third component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</li>
+<li><b>Component 4: bundles.</b> The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</li>
+<li><b>Component 5: alternate.</b> The fifth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </li>
+<li><b>Component 6: collections.</b> The sixth component is about collections. </li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img usemap="#componentMap" src="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/images/dm/components-dependencies.png" alt="PROV-DM Components" style="max-width: 90%; " />
+<map id="componentMap" name="componentMap">
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="0,0,67,268" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect" />
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="67,0,134,201" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect" />
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="134,0,201,67" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect" />
+<area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="201,0,268,201" alt="derivations" shape="rect" />
+<area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="134,67,201,201" alt="derivations" shape="rect" />
+<area title="alternate" href="#component5" coords="268,0,335,67" alt="alternate" shape="rect" />
+<area title="alternate" href="#component5" coords="335,0,402,201" alt="alternate" shape="rect" />
+<area title="collections" href="#component6" coords="402,0,469,201" alt="collections" shape="rect" />
+<area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="67,201,469,268" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect" />
+<area title="bundles" href="#component4" coords="268,67,402,201" alt="bundles" shape="rect" />
+</map>
+<br />
+<figcaption id="prov-dm-components">PROV-DM Components (Informative)</figcaption>  
+<!--  Figure 4  -->
+
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+
+<!-- 
+<p>
+While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, Table <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">relations-at-a-glance</a> indexes all relations according to their two primary elements.  The table adopts the same color scheme as Figure <a href="#prov-dm-components">prov-dm-components</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.
+Note that for simplicity, this table  does not include collection-oriented relations.
+</p>
+ -->
+
+
+
+<!--  TODO add mapping of PROV-DM relations to Schema -->
+
+
+<p><a href="#prov-schema-mapping">Table X</a></p>
+<div id="prov-schema-mapping" style="text-align: left;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations">PROV-DM Types and Relations to XML Schema Mapping</caption> 
+<!--  Table X -->
+
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>Type or Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b>XML Schema ComplexType or usage</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">Entity</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-Entity" class="essential">prov:Entity</a></td>
+	<td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1">Component 1: Entities/Activities</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">Activity</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-Activity" class="essential">prov:Activity</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasGeneratedBy"><span class="essential">prov:Generation</span></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a></td>
+	<td><a title="used"><span class="essential">prov:Usage</span></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasInformedBy"><span class="essential">prov:Communication</span></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasStartedBy">prov:Start</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasEndedBy">prov:End</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component1-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasInvalidatedBy">prov:Invalidation</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+	<td colspan="3" style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component2-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">Derivation</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasDerivedFrom"><span class="essential">prov:Derivation</span></a></td>
+	<td rowspan="4"><a href="#component2">Component 2: Derivations</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component2-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN">Revision</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-revision">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Derivation</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component2-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN">Quotation</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-quotation">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Quotation&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Derivation</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component2-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN">Primary Source</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-primary-source">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:PrimarySource&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Derivation</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+	<td colspan="3" style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; ">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">Agent</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-agent" class="essential">prov:Agent</a></td>
+	<td rowspan="9"><a href="#component3">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, Influence</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasAttributedTo"><span class="essential">prov:Attribution</span></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN">Association</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasAssociatedWith"><span class="essential">prov:Association</span></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="essential"><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a></td>
+	<td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf"><span class="essential">prov:Delegation</span></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN">Plan</a></td>
+	<td><a title="plan" <pre="" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Plan&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Entity</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN">Person</a></td>
+	<td><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Agent</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN">Organization</a></td>
+	<td><a title="organization" href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Organization&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Agent</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN">SoftwareAgent</a></td>
+	<td><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:SoftwareAgent&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Agent</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component3-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN">Influence</a></td>
+	<td><a title="wasInfluencedBy">prov:Influence</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+	<td colspan="3" style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component4-color">
+	<td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">Bundle constructor</a></td>
+	<td><a title="dfn-bundle">???</a></td>
+	<td rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 4: Bundles</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component4-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">Bundle type</a></td>
+	<td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Bundle&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Entity</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+	<td colspan="3" style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component5-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">Alternate</a></td>
+	<td><a title="alternateOf">prov:Alternate</a></td>
+	<td rowspan="3"><a href="#component4">Component 5: Alternate</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component5-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">Specialization</a></td>
+	<td><a title="specializationOf">prov:Specialization</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+	<td colspan="3" style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component6-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN">Collection</a></td>
+	<td><a title="collection" href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Collection&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Entity</a></td>
+	<td rowspan="3"><a href="#component6">Component 6: Collections</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component6-color">
+	<td class="provType"><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN">EmptyCollection</a></td>
+	<td><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN">use &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:EmptyCollection&lt;/prov:type&gt; in Entity</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="component6-color">
+	<td><a href="#concept-membership" class="internalDFN">Membership</a></td>
+	<td><a title="hadMember">prov:Membership</a></td>
+</tr>
+
+<!--  add section for 'further elements'  -->
+
+</tbody></table>
+<div class="note">
+<p>This mapping table is still under discussion and it's structure is subject to change.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>In the rest of the section, each type is defined, in English initially, followed by its XML schema definition and some example.</p>  
+
+<div id="component1" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
+
+<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> and <a title="activity" href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activities</a>, and their inter-relations: <a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>, <a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>, <a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>, <a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>, and <a href="#concept-startByActivity" class="internalDFN">Start by Activity</a>. </p>
+
+<div id="term-Entity" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-entity">entity</dfn> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Entity&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:value&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;entity&quot; type=&quot;prov:Entity&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:tr=&quot;http://example.com/ns/tr#&quot;&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;document&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:version&gt;2&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Entity  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Activity" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-activity">activity</dfn>  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Activity&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;startTime&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt; 
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;endTime&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt; 
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:Activity&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2011-11-16T16:05:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
+    &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2011-11-16T16:06:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;ex:edit&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:host&gt;server.example.org&lt;/ex:host&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Activity  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Generation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-generation">Generation</dfn> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Generation&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasGeneratedBy&quot; type=&quot;prov:Generation&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2001-10-26T21:32:52&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;ex:port&gt;p1&lt;/ex:port&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;</b>
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2001-10-26T10:00:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;ex:port&gt;p2&lt;/ex:port&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Generation  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Usage" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-usage">Usage</dfn> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Usage&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;used&quot; type=&quot;prov:Usage&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time≶2011-11-16T16:00:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;ex:parameter&gt;p1&lt;/ex:parameter&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:used&gt;</b>
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2011-11-16T16:00:01&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;ex:parameter&gt;p2&lt;/ex:parameter&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:used&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Usage  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Communication" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-communication">Communication</dfn> is the exchange of some unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Communication&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;informed&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;informant&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasInformedBy&quot; type=&quot;prov:Communication&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document 
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;traffic regulations enforcing&lt;prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a2&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;fine paying, check writing, and mailing&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasInformedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:informed prov:ref=&quot;a2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:informant prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasInformedBy&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Communication  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Start" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-start">Start</dfn> is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-trigger">trigger</dfn>.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-starter">starter</dfn>, that generated the trigger. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Start&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;trigger&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;starter&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasStartedBy&quot; type=&quot;prov:Start&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;email message&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;Discuss&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasStartedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:trigger prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2011-11-16T16:05:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasStartedBy&gt;</b>
+
+  &lt;prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a0&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;Write&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a0&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasStartedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:trigger prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:starter prov:ref=&quot;a0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2011-11-16T16:05:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasStartedBy&gt;</b>
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasStartedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:starter prov:ref=&quot;a0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2011-11-16T16:05:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasStartedBy&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Start  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-End" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-end">End</dfn> is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-trigger">trigger</dfn>.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-ender">ender</dfn> that generated the trigger. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;End&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;trigger&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;  minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;ender&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasEndedBy&quot; ype=&quot;prov:End&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;approval document&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;Editing&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasEndedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:trigger prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasEndedBy&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-End  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Invalidation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-invalidation">Invalidation</dfn> is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Invalidation&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot; type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasInvalidatedBy&quot; type=&quot;prov:Invalidation&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:bbc=&quot;http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:The-Painter&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ex:Picasso&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;ex:The-Painter&quot; /&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Picasso&quot; /&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;ex:crash&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasInvalidatedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;ex:The-Painter&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;ex:crash&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;1998-09-03T01:31:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;ex:circumstances&gt;plane accident&lt;/ex:circumstances&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasInvalidatedBy&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Invalidation  -->
+
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end component1  -->
+
+
+<div id="component2" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
+
+<p>The second component of PROV-DM is concerned with: <a title="derivation" href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivations</a> of <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> from other entities and derivation subtypes WasRevisionOf (<a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN">Revision</a>), WasQuotedFrom (<a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN">Quotation</a>), and HasPrimarySource (<a href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN">Primary Source</a>).</p>
+
+<div id="term-Derivation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-derivation">derivation</dfn>  is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Derivation&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;generatedEntity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;usedEntity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;generation&quot; type=&quot;prov:GenerationRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;usage&quot; type=&quot;prov:UsageRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasDerivedFrom&quot; type=&quot;prov:Derivation&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document 
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+    &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;</b>
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+    &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;physical transform&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Derivation  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Revision" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-revision">revision</dfn>   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </div>
+<p>To specialize a Derivation relationship as a Revision relationship, include a <code>prov:type</code> with the value &quot;prov:Revision&quot;.</p>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:rec54=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#&quot;
+    xmlns:tr=&quot;http://example.com/ns/tr#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;rec54:WD&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;rec54:WD&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+    &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018&quot;/&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<p>The modeling of Revision is currently under discussion and is subject to change.</p>
+</div>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Revision  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Quotation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-quotation">quotation</dfn>  is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone who may or may not be its original author. </div>
+<p>To specialize a Derivation relationship as a Quotation relationship, include a <code>prov:type</code> with the value &quot;prov:Quotation&quot;.</p>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:wp=&quot;http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:dm=&quot;http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;dm:bl-dagstuhl&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ex:Luc&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ex:Paul&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+    &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;dm:gl-dagstuhl&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop&quot;/&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Quotation&lt;/prov:type&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;dm:bl-dagstuhl&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Luc&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Paul&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<p>The modeling of Quotation is currently under discussion and is subject to change.</p>
+</div>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Quotation  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Primary-Source" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-primary-source">primary source</dfn>  for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight. </div>
+<p>To specialize a Derivation relationship as a Primary Source relationship, include a <code>prov:type</code> with the value &quot;prov:PrimarySource&quot;.</p>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;map&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;journal&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+    &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII&quot;/&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:PrimarySource&lt;/prov:type&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<p>The modeling of PrimarySource is currently under discussion and is subject to change.</p>
+</div>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Primary-Source  -->
+
+
+</div>  
+<!--  end component2  -->
+
+
+<div id="component3" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</h3>
+
+<p>The third component of PROV-DM, depicted in  <a href="#figure-component3">Figure 7</a>, is concerned with <a title="agent" href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">agents</a> and the relations WasAttributedTo
+(<a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a>), WasAssociatedWith (<a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN">Association</a>), ActedOnBehalfOf (<a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a>), relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.</p>
+
+<div id="term-Agent" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-agent">agent</dfn> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Agent&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;agent&quot; type=&quot;prov:Agent&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:name&gt;Alice&lt;/ex:name&gt;
+    &lt;ex:employee&gt;1234&lt;/ex:employee&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Agent  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Attribution" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-attribution">Attribution</dfn> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Attribution&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;agent&quot; type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasAttributedTo&quot; type=&quot;prov:Attribution&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:tr=&quot;http://example.com/ns/tr#&quot;
+    xmlns:rec54=&quot;http://example.com/ns/rec54#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ex:Paolo&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:typexsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ex:Simon&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;rec54:WD&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;rec54:WD&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Paolo&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;editorship&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;</b>
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;rec54:WD&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Simon&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;authorship&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Attribution  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Association" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref"></div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Association&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;agent&quot; type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;plan&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasAssociatedWith&quot; type=&quot;prov:Association&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;workflow execution&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ag1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;operator&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ag2&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;designator&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:role xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;loggedInUser&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;ex:how&gt;webapp&lt;/ex:how&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;</b>
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:plan prov:ref=&quot;ex:wf&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:role xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;designer&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;ex:content&gt;project1&lt;/ex:content&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;</b>
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:wf&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Plan&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:label&gt;Workflow 1&lt;/ex:label&gt;
+    &lt;prov:location xsi:type=&quot;xsd:anyURI&quot;&gt;http://example.org/workflow1.bpel&lt;/prov:location&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Association  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Delegation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-delegation">Delegation</dfn> is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Delegation&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;delegate&quot; type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;responsible&quot; type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;actedOnBehalfOf&quot; type=&quot;prov:Delegation&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document 
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;workflow&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ag1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;programmer&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ag2&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;researcher&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;ag3&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;funder&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:role xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;loggedInUser&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag2&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag3&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
+    &lt;prov:delegate prov:ref=&quot;ag1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:responsible prov:ref=&quot;ag2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;line-management&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;</b>
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
+    &lt;prov:delegate prov:ref=&quot;ag2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:responsible prov:ref=&quot;ag3&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;contract&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Delegation  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Influence" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-influence">Influence</dfn> is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Influence&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;influencee&quot; type=&quot;prov:AnyRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;influencer&quot; type=&quot;prov:AnyRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;wasInfluencedBy&quot; type=&quot;prov:Influence&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example" id="example_38">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:tr=&quot;http://example.com/ns/tr#&quot;
+    xmlns:w3=&quot;http://w3.org/&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;w3:Consortium&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:wasInfluencedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:influencee prov:ref=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:influencer prov:ref=&quot;w3:Consortium&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasInfluencedBy&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-influence  -->
+
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end component3  -->
+
+
+<div id="component4" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
+<p>The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</p>
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>Content in this section is still under discussion and may be subject to change.</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="term-Bundle" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref"> A <dfn id="concept-bundle">bundle</dfn> is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.  </div>
+<p>A Bundle is an entity that can contain nested provenance statements.</p>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Bundle&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:group ref=&quot;prov:documentElements&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>To specialize an Entity as a Bundle, include a <code>prov:type</code> with the value &quot;prov:Bundle&quot;.  The bundle element with nested provenance statements is declared separately from the bundle's entity.</p>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;document&quot; type=&quot;prov:Document&quot; /&gt;
+&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Document&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:choice maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;xs:group ref=&quot;prov:documentElements&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;bundle&quot; type=&quot;prov:Bundle&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:bob=&quot;http://example.com/ns/bob#&quot;
+    xmlns:alice=&quot;http://example.com/ns/alice#&quot;
+    xmlns:agg=&quot;http://example.com/ns/agg#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:report1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;report&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:version&gt;1&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+  
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:report2&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;report&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:version&gt;2&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:bundle prov:id=&quot;bob:bundle1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:report1&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;report&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+      &lt;ex:version&gt;1&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+    
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;ex:report1&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-05-24T10:00:01&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;</b>
+  
+  <b>&lt;prov:bundle prov:id=&quot;alice:bundle2&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:report1&quot;/&gt;
+    
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:report2&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;report&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+      &lt;ex:version&gt;2&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+    
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;ex:report2&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-05-25T11:00:01&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref=&quot;ex:report2&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref=&quot;ex:report1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;</b>b&gt;
+  
+  <b>&lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;bob:bundle1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Bundle&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;</b>
+  
+  &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;bob:bundle1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-05-24T10:30:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;bob:bundle1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Bob&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+  
+  <b>&lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;alice:bundle2&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Bundle&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;</b>
+  
+  &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;alice:bundle2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-05-25T11:15:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    
+  &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;alice:bundle2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ex:Alice&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+  
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end component4  -->
+
+
+<div id="component5" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</h3>
+<p>The fifth component of PROV-DM is concerned with
+relations SpecializationOf (<a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a>) and AlternateOf (<a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a>) between entities.</p>
+
+<div id="term-Specialization" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Specialization</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   An entity that is a <dfn id="concept-specialization">specialization</dfn> of another shares all aspects of the latter, and additionally presents more specific aspects of the same thing as the latter. In particular, the lifetime of the entity being specialized  contains that of any specialization. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Specialization&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;specificEntity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;generalEntity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;specializationOf&quot; type=&quot;prov:Specialization&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:bbc=&quot;http://www.bbc.co.uk/&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:bbcNews2012-03-23&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;bbc:news&quot;/&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
+    &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref=&quot;ex:bbcNews2012-03-23&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref=&quot;bbc:news&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Specialization  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Alternate" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Alternate</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   Two <dfn id="concept-alternate">alternate</dfn> entities present aspects of the same thing. These aspects may be the same or different, and the alternate entities may or may not overlap in time.  </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Alternate&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;alternate1&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;alternate2&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;alternateOf&quot; type=&quot;prov:Alternate&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:bbc=&quot;http://www.bbc.co.uk/news&quot;
+    xmlns:bbcmobile=&quot;http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;bbc:science-environment-17526723&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;a news item for desktop&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;bbcmobile:science-environment-17526723&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;a news item for mobile devices&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:alternateOf&gt;
+    &lt;prov:alternate1 prov:ref=&quot;bbcmobile:science-environment-17526723&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:alternate2 prov:ref=&quot;bbc:science-environment-17526723&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:alternateOf&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end term-Alternate  -->
+
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end component5  -->
+
+
+
+<div id="component6" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</h3>
+<p>The sixth component of PROV-DM is concerned with the notion of collections. 
+A collection is an entity that has some members. The members are themselves entities, and therefore their provenance can be expressed. Some applications need to be able to express the provenance of the collection  itself: e.g. who maintains the collection (attribution), which members it contains as it evolves, and how it was assembled. The purpose of Component 6 is to define the types and relations that are useful to express the provenance of collections.  </p>
+
+<div id="term-Collection" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Collection</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-collection">collection</dfn> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents that must themselves be entities. These constituents are said to be <dfn id="dfn-member">member</dfn> of the collections.  </div>
+<p>To specialize an Entity as a Collection, include a <code>prov:type</code> with the value &quot;prov:Collection&quot;.</p>
+<p>An EmptyCollection is asserted with the <code>prov:type</code> &quot;prov:EmptyCollection&quot; and denotes a Collection with no members.</p>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- c0 is an empty collection --&gt;
+  <b>&lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;c0&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:EmptyCollection&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;</b>
+
+  &lt;!-- c1 is a collection, with unknown content --&gt;
+  <b>&lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;c1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Collection&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<p>The modeling of Collection is currently under discussion and is subject to change.</p>
+</div>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Collection  -->
+
+
+<div id="term-Membership" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.6.2 </span>Membership</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref"> <dfn id="concept-membership">Membership</dfn> is the belonging of an entity  to a collection. </div>
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;Membership&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;collection&quot;  type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot;      type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;hadMember&quot; type=&quot;prov:Membership&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e0&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;c&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Collection&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;prov:hadMember&gt;
+    &lt;prov:collection prov:ref=&quot;c&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e0&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e1&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:ref=&quot;e2&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:hadMember&gt;</b>
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div>  
+<!--  end term-Membership  -->
+
+
+</div>   
+<!--  end component6  -->
+
+
+<div id="further-elements" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV</h3>
+
+<p>This section introduces further elements of PROV.</p>
+
+<div id="attribute-Identifier" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref"></div>
+<p>The identifier attribute is used to identify instances of PROV types or relations.</p>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:attribute xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;id&quot; type=&quot;xs:QName&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot; 
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:tr=&quot;http://example.com/ns/tr#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity <b>prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;</b>&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:Qname&quot;&gt;document&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;ex:version&gt;2&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<p>REVIEW QUESTION:</p>
+<p>The Identifier type is currently still under discussion.  We intend to use an identifier type that makes sense for XML conventions and current XML tooling.  The PROV-XML group is currently seeking feedback on recommended type ranges for the id attribute.</p>
+</div>
+</div> 
+<!--  end attribute-Identifier  -->
+ 
+
+<div id="element-Label" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Label</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">    The attribute <dfn id="concept-label" title="label"><span class="name">prov:label</span></dfn> provides a human-readable representation of an instance of a PROV-DM type or relation.   </div>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;label&quot; type=&quot;prov:InternationalizedString&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot; 
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:e1&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:label&gt;This is a human-readable label&lt;/prov:label&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:car01&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:label xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;&gt;Voiture 01&lt;/prov:label&gt;
+    &lt;prov:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;&gt;Car 01&lt;/prov:label&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end element-Label  -->
+
+
+<div id="element-Location" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Location</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-location" title="location">location</dfn> can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column.  </div>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;location&quot; type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:MonaLisa&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;StillImage&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:location xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;Le Louvre, Paris&lt;/prov:location&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:cell&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:location xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;(5,5)&lt;/prov:location&gt;</b>
+    &lt;prov:value xsi:type=&quot;xsd:integer&quot;&gt;10&lt;/prov:value&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end element-Location  -->
+
+
+<div id="element-Role" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Role</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-role">role</dfn> is the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity, in the context of a <a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">usage</a>, <a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">generation</a>, <a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">invalidation</a>,  <a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN">association</a>, <a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">start</a>, and  <a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">end</a>. </div>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;role&quot; type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag1&quot;/&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:role xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;loggedInUser&lt;/prov:role&gt;</b>
+    &lt;ex:how&gt;webapp&lt;/ex:how&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:ref=&quot;a&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:ref=&quot;ag2&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:plan prov:ref=&quot;ex:wf&quot;/&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:role xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;designer&lt;/prov:role&gt;</b>
+    &lt;ex:content&gt;project1&lt;/ex:content&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end element-Role  -->
+
+
+<div id="element-Type" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.5 </span>Type</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   The attribute <dfn id="concept-type" title="type"><span class="name">prov:type</span></dfn>  provides further typing information  for any construct with an optional set of attribute-value pairs. </div>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;type&quot; type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;
+    xmlns:tr=&quot;http://example.com/ns/tr#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;document&lt;/prov:type&gt;</b>
+    &lt;ex:version&gt;2&lt;/ex:version&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:agent prov:id=&quot;e1&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;</b>
+    &lt;ex:name&gt;Alice&lt;/ex:name&gt;
+    &lt;ex:employee&gt;1234&lt;/ex:employee&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:activity prov:id=&quot;a1&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2011-11-16T16:05:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
+    &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2011-11-16T16:06:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:type xsi:type=&quot;xsd:QName&quot;&gt;ex:edit&lt;/prov:type&gt;</b>
+    &lt;ex:host&gt;server.example.org&lt;/ex:host&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end element-Type  -->
+
+
+<div id="element-Value" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.6 </span>Value</h4>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   The attribute <dfn id="concept-value-attribute" title="value-attribute"><span class="name">prov:value</span></dfn>  provides a value  that is a direct representation of an entity as a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>. </div>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot; name=&quot;value&quot; type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+</pre>
+<pre class="example">&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot;
+    xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+    xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+    xmlns:ex=&quot;http://example.com/ns/ex#&quot;&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:in&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:value xsi:type=&quot;xsd:string&quot;&gt;abcd&lt;/prov:value&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:entity prov:id=&quot;ex:out&quot;&gt;
+    <b>&lt;prov:value xsi:type=&quot;xsd:integer&quot;&gt;4&lt;/prov:value&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre>
+</div> 
+<!--  end element-Value  -->
+
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end further-elements  -->
+
+
+</div> 
+<!--  end  -->
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<!--  end sec. 5  -->
+
+
+
+<div id="media-type" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Media Type</h2>
+
+<p>
+The internet media type / MIME type for PROV-XML is &quot;<code style="color: black">application/provenance+xml</code>&quot;.
+</p>
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>
+See <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype">http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype</a> for Register an Internet Media Type for a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Spec.</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+It is recommended that PROV-XML files have the extension &quot;<code style="color: black">.provx</code>&quot; (all lowercase) on all platforms.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+It is recommended that PROV-XML files stored on Machintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of &quot;<code style="color: black">provx</code>&quot; (all lowercase).
+</p>
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>
+Can Machintosh file types have 5 characters?  All examples I found are 4 characters.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<!--  Should this be folded or hid in some way until the user asks to see it?  -->
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="prov-xml-schema"> 
+      
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Full XML Schema</h2> 
+		<pre class="full-schema">&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;utf-8&quot;?&gt;
+
+&lt;xs:schema targetNamespace=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+           xmlns:xs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+           xmlns:prov=&quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&quot;
+           xmlns:cu=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/datatypes/&quot;
+           xmlns:xml=&quot;http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace&quot;
+           elementFormDefault=&quot;qualified&quot;
+           attributeFormDefault=&quot;unqualified&quot;&gt;
+
+
+
+  &lt;xs:import namespace=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/datatypes/&quot; /&gt;
+  &lt;xs:import namespace=&quot;http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace&quot; 
+             schemaLocation=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/xml.xsd&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 1 --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Entity&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:value&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;  
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Activity&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;startTime&quot;    type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt; 
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;endTime&quot;      type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt; 
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Generation&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot;     type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Usage&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot;     type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Communication&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;informed&quot;  type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;informant&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Start&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;trigger&quot;  type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;starter&quot;  type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot;     type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;End&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;trigger&quot;  type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;  minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;ender&quot;    type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot;     type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Invalidation&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;time&quot;     type=&quot;xs:dateTime&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 2 --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Derivation&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;generatedEntity&quot;  type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;usedEntity&quot;       type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot;         type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;generation&quot;       type=&quot;prov:GenerationRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;usage&quot;            type=&quot;prov:UsageRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 3 --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Agent&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:location&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Attribution&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot; type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;agent&quot;    type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Association&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot; type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;agent&quot;    type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;plan&quot;     type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:role&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Delegation&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;delegate&quot; type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;responsible&quot; type=&quot;prov:AgentRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot;    type=&quot;prov:ActivityRef&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Influence&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;influencee&quot;     type=&quot;prov:AnyRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;influencer&quot;     type=&quot;prov:AnyRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:label&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:type&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 4 --&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 5 --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Specialization&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;specificEntity&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;generalEntity&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Alternate&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;alternate1&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;alternate2&quot;   type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 6 --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Membership&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;collection&quot;          type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot;          type=&quot;prov:EntityRef&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;InternationalizedString&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:simpleContent&gt;
+      &lt;xs:extension base=&quot;xs:string&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;xml:lang&quot; use=&quot;optional&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:extension&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:simpleContent&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;    
+
+
+   &lt;!--
+       Typed literals are encoded by means
+       of xsi:type that represent the prov:datatype.
+
+       --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;label&quot;    type=&quot;prov:InternationalizedString&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;role&quot;     type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;type&quot;     type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;location&quot; type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;value&quot;    type=&quot;xs:anySimpleType&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- See comment in preamble.
+       These should be prov:QualifiedName
+       but instead are xsd:QName for tools to process them --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;id&quot;  type=&quot;xs:QName&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;ref&quot; type=&quot;xs:QName&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;ActivityRef&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:ref&quot; use=&quot;required&quot; /&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;EntityRef&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:ref&quot; use=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;AgentRef&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:ref&quot; use=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;UsageRef&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:ref&quot; use=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;GenerationRef&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:ref&quot; use=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;AnyRef&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:ref&quot; use=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;!--
+     top-level definition of elements following the salami slice XSD design pattern
+     to encourage integration within existing non-prov XML documents.
+  --&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 1 elements --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;entity&quot;               type=&quot;prov:Entity&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;activity&quot;             type=&quot;prov:Activity&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasGeneratedBy&quot;       type=&quot;prov:Generation&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;used&quot;                 type=&quot;prov:Usage&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasInformedBy&quot;        type=&quot;prov:Communication&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasStartedBy&quot;         type=&quot;prov:Start&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasEndedBy&quot;           type=&quot;prov:End&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasInvalidatedBy&quot;     type=&quot;prov:Invalidation&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 2 elements --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasDerivedFrom&quot;       type=&quot;prov:Derivation&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 3 elements --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;agent&quot;                type=&quot;prov:Agent&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasAttributedTo&quot;      type=&quot;prov:Attribution&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasAssociatedWith&quot;    type=&quot;prov:Association&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;actedOnBehalfOf&quot;      type=&quot;prov:Delegation&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;wasInfluencedBy&quot;      type=&quot;prov:Influence&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 5 elements --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;specializationOf&quot;     type=&quot;prov:Specialization&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;alternateOf&quot;          type=&quot;prov:Alternate&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;!-- Component 6 elements --&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;hadMember&quot;            type=&quot;prov:Membership&quot;/&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:group name=&quot;documentElements&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:entity&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:activity&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasGeneratedBy&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:used&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasInformedBy&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasStartedBy&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasEndedBy&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasInvalidatedBy&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasDerivedFrom&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:agent&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasAttributedTo&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasAssociatedWith&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:actedOnBehalfOf&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:wasInfluencedBy&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:specializationOf&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:alternateOf&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element ref=&quot;prov:hadMember&quot;/&gt;
+		&lt;xs:any namespace=&quot;##other&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:group&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:element name=&quot;document&quot; type=&quot;prov:Document&quot; /&gt;
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Document&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:choice maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
+        &lt;xs:group ref=&quot;prov:documentElements&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;xs:element name=&quot;bundle&quot; type=&quot;prov:Bundle&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/xs:choice&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+  &lt;xs:complexType name=&quot;Bundle&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+      &lt;xs:group ref=&quot;prov:documentElements&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:attribute ref=&quot;prov:id&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+
+&lt;/xs:schema&gt;
+		</pre>
+    </div> 
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements"> 
+      
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
+
+This document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its
+contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a
+whole. The editors extend special thanks to Luc Moreau (University of
+Southampton), Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit) and James Cheney
+(University of Edinburgh) for their thorough reviews.
+
+      <p> 
+Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
+
+Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
+Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
+Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
+James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
+Sam Coppens (IBBT),
+David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
+Tom De Nies (IBBT),
+Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
+Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
+Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
+Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
+James Frew (Invited expert),
+Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid),
+Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
+Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
+Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
+Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
+David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
+Sandro Hawke (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym>),
+Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
+Ivan Herman, (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym>),
+Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
+Hook Hua (Invited expert),
+Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
+Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
+Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
+Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Simon Miles (Invited expert),
+Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university),
+Luc Moreau (University of Southampton),
+James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University),
+Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium),
+Adam Retter (Invited Expert),
+Christine Runnegar (Invited expert),
+Satya Sahoo (Invited expert),
+David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.),
+Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium),
+Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert),
+Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester),
+Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory),
+Linda Stewart (The National Archives),
+Ed Summers (Library of Congress),
+Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.),
+Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration),
+Craig Trim (IBM Corporation),
+Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
+Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
+      </p> 
+    </div> 
+
+
+
+
+
+ 
+
+<div id="references" class="appendix section">
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-Mappings">[Mappings]</dt><dd>Satya Sahoo and Paul Groth and Olaf Hartig and Simon Miles and Sam Coppens and James Myers and Yolanda Gil and Luc Moreau and Jun Zhao and Michael Panzer and Daniel Garijo <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings"><cite>Provenance Vocabulary Mappings</cite></a>. August 2010 URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 19 June 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-PRIMER">[PROV-PRIMER]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil; Simon Miles; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><cite>PROV Model Primer</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/</a>
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/xml/releases/WD-prov-xml-20121211/schema/prov.xsd	Mon Nov 26 17:03:10 2012 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,408 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+
+<!-- 
+     *warning*
+     transformation of the opm opmx schema into prov compatible.
+     purely tentative at this stage. 
+
+     In PROV-DM, all ids are qualified names, specified as prov:QualifiedName in PROV-N.
+     In this schema, all ids are instead defined as xsd:QNames. 
+
+
+     ISSUES to tackle:
+     - How do we support internationalization? 
+       There is explicit support for internationalization for label.
+       How can we support xml:lang for any string, as per prov-dm?
+
+  -->
+
+
+<xs:schema targetNamespace="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
+           xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
+           xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
+           xmlns:cu="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/datatypes/"
+           xmlns:xml="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
+           elementFormDefault="qualified"
+           attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
+
+
+
+  <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/datatypes/" />
+  <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" 
+             schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2001/xml.xsd"/>
+
+  <!-- Component 1 -->
+  
+  <xs:complexType name="Entity">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:value"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>  
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Activity">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="startTime"    type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/> 
+      <xs:element name="endTime"      type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/> 
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Generation">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="entity"   type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:ActivityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="time"     type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:role"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Usage">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:ActivityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="entity"   type="prov:EntityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="time"     type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:role"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Communication">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="informed"  type="prov:ActivityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="informant" type="prov:ActivityRef"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Start">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:ActivityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="trigger"  type="prov:EntityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="starter"  type="prov:ActivityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="time"     type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:role"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="End">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:ActivityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="trigger"  type="prov:EntityRef"  minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="ender"    type="prov:ActivityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="time"     type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:role"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Invalidation">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="entity"   type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:ActivityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="time"     type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:role"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <!-- Component 2 -->
+  
+  <xs:complexType name="Derivation">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="generatedEntity"  type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="usedEntity"       type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="activity"         type="prov:ActivityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="generation"       type="prov:GenerationRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="usage"            type="prov:UsageRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <!-- Component 3 -->
+  
+  <xs:complexType name="Agent">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:location"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Attribution">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="entity" type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="agent"    type="prov:AgentRef"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Association">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:ActivityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="agent"    type="prov:AgentRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:element name="plan"     type="prov:EntityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:role"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Delegation">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="delegate" type="prov:AgentRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="responsible" type="prov:AgentRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="activity"    type="prov:ActivityRef" minOccurs="0"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Influence">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="influencee"     type="prov:AnyRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="influencer"     type="prov:AnyRef"/>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:label"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:type"/>
+        <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <!-- Component 4 -->
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Bundle">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:group ref="prov:documentElements"/>
+    </xs:sequence>
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <!-- Component 5 -->
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Specialization">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="specificEntity"   type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="generalEntity"   type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+    </xs:sequence>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Alternate">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="alternate1"   type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="alternate2"   type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+    </xs:sequence>
+  </xs:complexType>
+  
+  <!-- Component 6 -->
+
+  <xs:complexType name="Membership">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:element name="collection"          type="prov:EntityRef"/>
+      <xs:element name="entity"          type="prov:EntityRef" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
+    </xs:sequence>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="InternationalizedString">
+    <xs:simpleContent>
+      <xs:extension base="xs:string">
+        <xs:attribute ref="xml:lang" use="optional"/>
+      </xs:extension>
+    </xs:simpleContent>
+  </xs:complexType>    
+
+
+   <!--
+       Typed literals are encoded by means
+       of xsi:type that represent the prov:datatype.
+
+       -->
+  
+  <xs:element name="label"    type="prov:InternationalizedString"/>
+  <xs:element name="role"     type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
+  <xs:element name="type"     type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
+  <xs:element name="location" type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
+  <xs:element name="value"    type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
+
+  <!-- See comment in preamble.
+       These should be prov:QualifiedName
+       but instead are xsd:QName for tools to process them -->
+
+  <!--  Possible alternative, but may cause us 
+        to lose benefit of existing XML tooling
+  <xs:attribute name="id"  type="xs:anyURI"/>
+  <xs:attribute name="ref" type="xs:anyURI"/>
+  -->
+
+  <xs:attribute name="id"  type="xs:QName"/>
+  <xs:attribute name="ref" type="xs:QName"/>
+
+  <xs:complexType name="ActivityRef">
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required" />
+  </xs:complexType>
+  <xs:complexType name="EntityRef">
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+  <xs:complexType name="AgentRef">
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+  <xs:complexType name="UsageRef">
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+  <xs:complexType name="GenerationRef">
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+  <xs:complexType name="AnyRef">
+    <xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required"/>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+  <!--
+     top-level definition of elements following the salami slice XSD design pattern
+     to encourage integration within existing non-prov XML documents.
+  -->
+
+  <!-- Component 1 elements -->
+
+  <xs:element name="entity"               type="prov:Entity"/>
+  <xs:element name="activity"             type="prov:Activity"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasGeneratedBy"       type="prov:Generation"/>
+  <xs:element name="used"                 type="prov:Usage"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasInformedBy"        type="prov:Communication"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasStartedBy"         type="prov:Start"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasEndedBy"           type="prov:End"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasInvalidatedBy"     type="prov:Invalidation"/>
+
+  <!-- Component 2 elements -->
+
+  <xs:element name="wasDerivedFrom"       type="prov:Derivation"/>
+
+  <!-- Component 3 elements -->
+
+  <xs:element name="agent"                type="prov:Agent"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasAttributedTo"      type="prov:Attribution"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasAssociatedWith"    type="prov:Association"/>
+  <xs:element name="actedOnBehalfOf"      type="prov:Delegation"/>
+  <xs:element name="wasInfluencedBy"      type="prov:Influence"/>
+  
+  <!-- Component 5 elements -->
+
+  <xs:element name="specializationOf"     type="prov:Specialization"/>
+  <xs:element name="alternateOf"          type="prov:Alternate"/>
+
+  <!-- Component 6 elements -->
+
+  <xs:element name="hadMember"            type="prov:Membership"/>
+
+
+
+  <!-- doucment elements -->
+
+  <xs:group name="documentElements">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:element ref="prov:entity"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:activity"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasGeneratedBy"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:used"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasInformedBy"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasStartedBy"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasEndedBy"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasInvalidatedBy"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasDerivedFrom"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:agent"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasAttributedTo"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasAssociatedWith"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:actedOnBehalfOf"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:wasInfluencedBy"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:specializationOf"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:alternateOf"/>
+        <xs:element ref="prov:hadMember"/>
+		<xs:any namespace="##other"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+  </xs:group>
+
+  <xs:element name="document" type="prov:Document" />
+  <xs:complexType name="Document">
+    <xs:sequence>
+      <xs:choice maxOccurs="unbounded">
+        <xs:group ref="prov:documentElements"/>
+        <xs:element name="bundle" type="prov:Bundle"/>
+      </xs:choice>
+    </xs:sequence>
+  </xs:complexType>
+
+</xs:schema>