merge
authorTim L <lebot@rpi.edu>
Tue, 10 Jul 2012 15:59:26 -0400
changeset 3900 ae74803a6167
parent 3899 b153586b0a7f (current diff)
parent 3898 6a7203cd80c1 (diff)
child 3901 ccd8a4c42f67
merge
--- a/model/comments/issue-438-stian.txt	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/model/comments/issue-438-stian.txt	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -8,9 +8,21 @@
    > Of my comments below, the following SHOULD be addressed before
    > publishing as Last Call draft:
    > * introduce "nonterminal"
+
+Section 2.2 introduces it, and was all reformatted.
+
    > * fix syntax errors
    > * memberOf -> hasMember
+
+hadMembers is now defined.
+
    > * clarify/remote  % encoding in local part of QUALIFIED_NAME
+
+Section 3.7.1 rewritten.
+In short:
+- %-encoding used as per IRI spec
+- new \-encoding captured by PN_CHARS_ESC
+
    > * clarifications about namespace scoping/overwrite
    > 
    > Given a minimum of the above are addressed, then yes, the document can
@@ -37,12 +49,18 @@
    > something like "Those readers may find the definition _expression_ a
    > useful entry point into the grammar".
    > 
+
+TODO
+
    > 
    > 
    > 
    > > > 1.3 The PROV namespace (see Section 4.7.1)
    > The section number should be 3.7.4
    > 
+
+Fixed.
+
    > 
    > > > 2.1
    > > > All PROV data model relations involve two primary elements, the subject and the object, in this order
@@ -50,19 +68,30 @@
    > 
    > > > activity(a1)
    > > > entity(e1)
+
+
    > So those might not be 'relations' - but that is not clear from the
    > above. Rephrase to something like "Many PROV-N predicates denote a
    > relationship between two primary elements, the _subject_ and the
    > _object_, in this order".
+
+
+Table 2 in PROV-DM shows that entity/activity are prov-dm types, as opposed to prov-dm relations.
+So I think this is OK.
+
    > 
    > I would include an entity() example in this section, to show that not
    > all have subject and object. I would do this before Example 1 and the
    > above sentence.
+
    > 
    > > > Example 0:
    > > > In this example, _e1_ is asserted to be a PROV _entity_.
    > > >    entity(e1)
    > 
+
+Agreed, I have added an example for entity/activity.
+
    > 
    > > > Example 2
    > > > In the following expressions, the optional activity a along with the generation and usage identifiers g2 and u1:
@@ -71,16 +100,25 @@
    > expands the above derivation relation by providing additional
    > elements: the activity _a_, the generation _g2_ and the usage _u1_.
    > 
+
+Done.
+
+
    > > > Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation
    > This is again well known in CS - but a hyperlink would be useful. Now
    > I had to go to Wikipedia. However the mini-intro right below is
    > useful. "The below is a summary of "
+
    > 
    > 
    > I would be more precise, that "The PROV-N grammar is specified in this
    > document using the .." - as knowledge of EBNF is not a requirement for
    > using PROV-N - just for understanding the definitions in this
    > document.
+
+Text was edited by Stian, thanks!
+
+
    > 
    > 
    > 
@@ -94,10 +132,15 @@
    > _expression_ above, e.g. entityExpression, corresponds to one element
    > (e.g. entity) in the PROV data model."
    > 
+
+Done
+
    > 
    > Why hyperlinks on 'expression' here in this section? It goes 1 line up
    > or down, it's very confusing.  Use <code>expression</code> or similar
    > instead.
+
+Yep
    > 
    > 
    > > > such that the text for an element matches the corresponding expression production of the grammar.
@@ -110,12 +153,22 @@
    > PROV-N documents. That might well be the case, as they want to reuse
    > namespaces, etc - but that should then be stated explicitly, kind of
    > like
+
+
+I don't think we stated these examples were all documents.  Very often
+we just discuss expressions.
+
+
    > 
    > 
    > > > 2.3 Optional attributes
    > Should add something like "The interpretation of an optional attribute
    > that is not provided is given by Section 4.1 in PROV-CONSTRAINTS"
    > somewhere.
+
+No action here.
+
+
    > 
    > 
    > > > 2.4 Identifiers and attributes
@@ -131,6 +184,8 @@
    > "Almost all expressions defined in this grammar may also include an
    > identifier for the expression.  Most expression can also include a set
    > of attribute-value pairs, grouped within square brackets."
+
+Done
    > 
    > 
    > "By convention, optional identifiers are separated using a semi-colon
@@ -143,16 +198,23 @@
    > permutations that are non-ambigious? The defition for
    > optionalIdentifier says no. (good!)
    > 
+
+Done
    > 
    > > > Example 7
    > > > ..
    > > > The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the - marker.
    > Add "This is equivalent to the first expression".
+
+Done
    > 
    > > > Example 8
    > > > The first and second activities have no attributes.
    > Add ", and are equivalent."
-   > 
+   >
+
+Done
+ 
    > 
    > > > 2.5 Comments
    > > > ... such cooments ...
@@ -176,6 +238,9 @@
    > > > wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
    > because tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215 is not a valid timeOrMarker.
    > 
+
+yes fixed
+
    > 
    > I would also recommend that these show-cases use the same names, so
    > rather than say intermixing a1 and ex:edit1 - just always use a1.
@@ -188,8 +253,16 @@
    > "Since" does not make sense here - where is it stated that they MUST
    > be present? Here. So try rather:  "... are not valid in PROV-N; at
    > least one of... MUST be present"
+
+'Since' is justified, since it is a prov-dm requirement.
+
    > 
    > Equivalent comment for this kind of paragraph for usage, startExpression, etc.
+
+
+We see this as "semantic/post-parsing" checking. It would unecessarily
+make the productions complicated.
+
    > 
    > 
    > 
@@ -299,12 +372,21 @@
    > prov:QUALIFIED_NAME union xsd:anyURI - but I'm not sure as "a Literal
    > may be an IRI-typed string (with datatype xsd:anyURI); such IRI has no
    > specific interpretation in the context of PROV.".
+
+I added a forwarded pointer at the first occurrence of this convenienceNotation.
+
    > 
    > So does prov:type="contract" simply mean "contract" out of thin air
    > rather than bound to any namespace? We would struggle to translate
    > this to PROV-O where prov:type maps to rdf:type. If this is the case,
    > then I expect all prov:type="prov.*" should be with single quotes
    > instead.
+
+Yes, it's the case that all prov:type='prov:*' are in single quote.
+
+It is fine to require a conversion function if they don't use URI like types.
+
+
    > 
    > 
    > http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/ED-prov-dm-20120628/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-type
@@ -313,6 +395,9 @@
    > PROV-DM Value." - but does not distinguish between 'single',  "double"
    > quote and "qualified" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME notation.
    > 
+
+Convenience notation appears later.
+
    > 
    > 
    > > > 3.4.1 Bundle declaration
@@ -323,11 +408,17 @@
    > > >   ...
    > > > endBundle
    > Nitpicking, but I would use " // ... " as "..." is not valid PROV-N.
+
+done
+
    > 
    > 
    > 3.4.1 should also provide a forward link to 4. Toplevel Bundle,
    > because otherwise the example does not make sense (prefix ex: is not
    > declared)
+
+prefix ex: was added since the named bundle must be self contained
+
    > 
    > 
    > 
@@ -360,6 +451,9 @@
    > 'members'. (I do not propose to make the entity or entity set as first
    > argument)
    > 
+
+hadMembers
+
    > 
    > Opposite of all other example, this example does not start with a
    > 'full' expression, as the 'complete' argument is missing. Also the
@@ -369,6 +463,8 @@
    >  memberOf(mId; c, {e1, e2, e3}, true, [dct:description="All of them"])
    >   // Collection membership
    > 
+
+Done
    > 
    > > > // default "complete" flag is false
    > This is a PROV-DM or PROV-CONSTRAINT matter and should not be
@@ -388,6 +484,8 @@
    > First one of these should be invalid by the same reason as for usage,
    > and thus should not be listed. (It would need to include some
    > attributes in [] to be valid)
+
+I don't understand why?
    > 
    > 
    > 3.7.1 Identifier
@@ -421,6 +519,9 @@
    > > > 3.7.2 Attribute
    > > > The reserved attributes in the PROV namespace are the following.
    > add "Their meaning is explained by [PROV-DM]".
+
+DONE.
+
    > 
    > 
    > 	<INT_LITERAL>	   ::=   	("-")? (DIGIT)+
@@ -470,7 +571,7 @@
    > equivalences.
 
 
-TODO: revisit example 33, and make the conveninence notation clearer.
+Done, added an example to make the convenience notation clearer.
 
    > 
    > 
@@ -480,6 +581,8 @@
    > Add "Their meaning is defined by [PROV-DM].
    > 
    > 
+
+DONE
    > 
    > 
    > 
@@ -580,6 +683,9 @@
    > in the first place, if still only a selection of possibly local names
    > (given a general prefix) is valid - I think it just adds potential
    > complexity.
+
+This is issue is now solved by the \-escape mechanism in PN_CHARS_ESC.
+
    > 
    > Of course the reason why this happens is because we don't have a
    > <URIREF> syntax allowed together with QUALIFIED_NAME - so the Sparql
@@ -638,6 +744,10 @@
    > namespaceDeclarations is optional in both bundle and namedBundle - but
    > "prefix" is not a valid expression, and can thus I don't see any
    > conflict here.
+
+
+Text has been rewritten to make it clear the potential conflict is for the tokenizer.
+
    > 
    > 
    > 
@@ -654,7 +764,8 @@
 
 Added:
 
-<p>A PROV-N document MUST not re-declare the same prefix.</p>
+
+A set of namespace declarations namespaceDeclarations MUST NOT re-declare the same prefix.
 
    > 
    > 
@@ -671,7 +782,11 @@
    > endBundle
 
 
-TODO
+An example was added to clarify how scope works.
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html#anexample-namespace-scope
+Bundles are designed to be self contained. So in effect,
+no inheritance of namespace declaration.
+
    > 
    > 
    > > > Section 4
@@ -698,12 +813,32 @@
    >   endBundle
    > endBundle
    > 
+
+Given that bundles need to be self contained, we would generally expect
+some namespace to be declared for the identifiers occurring in the bundle.
+
+However, a toplevel bundle may be empty. Hence, no declaration required.
+
+I guess because a named bundle always has a name ... it would always
+require a namespace declaration. Should we enforce this in the grammar?
+I didn't make a change, I see this as "semantic" processing, beyond parsing.
+
    > 
    > I found it confusing that the top level bundle and named bundle have
    > the same keyword. However I expect - although it is not stated
    > explicitly here - that you can't have a free-standing named bundle -
    > and that a PROV-N Document should have all expressions and named
    > bundled within a single top level bundle.
+
+
+I considered naming toplevel bundle differently.
+But ultimately, it contains expressions and namespace declarations ...
+it's a bundle.
+
+I made sure it was a distinct production to avoid arbitrary nesting of
+named bundles.
+
+
    > 
    > 
    > > >  activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, -,[prov:type="edit"])
@@ -712,11 +847,17 @@
    >  activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, -, [prov:type="edit"])
    > 
    > 
+
+Fixed
+
    > > > The following container
    > > >  (..)
    > > > This container
    > s/container/bundle/g
    > 
+
+Fixed.
+
    > 
    > 
    > 
--- a/model/diff-n.html	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/model/diff-n.html	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -14,7 +14,6 @@
 
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@@ -368,10 +358,6 @@
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@@ -530,845 +516,72 @@
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-</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
-  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</h1>
-<h2 id="subtitle"><span class="insert">Final review before Last Call Vote (</span><a href="diff-n.html"><span class="insert">Diffs since last release</span></a><span class="insert">)</span></h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-29-june-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Working</span><span class="insert">Editor's</span> Draft <span class="delete">03 May</span><span class="insert">29 June</span> 2012</h2>
-<dl><dt>This<span class="insert"> version:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span></a></dd><dt><span class="insert">Latest published version:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span></a></dd><dt><span class="insert">Latest editor's draft:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span></a></dd><dt><span class="insert">Previous</span> version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/</a></dd>
-<span class="delete">Latest published version:</span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span>
-<span class="delete">Latest editor's draft:</span><span class="delete">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span>
-<dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+</style><link href="./extra.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</h1><h2 id="subtitle">Final review before Last Call Vote (<a href="diff-n.html">Diffs since last release</a>)</h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-10-july-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Editor's Draft <span class="delete">29 June</span><span class="insert">10 July</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
+<dt><span class="insert">Authors:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/"><span class="insert">James Cheney</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Edinburgh</span></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/"><span class="insert">Stian Soiland-Reyes</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Manchester</span></dd>
 </dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div> 
 
     <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
 
-
 <p>
-<span class="delete">PROV-DM, the PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
-involved in producing a piece of</span> data <span class="delete">model,</span><span class="insert">or thing, which can be used
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
  to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
-PROV-DM</span> is <span class="insert">the conceptual data model that forms </span>a <span class="delete">data model</span><span class="insert">basis</span> for <span class="insert">the </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym>
-provenance <span class="delete">that describes
-the entities, people and activities involved in
-producing a piece</span><span class="insert">(PROV) family</span> of <span class="delete">data or thing.</span><span class="insert">specifications.
+PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>
+provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
 PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
-extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance.</span> 
-PROV-DM is <span class="delete">structured</span><span class="insert">organized</span> in six components,<span class="insert"> respectively</span> dealing with: 
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
+PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
 (1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-(2) <span class="insert">derivations of entities from entities;
-(3) </span>agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-<span class="delete">(3) derivations</span><span class="insert">(4) a notion</span> of <span class="insert">bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
-(5) properties to link </span>entities <span class="delete">from entities;
-(4) properties</span><span class="insert">that refer</span> to <span class="delete">link entities that refer to </span>the same thing;
-<span class="delete">(5)</span><span class="insert">(6)</span> collections forming a logical structure for its <span class="delete">members;
-(6) a simple annotation mechanism.</span><span class="insert">members.</span>
+(2) derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
+(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
+(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
 </p>
-
 <p>To provide examples of the PROV data model, the PROV notation (PROV-N) is introduced: aimed at human consumption, PROV-N allows serializations of PROV
 instances to be created in a compact manner. PROV-N facilitates the
 mapping of the PROV data model to concrete syntax, and is used as the basis for a
 formal semantics of PROV.  The purpose of this document is to define the PROV-N notation.
 </p>
     </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
-<h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc"><span class="insert">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</span></h4>
-<p><span class="insert">This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
+<h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
+<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
 Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
-the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review, before the implementation phase.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">This specification identifies one  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi"><span class="insert">feature at risk</span></a><span class="insert">: </span><a href="#term-mention"><span class="insert">Mention</span></a><span class="insert"> might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span></p>
-
-<h4 id="please-comment-by--2012-09-13--tbc"><span class="insert">Please Comment By  2012-09-13 (TBC)</span></h4>
-<p><span class="insert">The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
-The end date of the Last Call review period is </span><b><span class="insert">2012-09-13 (TBC)</span></b><span class="insert">, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
-</span></p>
+the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external <span class="delete">review, before the implementation phase.</span><span class="insert">review.</span></p>
+
+<p>This specification identifies one  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">feature at risk</a>:<span class="insert"> the expression</span> <a href="#expression-mention">Mention</a> might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
+
+<h4 id="please-comment-by--2012-09-13--tbc">Please Comment By  2012-09-13 (TBC)</h4>
+<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
+The end date of the Last Call review period is <b>2012-09-13 (TBC)</b>, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
+</p>
 
 <h4 id="prov-family-of-specifications">PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
 This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
 interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
 <ul>
-<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for provenance;</li>
-<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption  (this document);</li>
-<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an OWL-RL ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
-<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
-<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-DM,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the PROV data model for provenance;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-N,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption  (this document);</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-O,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the PROV ontology, an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-AQ,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
 <li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
 <li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
 </ul>
 <h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-specifications">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
 <ul>
 <li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
 <li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
 <li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
 <li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
 should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
 </ul>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">First Public Working Draft</span>
- 
-<p>This <span class="delete">is the first public release of the PROV-N
-document. Following feedback, the Working Group has decided to
-reorganize the PROV-DM document substantially, separating the data model,
-from its constraints, and the notation used to illustrate it. The
-PROV-N release is synchronized with the release of the PROV-DM, PROV-O,
-PROV-PRIMER, and PROV-CONSTRAINTS documents.
-</span><span class="delete">This </span>document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as <span class="delete">a First Public Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft. <span class="delete">This document is intended</span><span class="insert">If you wish</span> to <span class="delete">become a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Recommendation. If you wish</span><span class="insert">make comments regarding this document, please send them</span> to <span class="delete">make comments regarding this document, please send them to </span><span class="delete">[email protected]</span><a href="mailto:[email protected]"><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as <span class="delete">a Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#purpose" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Purpose of this Document and target audience</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notational-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>General grammar considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#functional-syntax" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#grammar-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-optionals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Optional terms in expressions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-standard-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Identifiers and attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#comments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Comments</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-expressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-wasInformedBy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.1.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.5</span><span class="insert">3.1.6</span> </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.6</span><span class="insert">3.1.7</span> </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.7</span><span class="insert">3.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation<span class="delete">3.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span><span class="delete">3.1.9 </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: <span class="delete">Agents and Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Derivations</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#Derivation-Relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span><span class="delete">Agent</span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span><span class="delete">Attribution</span><span class="insert">Revision</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span><span class="delete">Association</span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-original-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: <span class="delete">Derivations</span><span class="insert">Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span><span class="insert">Association</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span><span class="delete">Trace</span><span class="insert">Influence</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: <span class="delete">Alternate Entities</span><span class="insert">Bundles</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-bundle-declaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span><span class="delete">Alternate</span><span class="delete">3.4.2 </span><span class="delete">Specialization</span><span class="insert">Bundle Declaration</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: <span class="delete">Collections</span><span class="insert">Alternate Entities</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Insertion</span><span class="insert">Alternate</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Removal</span><span class="insert">Specialization</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span><span class="insert">Mention</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: <span class="delete">Annotations</span><span class="insert">Collections</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Note</span><span class="delete">3.6.2 </span><span class="delete">Annotation</span><span class="insert">Membership</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#subexpressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Expressions</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 <span class="delete">Namespace Declaration</span><span class="delete">3.7.2</span> </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.3</span><span class="insert">3.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4</span><span class="insert">3.7.3</span> </span>Literal</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-types" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.1</span> </span>Reserved Type Values</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.2</span> </span>Time Values</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.7.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespace Declaration</span></a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#toplevelBundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span><span class="delete">Expression Container</span><span class="delete">5. </span><span class="delete">Account</span><span class="insert">Toplevel Bundle</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#media-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">6.</span><span class="insert">5.</span> </span>Media Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
-
-
-
-
-
- 
+<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#purpose" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Purpose of this Document and target audience</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notational-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>General grammar considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#functional-syntax" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#grammar-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#main-productions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Main Productions</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-optionals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3</span><span class="insert">2.4</span> </span>Optional terms in expressions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-standard-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#comments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.5</span><span class="insert">2.6</span> </span>Comments</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-expressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-wasInformedBy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#Derivation-Relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-original-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-bundle-constructor" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">Constructor</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Alternate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span>Mention</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#subexpressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Expressions</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Attribute</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Literal</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-types" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3.1 </span>Reserved Type Values</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3.2 </span>Time Values</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#toplevelBundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Toplevel Bundle</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5. </span></span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#media-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">5.</span><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>Media Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
 
 
 
@@ -1380,7 +593,7 @@
 <div id="introduction" class="section"> 
 <h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
 
-<p> Provenance is<span class="delete"> defined as</span> a record that describes the people,
+<p> Provenance is a record that describes the people,
 institutions, entities, and activities, involved in producing,
 influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing in the world.  Two
 companion specifications respectively define PROV-DM, a data model for
@@ -1414,8 +627,8 @@
 <p>This document introduces the PROV-N grammar along with examples of its usage.</p>
 <p>Its target audience is twofold:
 </p><ul>
-<li>Developers of provenance management applications, as well as implementors of new PROV data model encodings, and thus in particular of PROV-N parsers. These readers may be interested in the entire structure of the grammar, starting from the top level nonterminal <span class="delete">container</span> 
-<a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></a>.</li>
+<li>Developers of provenance management applications, as well as implementors of new PROV data model encodings, and thus in particular of PROV-N parsers. These readers may be interested in the entire structure of the grammar, starting from the top level nonterminal 
+<a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">bundle</a>.</li>
 <li>Readers of the  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and of  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] documents, who are interested in the details of the formal language underpinning the notation used in the examples and in the definition of the constraints. Those readers may find the  <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a> nonterminal a useful entry point into the grammar.</li>
 </ul>
 
@@ -1424,26 +637,16 @@
     <div id="structure-of-this-document" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</h3>
 
-<p>This document <span class="delete">defines a grammar using the Extended  Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation. Its productions correspond to PROV data model types and relations.
-</span><span class="insert">structured as follows.
-
-</span></p><span class="delete">
-It is structured as follows.
-
-</span><p><a href="#general-conventions">Section 2</a> provides <span class="delete">the design rationale for the PROV Notation.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Section 3</span><span class="delete"> defines the notation for the Extended  Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) grammar used in this specification.</span><span class="insert">general consideration about the PROV-N grammar.</span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-n-expressions">Section <span class="delete">4</span><span class="insert">3</span></a> presents the grammar of all expressions of the language grouped according to the PROV data model components.</p>
-
-<p><a href="#toplevelBundle">Section <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">4</span></a> defines the grammar of <span class="delete">containers,</span><span class="insert">toplevel bundles,</span> a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N expressions and namespace declarations.</p>
-
-<span class="delete">Section 6</span><span class="delete"> defines the grammar of accounts.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<p><a href="#media-type">Section <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">5</span></a> defines media type for the PROV-N notation.</p>
+<p>This document <span class="insert">is </span>structured as follows.
+
+</p><p><a href="#general-conventions">Section 2</a> provides general consideration about the PROV-N grammar.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#prov-n-expressions">Section 3</a> presents the grammar of all expressions of the language grouped according to the PROV data model components.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#toplevelBundle">Section 4</a> defines the grammar of toplevel bundles, a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N expressions and namespace declarations.</p>
+
+
+<p><a href="#media-type">Section 5</a> defines media type for the PROV-N notation.</p>
 
 
     </div> 
@@ -1469,10 +672,9 @@
 </p><div style="text-align: left;">
 <table border="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
 <caption id="namespace-table">Table 1: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri </b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see Section <a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration">4.7.1</a>)</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><span class="delete">]</span>
-<span class="delete">rdf</span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</span><span class="delete">The RDF namespace  [</span><span class="delete">RDF-CONCEPTS</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite>]</td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see Section <a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration"><span class="delete">4.7.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.4</span></a>)</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent URI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>]</td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
@@ -1487,18 +689,35 @@
 <div id="functional-syntax" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</h3>
 
-<p> PROV-N adopts a functional-style syntax consisting of a predicate name and an ordered list of terms.
+<p> PROV-N adopts a functional-style syntax consisting of a predicate name and an ordered list of terms.</p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">
+All PROV data model types have an identifier. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it. </span></p>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_1"><span class="insert">Example 1</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">The following expression should be read as "entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">". 
+</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1)
+</span></pre>
+  </div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_2"><span class="insert">Example 2</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">The following expression should be read as "activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">, which occurred
+between </span><code><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span></code><span class="insert"> and </span><code><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span></code><span class="insert">". 
+</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1)
+activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+</span></pre>
+  </div>
+
+<p>
 All PROV data model relations involve two primary elements, the <em>subject</em> and the <em>object</em>, in this order. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it.
-</p><div class="anexample" id="example_1" data-count="1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_1"><span class="insert">Example 1</span></a></div>
-The following expression should be read as "<span class="name">e2</span> was derived from <span class="name">e1</span>". Here <span class="name">e2</span> is the subject, and  <span class="name">e1</span> is the object.
-<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+</p><div class="anexample" id="example_3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3">Example <span class="delete">1</span><span class="insert">3</span></a></div>
+<p>The following expression should be read as "<span class="name">e2</span> was derived from <span class="name">e1</span>". Here <span class="name">e2</span> is the subject, and  <span class="name">e1</span> is the object.
+</p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 </pre>
   </div>
   
-<div class="anexample" id="example_2" data-count="2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_2"><span class="insert">Example 2</span></a></div>
-In the following expressions, the optional activity <span class="name">a</span> along with the generation and usage <span class="delete">identifiers,</span><span class="insert">identifiers </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span> and <span class="delete">timestamps have been added to further qualify the derivation:</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">:</span>
-<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)<span class="delete">
-activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)</span>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_4"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4">Example <span class="delete">2</span><span class="insert">4</span></a></div>
+<span class="delete">In the</span><p><span class="insert">The</span> following <span class="delete">expressions,</span><span class="insert">expression expands the above derivation relation by providing
+additional elements</span> the optional activity <span class="name">a</span><span class="delete"> along with</span><span class="insert">,</span> the generation<span class="delete"> and usage identifiers</span> <span class="name">g2</span><span class="insert">,</span> and<span class="insert"> the usage</span> <span class="name">u1</span>:
+</p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -1507,48 +726,98 @@
 <div id="grammar-notation" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</h3>
 
-<p>The grammar is specified using the Extended  Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation.</p>
+<p>The grammar is specified using <span class="insert">a subset of </span>the Extended   Backus-Naur 
+Form (EBNF) <span class="delete">notation.</span><span class="insert">notation, as defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1
+[</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML11"><span class="insert">XML11</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] section </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816/#sec-notation"><span class="insert">6
+Notation</span></a><span class="insert">.
+</span></p>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">
+The text below provides an introduction to the EBNF notation used in
+this document.</span></p>
+
+
+<p>
+  <span class="delete">Each</span><span class="insert">EBNF specifies a series of</span> production <span class="delete">rule (or </span><span class="insert">rules (</span><dfn id="dfn-production">production</dfn><span class="delete">, for short)</span><span class="insert">). 
+A production rule</span> in the grammar defines <span class="delete">one </span><span class="insert">a symbol 
+ </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code><span class="insert">  (</span><dfn id="dfn-non-terminal-symbol">non-terminal symbol <span class="delete">E</span><span class="delete">, in</span></dfn><span class="insert">)
+  using</span> the following form:</p>
+
+<span class="delete">E</span>
+
+
 <div class="grammar">
-  Each production rule (or <dfn id="dfn-production">production</dfn>, for short) in the grammar defines one non-terminal symbol <span class="nonterminal">E</span>, in the following form:<p></p>
-
-<span class="nonterminal">E</span>&nbsp;::= <em>term</em>
-
-<p>Within the term on the right-hand side of a rule, the following terms are used to match strings of one or more characters:
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code> &nbsp;::= <em>term</em>
+
+
+</div>
+<p><span class="insert">Symbols are written with an initial capital letter if they are the start symbol of a regular language, otherwise with an initial lowercase letter. 
+A production rule in the grammar defines a symbol 
+ </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">&lt;TERMINAL&gt;</span></code><span class="insert">  (</span><dfn id="dfn-terminal-symbol"><span class="insert">terminal symbol</span></dfn><span class="insert">)
+  using the following form:</span></p>
+<div class="grammar">
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">&lt;TERMINAL&gt;</span></code><span class="insert"> &nbsp;::= </span><em><span class="insert">term</span></em>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+<p>Within the term on the right-hand side of a rule, the following<span class="delete"> terms</span>
+<em><span class="insert">term</span></em><span class="insert">s</span> are used to match strings of one or more characters:
 </p><ul>
 <li> 
-<span class="nonterminal">E</span>: matches term satisfying rule for symbol E.
-</li>
-
-<li> 
-<span class="name">abc</span>: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.
+<span class="delete">E</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>: matches <span class="delete">term satisfying rule</span><span class="insert">production</span> for <span class="insert">non-terminal </span>symbol <span class="delete">E.</span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>
 </li>
 
 
 <li> 
-<span class="optional"><em>term</em></span>: optional <em>term</em>, matches <em>term</em> or nothing.
-</li>
-
-<li> 
-<span class="plus"><em>term</em></span>: matches one or more occurrences of <em>term</em>.
-</li>
-
-<li> 
-<span class="star"><em>term</em></span>: matches zero or more occurrences of <em>term</em>.
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code><span class="insert">: matches production for terminal symbol </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code>
 </li>
 
 <li> 
-<span class="choice"><em>term</em> | <em>term</em></span>: matches one of the two <em>terms</em>.
+<span class="delete">abc</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">"abc"</span></code>: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.
+</li>
+
+
+<li> 
+ 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)?</span></code><span class="insert">: optional, matches </span><em>term</em><span class="delete">: optional </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">, matches </span><span class="delete">term</span> or nothing.
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">term</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)+</span></code>: matches one or more occurrences of <em>term</em>.
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">term</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)*</span></code>: matches zero or more occurrences of <em>term</em>.
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">term</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term</span> | <span class="delete">term</span><span class="insert">term)</span></code>: matches one of the two <em>terms</em>.
 </li>
 
 </ul>
+
+
 </div>
 
-The grammar is centered on nonterminals for various types of <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a>. The main production is introduced here below as it reflects the rationale for the design of the entire grammar. Note that parser developers may use the top level <span class="delete">container</span>
-<a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></a>  nonterminal as a starting point instead.
-
-
-
-
+<div id="main-productions" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Main Productions</span></h3>
+The grammar <span class="insert">groups the general PROV-N </span><em><span class="insert">non-terminals</span></em><span class="insert"> in a
+</span><em><span class="insert">production rule</span></em><span class="insert"> called </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expression</span></code><span class="insert">
+(shown below). This production </span>is <span class="delete">centered on nonterminals</span><span class="insert">introduced as it provides an 
+entry point</span> for <span class="delete">various types</span><span class="insert">the core expressions</span> of <span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">. The main</span><span class="insert">this grammar. Note that parser
+developers should use the</span> production <span class="delete">is introduced here below</span><span class="insert">rule for the </span><a href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">top
+level </span><span class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span></a> as <span class="delete">it reflects the rationale for the design of the entire grammar. Note that parser developers may use the top level
+</span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete">  nonterminal as </span>a starting point 
+instead.
 
 
 
@@ -1565,87 +834,67 @@
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-expression" name="prod-expression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">2</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">expression 
-<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>
-
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression 
-<span class="delete">
-&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-communicationExpression">communicationExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="delete">startByActivityExpression</span> 
-<span class="delete">
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agentExpression">agentExpression
-</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression"><span class="insert">associationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributionExpression">attributionExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="delete">associationExpression</span> 
-<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-delegationExpression"><span class="insert">delegationExpression</span></a></span> | <span class="delete">responsibilityExpression</span> 
-<span class="delete">
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression">derivationExpression 
-</a></span> | <span class="delete">revisionExpression</span> 
-<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-influenceExpression"><span class="insert">influenceExpression</span></a></span> | <span class="delete">quotationExpression</span> <span class="delete">
-&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSourceExpression</span> 
-<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-alternateExpression"><span class="insert">alternateExpression</span></a></span> | <span class="delete">traceExpression</span> 
-<span class="delete">
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">alternateExpression</span> 
-<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-specializationExpression"><span class="insert">specializationExpression</span></a></span> | <span class="delete">specializationExpression</span>
-<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-mentionExpression"><span class="insert">mentionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-membershipExpression"><span class="insert">membershipExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-insertionExpression"><span class="insert">insertionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-removalExpression"><span class="insert">removalExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-dictMembershipExpression"><span class="insert">dictMembershipExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-expression" name="prod-expression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">2</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">expression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-communicationExpression">communicationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agentExpression">agentExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributionExpression">attributionExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-delegationExpression">delegationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression">derivationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-influenceExpression">influenceExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-alternateExpression">alternateExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-specializationExpression">specializationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-mentionExpression">mentionExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-membershipExpression">membershipExpression</a></span> <span class="insert">| </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-insertionExpression"><span class="insert">insertionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-removalExpression"><span class="insert">removalExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-dictMembershipExpression"><span class="insert">dictMembershipExpression</span></a></span> )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">noteExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
-| </span><span class="delete">annotationExpression</span> 
-
-
-
-
-
-Each expression non-terminal <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a>, i.e., <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a><span class="insert">,</span>  <span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete">, </span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a> etc., corresponds to one element (entity, activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
-<p>A PROV-N document consists of a collection of <a title="expression">expressions</a>, wrapped in <span class="insert">a </span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></a><span class="insert"> with some namespace declarations, such that the text for </span>an <span class="insert">element matches the corresponding </span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression<span class="delete"> container</span><span class="delete"> with some namespace declarations, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding </span><span class="delete">expression</span></a> production of the grammar.
+<p>Each <span class="insert">of the symbols included in </span><code>expression<span class="delete"> non-terminal </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">,</span></code><span class="insert"> above,</span> i.e., <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></code>,  <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></code> etc., corresponds to one element <span class="delete">(entity,</span><span class="insert">(e.g., entity,</span> activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
+</p>
+
+<p>A PROV-N document consists of a collection of <a title="expression">expressions</a>, wrapped in a <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a> with some namespace declarations, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a> production of the grammar.
 
 </p></div>
 
 
 <div id="prov-n-optionals" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Optional terms in expressions</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3</span><span class="insert">2.4</span> </span>Optional terms in expressions</h3>
 
 Some terms in an expression may be optional. For example:
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_3" data-count="3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3"><span class="insert">Example 3</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+<span class="delete">Example 3</span>
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-</pre>
+</span><span class="delete">
 In a derivation expression, the activity, generation, and usage are optional terms. They are specified in the first derivation, but not in the second.
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_4" data-count="4"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4"><span class="insert">Example 4</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+</span>
+
+<span class="delete">Example 4</span>
+<span class="delete">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
 activity(a1)
-</pre>
-The start and end times for Activity <span class="name">a1</span> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
-</div>
-
-<p>The general rule for optionals is that, if <em>none</em> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</p>
-However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  <span class="name"><span class="delete">-</span><span class="insert">'-'</span></span> is used for this purpose.
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_5" data-count="5"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_5"><span class="insert">Example 5</span></a></div>
-<p>In the first expression below, all optionals are specified. However in the <span class="delete">second,</span><span class="insert">second and third,</span> only <span class="delete">the last </span>one <span class="insert">optional </span>is specified, forcing the use of the marker for the missing terms.<span class="delete"> In the last, no marker is necessary because all </span><span class="delete">remaining</span><span class="delete"> optionals after </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> are missing.
-
-</span> 
+</span><span class="delete">
+The start and end times for Activity </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
+</span>
+
+<span class="delete">The general rule for optionals is that, if </span><span class="delete">none</span><span class="delete"> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</span><span class="delete">
+However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="delete">'-'</span><span class="delete"> is used for this purpose.</span>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_5"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_5">Example 5</a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+</span></pre><span class="insert">
+In a derivation expression, the activity, generation, and usage are optional terms. They are specified in the first derivation, but not in the second.
+</span></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_6"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_6"><span class="insert">Example 6</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+activity(a1)
+</span></pre><span class="insert">
+The start and end times for Activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
+</span></div>
+
+<p><span class="insert">The general rule for optionals is that, if </span><em><span class="insert">none</span></em><span class="insert"> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</span></p><span class="insert">
+However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">'-'</span></span><span class="insert"> is used for this purpose.
+
+</span><div class="anexample" id="example_7"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_7"><span class="insert">Example 7</span></a></div>
+<p>In the first expression below, all optionals are specified. However in the second and third, only one optional is specified, forcing the use of the marker for the missing terms. 
 
 </p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, <span class="delete">a)</span><span class="insert">a, -, -)</span>
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
 </pre>
 </div>
 Note that the more succinct form is just shorthand for a complete expression with all the markers specified:
-<div class="anexample" id="example_6" data-count="6"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_6"><span class="insert">Example 6</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_8"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_8">Example <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">8</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(a1)
 activity(a1, -, -)
 </pre>
@@ -1655,29 +904,25 @@
 </div>
 
 <div id="prov-n-standard-terms" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Identifiers and attributes</h3>
-
-<p>Most expressions defined in the grammar include the use of two terms: an identifier <span class="insert">and a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except </span>for <span class="delete">the predicate,</span><span class="insert">Entities, Activites,</span> and <span class="insert">Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression. By convention, optional identifiers are separated using </span>a <span class="insert">semi-colon ';'. This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the </span>set of attribute-value <span class="delete">pairs, delimited by square brackets. Both are</span><span class="insert">pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_7" data-count="7"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_7"><span class="insert">Example 7</span></a></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Derivation has an</span> optional <span class="delete">(unless specified otherwise). By convention,</span><span class="insert">identifier. In the first expression,</span> the identifier is <span class="delete">the first term</span><span class="insert">not available, while it is explicit</span> in <span class="delete">any expression, and the  set of attribute-value pairs is the last. </span><span class="delete">
-Consistent with the convention on optional terms, the  '</span><span class="insert">the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the </span><span class="name">-</span><span class="delete">' marker can be used when the identifier is not available. Additionally, the grammar rules are defined in such a way that the optional identifier can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising.
-
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Derivation has an optional identifier. In the first expression, the identifier is not available. It is explicit in the second, and marked by a </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> in the third.</span><span class="insert"> marker.</span></p>
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</h3>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Almost all expressions defined in the grammar include an identifier. </span>Most expressions<span class="delete"> defined</span><span class="insert">
+can aslo include a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term</span> in <span class="delete">the grammar include the use of two terms: an identifier and</span><span class="insert">any expression.  Optional identifiers </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be separated using</span> a <span class="delete">set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers</span><span class="insert">semi-colon ';', but where the identifiers</span> are <span class="delete">optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression. By convention, optional identifiers are separated using</span><span class="insert">required,</span> a <span class="delete">semi-colon ';'.</span><span class="insert">regular comma ',' </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be used.</span> This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set of attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_9"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_9">Example <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">9</span></a></div>
+<p>Derivation has an optional identifier. In the first expression, the identifier is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the <span class="name">-</span> marker.<span class="insert"> This is equivalent to the first expression. </span></p>
 <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d;</span> e2, e1)
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(-,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(-;</span> e2, e1)
+wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1)
+wasDerivedFrom(-; e2, e1)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<span class="delete">A distinction is made between expressions with no attributes, and expressions that include</span><span class="insert">Lack of attributes can be equivalently expressed by omitting the list, or by using</span> an empty <span class="delete">list of attributes.
-</span><span class="insert">list.
-
-
-
-</span><div class="anexample" id="example_8" data-count="8"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_8"><span class="insert">Example 8</span></a></div>
-<p>The first <span class="delete">activity does not</span><span class="insert">and second activities</span> have <span class="delete">any</span><span class="insert">no</span> attributes.<span class="delete"> The second has an empty list of attributes. </span>
+Lack of attributes can be equivalently expressed by omitting the list, or by using an empty list.
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_10"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_10">Example <span class="delete">8</span><span class="insert">10</span></a></div>
+<p>The first and second activities have no <span class="delete">attributes.</span><span class="insert">attributes, and are equivalent.</span>
 
 The third activity  has two attributes. 
 </p><pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10)
@@ -1689,16 +934,16 @@
 </div>
 
 <div id="comments" class="section">
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Comments</span></h3><span class="insert">
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.5</span><span class="insert">2.6</span> </span>Comments</h3>
 
 
 Comments in PROV-N take two forms:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="insert"> '//'  outside an </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert"> or </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">; such cooments continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A) or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment marker. 
-
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> '/*' ... '*/', outside an </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert"> or </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">.
-</span></li></ul>
-<p><span class="insert">Comments are treated as white space.</span></p>
+<ul>
+<li> '//'  outside an <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></code> or <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>; such <span class="delete">cooments</span><span class="insert">comments</span> continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A) or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment marker. 
+
+</li><li> '/*' ... '*/', outside an <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></code> or <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>.
+</li></ul>
+<p>Comments are treated as white space.</p>
 
 </div>
 
@@ -1707,9 +952,7 @@
 <div id="prov-n-expressions" class="section"> 
 <h2><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</h2>
 
-<p>This section  introduces grammar productions for each expression, followed by small examples <span class="insert">of expressions </span>illustrating the <span class="delete">use of</span><span class="insert">grammar. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid</span> expressions in <span class="delete">PROV-N. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid expressions in </span>the PROV-N language.
-
-</p>
+<p>This section  introduces grammar productions for each expression, followed by small examples of expressions illustrating the grammar. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid expressions in the PROV-N language.</p>
 
 <div id="component1" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
@@ -1723,58 +966,33 @@
 
 
 </p><table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entityExpression" name="prod-entityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">3</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"entity" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs" name="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">4</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( "," "[" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">attributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "]" )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePairs" name="prod-attributeValuePairs"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">5</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">attributeValuePairs</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">(  | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair"><span class="insert">attributeValuePair</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair"><span class="insert">attributeValuePair</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePair" name="prod-attributeValuePair"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">6</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">attributeValuePair</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attribute"><span class="insert">attribute</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "=" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal"><span class="insert">literal</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entityExpression" name="prod-entityExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">3</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">entityExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"entity" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs" name="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"></a>[<span class="prodNo">4</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">optionalAttributeValuePairs</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( "," "[" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePairs">attributeValuePairs</a></span> "]" )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePairs" name="prod-attributeValuePairs"></a>[<span class="prodNo">5</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributeValuePairs</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">(  | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair">attributeValuePair</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair">attributeValuePair</a></span> )* )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePair" name="prod-attributeValuePair"></a>[<span class="prodNo">6</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributeValuePair</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attribute">attribute</a></span> "=" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal">literal</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Entity maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
-<span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">entity</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Entity maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Entity</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Entity</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.id"><span class="attribute" id="entity.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">[</span>
-<span class="delete">attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">]</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attribute-values</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">attribute-value</span><span class="delete">
-| </span><span class="delete">attribute-value</span> <span class="delete">,</span> <span class="delete">attribute-values</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attribute-value</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">attribute</span>
-<span class="delete">=</span>
-<span class="delete">Literal</span>
-</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.id"><span class="attribute" id="entity.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_9" data-count="9"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_9"><span class="insert">Example 9</span></a></div>
-
-
+<div class="anexample" id="example_11"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_11">Example <span class="delete">9</span><span class="insert">11</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document" ])
 </pre>
-  Here <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the <span class="delete">optional </span>entity identifier, and <span class="name">[ prov:type="document" ]</span> groups the optional <span class="delete">attributes </span><span class="insert">attributes, only one in this example,  </span>with their values.
+  Here <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the entity identifier, and <span class="name">[ prov:type="document" ]</span> groups the optional attributes, only one in this example,  with their values.
   <pre class="codeexample">
 entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
 </pre>
-<span class="delete">Here</span><span class="insert">Here,</span> the optional attributes are <span class="delete">not used.</span><span class="insert">absent.</span>
+Here, the optional attributes are absent.
 </div>
 
 
@@ -1785,50 +1003,35 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-activityExpression" name="prod-activityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">7</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">activityExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">activity</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"activity" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span> (
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-timeOrMarker" name="prod-timeOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">8</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time"><span class="insert">time</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-activityExpression" name="prod-activityExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">7</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">activityExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"activity" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-timeOrMarker" name="prod-timeOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">8</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">timeOrMarker</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time">time</a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Activity maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Activity maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Activity</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Activity</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.id"><span class="attribute" id="activity.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-(</span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-(</span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.startTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime"><span class="insert">startTime</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.endTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime"><span class="insert">endTime</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.id"><span class="attribute" id="activity.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.startTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime">startTime</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.endTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime">endTime</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_10" data-count="10"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_10"><span class="insert">Example 10</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_12"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_12">Example <span class="delete">10</span><span class="insert">12</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [prov:type="createFile"])
 </pre>
-<p>Here <span class="name">ex:a10</span> is the<span class="delete"> optional </span>  activity identifier, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span> are the optional start and end times for the activity, and <span class="name">[prov:type="createFile"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<p>Here <span class="name">ex:a10</span> is the  activity identifier, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span> are the optional start and end times for the activity, and <span class="name">[prov:type="createFile"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10)
 activity(ex:a10, -, -)
@@ -1850,69 +1053,49 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-generationExpression" name="prod-generationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">9</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">generationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasGeneratedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> (
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalIdentifier" name="prod-optionalIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">10</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ";" )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifierOrMarker" name="prod-identifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">11</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> | <span class="delete">-</span><span class="insert">"-"</span> ) <span class="delete">,</span> 
-</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-generationExpression" name="prod-generationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">9</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">generationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasGeneratedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalIdentifier" name="prod-optionalIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">10</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">optionalIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker">identifierOrMarker</a></span> ";" )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifierOrMarker" name="prod-identifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">11</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">identifierOrMarker</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Generation maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Generation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Generation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Generation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute" id="generation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute" id="generation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_11" data-count="11"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_11"><span class="insert">Example 11</span></a></div>
-
-
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1;</span> tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_13"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_13">Example <span class="delete">11</span><span class="insert">13</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
 </pre>
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:g1</span> is the optional generation identifier, <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the identifier of the entity being generated,
   <span class="name">ex:edit1</span> is the optional identifier of the generating activity, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional generation time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="save"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
   
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-wasGeneratedBy(e,</span> ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, <span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+wasGeneratedBy(e, ex:edit1,</span><span class="insert">-)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, <span class="delete">-, -, </span>[ex:fct="save"])     
-<span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-wasGeneratedBy(-, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)</span>
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, [ex:fct="save"])     
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(-,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(-;</span> e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
- at least<span class="insert"> one</span>  <span class="delete">one </span>of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, <span class="delete">or</span><span class="insert">and</span>  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span>  </a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
-
-
-
+<p><strong><span class="insert">Note:</span></strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 
 
 
@@ -1924,300 +1107,231 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-usageExpression" name="prod-usageExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">12</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">usageExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">used</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"used" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span>(
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-usageExpression" name="prod-usageExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">12</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">usageExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"used" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="delete">"," </span>( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Usage maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Usage maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Usage</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Usage</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute" id="usage.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.activity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr><tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) 
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute" id="usage.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.activity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr><tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_12" data-count="12"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_12"><span class="insert">Example 12</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_14"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_14">Example <span class="delete">12</span><span class="insert">14</span></a></div>
   
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">used(ex:u1,</span><span class="insert">used(ex:u1;</span> ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:fct="load"])
+<pre class="codeexample">used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:fct="load"])
  </pre>
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:u1</span> is the optional usage identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the using activity,
   <span class="name">ar3:0111</span> is the identifier of the entity being used,
  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional usage time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="load"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(ex:act2)
-</span>used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, <span class="delete">-)
-used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+  <pre class="codeexample">used(ex:act2)
+used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 used(a1,e1, -, [ex:fct="load"])
-<span class="delete">used(ex:u1, ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
-used(-,</span><span class="insert">used(ex:u1;</span> ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
+used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">Even though the production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression"><span class="insert">usageExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> allows for expressions </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">used(a2, -, -)</span></span><span class="insert">  and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">used(-; e2, -, -)</span></span><span class="insert">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
+<p>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">used(a2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">used(-; <span class="delete">e2,</span><span class="insert">a2,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute">entity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 
 
 
 </div>
 
-
 <div id="expression-wasInformedBy" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span><span class="insert">Communication</span></h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</h4>
 
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-communicationExpression" name="prod-communicationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">13</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">communicationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasInformedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-communicationExpression" name="prod-communicationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">13</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">communicationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasInformedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Communication maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Communication maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Communication</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Communication</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.id"><span class="attribute" id="communication.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informed"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed"><span class="insert">informed</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informant"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant"><span class="insert">informant</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.id"><span class="attribute" id="communication.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informed"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed">informed</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informant"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant">informant</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_13" data-count="13"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_13"><span class="insert">Example 13</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">  Here </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:inf1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional communication identifier,  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier of the informed activity,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier of the informant activity,
-and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
+<div class="anexample" id="example_15"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_15">Example <span class="delete">13</span><span class="insert">15</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:inf1</span> is the optional communication identifier,  <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is the identifier of the informed activity,
+  <span class="name">ex:a2</span> is the identifier of the informant activity,
+and <span class="name">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
 wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
 wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2)
 wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span></pre>
+</pre>
 </div>
 </div>
 
 
 
 <div id="expression-Start" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.1.6 </span></span>Start</h4>
-
-
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</h4>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-startExpression" name="prod-startExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">14</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">startExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasStartedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> (
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-startExpression" name="prod-startExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">14</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">startExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasStartedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Start maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Start maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Start</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Start</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute" id="start.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.activity"><span class="attribute" id="start.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute" id="start.starter"><span class="insert">starter</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute" id="start.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.activity"><span class="attribute" id="start.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger">trigger</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute" id="start.starter">starter</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_14" data-count="14"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_14"><span class="insert">Example 14</span></a></div>
-
-  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(s,</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(s;</span> ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">ex:trigger, ex:act1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_16"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_16">Example <span class="delete">14</span><span class="insert">16</span></a></div>
+
+  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
   </pre>
-  <p>Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the <span class="delete">starting</span><span class="insert">started</span> activity,
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">ar3:0111</span><span class="insert">ex:trigger</span></span> is the <span class="insert">optional </span>identifier <span class="delete">of</span><span class="insert">for</span> the entity that triggered the activity start,
-   <span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:trigger</span></span><span class="insert">,</span>
- <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional <span class="delete">usage</span><span class="insert">start</span> time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
+  <p>Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the started activity,
+  <span class="name">ex:trigger</span> is the optional identifier for the entity that triggered the activity start,
+   <span class="name">ex:act1</span> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   <span class="name">ex:trigger</span>,
+ <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional start time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
   The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
   
-  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">-, ex:act1,</span> -)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">-, ex:act1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, <span class="delete">-, -)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, -, </span>[ex:param="a"])
-<span class="delete">wasStartedBy(s,</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(s;</span> ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(-, ex:act2, ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">e, ex:act1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, -)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, [ex:param="a"])
+wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, e, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><strong>Note:</strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasStartedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(-,</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(-;</span> e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since 
- at least<span class="insert"> one</span>  <span class="delete">one </span>of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">starter</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, <span class="delete">or</span><span class="insert">and</span>  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span>  </a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+<p><strong>Note:</strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasStartedBy(e2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)</span>  and <span class="name">wasStartedBy(-; e2,<span class="insert"> -,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute">starter</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be <span class="delete">present.</span><span class="insert">present (as per [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]).</span></p>
 
 </div>
 
 <div id="expression-End" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.6</span><span class="insert">3.1.7</span> </span>End</h4>
-
-
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-endExpression" name="prod-endExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">15</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">endExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasEndedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> (
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-endExpression" name="prod-endExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">15</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">endExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasEndedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM End maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM End maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">End</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>End</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute" id="end.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.activity"><span class="attribute" id="end.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute" id="end.ender"><span class="insert">ender</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute" id="end.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.activity"><span class="attribute" id="end.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger">trigger</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute" id="end.ender">ender</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_15" data-count="15"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_15"><span class="insert">Example 15</span></a></div>
-
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(s,</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(s;</span> ex:act2, <span class="delete">ex:trigger, </span><span class="insert">ex:trigger,ex:act3,  </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_17"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_17">Example <span class="delete">15</span><span class="insert">17</span></a></div>
+
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger,ex:act3,  2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
   </pre>
-<p>  Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,    
+<p>  Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  
 <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the ending activity,
   <span class="name">ex:trigger</span> is the identifier of the entity that triggered the activity end,
-  <span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act3</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">,</span>
+  <span class="name">ex:act3</span> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   <span class="name">e</span>,
  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional usage time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
-<pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
-<span class="delete">wasEndedBy(e,ex:act2,</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2)
-wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2, ex:trigger,</span> -,<span class="delete"> -)
-wasEndedBy(e, ex:act2, ex:trigger, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(-, ex:act2, ex:trigger,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, -)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2)
+wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><strong>Note:</strong>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasEndedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(-,</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(-;</span> e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since 
- at least<span class="insert"> one</span>  <span class="delete">one </span>of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">ender</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+<p><strong>Note:</strong>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasEndedBy(e2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)</span>  and <span class="name">wasEndedBy(-; e2,<span class="insert"> -,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute">ender</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
 <div id="expression-Invalidation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.7</span><span class="insert">3.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</h4>
 
 
 <div class="withPn">
 
 
-
-
-
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-invalidationExpression" name="prod-invalidationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">16</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">invalidationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasInvalidatedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> (
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-invalidationExpression" name="prod-invalidationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">16</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">invalidationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasInvalidatedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Invalidation maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Invalidation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Invalidation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_16" data-count="16"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_16"><span class="insert">Example 16</span></a></div>
-
-
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1;</span> tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_18"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_18">Example <span class="delete">16</span><span class="insert">18</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
 </pre>
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:i1</span> is the optional invalidation identifier, <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the identifier of the entity being invalidated,
   <span class="name">ex:edit1</span> is the optional identifier of the invalidating activity, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional invalidation time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="save"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
@@ -2227,53 +1341,17 @@
 wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 wasInvalidatedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
 wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-<span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1;</span> tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-<span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(-, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,</span> ex:edit1, -)
+wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p>Even though the production   <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(-,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(-;</span> e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
-<span class="insert">since </span>at least<span class="insert"> one</span>  <span class="delete">one </span>of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, <span class="delete">or</span><span class="insert">and</span>  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span>  </a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">communicationExpression</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-</div>
-
-
-<span class="delete">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1, ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:inf1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional communication identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the informed activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the informant activity,
-and </span><span class="delete">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-wasInformedBy(i, ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasInformedBy(i, ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-wasInformedBy(-, ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasInformedBy(-, ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span>
-
+<p>Even though the production  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+</div></div>
 
 
 
@@ -2281,76 +1359,38 @@
 
 </div>
 
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.9 </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">startByActivityExpression</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity(s,ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">s</span><span class="delete"> is the optional start-by-activity identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the starting activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the activity that started  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete">,
-and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-  
-  </span><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity(ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasStartedByActivity(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-wasStartedByActivity(s,ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasStartedByActivity(-,ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasStartedByActivity(-,ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 <div id="component2" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: <span class="delete">Agents and Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Derivations</span></h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
 <div id="Derivation-Relation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</h4>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-derivationExpression" name="prod-derivationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">17</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">derivationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasDerivedFrom" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-derivationExpression" name="prod-derivationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">17</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">derivationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasDerivedFrom" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker">gIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker">uIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Derivation maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Derivation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Derivation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Derivation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.id"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="insert">generatedEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity"><span class="insert">usedEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generation"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation"><span class="insert">generation</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usage"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage"><span class="insert">usage</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.id"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generation"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation">generation</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker">gIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usage"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage">usage</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker">uIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
@@ -2359,21 +1399,21 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation" data-count="17"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="insert">Example 17</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
-  </span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">  Here
-    </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">d</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional derivation identifier,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier for the entity being derived,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the  identifier of the entity from which </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> is derived,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the generation,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the usage,
-  and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[ex:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation">Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">19</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here
+    <span class="name">d</span> is the optional derivation identifier,
+  <span class="name">e2</span> is the identifier for the entity being derived,
+  <span class="name">e1</span> is the  identifier of the entity from which <span class="name">e2</span> is derived,
+  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
+  <span class="name">g2</span> is the optional identifier of the generation,
+  <span class="name">u1</span> is the optional identifier of the usage,
+  and <span class="name">[ex:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, u1)
@@ -2381,62 +1421,62 @@
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, -)
-wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(-, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-</span></pre>
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(-,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(-;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+</pre>
 </div>
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-Revision" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Revision</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_18" data-count="18"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_18"><span class="insert">Example 18</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_20"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_20">Example <span class="delete">18</span><span class="insert">20</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, 
                [prov:type='prov:Revision', 
                 ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
-  </span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">Here, the derivation from
-</span><a href="#anexample-derivation" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 17</span></span></a><span class="insert">
-is extended with a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute and value </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Revision</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p></div>
+  </pre>
+<p>Here, the derivation from
+<a href="#anexample-derivation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">19</span></span></a>
+is extended with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>.<span class="insert">  The expression </span><code><span class="insert">'prov:Revision'</span></code><span class="insert"> is </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></a></code><span class="insert"> to denote a </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> literal (See  </span><a href="#expression-literal"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.3. Literal</span></a><span class="insert">).</span>
+</p></div>
 
 
 </div>  
 <div id="expression-quotation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_19" data-count="19"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_19"><span class="insert">Example 19</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(quoteId1; ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, ex:act1, ex:g, ex:u,
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</h4>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_21"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_21">Example <span class="delete">19</span><span class="insert">21</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(quoteId1; ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, ex:act1, ex:g, ex:u,
                [ prov:type='prov:Quotation' ])
-  </span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Here, the derivation is provided with a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute and value </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Quotation</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p></div>
+  </pre>
+
+<p>Here, the derivation is provided with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Quotation</span>.
+</p></div>
 
 
 </div>  
 
 
 <div id="expression-original-source" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.2.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_20" data-count="20"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_20"><span class="insert">Example 20</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(src1;  ex:e1, ex:e2, ex:act, ex:g, ex:u, 
-               [ prove:type='prov:PrimarySource' ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">Here, the derivation is provided with a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute and value </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:PrimarySource</span></span><span class="insert">.
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_22"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_22">Example <span class="delete">20</span><span class="insert">22</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(src1;  ex:e1, ex:e2, ex:act, ex:g, ex:u, 
+               [ <span class="delete">prove:type='prov:PrimarySource'</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:PrimarySource'</span> ])
+</pre>
+<p>Here, the derivation is provided with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span>.
   
-</span></p></div>
+</p></div>
 
 
 </div>  
@@ -2445,42 +1485,31 @@
 
 
 <div id="component3" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</span></h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</h3>
 <div id="expression-Agent" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.3.1 </span></span>Agent</h4>
-
-
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agentExpression" name="prod-agentExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">18</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">agentExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">agent</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"agent" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agentExpression" name="prod-agentExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">18</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">agentExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"agent" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Agent maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Agent maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Agent</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Agent</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.id"><span class="attribute" id="agent.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.id"><span class="attribute" id="agent.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_21" data-count="21"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_21"><span class="insert">Example 21</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_23"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_23">Example <span class="delete">21</span><span class="insert">23</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">agent(ag4, [ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ])
 </pre>
 <p>Here <span class="name">ag</span> is the agent identifier, and
@@ -2494,60 +1523,45 @@
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-attribution" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.2</span><span class="insert">3.3.2</span> </span>Attribution</h4>
-
-
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</h4>
 
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributionExpression" name="prod-attributionExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">19</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">attributionExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo</span> 
-<span class="delete">(</span> 
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasAttributedTo" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span> 
-</a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span> 
-</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributionExpression" name="prod-attributionExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">19</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasAttributedTo" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Attribution maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Attribution maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Attribution</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Attribution</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.id"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.entity"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.agent"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.id"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.entity"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.agent"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent">agent</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_22" data-count="22"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_22"><span class="insert">Example 22</span></a></div>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(id,</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(id;</span> e, ag, <span class="delete">[ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"])</span><span class="insert">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])</span>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_24"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_24">Example <span class="delete">22</span><span class="insert">24</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
   </pre>
 <p>    Here <span class="name">id</span> is the optional attribution identifier,  <span class="name">e</span> is an entity identifier,
   <span class="name">ag</span> is the identifier of the agent to whom the entity is abscribed, 
-and <span class="name"><span class="delete">[ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"]</span><span class="insert">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ]</span></span> are optional attributes. </p>
+and <span class="name">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 <pre class="codeexample">wasAttributedTo(e, ag)
-wasAttributedTo(e, ag, <span class="delete">[ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"])
-wasAttributedTo(-,  e, ag, [ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"])</span><span class="insert">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])</span>
+wasAttributedTo(e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -2555,56 +1569,39 @@
 
 
 <div id="expression-Association" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.3</span><span class="insert">3.3.3</span> </span>Association</h4>
-
-
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-associationExpression" name="prod-associationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">20</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">associationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith</span>
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasAssociatedWith" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span> (
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-associationExpression" name="prod-associationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">20</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">associationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasAssociatedWith" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="insert">( </span>"," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker">agIdentifierOrMarker</a></span><span class="delete"> (</span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Association maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Association maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Association</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Association</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute" id="association.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.activity"><span class="attribute" id="association.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
-( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete">  | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
-( </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete">  | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute" id="association.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute" id="association.plan"><span class="insert">plan</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute" id="association.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.activity"><span class="attribute" id="association.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute" id="association.agent">agent</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker">agIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute" id="association.plan">plan</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_23" data-count="23"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_23"><span class="insert">Example 23</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas,</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas;</span> ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_25"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_25">Example <span class="delete">23</span><span class="insert">25</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas; ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
   </pre>
 
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:agas</span> is the optional attribution identifier,
@@ -2617,405 +1614,187 @@
   
   
 <pre class="codeexample">wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, <span class="insert">ex:ag1)
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, </span>ex:ag1, <span class="delete">-)</span><span class="insert">ex:e1)</span>
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, <span class="insert">ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-wasAssociatedWith(a; ex:a1, -, </span>ex:e1)<span class="delete">
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
-wasAssociatedWith(-, ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
-wasAssociatedWith(-, ex:a1, ex:ag1, -)</span>
+wasAssociatedWith(a; ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><strong>Note:</strong>The production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasAssociatiedWith(-,</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatiedWith(-;</span> a, -, -)</span>. However, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, 
-<span class="delete">because </span><span class="insert">since
-</span>at least   one of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute">agent</span><span class="delete"> or </span></a><span class="insert">,  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute">plan</span> </a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+<p><strong>Note:</strong>The production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasAssociatiedWith(-;</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(-;</span> a, -, -)</span>. However, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, 
+since
+at least one of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute">agent</span></a>,  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute">plan</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-delegation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="insert">3.3.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="delete">responsibilityExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf</span>
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-delegationExpression" name="prod-delegationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">21</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">delegationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"actedOnBehalfOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span> (
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-delegationExpression" name="prod-delegationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">21</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">delegationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"actedOnBehalfOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Delegation maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Delegation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Delegation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Delegation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.id"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.delegate"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate"><span class="insert">delegate</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.responsible"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible"><span class="insert">responsible</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.id"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.delegate"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate">delegate</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.responsible"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible">responsible</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_24" data-count="24"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_24"><span class="insert">Example 24</span></a></div>
-
-  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(act1,</span><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(del1; ag2,</span> ag1,<span class="delete"> ag2,</span> a, [prov:type="contract"])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_26"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_26">Example <span class="delete">24</span><span class="insert">26</span></a></div>
+
+  <pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(del1; ag2, ag1, a, [prov:type="contract"])
   </pre>
-<p>  Here <span class="name"><span class="delete">act1</span><span class="insert">del1</span></span> is the optional <span class="delete">attribution</span><span class="insert">delegation</span> identifier,
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">ag1</span><span class="insert">ag2</span></span> is the identifier for the <span class="delete">subordinate</span><span class="insert">delegate</span> agent,
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">ag2</span><span class="insert">ag1</span></span> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
-  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the <span class="delete">responsibility</span><span class="insert">delegation</span> link holds,
-  and <span class="name"> [prov:type="contract"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">del1</span> is the optional delegation identifier,
+  <span class="name">ag2</span> is the identifier for the delegate agent,
+  <span class="name">ag1</span> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
+  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the delegation link holds,
+  and <span class="name">[prov:type="contract"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 
-<pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, <span class="insert">ag2)
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, </span>ag2, <span class="delete">-)</span><span class="insert">a)</span>
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, <span class="delete">a)
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1,</span><span class="insert">-, [prov:type="delegation"])
+<pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2)
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a)
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, -, [prov:type="delegation"])
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
-actedOnBehalfOf(r;</span> ag2, <span class="delete">-, [prov:type="delegation"])
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, </span>ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])<span class="delete">
-actedOnBehalfOf(r, ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
-actedOnBehalfOf(-, ag1, ag2, -)</span>
+actedOnBehalfOf(r; ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 
 </div>
 
- 
-<span class="delete">3.3 </span><span class="delete">Component 3: Derivations</span>
-
-
 <div id="expression-influence" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="insert">3.3.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Influence</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="delete">derivationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</h4>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-influenceExpression" name="prod-influenceExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">22</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">influenceExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"influence" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-</a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
-
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">gIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">uIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-influenceExpression" name="prod-influenceExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">22</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">influenceExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"influence"</span><span class="insert">"wasInfluencedBy"</span> "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Influence maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Influence maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Trace</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Influence</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#trace.id"><span class="attribute" id="trace.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#trace.entity"><span class="attribute" id="trace.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#trace.ancestor"><span class="attribute" id="trace.ancestor"><span class="insert">ancestor</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#trace.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="trace.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.id"><span class="attribute" id="influence.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencee"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencee">influencee</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencer"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencer">influencer</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="influence.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_25" data-count="25"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_25"><span class="insert">Example 25</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [prov:comment="a righteous derivation"])</span><span class="insert">influence(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_27"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_27">Example <span class="delete">25</span><span class="insert">27</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">influence(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span>
   </pre>
 <p>  Here
-    <span class="name"><span class="delete">d</span><span class="insert">id</span></span> is the optional <span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="insert">trace</span> identifier,
-  <span class="name">e2</span> is <span class="delete">the identifier for the entity being derived,
-  </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier of the entity from which </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is derived,
-  </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
-  </span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the generation,
-  </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the usage,
-  and </span><span class="delete">[prov:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-  
-</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, g2, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, -)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, -)
-wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(-, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">revisionExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
-( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete">wasRevisionOf(rev1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium, [prov:comment="??"] )
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">rev1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional revision identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the revised entity,
-  </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the original entity,
-  </span><span class="delete">w3:Consortium</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent involved in the revision,
-  and </span><span class="delete"> [prov:comment="??"] )</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-
-  </span><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
-wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium)
-wasRevisionOf(id,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium)
-wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
-wasRevisionOf(id,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
-wasRevisionOf(-,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
-</span>
-
-
-
-  
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">quotationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom</span> 
-<span class="delete">(</span> 
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
-( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
-( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
-</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span> 
-
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom(quoteId1, ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul,[])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">quoteId1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional revision identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:blockQuote</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the entity that represents the quote (the partial copy)
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:blog</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the original entity being quoted,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:Luc</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent who performs the quoting,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:Paul</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent to whom the original entity is attributed,
-  and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the (empty) optional set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-
-  </span><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog)
-wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul)
-wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,-,ex:Paul)
-wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul,[])
-wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, -, -)
-wasQuotedFrom(id,ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul)
-wasQuotedFrom(-,ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,-)
-
-</span>
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">originalSourceExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource</span> 
-<span class="delete">(</span> 
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span> 
-
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete">hadOriginalSource(src1, ex:e1, ex:e2,[ex:param="a"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">src1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional original source identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:e1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the derived entity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:e2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the original source entity,
-  and </span><span class="delete">[ex:param="a"]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-
-  </span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource(ex:e1, ex:e2)
-hadOriginalSource(ex:e1, ex:e2,[ex:param="a"])
-hadOriginalSource(-,ex:e1, ex:e2,[ex:param="a"])
-hadOriginalSource(-,ex:e1, ex:e2)
-</span>
-
-
-  
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.5 </span><span class="delete">Trace</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">traceExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">tracedTo</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete">tracedTo(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional trace identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is </span>an entity identifier,
+    <span class="name">id</span> is the optional influence identifier,
+  <span class="name">e2</span> is an entity identifier,
   <span class="name">e1</span> is the identifier for an ancestor entity that   <span class="name">e2</span> depends on,
   and <span class="name">[ex:param="a"]</span> is the optional set of attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 
-  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">tracedTo(e2,e1)
-tracedTo(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-tracedTo(-,e2,e1)</span><span class="insert">influence(e2,e1)
+  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">influence(e2,e1)
 influence(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-influence(id; e2,e1)</span>
+influence(id;</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1)
+wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
+wasInfluencedBy(id;</span> e2,e1)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 </div>
 
-
 </div>
 
-
 <div id="component4" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: <span class="delete">Alternate Entities</span><span class="insert">Bundles</span></h3>
-
-
-
-<div id="expression-bundle-declaration" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span><span class="insert">Bundle Declaration</span></h4>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
+
+<div id="expression-bundle-constructor" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">Constructor</span></h4>
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namedBundle" name="prod-namedBundle"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">23</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"bundle" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "endBundle"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namedBundle" name="prod-namedBundle"></a>[<span class="prodNo">23</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namedBundle</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"bundle" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations">namespaceDeclarations</a></span>)? (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></span>)* "endBundle"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_26" data-count="26"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_26"><span class="insert">Example 26</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:author-view
+<p><span class="insert">Named bundles cannot be nested because </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is not an </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code><span class="insert">, and therefore cannot occurs inside another </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that bundle. In other words, for every identifier with a prefix </span><code><span class="insert">p</span></code><span class="insert"> within a named bundle, there </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a namespace declaration for </span><code><span class="insert">p</span></code><span class="insert"> in this named bundled; for every identifier  without prefix, there </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a default namespace declaration  in this named bundled.</span></p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_28"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_28">Example <span class="delete">26</span><span class="insert">28</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:author-view<span class="insert">
+  prefix ex  &lt;http://example.org/&gt;</span>
   agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
   agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  ...
+  <span class="delete">...</span><span class="insert">//...</span>
 endBundle
-  </span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert"> Here  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:author-view</span></span><span class="insert"> is the name of the bundle.
-</span></p></div>
+  </pre>
+<p> Here  <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is the name of the bundle.
+ 
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+</div>
 
 </div>
 </div>
 
 <div id="component5" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 5: Alternate Entities</span></h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</h3>
 <div id="expression-alternate" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.5.1 </span></span>Alternate</h4>
-
-
-   
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Alternate</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-alternateExpression" name="prod-alternateExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">24</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">alternateExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=
-  </span><span class="delete">alternateOf</span> 
-<span class="delete">(</span> 
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"alternateOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
-<span class="delete">,</span> 
-</a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
-<span class="delete">)</span>  
-</a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-alternateExpression" name="prod-alternateExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">24</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">alternateExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"alternateOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Alternate maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Alternate maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Alternate</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Alternate</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate1"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1"><span class="insert">alternate1</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate2"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2"><span class="insert">alternate2</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate1"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1">alternate1</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate2"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2">alternate2</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
 
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_27" data-count="27"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_27"><span class="insert">Example 27</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_29"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_29">Example <span class="delete">27</span><span class="insert">29</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex:alternate-20111215)
 </pre>
   Here  <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is alternate for   <span class="name">ex:alternate-20111215</span>.
@@ -3024,46 +1803,34 @@
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-specialization" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.4.2</span><span class="insert">3.5.2</span> </span>Specialization</h4>
-
-
-   
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Specialization</h4>
 
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-specializationExpression" name="prod-specializationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">25</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">specializationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=
-  </span><span class="delete">specializationOf</span> 
-<span class="delete">(</span> 
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"specializationOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
-<span class="delete">,</span> 
-</a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
-<span class="delete">)</span>  
-</a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-specializationExpression" name="prod-specializationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">25</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">specializationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"specializationOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Specialization maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Specialization maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Specialization</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Specialization</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity"><span class="insert">generalEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
 
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_28" data-count="28"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_28"><span class="insert">Example 28</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_30"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_30">Example <span class="delete">28</span><span class="insert">30</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">specializationOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,tr:prov-dm)
 </pre>
     Here  <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is a specialization of <span class="name">tr:prov-dm</span>.
@@ -3074,156 +1841,52 @@
 
 
 <div id="expression-mention" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.5.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Mention</span></h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span>Mention</h4>
 
 <div class="note">
-<p><span class="insert">Note: This feature is "</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi"><span class="insert">at risk</span></a><span class="insert">" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The "Mention" construct might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span></p>
+<p>Note: This feature is "<a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">at risk</a>" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</p>
+
+
+<p>The expression Mention   might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
 </div>
 
- 
-<span class="delete">3.5 </span><span class="delete">Component 5: Collections</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Grammar for collections </span><span class="delete">may</span><span class="delete"> under go minor syntactic changes since it has not been implemented yet.</span><span class="delete">
-
-In the productions in this section, nonterminals </span><span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">keySet</span><span class="delete"> are defined as follows.
-
-</span>
-<span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
-</span><span class="delete">(</span>
-    <span class="delete">literal</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">eidentifier</span>
-    <span class="delete">)</span><span class="delete">
-|
-</span><span class="delete">(</span>
-  <span class="delete">literal</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">eidentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-  <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span>
-
-
-  
-<span class="delete">keySet</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
-    </span><span class="delete">literal</span><span class="delete">
-|
-  </span><span class="delete">literal</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">keySet</span>
-
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" name="prod-mentionExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">26</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">mentionExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"mentionOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier"><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" name="prod-mentionExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">26</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">mentionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"mentionOf" "(" <span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> "," <span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Mention maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Mention maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Mention</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Mention</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity"><span class="insert">generalEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier"><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle">bundle</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
 
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-<span class="delete">3.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Insertion</span>
-
-
- <span class="delete">derivationByInsertionFromExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">derivedByInsertionFrom</span> 
- <span class="delete">(</span>
- <span class="delete">identifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-  <span class="delete">{</span>
-  <span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span>
-   <span class="delete">}</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-  <span class="delete">)</span>
-<div class="anexample" id="example_29" data-count="29"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_29"><span class="insert">Example 29</span></a></div>
-
-
-    
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete"> derivedByInsertionFrom(id, c1, c, {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}, [])  
-  </span><span class="insert">  mention(ex:report1_as_in_b1, ex:report1, ex:b1)   
-</span></pre>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_31"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_31">Example <span class="delete">29</span><span class="insert">31</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">  mention(ex:report1_as_in_b1, ex:report1, ex:b1)   
+</pre>
 <p>  Here
-    
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">id</span><span class="insert">ex:report1_as_in_b1</span></span> is <span class="delete">the optional insertion</span><span class="insert">an entity</span> identifier,
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">c1</span><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span> is <span class="delete">the  identifier for the collection after the insertion,
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection before the insertion,
-  </span><span class="delete"> {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}</span><span class="delete"> is the set of key-value pairs that have been inserted in
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
-    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-  </span><span class="delete"> derivedByInsertionFrom(c1, c, {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)})  
- derivedByInsertionFrom(c1, c, {("k1", v1)})  
- derivedByInsertionFrom(c1, c, {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}, [])
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Removal</span>
-
-
- <span class="delete">derivationByRemovalFromExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">derivedByRemovalFrom</span> 
- <span class="delete">(</span>
- <span class="delete">identifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-  <span class="delete">{</span>
-  <span class="delete">keySet</span>
-   <span class="delete">}</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-  <span class="delete">)</span>
-  
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete"> derivedByRemovalFrom(id, c3, c, {"k1", "k3"}, [])  
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional removal</span><span class="insert">an entity</span> identifier,
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">c1</span><span class="insert">ex:b1</span></span> is the   identifier for <span class="delete">the collection after the removal,
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection before the removal,
-  </span><span class="delete"> {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}</span><span class="delete"> is the set of key-value pairs that have been removed from
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
-    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="insert">a bundle
-</span></p><span class="delete">
-  The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-  </span><span class="delete">   derivedByRemovalFrom(c3, c1, {"k1", "k3"})               
-   derivedByRemovalFrom(c3, c1, {"k1"})               
-   derivedByRemovalFrom(c3, c1, {"k1", "k3"}, [])               
-</span>
-  </div>
-
+  <span class="name">ex:report1_as_in_b1</span> is an entity identifier,
+  <span class="name">ex:report1</span> is an entity identifier,
+  <span class="name">ex:b1</span> is the identifier for a bundle
+</p></div>
+
+
+
+</div>
 
 
 
@@ -3231,60 +1894,9 @@
 </div>
 
 
-<span class="delete">3.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span>
-
-
- <span class="delete">membershipExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">isMemberOf</span> 
- <span class="delete">(</span>
- <span class="delete">identifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
- <span class="delete">,</span>
-  <span class="delete">{</span>
-  <span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span>
-   <span class="delete">}</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-  <span class="delete">)</span>
-  
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete">   memberOf(mid, c, {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)}, [])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">mid</span><span class="delete"> is the optional membership identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection whose membership is stated,
-  </span><span class="delete"> {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)}</span><span class="delete"> is the set of key-value pairs that are members of 
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
-    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">  
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-
-  </span><span class="delete">   memberOf(c3, {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)})
-   memberOf(c3, {("k4", v4)})
-   memberOf(c3, {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)},[])  
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-   
-
-
-
 
 <div id="component6" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: <span class="delete">Annotations</span><span class="insert">Collections</span></h3>
-    
-
+<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</h3>
 
 
 
@@ -3292,108 +1904,68 @@
 
 
 <div id="expression-collection-membership" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Note</span><span class="insert">Membership</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="delete">noteExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
-</span>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Membership</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-membershipExpression" name="prod-membershipExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">27</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">membershipExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"memberOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier"><span class="insert">cIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entitySet"><span class="insert">entitySet</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-complete" name="prod-complete"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">28</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">complete</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( "," ( "true" | "false" | "-" ) )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entitySet" name="prod-entitySet"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">29</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">entitySet</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"{" (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "}"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-membershipExpression" name="prod-membershipExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">27</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">membershipExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"memberOf"</span><span class="insert">"hadMembers"</span> "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier">cIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entitySet">entitySet</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-complete">complete</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-complete" name="prod-complete"></a>[<span class="prodNo">28</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">complete</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( "," ( "true" | "false" | "-" ) )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entitySet" name="prod-entitySet"></a>[<span class="prodNo">29</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">entitySet</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"{" (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span>)* "}"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Membership maps to a non-terminal.</span></p>
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Membership maps to a non-terminal.</p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Collection Membership</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Collection Membership</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.id"><span class="attribute" id="membership.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.collection"><span class="attribute" id="membership.collection"><span class="insert">collection</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier"><span class="insert">cIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.entity-set"><span class="attribute" id="membership.entity-set"><span class="insert">entity-set</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entitySet"><span class="insert">entitySet</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.complete"><span class="attribute" id="membership.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="membership.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.id"><span class="attribute" id="membership.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.collection"><span class="attribute" id="membership.collection">collection</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier">cIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.entity-set"><span class="attribute" id="membership.entity-set">entity-set</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entitySet">entitySet</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.complete"><span class="attribute" id="membership.complete">complete</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-complete">complete</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="membership.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_30" data-count="30"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_30"><span class="insert">Example 30</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">   memberOf(mId, c, {e1, e2, e3}, [])   // Collection membership
-  </span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">  Here
-    </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">note</span>
-<span class="insert">mId</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional membership identifier,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">identifier</span>
-<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">note(ann1,[ex:color="blue", ex:screenX=20, ex:screenY=30])
-</span>
-
-
-    
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.6.2 </span><span class="delete">Annotation</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">annotationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span>
-<span class="delete">(</span>
-<span class="delete">identifier</span>
-<span class="delete">,</span>
-<span class="delete">nIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">)</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">hasAnnotation(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex2:n1)
-</span><span class="delete">
-  Here
-   </span><span class="delete">ex2:n1</span><span class="insert">c</span></span> is the  identifier for <span class="delete">a note</span><span class="insert">the collection whose membership is stated,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert"> {e1, e2, e3}</span></span><span class="insert"> is the entity-set indicating the members</span> of<span class="delete"> the entity identified by</span> 
-  <span class="name"><span class="delete">(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete">.
-</span><span class="insert">c</span></span><span class="insert">,
-    and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[]</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">  
+<div class="anexample" id="example_32"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_32">Example <span class="delete">30</span><span class="insert">32</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">   <span class="delete">memberOf(mId,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(mId,</span> c, {e1, e2, e3}, <span class="delete">[])</span><span class="insert">true, [prov:label="A beautiful collection"])</span>   // Collection membership
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here
+    <span class="name">mId</span> is the optional membership identifier,
+  <span class="name">c</span> is the  identifier for the collection whose membership is stated,
+  <span class="name"> {e1, e2, e3}</span> is the entity-set indicating the members of 
+  <span class="name">c</span>,
+    <span class="name"><span class="insert">true</span></span><span class="insert"> is the complete flag indicating that the collection member is believed to be closed,
+    </span>and <span class="name"><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="insert">[prov:label="A beautiful collection"]</span></span> is the optional <span class="delete">(empty) </span>set of attributes. </p>  
+  
+
+<p>
 In the remaining examples,  some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">memberOf(c3, {e1})
-memberOf(c3, {e1,e2})     // default "complete" flag is false
-memberOf(c3, {e1,e2}, false)
-memberOf(c3, {e1,e2}, true)
-memberOf(c3, ,[])  
-memberOf(c3, ,true, [])  
+</p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1})
+<span class="delete">memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1,e2})<span class="delete">     // default "complete" flag is false
+memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">     
+hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1,e2}, false)
+<span class="delete">memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1,e2}, true)
+<span class="delete">memberOf(c3, ,[])  
+memberOf(c3, ,true,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3, {},</span> [])  
+<span class="insert">hadMembers(c3, {}, true, [])  // c3 is effectively of type EmptyCollection
 </span></pre>
 </div>
 
 </div>
 
 
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   
+</div>   
 
 
 
@@ -3408,67 +1980,30 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
 <div id="expression-identifier" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span><span class="delete">Namespace Declaration</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
- |  </span><span class="delete">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">namespaceDeclaration</span>  <span class="delete">namespaceDeclaration</span>
-<span class="delete">namespaceDeclaration</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">prefix</span> <span class="delete">prefix</span> <span class="delete">IRI</span>
-<span class="delete">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
- </span><span class="delete">default</span> <span class="delete">IRI</span> 
-
-
-<span class="delete">In PROV-N, the following prefixes are reserved:
-</span>
-  <span class="delete">prov</span><span class="delete">  denotes the PROV namespace with URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>
-  <span class="delete">xsd</span><span class="delete"> denotes the XML Schema namespace with URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">A PROV-N document </span><span class="delete">must not</span><span class="delete"> redeclare prefixes </span><span class="delete">prov</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">xsd</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes </span><span class="delete">ex1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex2</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-<span class="delete">container
-  default &lt;http://example.org/0/&gt;
-  prefix ex1 &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
-  prefix ex2 &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
-...
-end
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.7.2 </span>Identifier</h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Various kinds of identifiers are used in productions.</span></p>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</h4>
+
+<p>Various kinds of identifiers are used in productions.</p>
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifier" name="prod-eIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">30</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifier" name="prod-aIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">31</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifier" name="prod-agIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">32</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifier" name="prod-gIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">33</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">gIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifier" name="prod-uIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">34</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">uIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-cIdentifier" name="prod-cIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">36</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">cIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-dIdentifier" name="prod-dIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">35</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">dIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bIdentifier" name="prod-bIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">37</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">38</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">39</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">40</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">41</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifier"><span class="insert">gIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">42</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifier"><span class="insert">uIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifier" name="prod-identifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">43</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">identifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifier" name="prod-eIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">30</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">eIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifier" name="prod-aIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">31</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">aIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifier" name="prod-agIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">32</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">agIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifier" name="prod-gIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">33</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">gIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifier" name="prod-uIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">34</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">uIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-cIdentifier" name="prod-cIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">36</span><span class="insert">35</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">cIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bIdentifier" name="prod-bIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">35</span><span class="insert">36</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">dIdentifier</span><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">37</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">bIdentifier</span><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">38</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">39</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">40</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">agIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifier"><span class="insert">gIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">41</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">gIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">gIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifier"><span class="insert">uIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifier" name="prod-identifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">42<span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">uIdentifierOrMarker</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">uIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | "-" )</span>  
+  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">43</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">identifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
@@ -3476,68 +2011,73 @@
 A <dfn id="dfn-qualifiedName">qualified name</dfn> is a name subject to <a>namespace</a> interpretation. It consists of a <a>namespace</a>, denoted by an optional prefix, and a local name.
 The PROV data model  stipulates that a qualified name can be mapped into an IRI
  by concatenating the IRI associated with the prefix and the local part.
-</p><p>A qualified name's prefix is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>. If a prefix occurs in a
- qualified name, it refers to a <a>namespace</a> declared in a namespace declaration.  In the absence of prefix, the qualified name 
+<span class="insert">  This section provides the exact details of this procedure for qualified names supported by PROV-N. </span></p>
+
+<p>A qualified name's prefix is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>. If a prefix occurs in a
+ qualified name, it <span class="delete">refers</span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> refer</span> to a <a>namespace</a> declared in a namespace declaration.  In the absence of prefix, the qualified name 
  refers to the <a title="default namespace declaration">default namespace</a>.</p>
 
 
-<span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span>
-<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span>  <span class="delete">(intended to denote an entity)</span>
-<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span>  <span class="delete">(intended to denote an activity)</span>
-<span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span>  <span class="delete">(intended to denote an agent)</span>
-<span class="delete">gIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote</span>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A PROV qualified name </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> has</span> a <span class="delete">generation)</span>
-<span class="delete">uIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote a usage)</span>
-<span class="delete">nIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote a note)</span>
-<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote a collection)</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
-</span>
-<span class="delete">prefix</span> <span class="delete">:</span>
- <span class="delete">localPart</span><span class="delete">  | </span><span class="delete">:</span> <span class="delete">localPart</span>
-<span class="delete">prefix</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">a name without colon compatible with the </span><span class="delete">NC_NAME</span><span class="delete"> production</span><span class="insert">more permissive syntax then XML's </span><code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-QName"><span class="insert">QName</span></a></code> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>]
-<span class="delete">localPart</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">a name compatible with the
-</span><span class="delete">reference</span><span class="delete"> production</span><span class="insert">
-and SPARQL </span><code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115/#rPrefixedName"><span class="insert">PrefixedName</span></a></code> [<cite><span class="delete">RDFA-CORE</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span></a></cite><span class="delete">]</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">A</span><span class="insert">]. It is a</span> PROV <span class="delete">qualified name has a more permissive syntax then XML's </span><span class="delete">QName</span><span class="delete"> [</span><span class="delete">XML-NAMES</span><span class="delete">] since it allows any syntax for its</span><span class="insert">requirement that the concatenation of the namespace with the</span> local part<span class="delete"> provided that the concatenation with the namespace</span> results in a valid IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]. <span class="insert">Given that 
+
+
+<p>A <span class="delete">PROV</span><span class="insert">PROV-N</span> qualified name<span class="insert"> (production</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code><span class="insert">)</span> has a more permissive syntax then XML's <code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-QName">QName</a></code> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>]
+and SPARQL <code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115/#rPrefixedName">PrefixedName</a></code> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>].<span class="delete"> It is</span><span class="insert"> 
+A </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consists of</span> a <span class="insert">prefix and a local part. Prefixes follow the production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert"> defined by SPARQL [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]. Local parts have to be conformant with </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">, which extends the original SPARQL </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> definition 
+by allowing further characters (see </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></code><span class="insert">):</span></p>
+<ul>
+<li><span class="insert"> an extra set of characters commonly encountered in IRIs;
+</span></li><li><span class="insert"> %-escaped characters (see </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PERCENT"><span class="insert">PERCENT</span></a></code><span class="insert">) to be interpreted as per
+ Section 3.1.  Mapping of IRIs to URIs in [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert"> and \-escaped characters (see </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></code><span class="insert">).</span></li>
+</ul>
+
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">Given that 
+'=' (equal),
+''' (single quote),
+'(' (left bracket),
+')' (right bracket),
+',' (comma),
+':' (colon),
+';' (semi-colon),
+'"' (double quote),
+'[' (left square bracket),
+']' (right square bracket) are used by the </span>PROV <span class="delete">requirement that the concatenation of the namespace with the</span><span class="insert">notation as delimiters, they are not allowed in</span> local <span class="delete">part results</span><span class="insert">parts. 
+Instead, those characters permitted</span> in<span class="insert"> SPARQL
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert">,  are also allowed in </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> if they are escaped by the '\' (backslash character) as per production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></code><span class="insert">. Furthermore, '.' (dot), ':' (colon), '-' (hyphen) can also be \-escaped.</span></p>
+
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">A PROV-N qualified name </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> can be mapped to</span> a valid IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite><span class="delete">]. Given that 
 ',' (comma),
 ';' (semi-colon),
 '=' (equal),
 '(' (left bracket),
 ')' (right bracket),
 '[' (left square bracket),
-']' (right square bracket) are used by the PROV notation as delimiters, they are not allowed in local parts. Instead, they can be %-escaped or incorporated in the IRI denoted by a prefix.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Qualified names </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consist of a prefix and a local part. Prefixes follow the production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert"> defined by SPARQL [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]. Local parts have to be conformant with </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">, which extends the original SPARQL </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> definition by allowing further characters and %-escaped charaters (see </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></code><span class="insert">).</span></p>
+']' (right square bracket) are used</span><span class="insert">]</span> by <span class="delete">the PROV notation as delimiters, they are not allowed in</span><span class="insert">concatenating the namespace denoted  its</span> local <span class="delete">parts. Instead, they can be %-escaped or incorporated in the IRI denoted by a prefix.
+</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">Qualified names </span><span class="delete">QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="delete"> consist of a prefix and a local part. Prefixes follow the production</span><span class="insert">name</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a></code> <span class="delete">defined by SPARQL [</span><span class="delete">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span><span class="delete">]. Local parts have </span>to <span class="delete">be conformant with</span><span class="insert">the local name</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL">PN_LOCAL</a></code>, <span class="delete">which extends the original SPARQL </span><span class="delete">PN_LOCAL</span><span class="delete"> definition</span><span class="insert">whose \-escaped characters have been unescaped</span> by <span class="delete">allowing further characters and %-escaped charaters (see </span><span class="delete">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span><span class="delete">).</span><span class="insert">dropping the character '\' (backslash).</span></p>
 
  
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">59</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":" )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_LOCAL" name="prod-PN_LOCAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">60</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS_U"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_U</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | [0-9] | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ) ( ( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "." | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* ( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ) )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS" name="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">61</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PERCENT"><span class="insert">PERCENT</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | "/"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "@"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "~"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "&amp;"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "+"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "?"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "#"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "$"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PERCENT" name="prod-PERCENT"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">62</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PERCENT</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"%" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX"><span class="insert">HEX</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX"><span class="insert">HEX</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-HEX" name="prod-HEX"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">63</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">HEX</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">[0-9]</span><br><span class="insert"> | [A-F]</span><br><span class="insert"> | [a-f]</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">59</span><span class="insert">62</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">QUALIFIED_NAME</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a></span> ":" )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL">PN_LOCAL</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a></span> ":"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_LOCAL" name="prod-PN_LOCAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">60</span><span class="insert">63</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">PN_LOCAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS_U">PN_CHARS_U</a></span> | [0-9] | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</a></span> ) ( ( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a></span> | "." | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</a></span> )* ( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</a></span> ) )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS" name="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">61</span><span class="insert">64</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"/"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "@"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "~"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "&amp;"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "+"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "*"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "?"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "#"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "$"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "!"</span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PERCENT">PERCENT</a></span><br> | <span class="delete">"/"</span><span class="delete"> | "@"</span><span class="delete"> | "~"</span><span class="delete"> | "&amp;"</span><span class="delete"> | "+"</span><span class="delete"> | "?"</span><span class="delete"> | "#"</span><span class="delete"> | "$"</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_ESC" name="prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">62</span><span class="insert">65</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"\" ( "=" | "'" | "(" | ")" | "," | "-" | ":" | ";" | "[" | "]" | "." )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PERCENT" name="prod-PERCENT"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">66</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">PERCENT</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"%" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX">HEX</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX">HEX</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-HEX" name="prod-HEX"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">63</span><span class="insert">67</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">HEX</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">[0-9]<br> | [A-F]<br> | [a-f]</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name" data-count="31"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name"><span class="insert">Example 31</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name">Example <span class="delete">31</span><span class="insert">33</span></a></div>
 <p>Examples of articles on the BBC Web site seen as  entities.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle
   prefix bbc &lt;http://www.bbc.co.uk/&gt;
   prefix bbcNews &lt;http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/&gt;
 
@@ -3547,16 +2087,14 @@
 
   entity(bbcNews:)                      // an alternative way of referring to the bbc news site
 
-<span class="delete">end</span><span class="insert">endBundle</span>
+endBundle
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name2" data-count="32"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name2"><span class="insert">Example 32</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name2">Example <span class="delete">32</span><span class="insert">34</span></a></div>
 <p>Examples of entities with declared and default namespace.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle
   default &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
   prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
 
@@ -3564,41 +2102,55 @@
   entity(ex:a/)    //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/1/a/
   entity(ex:a/b)   //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/1/a/b
   entity(b)        //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/b
-  entity(ex:1234)  //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/1234
-  entity(4567)     //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/4567
-<span class="delete">end</span><span class="insert">endBundle</span>
+  entity(ex:1234)  //  corresponds to IRI <span class="delete">http://example.org/2/1234</span><span class="insert">http://example.org/1/1234</span>
+  entity(4567)     //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/4567<span class="insert">
+  entity(c/)       //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/c/
+  entity(ex:/)     //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/1//
+endBundle
+</span></pre>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name3"><span class="insert">Example 35</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">Examples of \-escaped characters.</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle
+  prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
+  default &lt;http://example.org/default&gt;
+
+  entity(ex:foo?a\=1)            // corresponds to IRI http://example.org/foo?a=1
+  entity(ex:\-)                  // corresponds to IRI http://example.org/-
+  entity(ex:?fred\=fish%20soup)  // corresponds to IRI http://example.org/?fred=fish%20soup
+
+  used(-;a1,e1,-)                // identifier not specified for usage  
+  used(\-;a1,e1,-)               // usage identifier corresponds to http://example.org/default-</span>
+endBundle
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for   <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">qualifiedName</a></code> and   <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">prefix</a></code> are conflicting.  In the context of a <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code>, a parser should give precedence to the production for <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">prefix</a></code>.
+<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for<span class="insert"> the terminals</span>  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="delete">prefix</span><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code> are conflicting.<span class="insert">
+Indeed,</span>  <span class="insert">for a tokenizer operating independently of the parse tree, </span><code><span class="insert">abc</span></code><span class="insert"> matches both 
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> and
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert">.
+  </span>In the context of a <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code>, a <span class="delete">parser</span><span class="insert">tokenizer</span> should give<span class="delete"> precedence</span><span class="insert">  preference</span> to the production<span class="delete"> for</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="delete">prefix</span><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code>.
 </p>
 
 
-<span class="delete">We need to explicitly disallow '</span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete">' as first and only character of local part. Instead, it should be encoded as </span><span class="delete">pct-encoded</span><span class="delete"> [</span><span class="delete">RFC3987</span><span class="delete">].
-</span>
-
 </div>
 
 <div id="expression-attribute" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.3</span><span class="insert">3.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</h4>
-
-
-
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Attribute</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attribute" name="prod-attribute"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">44</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">attribute<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span>
-
-
-</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attribute" name="prod-attribute"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">44</span><span class="insert">43</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attribute</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The  reserved attributes in the PROV namespace are the following.</p>
+<p>The  reserved attributes in the PROV namespace are the following.<span class="insert">
+Their meaning is explained by [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] (see </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-attribute"><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2: Attribute</span></a><span class="insert">).
+</span></p>
 
 <ol>
 <li>  <span class="name">prov:label</span>
@@ -3616,138 +2168,118 @@
 
 
 <div id="expression-literal" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4</span><span class="insert">3.7.3</span> </span>Literal</h4>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Literal</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Literal</h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-literal" name="prod-literal"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">45</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">literal</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-typedLiteral">typedLiteral</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation">convenienceNotation </a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-typedLiteral" name="prod-typedLiteral"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">46</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">typedLiteral</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "%%" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype"><span class="insert">datatype</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-datatype" name="prod-datatype"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">47</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">datatype</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-literal" name="prod-literal"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">45</span><span class="insert">44</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">literal</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-typedLiteral">typedLiteral</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation">convenienceNotation</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-typedLiteral" name="prod-typedLiteral"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">46</span><span class="insert">45</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">typedLiteral</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></span> "%%" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-datatype" name="prod-datatype"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">47</span><span class="insert">46</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">datatype</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 <tbody><tr valign="baseline"><td></td><td></td><td></td></tr></tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-convenienceNotation" name="prod-convenienceNotation"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">48</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rLANGTAG"><span class="insert">LANGTAG</span></a></span><span class="insert">)?</span><br>
-<span class="delete">typedLiteral</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">quotedString</span> <span class="delete">%%</span> <span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-STRING_LITERAL" name="prod-STRING_LITERAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">64</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL2"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL2</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL_LONG2"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL_LONG2</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-INT_LITERAL" name="prod-INT_LITERAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">66</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">("-")? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert">)+</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">67</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"'" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "'"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-convenienceNotation" name="prod-convenienceNotation"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">48</span><span class="insert">47</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">convenienceNotation</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></span> (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rLANGTAG">LANGTAG</a></span>)?<br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-STRING_LITERAL" name="prod-STRING_LITERAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">64</span><span class="insert">68</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">STRING_LITERAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL2">STRING_LITERAL2</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL_LONG2">STRING_LITERAL_LONG2</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-INT_LITERAL" name="prod-INT_LITERAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">66</span><span class="insert">70</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">INT_LITERAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">("-")? (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT">DIGIT</a></span>)+</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">67</span><span class="insert">71</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"'" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span> "'"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">In production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype
-<span class="delete">datatype</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span> <span class="delete"> listed in Table </span><span class="delete">permitted-datatypes</span>
-<span class="delete">convenienceNotation</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">stringLiteral</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">intLiteral</span>
-<span class="delete">stringLiteral</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">quotedString</span>
-<span class="delete">quotedString</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span></a></code><span class="insert">, the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is used to denote </span>a <span class="delete">finite sequence of characters in which " (#x22) and \ (#x5C) occur only in pairs of the form \" (#x5C, #x22) and \\ (#x5C,
-#x5C), enclosed in a pair of " (#x22) characters</span>
-<span class="delete">intLiteral</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">a finite-length non-empty sequence of decimal digits (#x30-#x39) with an optional leading negative sign (-)</span>
-
-
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-value"><span class="insert">PROV data type</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].
-
-
-</span></p><p>The non terminals <span class="delete">stringLiteral</span>
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">,
-</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">,</span> and
-<span class="delete">intLiteral</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</span></a></code>
-are syntactic sugar for quoted strings with datatype  
-<code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="name">xsd:string</span></a><span class="delete"> and </span></code><span class="insert">,
-</span><code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int"><span class="name">xsd:int</span></a></code>, <span class="insert">and
-</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code>
+<p>In production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype</a></code>, the <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code> is used to denote a <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-value">PROV data type</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>].
+
+
+</p><p>The non terminals
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>,
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code>, and
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</a></code>
+are syntactic sugar for quoted strings with datatype 
+<code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="name">xsd:string</span></a></code>,
+<code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int"><span class="name">xsd:int</span></a></code>, and
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code>
 respectively.
 </p>
 
 <p> In particular, a Literal may be an IRI-typed string (with datatype <span class="name">xsd:anyURI</span>);  such IRI has no specific interpretation in the context of PROV.</p>
 
 
-<span class="delete">Permitted datatypes in literals</span>
-<span class="delete">xsd:decimal</span> <span class="delete">xsd:double</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:dateTime</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:integer</span> <span class="delete">xsd:float</span>  
-<span class="delete">xsd:nonNegativeInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:string</span> <span class="delete">rdf:XMLLiteral</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:nonPositiveInteger</span><span class="delete">xsd:normalizedString</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:positiveInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:token</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:negativeInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:language</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:long</span> <span class="delete">xsd:Name</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:int</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:NCName</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:short</span> <span class="delete">xsd:NMTOKEN</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:byte</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:boolean</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedLong</span> <span class="delete">xsd:hexBinary</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedInt</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:base64Binary</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedShort</span><span class="delete">xsd:anyURI</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedByte</span> <span class="delete">xsd:QName</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for <span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and <span class="delete">intLiteral</span>
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code> are conflicting.  In the context of a <span class="delete">Literal</span> 
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal"><span class="insert">literal</span></a></code>, a parser should give precedence to the production for <span class="delete">intLiteral</span>
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code>.
- 
+<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for <span class="insert">terminals </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="delete">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code> are conflicting.<span class="delete">  In the context</span><span class="insert">  
+Indeed, for a tokenizer operating independently</span> of <span class="delete">a 
+</span><span class="delete">literal</span><span class="delete">, a parser should give precedence to the production for
+</span><span class="insert">the parse tree, </span><code><span class="insert">1234</span></code><span class="insert"> matches both </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code><span class="insert"> and </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> (local name without prefix). In the context of
+a </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></a></code><span class="insert">, a tokenizer should give preference to the production
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code>. 
 </p>
 
-<span class="delete">
-Wouldn't it</span><div class="anexample" id="anexample-value" data-count="33"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value"><span class="insert">Example 33</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-convenience"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-convenience"><span class="insert">Example 36</span></a></div>
 <p><span class="insert">
+The following examples illustrate convenience notations.</span></p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">The two following expressions are strings; if </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype"><span class="insert">datatype</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is not specified, it is </span><code><span class="insert">xsd:string</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "abc" %% xsd:string
+  "abc"
+</span></pre>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">The two following expressions are integers. For convenience, numbers, expressed as digits optionally preceded by a minus sign, can occur without quotes.</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "1234" %% xsd:integer
+  1234
+  "-1234" %% xsd:integer
+  -1234
+</span></pre>
+
+<p><span class="insert">The two following expressions are qualified names. Values of type qualified name can be conveniently expressed within single quotes.</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
+  'ex:value'
+</span></pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value">Example <span class="delete">33</span><span class="insert">37</span></a></div>
+<p>
 The following examples respectively are the string "abc", the string (in French) "bonjour", the integer number 1, and the IRI "http://example.org/foo".
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "abc"
+</p><pre class="codeexample">  "abc"
   "bonjour"@fr
   "1" %% xsd:integer
   "http://example.org/foo" %% xsd:anyURI
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The following example shows a value of type </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></span><span class="insert"> (see
-</span><span class="name"><a href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span><span class="insert">).
-The prefix </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex</span></span>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em> be <span class="delete">useful</span><span class="insert">bound</span> to <span class="delete">introduce </span>a <span class="delete">literal for</span><a><span class="insert">namespace</span></a><span class="insert"> declared in</span> a <span class="delete">qualified name?
-Currenlty, we have to write:
-</span><span class="delete">prov:type="ex:Programmer"  </span><a><span class="insert">namespace declaration</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-  "ex:value" </span>%% <span class="delete">xsd:QName</span><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span>
 </pre>
-<span class="delete">to indicate that ex:Programmer should</span><span class="insert">Alternatively, the same value can</span> be <span class="delete">interpreted as qualified name (QName).
-Instead, we could have a notation such as
-</span><span class="delete">prov:type='ex:Programmer'</span><span class="insert">expressed using the following convenience notation.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-  'ex:value'</span>
-</pre>
+<span class="delete">The following example shows a value of type </span><span class="delete">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="delete"> (see
+</span><span class="delete">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="delete">).
+The prefix </span><span class="delete">ex</span>  <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be bound to a </span><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="delete"> declared in a </span><span class="delete">namespace declaration</span><span class="delete">.</span>
+<span class="delete"> 
+  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
+</span><span class="delete">
+Alternatively, the same value can be expressed using the following convenience notation.
+</span><span class="delete"> 
+  'ex:value'
+</span>
 
 </div>
 
 
 
-
-
-
 <div id="expression-types" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.1</span> </span>Reserved Type Values</h5>
-
-<p>The  reserved type values in the PROV namespace are the following.</p>
+<h5><span class="secno">3.7.3.1 </span>Reserved Type Values</h5>
+
+<p>The  reserved type values in the PROV namespace are the following.<span class="insert">
+Their meaning is defined [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] (see </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.4: prov:type</span></a><span class="insert">).
+</span></p>
 
 <ol>
-<li>  <span class="name"><span class="delete">prov:Account</span><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyCollection</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Organization</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Person</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Plan</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:PrimarySource</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Quotation</span></span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Revision</span></span>
+<li>  <span class="name">prov:Bundle</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Collection</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Organization</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Person</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Plan</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Quotation</span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>
 </li><li>  <span class="name">prov:SoftwareAgent</span>
-</li>  <span class="delete">prov:Person</span>
-  <span class="delete">prov:Organization</span>
-  <span class="delete">prov:Plan</span>
-  <span class="delete">prov:Collection</span>
-  <span class="delete">prov:EmptyCollection</span>
-</ol>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-types" data-count="34"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-types"><span class="insert">Example 34</span></a></div>
-<p>The <span class="delete">entity</span><span class="insert">agent</span> <span class="name">ag</span> is a person (type: <span class="name">prov:Person</span>), whereas the entity 
+</li></ol>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-types"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-types">Example <span class="delete">34</span><span class="insert">38</span></a></div>
+<p>The agent <span class="name">ag</span> is a person (type: <span class="name">prov:Person</span>), whereas the entity 
 <span class="name">pl</span> is a plan (type: <span class="name">prov:Plan</span>).</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">agent(ag,[prov:type="prov:Person" %% xsd:QName])
-entity(pl,[prov:type="prov:Plan" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">agent(ag,  [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-entity(pl, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' ])</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">agent(ag,  [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+entity(pl, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' ])
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -3755,19 +2287,19 @@
 </div>
 
 <div id="expression-Time" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.2</span> </span>Time Values</h5>
-
-<p><dfn id="dfn-time">Time instants</dfn> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite>].</p> 
+<h5><span class="secno">3.7.3.2 </span>Time Values</h5>
+
+<p><dfn id="dfn-time">Time instants</dfn> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>].</p> 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-time" name="prod-time"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">49</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">time</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-ISODATETIME"><span class="insert">ISODATETIME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-DIGIT" name="prod-DIGIT"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">68</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">[0-9]</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-ISODATETIME" name="prod-ISODATETIME"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">69</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">ISODATETIME</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "-" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "-" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "T" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "." </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? )? )? ( "Z" | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-TIMEZONEOFFSET"><span class="insert">TIMEZONEOFFSET</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-TIMEZONEOFFSET" name="prod-TIMEZONEOFFSET"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">70</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">TIMEZONEOFFSET</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( "+" | "-" ) </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-time" name="prod-time"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">49</span><span class="insert">48</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">time</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><span class="delete">ISODATETIME</span>  
+  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">68</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">&lt;</span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete">&gt;</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">[0-9]</span>  
+  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">69</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">&lt;</span><span class="delete">ISODATETIME</span><span class="delete">&gt;</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> "-" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> "-" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> "T" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ":" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ":" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ( "." </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ( </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete">)? )? )? ( "Z" | </span><span class="delete">TIMEZONEOFFSET</span><span class="delete"> )?</span>  
+  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">70</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">&lt;</span><span class="delete">TIMEZONEOFFSET</span><span class="delete">&gt;</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( "+" | "-" ) </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ":" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nt-dateTimeRep"><span class="insert">DATETIME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-time" data-count="35"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-time"><span class="insert">Example 35</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-time"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-time">Example <span class="delete">35</span><span class="insert">39</span></a></div>
 
 <p>The third argument in the following usage expression is a time instance, namely 4pm on 2011-11-16.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
@@ -3786,59 +2318,84 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 
-
-
-
-
-
-
 <div id="expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.7.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespace Declaration</span></h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</h4>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclarations" name="prod-namespaceDeclarations"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">50</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ) (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></span><span class="insert">)*</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclaration" name="prod-namespaceDeclaration"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">51</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"prefix" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespace"><span class="insert">namespace</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespace" name="prod-namespace"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">53</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namespace</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" name="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">52</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"default" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclarations" name="prod-namespaceDeclarations"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">50</span><span class="insert">49</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namespaceDeclarations</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></span> ) (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></span>)*</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclaration" name="prod-namespaceDeclaration"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">51</span><span class="insert">50</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namespaceDeclaration</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"prefix" <span class="prod"><span class="delete">QUALIFIED_NAME</span><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespace">namespace</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" name="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">53</span><span class="insert">51</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"default" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespace" name="prod-namespace"></a>[<span class="prodNo">52</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span><span class="insert">namespace</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"default" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a><span class="insert"> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this declaration refers to this namespace. The scope of a namespace declaration is the </span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a><span class="insert"> or </span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></a><span class="insert"> in which it directly occurs.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">In PROV-N, the following prefixes are reserved:
-</span></p><ul>
-<li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov</span></span><span class="insert">  denotes the PROV namespace with URI </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span></span></li>
-<li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd</span></span><span class="insert"> denotes the XML Schema namespace with URI  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></li>
+<p>A <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this declaration refers to this namespace. <span class="insert">
+A </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consists of a namespace. Every qualified name without prefix in the scope of this declaration refers to this namespace. Scope of a declaration is specified as follows:</span></p>
+<ul>
+<li> 
+The scope of a namespace declaration <span class="delete">is the </span><span class="insert">directly occurring in a </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a><span class="delete"> or </span></code><span class="insert"> is the </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> itself;</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">
+the scope of a namespace declaration directly occurring in a </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a><span class="delete"> in which</span></code><span class="insert"> is the </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> itself, except and </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code> it <span class="delete">directly occurs.</span><span class="insert">may contain.</span></li>
 </ul>
-<p><span class="insert">A PROV-N document </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><span class="insert">must not</span></em><span class="insert"> redeclare prefixes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace" data-count="36"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-namespace"><span class="insert">Example 36</span></a></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle
+
+<p><span class="insert">A set of namespace declarations </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><span class="insert">must not</span></em><span class="insert"> re-declare the same prefix.</span></p>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<p><span class="delete">In PROV-N, the following</span><span class="insert">A namespace declaration </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><span class="insert">must not</span></em><span class="insert"> declare</span> prefixes <span class="delete">are reserved:
+</span>
+  <span class="name">prov</span><span class="delete">  denotes the PROV namespace with URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>
+  <span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name">xsd</span><span class="delete"> denotes the XML Schema namespace with URI</span>  <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</span><span class="delete">.
+</span>
+
+<span class="delete">A PROV-N document </span><span class="delete">must not</span><span class="delete"> redeclare prefixes </span><span class="delete">prov</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">xsd</span><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert">(see </span><a href="#namespace-table"><span class="insert">Table 1</span></a><span class="insert"> for their IRI).</span></p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-namespace">Example <span class="delete">36</span><span class="insert">40</span></a></div>
+<p>The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes <span class="name">ex1</span> and <span class="name">ex2</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle
   default &lt;http://example.org/0/&gt;
   prefix ex1 &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
   prefix ex2 &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
 ...
 endBundle
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace-scope"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-namespace-scope"><span class="insert">Example 41</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">In the following example, a toplevel bundle declares a default namespace and the occurrence of
+</span><code><span class="insert">e001</span></code><span class="insert"> directly occurring in the toplevel bundle refers to that namespace.
+A nested named bundle also declares a default namespace, but with a different IRI.
+In that named bundle, the occurrences of
+</span><code><span class="insert">e001</span></code><span class="insert">, including for the bundle name, refer to the latest default namespace.</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle
+  default &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
+  entity(e001)                             // IRI: http://example.org/1/e001
+
+  bundle e001                              // IRI: http://example.org/2/e001
+    default &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
+    entity(e001)                           // IRI: http://example.org/2/e001
+  endBundle
+endBundle
 </span></pre>
 </div>
 
 
 
+
 </div>
 
 
@@ -3856,58 +2413,65 @@
 
 
 <div id="toplevelBundle" class="section">
-<h2><span class="secno">4. </span><span class="delete">Expression Container</span><span class="insert">Toplevel Bundle</span></h2>
-
-<p><span class="delete">An </span><span class="delete">expression container</span><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-toplevel-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></dfn> is a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N <a title="expression">expressions</a> and namespace declarations.  <span class="delete">An expression container</span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle</span> forms a self-contained package of provenance descriptions for the purpose of <em>exchanging</em> them.  <span class="delete">An expression container</span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle</span> may be used
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Toplevel Bundle</h2>
+
+<p>A <dfn id="dfn-toplevel-bundle">toplevel bundle</dfn> is a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N <a title="expression">expressions</a> and namespace declarations.  A toplevel bundle forms a self-contained package of provenance descriptions for the purpose of <em>exchanging</em> them.  A toplevel bundle may be used
  to  package up PROV-N <a title="record">expressions</a> in response to a request for the provenance of something ([<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]).</p>
 
-<p> Given its status of house keeping construct for the purpose of exchanging provenance expressions,  <span class="delete">an</span><span class="insert">a toplevel bundle is not defined as a PROV-N</span> expression <span class="delete">container is not defined as a PROV-N </span><span class="insert">(production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression<span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">production </span><span class="delete">expression</span></a></code>).</p> 
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">An expression container,</span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle,</span> written <span class="name"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span> decls   exprs <span class="delete">endContainer</span><span class="insert">bundles endBundle</span></span> in PROV-N, contains:
-</p><ul>
-<li><em>namespaceDeclarations</em>: a set <span class="name">decls</span> of namespace declarations, declaring namespaces and associated prefixes, which can be used in <a title="attribute">attributes</a> and  <a title="identifier">identifiers</a> occurring inside  <span class="name">exprs</span>;</li>
-<li><em>expressions</em>:  a non-empty set of expressions <span class="name">exprs</span><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert">;</span></li>
-<li><em><span class="insert">namedBundles</span></em><span class="insert">:  a  set of </span><a href="#expression-bundle-declaration"><span class="insert">bundle declarations</span></a> <span class="name"><span class="insert">bundles</span></span><span class="insert">;</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-<p><span class="delete">An </span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle's text matches the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></a><span class="insert"> production.</span></code></p>
+<p> Given its status of house keeping construct for the purpose of exchanging provenance expressions,  a toplevel bundle is not defined as a PROV-N expression (production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></code>).</p> 
+
+
+ 
+
+
+
+
+
+<p>A toplevel <span class="delete">bundle, written </span><span class="insert">bundle's text matches the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">bundle<span class="delete"> decls exprs bundles endBundle</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production.</span></p>
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bundle" name="prod-bundle"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">1</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">bundle</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"bundle" (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression<span class="delete"> container's text matches the </span><span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> production.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> ::=  
-</span><span class="delete">container</span> 
-<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span> 
- <span class="delete">expression</span> 
-<span class="delete">endContainer</span> 
-</a></span><span class="insert">)* (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "endBundle"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bundle" name="prod-bundle"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">1</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">bundle</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"bundle" (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "endBundle"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_37" data-count="37"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_37"><span class="insert">Example 37</span></a></div>
-
-
-
+<p><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle</span> contains:
+</p><ul>
+<li><em>namespaceDeclarations</em>: a set <span class="delete">decls</span> of namespace <span class="delete">declarations,</span><span class="insert">declarations </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></code><span class="insert">,</span> declaring namespaces and associated prefixes, which can be used in <a title="attribute">attributes</a> and  <a title="identifier">identifiers</a> occurring inside  <span class="name">exprs</span>;</li>
+<li><em>expressions</em>:  a <span class="delete">non-empty </span>set of expressions <span class="delete">exprs</span><span class="insert">matching </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code>;</li>
+<li><em>namedBundles</em>:  a  set of <span class="delete">bundle declarations</span> <span class="delete">bundles</span><span class="delete">;</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">A toplevel bundle's text matches the </span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete"> production.</span>
+
+
+  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">1</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">bundle</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"bundle" (</span><span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span><span class="delete">)? (</span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">)* (</span>
+<code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a><span class="delete">)* "endBundle"</span>  
+</code><span class="insert">.</span></li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">Thus, named bundles can occur inside a toplevel bundle. 
+Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that named bundle. In other words, named bundles do not inherit namespaces declarations from the toplevel bundle.
+</span></p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_42"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_42">Example <span class="delete">37</span><span class="insert">42</span></a></div>
 <p>
-The following container contains expressions related to the provenance of entity 
+The following <span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span> contains expressions related to the provenance of entity 
 <span class="name">e2</span>.
 </p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle
-  default &lt;http://anotherexample.org/&gt;</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle
+  default &lt;http://anotherexample.org/&gt;
   prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
 
   entity(e2, [ prov:type="File", ex:path="/shared/crime.txt", ex:creator="Alice", 
                ex:content="There was a lot of crime in London last month."])
-  activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, -,[prov:type="edit"])
+  activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, <span class="delete">-,[prov:type="edit"])</span><span class="insert">-, [prov:type="edit"])</span>
   wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
   wasAssociatedWith(a1, ag2, -, [prov:role="author"])
-  agent(ag2, [ <span class="delete">prov:type="prov:Person" %% xsd:QName,</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Person' ,</span> ex:name="Bob" ])
-
-<span class="delete">endContainer</span><span class="insert">endBundle</span>
+  agent(ag2, [ <span class="delete">prov:type='prov:Person' ,</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Person',</span> ex:name="Bob" ])
+
+endBundle
 </pre>
 <p>This container could for instance be returned as the result of a query to a provenance store for the provenance of entity <span class="name">e2</span> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>].  
 </p>
@@ -3921,139 +2485,102 @@
 
 
 
+<div id="extensibility" class="section">
+<h2><span class="secno">5. </span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></h2>
+
+<p><span class="insert">The PROV data model is extensible by means of attributes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></span><span class="insert"> allowing subtyping of expressions.  For some applications, novel  syntax may also be convenient. Hence, the normative requirements are as follow.
+</span></p><ul>
+<li><span class="insert"> PROV-N compliant parsers </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be able to parse expressions matching the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production defined below.
+</span></li><li><span class="insert"> As PROV provides no definition for these expressions, PROV compliant implementations 
+ </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> ignore these expressions.</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert"> Extensions to PROV and PROV-N </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> specify more specific productions and interpretations for these expressions, which applications </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> adopt to follow. </span></li>
+</ul>
+<p></p>
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityExpression" name="prod-extensibilityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">53</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityArgument" name="prod-extensibilityArgument"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">54</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal"><span class="insert">literal</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time"><span class="insert">time</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityTuple"><span class="insert">extensibilityTuple</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityTuple" name="prod-extensibilityTuple"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">55</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityTuple</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"{" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* "}"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Expressions compatible with the
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production follow a general form of functional syntax, in which the predicate </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">qualifiedName</span></a></code><span class="insert">
+with a non-empty </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">prefix</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_43"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_43"><span class="insert">Example 43</span></a></div>
+<p>
+<a href="#component6"><span class="insert">Collections</span></a><span class="insert"> are sets of entities, whose membership can be expressed using the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">hadMembers</span></span><span class="insert"> relation.  The following example shows how one can express membership for an extension of Collections, namely sets of key-value pairs. The notation is a variation of that used for Collections membership, in which the elements of the set are pairs. The name of the relation is qualified with the extension-specific namespace </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">http://example.org/dictionaries</span></span><span class="insert">.
+</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  prefix dictExt &lt;http://example.org/dictionaries&gt;
+  dictExt:hadMembers(mId; d, {(k1,e1), (k2,e2), (k3,e3)}, []) 
+</span></pre><span class="insert">
+
+Note that the generic </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production  above allows for alternative notations to be used for expressing membership, if the designers of the extensions so desire. Here is an alternate syntax that is consistent with the productions:
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  prefix dictExt &lt;http://example.org/dictionaries&gt;
+  dictExt:hadMembers(mid; d, dictExt:set(dictExt:pair(k1,e1), dictExt:pair(k2,e2), dictExt:pair(k3,e3), [dictExt:uniqueKeys="true"]) 
+</span></pre>
+
+  
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+
+
 <div id="media-type" class="section">
-<h2><span class="secno">5. </span><span class="delete">Account</span>
-
-<span class="delete">The PROV data model has introduced a notion of account by which a set of provenance descriptions can be bundled up and named.  The PROV data model </span><span class="delete">assumes</span><span class="delete"> the existence of mechanisms to implement accounts, but such mechanisms remain outside its scope.  It is suggested that specific serializations may offer solutions to name bundles of descriptions. </span>
-
-<span class="delete">Given that the primary motivation for PROV-N is to provide a notation aimed at human consumption, it is therefore appropriate to introduce a notation for accounts, which would include an account name and a bundle of expressions.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">An account, written </span><span class="delete">account(id, exprs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N, contains:</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">: an identifier  that identifies this account;</span>
-<span class="delete">expressions</span><span class="delete">: a set </span><span class="delete">exprs</span><span class="delete"> of expressions;</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">In PROV-N, an account's text matches the </span><span class="delete">accountExpression</span><span class="delete"> production of the grammar.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">accountExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
-</span><span class="delete">account</span> 
-<span class="delete">(</span> 
-<span class="delete">identifier</span> 
-<span class="delete">,</span> 
-
-<span class="delete">expression</span> 
-<span class="delete">)</span> 
-
-
-<span class="delete">It is also useful to package up one or more account expressions in an expression container, for interchange purpose. Hence,  </span><span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> is revised as follows. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> ::=  
-</span><span class="delete">container</span> 
-<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span> 
- <span class="delete">expression</span> 
-<span class="delete">endContainer</span>   <span class="delete">
-| </span><span class="delete">container</span> 
-<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span> 
- <span class="delete">accountExpression</span> 
-<span class="delete">endContainer</span>  
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-The following container </span>
-<span class="delete">container
-  prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
-
-  account(ex:acc1,...)
-  account(ex:acc2,...)
-endContainer
-</span>
-<span class="delete"> illustrates how two accounts with identifiers </span><span class="delete">ex:acc1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex:acc2</span><span class="delete"> can be returned in a PROV-N serialization of the provenance of
-something.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-The following container </span>
-<span class="delete">container
-  prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
-  ...
-
-  account(ex:acc1,
-      entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type="pr:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName ])
-      entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="pr:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName ])
-      ...
-      wasAssociatedWith(ex:pub2, w3:Consortium, pr:rec-advance))
-
-  account(ex:acc2,
-      entity(ex:acc1, [prov:type="prov:Account" %% xsd:QName ])
-      wasAttributedTo(ex1:acc1, w3:Consortium))
-
-endContainer
-</span>
-<span class="delete"> illustrates a first account, with identifier </span><span class="delete">ex:acc1</span><span class="delete">, containing expressions describing the provenance  of the technical report </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete">, and a second account </span><span class="delete">ex:acc2</span><span class="delete">, describing the provenance of the first.  In account </span><span class="delete">ex:acc2</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">ex:acc1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of an entity of type </span><span class="delete">prov:Account</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">6. </span>Media Type</h2>
+<h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>Media Type</h2>
 
 <p>
-The media type of PROV-N is <span class="name">text/prov-n</span>. The content encoding of PROV-N content is UTF-8.
+The media type of PROV-N is <span class="name"><span class="delete">text/prov-n</span><span class="insert">text/provenance-notation</span></span>. The content encoding of PROV-N content is UTF-8.
 </p>
 
 <div class="note">
 <p>
 See <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype">http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype</a> for Register an Internet Media Type for a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Spec.</p>
-<span class="insert">Following text adapted from </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/#sec-mediaReg"><span class="insert">turtle</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></div>
-
-
+Following text adapted from <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/#sec-mediaReg">turtle</a>.
+</div>
 
 
  <dl> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Contact:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">Ivan Herman</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">See also:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype"><span class="insert">How to Register a Media Type for a </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> Specification</span></a></dd> 
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2002/0129-mime"><span class="insert">Internet Media Type registration, consistency of use</span></a><br><span class="insert">TAG Finding 3 June 2002 (Revised 4 September 2002)</span></dd> 
+      <dt>Contact:</dt> 
+      <dd>Ivan Herman</dd> 
+      <dt>See also:</dt> 
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype">How to Register a Media Type for a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Specification</a></dd> 
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2002/0129-mime">Internet Media Type registration, consistency of use</a><br>TAG Finding 3 June 2002 (Revised 4 September 2002)</dd> 
     </dl> 
-    <p><span class="insert">The Internet Media Type / MIME Type for PROV-N is "text/prov-n".</span></p> 
-    <p><span class="insert">It is recommended that PROV-N files have the extension ".pn" (all lowercase) on all platforms.</span></p> 
-    <p><span class="insert">It is recommended that PROV-N files stored on Macintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of "TEXT".</span></p> 
-    <p><span class="insert">This information that follows has been </span><a href="TBD"><span class="insert">submitted to the IESG</span></a><span class="insert"> for review, approval, and registration with IANA.</span></p> 
+    <p>The Internet Media Type / MIME Type for PROV-N is <span class="delete">"text/prov-n".</span><span class="insert">"text/provenance-notation".</span></p> 
+    <p>It is recommended that PROV-N files have the extension <span class="delete">".pn"</span><span class="insert">".provn"</span> (all lowercase) on all platforms.</p> 
+    <p>It is recommended that PROV-N files stored on Macintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of "TEXT".</p> 
+    <p>This information that follows has been <a href="TBD">submitted to the IESG</a> for review, approval, and registration with IANA.</p> 
     <dl> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Type name:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">text</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Subtype name:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">prov-n</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Required parameters:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">None</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Optional parameters:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><tt><span class="insert">charset</span></tt><span class="insert"> — this parameter is required when transferring non-ASCII data. If present, the value of </span><tt><span class="insert">charset</span></tt><span class="insert"> is always </span><tt><span class="insert">UTF-8</span></tt><span class="insert">.</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Encoding considerations:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">The syntax of PROV-N is expressed over code points in Unicode [</span><a href="#UNICODE"><span class="insert">UNICODE</span></a><span class="insert">]. The encoding is always UTF-8 [</span><a href="#rfc3629"><span class="insert">RFC3629</span></a><span class="insert">].</span></dd> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">Unicode code points may also be expressed using an \uXXXX (U+0 to U+FFFF) or \UXXXXXXXX syntax (for U+10000 onwards) where X is a hexadecimal digit [0-9A-F]</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Security considerations:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N is a general-purpose language for describing the provenance of things; applications may evaluate given data to infer more descriptions or to dereference URIs, invoking the security considerations of the scheme for that URI. Note in particular, the privacy issues in [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023"><span class="insert">RFC3023</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] section 10 for HTTP URIs. Data obtained from an inaccurate or malicious data source may lead to inaccurate or misleading conclusions, as well as the dereferencing of unintended URIs. Care must be taken to align the trust in consulted resources with the sensitivity of the intended use of the data; inferences of potential medical treatments would likely require different trust than inferences for trip planning.</span></dd> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N is used to express arbitrary application data; security considerations will vary by domain of use. Security tools and protocols applicable to text (e.g. PGP encryption, MD5 sum validation, password-protected compression) may also be used on PROV-N documents. Security/privacy protocols must be imposed which reflect the sensitivity of the embedded information.</span></dd> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N can express data which is presented to the user, for example, label attributes. Application rendering strings retrieved from untrusted PROV-N documents must ensure that malignant strings may not be used to mislead the reader. The security considerations in the media type registration for XML ([</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023"><span class="insert">RFC3023</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] section 10) provide additional guidance around the expression of arbitrary data and markup.</span></dd> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N uses qualified names mappeable to IRIs as term identifiers. Applications interpreting data expressed in PROV-N should address the security issues of
-  </span><a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><span class="insert">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] Section 8, as well as
-  </span><a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><span class="insert">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986"><span class="insert">RFC3986</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] Section 7.</span></dd> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">Multiple IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may 
+      <dt>Type name:</dt> 
+      <dd>text</dd> 
+      <dt>Subtype name:</dt> 
+      <dd><span class="delete">prov-n</span><span class="insert">provenance-notation</span></dd> 
+      <dt>Required parameters:</dt> 
+      <dd>None</dd> 
+      <dt>Optional parameters:</dt> 
+      <dd><tt>charset</tt> — this parameter is required when transferring non-ASCII data. If present, the value of <tt>charset</tt> is always <tt>UTF-8</tt>.</dd> 
+      <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt> 
+      <dd>The syntax of PROV-N is expressed over code points in Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE5">UNICODE5</a></cite>]. The encoding is always UTF-8 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UTF-8">UTF-8</a></cite>].</dd> 
+      <dd>Unicode code points may also be expressed using an \uXXXX (U+0 to U+FFFF) or \UXXXXXXXX syntax (for U+10000 onwards) where X is a hexadecimal digit [0-9A-F]</dd> 
+      <dt>Security considerations:</dt> 
+      <dd>PROV-N is a general-purpose language for describing the provenance of things; applications may evaluate given data to infer more descriptions or to dereference URIs, invoking the security considerations of the scheme for that URI. Note in particular, the privacy issues in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023">RFC3023</a></cite>] section 10 for HTTP URIs. Data obtained from an inaccurate or malicious data source may lead to inaccurate or misleading conclusions, as well as the dereferencing of unintended URIs. Care must be taken to align the trust in consulted resources with the sensitivity of the intended use of the data; inferences of potential medical treatments would likely require different trust than inferences for trip planning.</dd> 
+      <dd>PROV-N is used to express <span class="insert">the provenance of </span>arbitrary application data; security considerations will vary by domain of use. Security tools and protocols applicable to text (e.g. PGP encryption, MD5 sum validation, password-protected compression) may also be used on PROV-N documents. Security/privacy protocols must be imposed which reflect the sensitivity of the embedded information.  </dd> 
+      <dd>PROV-N can express data which is presented to the user, for example, label attributes. Application rendering strings retrieved from untrusted PROV-N documents must ensure that malignant strings may not be used to mislead the reader. The security considerations in the media type registration for XML ([<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023">RFC3023</a></cite>] section 10) provide additional guidance around the expression of arbitrary data and markup.</dd> 
+      <dd>PROV-N <span class="insert">is a language for describing the provenance of things, and therefore a PROV-N document is metadata for other resources.  Untrusted PROV-N documents may mislead its consumers by indicating that a third-party resource has a reputable lineage, when it has not. Provenance of PROV-N document should be sought. </span></dd>
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N </span>uses qualified names mappeable to IRIs as term identifiers. Applications interpreting data expressed in PROV-N should address the security issues of
+  <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>] Section 8, as well as
+  <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>] Section 7.</dd> 
+      <dd>Multiple IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may 
 look similar (a Cyrillic "о" may appear similar to a Latin "o"). A character followed 
 by combining characters may have the same visual representation as another character 
 (LATIN SMALL LETTER E followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT has the same visual representation 
@@ -4061,35 +2588,36 @@
  
 Any person or application that is writing or interpreting data in PROV-N must take care to use the IRI that matches the intended semantics, and avoid IRIs that make look similar.
 Further information about matching of similar characters can be found 
-in </span><a class="inform" href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><span class="insert">Unicode Security 
-Considerations</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNISEC"><span class="insert">UNISEC</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] and
-</span><a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><span class="insert">Internationalized Resource 
-Identifiers (IRIs)</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] Section 8.
-</span></dd> 
+in <a class="inform" href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">Unicode Security 
+Considerations</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNISEC">UNISEC</a></cite>] and
+<a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource 
+Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>] Section 8.
+</dd> 
  
-      <dt><span class="insert">Interoperability considerations:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">There are no known interoperability issues.</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Published specification:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">This specification.</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Applications which use this media type:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">No widely deployed applications are known to use this media type. It may be used by some web services and clients consuming their data.</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Additional information:</span></dt> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Magic number(s):</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N documents may have the strings 'bundle' near the beginning of the document.</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">File extension(s):</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">".pn"</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Base URI:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">None</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Macintosh file type code(s):</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">"TEXT"</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">Ivan Herman, [email protected]</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Intended usage:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">COMMON</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Restrictions on usage:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">None</span></dd> 
-      <dt><span class="insert">Author/Change controller:</span></dt> 
-      <dd><span class="insert">The PROV-N specification is the product of Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier. A </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> Working Group may assume maintenance of this document; </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> reserves change control over this specifications.</span></dd> 
+      <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt> 
+      <dd>There are no known interoperability issues.</dd> 
+      <dt>Published specification:</dt> 
+      <dd><span class="delete">This specification.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation, Moreau and Missier, eds,
+      </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span></a></dd> 
+      <dt>Applications which use this media type:</dt> 
+      <dd>No widely deployed applications are known to use this media type. It may be used by some web services and clients consuming their data.</dd> 
+      <dt>Additional information:</dt> 
+      <dt>Magic number(s):</dt> 
+      <dd>PROV-N documents may have the strings 'bundle' near the beginning of the document.</dd> 
+      <dt>File extension(s):</dt> 
+      <dd><span class="delete">".pn"</span><span class="insert">".provn"</span></dd> 
+      <dt>Base URI:</dt> 
+      <dd><span class="delete">None</span><span class="insert">There are no constructs in the PROV-N Syntax to change the Base IRI.</span></dd> 
+      <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt> 
+      <dd>"TEXT"</dd> 
+      <dt>Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</dt> 
+      <dd><span class="delete">Ivan Herman, [email protected]</span><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></dd> 
+      <dt>Intended usage:</dt> 
+      <dd>COMMON</dd> 
+      <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt> 
+      <dd>None</dd> 
+      <dt>Author/Change controller:</dt> 
+      <dd>The PROV-N specification is the product of <span class="delete">Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier. A</span><span class="insert">the World Wide Web Consortium's PROV Working Group. The</span> <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Working Group may assume maintenance of</span><span class="insert">has change control over</span> this <span class="delete">document; </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> reserves change control over this specifications.</span><span class="insert">specification.</span></dd> 
     </dl> 
  
 </div>
@@ -4100,22 +2628,14 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
 <div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements"> 
       <h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
-      <p><span class="delete"> 
-        WG membership to be listed here.
-      </span><span class="insert"> 
+      <p> 
 
 This  document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. 
-      </span></p> 
-     
-
-<p><span class="insert">
+      </p> 
+
+<p>
 Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
 
 Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
@@ -4139,9 +2659,9 @@
 Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
 Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
 David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
-Sandro Hawke (</span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert">/</span><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology"><span class="insert">MIT</span></acronym><span class="insert">),
+Sandro Hawke (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym>),
 Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
-Ivan Herman, (</span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert">/</span><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics"><span class="insert">ERCIM</span></acronym><span class="insert">),
+Ivan Herman, (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym>),
 Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
 Hook Hua (Invited expert),
 Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
@@ -4175,28 +2695,30 @@
 Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
 Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
 Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
-</span></p>
+</p>
 
     </div> 
 
 
  
 <div id="references" class="appendix section"><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-IRI">[IRI]</dt><dd>M. Duerst, M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
-</dd><span class="delete">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</span><dt id="bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">[RDF-SPARQL-QUERY]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. </span><span class="insert">Andy Seaborne; Eric Prud'hommeaux. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115"><cite><span class="delete">Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</span><span class="insert">SPARQL Query Language for RDF.</span></cite></a> <span class="delete">10 February 2004.</span><span class="insert">15 January 2008.</span> W3C Recommendation. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</span> 
-<span class="delete">[RDFA-CORE]</span><span class="delete">Shane McCarron; et al. </span><span class="delete">RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</span><span class="delete"> 13 March 2012. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-rdfa-core-20120313/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">[RDF-SPARQL-QUERY]</dt><dd>Andy Seaborne; Eric Prud'hommeaux. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115"><cite>SPARQL Query Language for RDF.</cite></a> 15 January 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115</a> 
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3023"><span class="insert">[RFC3023]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">M. Murata; S. St.Laurent; D. Kohn. </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><cite><span class="insert">XML Media Types</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> January 2001. Internet RFC 3023. URL: </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><span class="insert">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</span></a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986"><span class="insert">[RFC3986]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite><span class="insert">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><span class="insert">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3023">[RFC3023]</dt><dd>M. Murata; S. St.Laurent; D. Kohn. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><cite>XML Media Types</cite></a> January 2001. Internet RFC 3023. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd>M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
 </dd><dt id="bib-URI">[URI]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): generic syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-UTF-8">[UTF-8]</dt><dd>F. Yergeau. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt"><cite>UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</cite></a>. IETF RFC 3629. November 2003. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XML-NAMES">[XML-NAMES]</dt><dd>Richard Tobin; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/"><cite>Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition).</cite></a> 8 December 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/</a> 
-</dd><span class="delete">[XMLSCHEMA-2]</span><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Paul V. Biron; Ashok Malhotra. </span><span class="insert">Henry S. Thompson; et al. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite><span class="insert">W3C </span>XML Schema <span class="insert">Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 </span>Part 2: <span class="delete">Datatypes Second Edition.</span><span class="insert">Datatypes.</span></cite></a> <span class="delete">28 October 2004.</span><span class="insert">5 April 2012.</span> W3C <span class="delete">Recommendation.</span><span class="insert">Recommendation</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML11"><span class="insert">[XML11]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Eve Maler; et al. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><cite><span class="insert">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 (Second Edition).</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> 16 August 2006. W3C Recommendation. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</dt><dd>Henry S. Thompson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite>W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes.</cite></a> 5 April 2012. W3C Recommendation URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</a> 
 </dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne and Paul Groth (eds.) Luc Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame, and Simon Miles <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 2011, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.)<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/"><cite>Constraints of the Prov Data Model</cite></a>. 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Reza B'Far, Stephen Cresswell, Yolanda Gil, Paul Groth, Graham Klyne, Jim McCusker, Simon Miles, James Myers, Satya Sahoo, and Curt Tilmes<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-RDF">[PROV-RDF]</dt><dd>James Cheney<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvRDF"><cite>PROV-RDF Mapping </cite></a>2012, Working in Progress. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvRDF">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvRDF</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-SEM">[PROV-SEM]</dt><dd>James Cheney <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman"><cite>Formal Semantics Strawman</cite></a>. 2011, Work in progress. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>James Cheney<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvXML"><cite>PROV-XML Mapping </cite></a>2012, Working in Progress. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvXML">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvXML</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-UNISEC"><span class="insert">[UNISEC]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert"> Mark Davis and Michel Suignard. </span><a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><cite><span class="insert">Unicode Security Considerations</span><cite></cite></cite></a><span class="insert">.  4 August 2010. URL: </span><a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/" http:="" www.unicode.org="" reports="" tr36="" <="" a="">
-</a></dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
-
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE5">[UNICODE5]</dt><dd>The Unicode Consortium. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/"><cite>The Unicode Standard, Version 5.1.0.</cite></a> Addison-Wesley. 2007. ISBN 0-321-48091-0. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/">http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNISEC">[UNISEC]</dt><dd> Mark Davis and Michel Suignard. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><cite>Unicode Security Considerations<cite></cite></cite></a>.  4 August 2010. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/</a>
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
+
--- a/model/diff/Makefile	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/model/diff/Makefile	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
 	htmldiff ../releases/ED-prov-dm-20120628/prov-dm.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
 
 n.diff:
-	htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-n-20120503/Overview.html prov-n.html > ../diff-n.html
+#	htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-n-20120503/Overview.html prov-n.html > ../diff-n.html
+	htmldiff ../releases/ED-prov-n-20120629/prov-n.html prov-n.html > ../diff-n.html
 
 
--- a/model/grammar/yack/prov-n-LL.bnf	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/model/grammar/yack/prov-n-LL.bnf	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -5,16 +5,13 @@
 
 
 [2] expression::=
-        (   
-
-           entityExpression | activityExpression | generationExpression  | usageExpression
+        ( entityExpression | activityExpression | generationExpression  | usageExpression
          | startExpression | endExpression | invalidationExpression | communicationExpression 
         | agentExpression |  associationExpression | attributionExpression | delegationExpression
         | derivationExpression | influenceExpression
         | alternateExpression | specializationExpression | mentionExpression | membershipExpression 
        | extensibilityExpression
-        | insertionExpression | removalExpression | dictMembershipExpression
-        )
+        | insertionExpression | removalExpression | dictMembershipExpression )
 
 
 [3] entityExpression::=	"entity" "(" identifier optionalAttributeValuePairs ")"
--- a/model/prov-n.html	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/model/prov-n.html	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -461,7 +461,7 @@
 <table border="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
 <caption id="namespace-table">Table 1: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption>
 <tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see Section <a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration">4.7.1</a>)</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see Section <a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration">3.7.4</a>)</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]]</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br/> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br/> some application-dependent URI [[!URI]]</td></tr>
 </table>
@@ -477,17 +477,37 @@
 <section id="functional-syntax"> 
 <h3>Functional-style Syntax</h3>
 
-<p> PROV-N adopts a functional-style syntax consisting of a predicate name and an ordered list of terms.
+<p> PROV-N adopts a functional-style syntax consisting of a predicate name and an ordered list of terms.</p>
+
+<p>
+All PROV data model types have an identifier. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it. </p>
+<div class="anexample">
+<p>The following expression should be read as "entity <span class="name">e1</span>". 
+<pre class="codeexample" >
+entity(e1)
+</pre>
+  </div>
+<div class="anexample">
+<p>The following expression should be read as "activity <span class="name">a2</span>, which occurred
+between <code>2011-11-16T16:00:00</code> and <code>2011-11-16T16:00:01</code>". 
+<pre class="codeexample" >
+entity(e1)
+activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+</pre>
+  </div>
+
+<p>
 All PROV data model relations involve two primary elements, the <em>subject</em> and the <em>object</em>, in this order. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it.
 <div class="anexample">
-The following expression should be read as "<span class="name">e2</span> was derived from <span class="name">e1</span>". Here <span class="name">e2</span> is the subject, and  <span class="name">e1</span> is the object.
+<p>The following expression should be read as "<span class="name">e2</span> was derived from <span class="name">e1</span>". Here <span class="name">e2</span> is the subject, and  <span class="name">e1</span> is the object.
 <pre class="codeexample" >
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 </pre>
   </div>
   
 <div class="anexample">
-In the following expressions, the optional activity <span class="name">a</span> along with the generation and usage identifiers <span class="name">g2</span> and <span class="name">u1</span>:
+<p>The following expression expands the above derivation relation by providing
+additional elements the optional activity <span class="name">a</span>, the generation <span class="name">g2</span>, and the usage <span class="name">u1</span>:
 <pre class="codeexample" >
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 </pre>
@@ -639,7 +659,8 @@
 </table>
 
 
-Each expression non-terminal <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a>, i.e., <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a>,  <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a> etc., corresponds to one element (entity, activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
+<p>Each of the symbols included in <code>expression</code> above, i.e., <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></code>,  <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></code> etc., corresponds to one element (e.g., entity, activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.</p>
+
 <p>A PROV-N document consists of a collection of <a title="expression">expressions</a>, wrapped in a <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a> with some namespace declarations, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a> production of the grammar.
 
 </section>
@@ -692,10 +713,11 @@
 <section id="prov-n-standard-terms"> 
 <h3>Identifiers and attributes</h3>
 
-<p>Most expressions defined in the grammar include the use of two terms: an identifier and a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression. By convention, </em>optional</em> identifiers are separated using a semi-colon ';'. This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set of attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</p>
+<p>Almost all expressions defined in the grammar include an identifier. Most expressions
+can aslo include a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression.  </em>Optional</em> identifiers MUST be separated using a semi-colon ';', but where the identifiers are required, a regular comma ',' MUST be used. This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set of attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</p>
 
 <div class="anexample">
-<p>Derivation has an optional identifier. In the first expression, the identifier is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the <span class="name">-</span> marker.</p>
+<p>Derivation has an optional identifier. In the first expression, the identifier is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the <span class="name">-</span> marker. This is equivalent to the first expression. </p>
 <pre class="codeexample" >
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1)
@@ -708,7 +730,7 @@
 <!-- Expressions with no attributes A distinction is made between expressions with no attributes, and expressions that include an empty list of attributes.  -->
 
 <div class="anexample">
-<p>The first and second activities have no attributes.
+<p>The first and second activities have no attributes, and are equivalent.
 <!-- does not have any attributes. The second has an empty list of attributes. -->
 The third activity  has two attributes. 
 <pre class="codeexample" >
@@ -932,8 +954,8 @@
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
   
 <pre class="codeexample">
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-wasGeneratedBy(e, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
 wasGeneratedBy(e2, [ex:fct="save"])     
 wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
@@ -941,7 +963,7 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class='attribute'>activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> MUST be present.</p>
+<p><strong>Note:</strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class='attribute'>activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> MUST be present.</p>
 
 
 
@@ -1123,7 +1145,7 @@
 </div>
 
 <p><strong>Note:</strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasStartedBy(e2, -, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasStartedBy(-; e2, -, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class='attribute'>trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class='attribute'>starter</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> MUST be present.</p>
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class='attribute'>trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class='attribute'>starter</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> MUST be present (as per [[PROV-DM]]).</p>
 
 </section>
 
@@ -1410,7 +1432,7 @@
   </pre>
 <p>Here, the derivation from
 <a href="#anexample-derivation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>
-is extended with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>.
+is extended with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>.  The expression <code>'prov:Revision'</code> is <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation">convenienceNotation</a></code> to denote a <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code> literal (See  <a href="#expression-literal">Section 3.7.3. Literal</a>).
 </div>
 
 
@@ -1764,22 +1786,32 @@
 <section id="component4"> 
 <h3>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
 
-<section id="expression-bundle-declaration"> 
-<h4>Bundle Declaration</h4>
+<section id="expression-bundle-constructor"> 
+<h4>Bundle Constructor</h4>
 
 <table class="grammar">
 <tbody class="grammar-ref" data-ref="prod-namedBundle"></tbody>
 </table>
 
+<p>Named bundles cannot be nested because <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code> is not an <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></code>, and therefore cannot occurs inside another <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code>.</p>
+
+<p>Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, MUST be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that bundle. In other words, for every identifier with a prefix <code>p</code> within a named bundle, there MUST be a namespace declaration for <code>p</code> in this named bundled; for every identifier  without prefix, there MUST be a default namespace declaration  in this named bundled.</p>
+
 <div class="anexample">
     <pre class="codeexample">
 bundle ex:author-view
+  prefix ex  &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
   agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
   agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  ...
+  //...
 endBundle
   </pre>
-<p> Here  <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is the name of the bundle.
+<p> Here  <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is the name of the bundle. 
+</p>
+
+
+
+
 </div>
 
 </section>
@@ -2023,23 +2055,26 @@
 
 <div class="anexample">
     <pre class="codeexample">
-   hadMembers(mId, c, {e1, e2, e3}, [])   // Collection membership
+   hadMembers(mId, c, {e1, e2, e3}, true, [prov:label="A beautiful collection"])   // Collection membership
   </pre>
 <p>  Here
     <span class="name">mId</span> is the optional membership identifier,
   <span class="name">c</span> is the  identifier for the collection whose membership is stated,
   <span class="name"> {e1, e2, e3}</span> is the entity-set indicating the members of 
   <span class="name">c</span>,
-    and <span class="name">[]</span> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </p>  
+    <span class="name">true</span> is the complete flag indicating that the collection member is believed to be closed,
+    and <span class="name">[prov:label="A beautiful collection"]</span> is the optional set of attributes. </p>  
+
+<p>
 In the remaining examples,  some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 <pre class="codeexample">
 hadMembers(c3, {e1})
-hadMembers(c3, {e1,e2})     // default "complete" flag is false
+hadMembers(c3, {e1,e2})     
 hadMembers(c3, {e1,e2}, false)
 hadMembers(c3, {e1,e2}, true)
-hadMembers(c3, ,[])  
-hadMembers(c3, ,true, [])  
+hadMembers(c3, {}, [])  
+hadMembers(c3, {}, true, [])  // c3 is effectively of type EmptyCollection
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -2292,7 +2327,9 @@
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The  reserved attributes in the PROV namespace are the following.</p>
+<p>The  reserved attributes in the PROV namespace are the following.
+Their meaning is explained by [[PROV-DM]] (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-attribute">Section 5.7.2: Attribute</a>).
+</p>
 
 <ol>
 <li>  <span class="name">prov:label</span>
@@ -2360,6 +2397,32 @@
 <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code>. 
 </p>
 
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-convenience">
+<p>
+The following examples illustrate convenience notations.</p>
+
+<p>The two following expressions are strings; if <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype</a></code> is not specified, it is <code>xsd:string</code>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+  "abc" %% xsd:string
+  "abc"
+</pre>
+
+
+<p>The two following expressions are integers. For convenience, numbers, expressed as digits optionally preceded by a minus sign, can occur without quotes.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+  "1234" %% xsd:integer
+  1234
+  "-1234" %% xsd:integer
+  -1234
+</pre>
+
+<p>The two following expressions are qualified names. Values of type qualified name can be conveniently expressed within single quotes.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
+  'ex:value'
+</pre>
+</div>
+
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-value">
 <p>
 The following examples respectively are the string "abc", the string (in French) "bonjour", the integer number 1, and the IRI "http://example.org/foo".
@@ -2369,17 +2432,6 @@
   "1" %% xsd:integer
   "http://example.org/foo" %% xsd:anyURI
 </pre>
-<p>The following example shows a value of type <span class="name">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span> (see
-<span class="name"><a href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span>).
-The prefix <span class="name">ex</span>  MUST be bound to a <a>namespace</a> declared in a <a>namespace declaration</a>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
-</pre>
-Alternatively, the same value can be expressed using the following convenience notation.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  'ex:value'
-</pre>
-
 </div>
 
 
@@ -2387,7 +2439,9 @@
 <section id="expression-types">
 <h4>Reserved Type Values</h4>
 
-<p>The  reserved type values in the PROV namespace are the following.</p>
+<p>The  reserved type values in the PROV namespace are the following.
+Their meaning is defined [[PROV-DM]] (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.2.4: prov:type</a>).
+</p>
 
 <ol>
 <li>  <span class="name">prov:Bundle</span>
@@ -2457,17 +2511,20 @@
 
 </table>
 
-<p>A <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this declaration refers to this namespace. The scope of a namespace declaration is the <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a> or <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a> in which it directly occurs.</p>
-
-<p>A PROV-N document MUST not re-declare the same prefix.</p>
-
-<p>In PROV-N, the following prefixes are reserved:
+<p>A <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this declaration refers to this namespace.
+A <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</a></code> consists of a namespace. Every qualified name without prefix in the scope of this declaration refers to this namespace. Scope of a declaration is specified as follows:</p>
 <ul>
-<li>  <span class="name">prov</span>  denotes the PROV namespace with URI <span class="name">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span></li>
-<li>  <span class="name">xsd</span> denotes the XML Schema namespace with URI  <span class="name">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</span>.
-</li>
+<li> 
+The scope of a namespace declaration directly occurring in a <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code> is the <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code> itself;</li>
+<li>
+the scope of a namespace declaration directly occurring in a <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a></code> is the <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a></code> itself, except and <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code> it may contain.</li>
 </ul>
-<p>A PROV-N document MUST NOT redeclare prefixes <span class="name">prov</span> and <span class="name">xsd</span>.</p>
+
+<p>A set of namespace declarations <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations">namespaceDeclarations</a></code> MUST NOT re-declare the same prefix.</p>
+
+<p>A namespace declaration <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code> MUST NOT declare prefixes <span class="name">prov</span> and <span class="name">xsd</span>  (see <a href="#namespace-table">Table 1</a> for their IRI).</p>
+
+
 
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace">
 <p>The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes <span class="name">ex1</span> and <span class="name">ex2</span>.</p>
@@ -2482,6 +2539,27 @@
 </div>
 
 
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace-scope">
+<p>In the following example, a toplevel bundle declares a default namespace and the occurrence of
+<code>e001</code> directly occurring in the toplevel bundle refers to that namespace.
+A nested named bundle also declares a default namespace, but with a different IRI.
+In that named bundle, the occurrences of
+<code>e001</code>, including for the bundle name, refer to the latest default namespace.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+bundle
+  default &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
+  entity(e001)                             // IRI: http://example.org/1/e001
+
+  bundle e001                              // IRI: http://example.org/2/e001
+    default &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
+    entity(e001)                           // IRI: http://example.org/2/e001
+  endBundle
+endBundle
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
 
 </section>
 
@@ -2508,13 +2586,8 @@
 <p> Given its status of house keeping construct for the purpose of exchanging provenance expressions,  a toplevel bundle is not defined as a PROV-N expression (production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></code>).</p> 
 
 
-<p>A toplevel bundle, written <span class="name">bundle decls exprs bundles endBundle</span> in PROV-N, contains:
-<ul>
-<li><em>namespaceDeclarations</em>: a set <span class="name">decls</span> of namespace declarations, declaring namespaces and associated prefixes, which can be used in <a
-title="attribute">attributes</a> and  <a title="identifier">identifiers</a> occurring inside  <span class="name">exprs</span>;</li>
-<li><em>expressions</em>:  a non-empty set of expressions <span class="name">exprs</span>;</li>
-<li><em>namedBundles</em>:  a  set of <a href="#expression-bundle-declaration">bundle declarations</a> <span class="name">bundles</span>;</li>
-</ul>
+
+
 
 <p>A toplevel bundle's text matches the <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef"
  href="#prod-bundle">bundle</a></code> production.</p>
@@ -2523,11 +2596,25 @@
 <tbody class="grammar-ref" data-ref="prod-bundle"></tbody>
 </table>
 
+<p>A toplevel bundle contains:
+<ul>
+<li><em>namespaceDeclarations</em>: a set of namespace declarations <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations">namespaceDeclarations</a></code>, declaring namespaces and associated prefixes, which can be used in <a
+title="attribute">attributes</a> and  <a title="identifier">identifiers</a> occurring inside  <span class="name">exprs</span>;</li>
+<li><em>expressions</em>:  a set of expressions matching <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></code>;</li>
+<li><em>namedBundles</em>:  a  set of
+<code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code>.</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p>Thus, named bundles can occur inside a toplevel bundle. 
+Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, MUST be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that named bundle. In other words, named bundles do not inherit namespaces declarations from the toplevel bundle.
+</p>
+
 
 
 <div class="anexample">
 <p>
-The following container contains expressions related to the provenance of entity 
+The following bundle contains expressions related to the provenance of entity 
 <span class="name">e2</span>.
 </p>
 <pre class="codeexample">
@@ -2537,10 +2624,10 @@
 
   entity(e2, [ prov:type="File", ex:path="/shared/crime.txt", ex:creator="Alice", 
                ex:content="There was a lot of crime in London last month."])
-  activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, -,[prov:type="edit"])
+  activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, -, [prov:type="edit"])
   wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
   wasAssociatedWith(a1, ag2, -, [prov:role="author"])
-  agent(ag2, [ prov:type='prov:Person' , ex:name="Bob" ])
+  agent(ag2, [ prov:type='prov:Person', ex:name="Bob" ])
 
 endBundle
 </pre>
--- a/ontology/ProvenanceOntology.owl	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/ontology/ProvenanceOntology.owl	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
 <?xml version="1.0"?>
+        <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence"/>
 
 
 <!DOCTYPE rdf:RDF [
@@ -414,9 +415,9 @@
         <definition xml:lang="en">prov:hadRole references the Role (i.e. the function of an entity with respect to an activity), in the context of a usage, generation, association, start, and end.</definition>
         <category>qualified</category>
         <rdfs:isDefinedBy rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"/>
-        <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence"/>
         <sharesDefinitionWith rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role"/>
         <rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role"/>
+        <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence"/>
         <rdfs:domain>
             <owl:Class>
                 <owl:unionOf rdf:parseType="Collection">
--- a/ontology/bin/rlplus-justify.py	Tue Jul 10 15:58:57 2012 -0400
+++ b/ontology/bin/rlplus-justify.py	Tue Jul 10 15:59:26 2012 -0400
@@ -8,15 +8,15 @@
 explain = {}
 
 
-explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(prov:atLocation ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent>)) ]'] = {'id' : '1', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#atLocation" class="qname">prov:atLocation</a> rdfs:domain (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent)', 'errortype' : '' }
-
-explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity>) [ObjectPropertyRange(Annotation(prov:definition "influencer: an identifier (o1) for an ancestor entity, activity, or agent that the former depends on;") Annotation(prov:dm "http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120703/prov-dm.html#term-influence") prov:wasInfluencedBy ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity>)) ]'] = {'id' : '2', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> rdfs:range (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity)', 'errortype' : '' }
+explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(prov:atLocation ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent>)) ]'] = {'id' : '1', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#atLocation" class="qname">prov:atLocation</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent) ]</span>', 'errortype' : '' }
 
-explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(prov:hadActivity ObjectUnionOf(prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start>)) ]'] = {'id' : '3', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#hadActivity" class="qname">prov:hadActivity</a> rdfs:domain (prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start)', 'errortype' : '' }
+explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity>) [ObjectPropertyRange(Annotation(prov:definition "influencer: an identifier (o1) for an ancestor entity, activity, or agent that the former depends on;") Annotation(prov:dm "http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120703/prov-dm.html#term-influence") prov:wasInfluencedBy ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity>)) ]'] = {'id' : '2', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> rdfs:range <span class="name">[ (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity) ]</span>', 'errortype' : '' }
 
-explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Association prov:End prov:Generation prov:Invalidation prov:Start prov:Usage>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(prov:hadRole ObjectUnionOf(prov:Association prov:End prov:Generation prov:Invalidation prov:Start prov:Usage>)) ]'] = {'id' : '4', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a> rdfs:domain (prov:Association prov:End prov:Generation prov:Invalidation prov:Start prov:Usage)', 'errortype' : '' }
+explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(prov:hadActivity ObjectUnionOf(prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start>)) ]'] = {'id' : '3', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#hadActivity" class="qname">prov:hadActivity</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ (prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start) ]</span>', 'errortype' : '' }
 
-explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(Annotation(prov:definition "influencee: an identifier (o2) for an entity, activity, or agent; ") Annotation(prov:dm "http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120703/prov-dm.html#term-influence") prov:wasInfluencedBy ObjectUnionOf(prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity>)) ]'] = {'id' : '5', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> rdfs:domain (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity)', 'errortype' : '' }
+explain['Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(prov:Association prov:End prov:Generation prov:Invalidation prov:Start prov:Usage>) [ObjectPropertyDomain(prov:hadRole ObjectUnionOf(prov:Association prov:End prov:Generation prov:Invalidation prov:Start prov:Usage>)) ]'] = {'id' : '4', 'abbreviation' : '<a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ (prov:Association prov:End prov:Generation prov:Invalidation prov:Start prov:Usage) ]</span>', 'errort