issue-438 stian's comments
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Tue, 10 Jul 2012 18:06:04 +0100
changeset 3898 6a7203cd80c1
parent 3897 99419249509b
child 3900 ae74803a6167
issue-438 stian's comments
model/diff-n.html
model/diff/Makefile
--- a/model/diff-n.html	Tue Jul 10 18:04:55 2012 +0100
+++ b/model/diff-n.html	Tue Jul 10 18:06:04 2012 +0100
@@ -8,26 +8,13 @@
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-    <title><span class="delete">PROV-N:</span><span class="insert">PROV-DM:</span> The <span class="delete">Provenance Notation</span><span class="insert">PROV Data Model</span></title> 
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-</span></style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
-  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title"><span class="delete">PROV-N:</span><span class="insert">PROV-DM:</span> The <span class="delete">Provenance Notation</span><span class="insert">PROV Data Model</span></h1><h2 id="subtitle">Final review before Last Call Vote <span class="insert">(WD6) </span>(<a href="diff.html">Diffs since last release</a>)</h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-28-june-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Editor's Draft <span class="delete">29</span><span class="insert">28</span> June 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</span></a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</span></a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</span></a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</span></a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+</style><link href="./extra.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</h1><h2 id="subtitle">Final review before Last Call Vote (<a href="diff-n.html">Diffs since last release</a>)</h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-10-july-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Editor's Draft <span class="delete">29 June</span><span class="insert">10 July</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
-<dt><span class="insert">Authors:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame"><span class="insert">Khalid Belhajjame</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Manchester</span></dd>
-<dd><span><span class="insert">Reza B'Far</span></span><span class="insert">, Oracle Corporation</span></dd>
-<dd><span><span class="insert">Stephen Cresswell</span></span><span class="insert">, legislation.gov.uk</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://users.ugent.be/~scoppens/"><span class="insert">Sam Coppens</span></a><span class="insert">, IBBT - Ghent University</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/"><span class="insert">Yolanda Gil</span></a><span class="insert">, Invited Expert</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/"><span class="insert">Paul Groth</span></a><span class="insert">, VU University of Amsterdam</span></dd>
-<dd><span><span class="insert">Graham Klyne</span></span><span class="insert">, University of Oxford</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo"><span class="insert">Timothy Lebo</span></a><span class="insert">, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker"><span class="insert">Jim McCusker</span></a><span class="insert">, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/"><span class="insert">Simon Miles</span></a><span class="insert">, Invited Expert</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/"><span class="insert">James Myers</span></a><span class="insert">, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo"><span class="insert">Satya Sahoo</span></a><span class="insert">, Case Western Reserve University</span></dd>
-<dd><span><span class="insert">Curt Tilmes</span></span><span class="insert">, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</span></dd>
-</dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © <span class="delete">2012</span><span class="insert">2011-2012</span> <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div> 
+<dt><span class="insert">Authors:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/"><span class="insert">James Cheney</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Edinburgh</span></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/"><span class="insert">Stian Soiland-Reyes</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Manchester</span></dd>
+</dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div> 
 
     <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
 
-
 <p>
 Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
 involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
@@ -1027,231 +541,119 @@
 (5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
 (6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
 </p>
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">To provide</span><span class="insert">This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
-PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
-relations. PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
-extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
-First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
-provenance should follow.  Second, 
-a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
-instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in</span> examples <span class="delete">of the PROV data model, the PROV notation (PROV-N) is introduced: aimed at human consumption, PROV-N allows serializations of PROV
-instances to be created </span>in<span class="delete"> a compact manner. PROV-N facilitates the
+<p>To provide examples of the PROV data model, the PROV notation (PROV-N) is introduced: aimed at human consumption, PROV-N allows serializations of PROV
+instances to be created in a compact manner. PROV-N facilitates the
 mapping of the PROV data model to concrete syntax, and is used as the basis for a
-formal semantics of PROV.  The purpose of </span>
-this <span class="delete">document is to define the PROV-N notation.
-</span><span class="insert">document. </span></p>
-    
-
+formal semantics of PROV.  The purpose of this document is to define the PROV-N notation.
+</p>
     </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
 <h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
 <p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
 Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
-the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review, before the implementation phase.</p>
-
-<span class="delete">This specification identifies one  </span><span class="delete">feature at risk</span><span class="delete">: </span><span class="delete">Mention</span><span class="delete"> might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span>
-
-
-<h4 id="please-comment-by--date-tbd">Please Comment By<span class="delete">  2012-09-13 (TBC)</span><span class="insert"> (date TBD)</span></h4>
+the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external <span class="delete">review, before the implementation phase.</span><span class="insert">review.</span></p>
+
+<p>This specification identifies one  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">feature at risk</a>:<span class="insert"> the expression</span> <a href="#expression-mention">Mention</a> might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
+
+<h4 id="please-comment-by--2012-09-13--tbc">Please Comment By  2012-09-13 (TBC)</h4>
 <p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
-The end date of the Last Call review period is <span class="delete">2012-09-13 (TBC)</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">TBD,</span> and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
+The end date of the Last Call review period is <b>2012-09-13 (TBC)</b>, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
 </p>
 
 <h4 id="prov-family-of-specifications">PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
 This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
 interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
 <ul>
-<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for <span class="delete">provenance;</span><span class="insert">provenance (this document);</span></li>
-<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human <span class="delete">consumption  (this document);</span><span class="insert">consumption;</span></li>
-<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
-<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
-<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-DM,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the PROV data model for provenance;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-N,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption  (this document);</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-O,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the PROV ontology, an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-AQ,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
 <li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
 <li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
 </ul>
 <h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-specifications">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
 <ul>
 <li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
 <li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
 <li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
 <li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
 should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
 </ul>
-<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</a><ul class="toc"><span class="delete">1.1 </span><span class="delete">Purpose of this Document and target audience</span><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.2</span><span class="insert">1.1</span> </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.3</span><span class="insert">1.2</span> </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span><span class="delete">General grammar considerations</span><span class="insert">PROV Overview</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span><span class="delete">Functional-style Syntax</span><span class="insert">PROV Core Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Entity and Activity</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.2 </span><span class="delete">EBNF Grammar</span><span class="insert">2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3 </span><span class="delete">Optional terms in expressions</span><span class="delete">2.4 </span><span class="delete">Identifiers</span><span class="insert">2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Agents</span> and <span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">2.5 </span><span class="delete">Comments</span><span class="insert">Responsibility</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Extended Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Subtyping</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Expanded Relations</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Optional Identification</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Further Relations</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Provenance of Provenance</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Collections</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Modular Organization</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span><span class="delete">PROV-N Productions per Component</span><span class="insert">The Provenance Notation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4. </span></span><span class="insert">Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Example: The Authors View</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Example: The Process View</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Example: Attribution of Provenance</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5. </span></span><span class="insert">PROV-DM Types and Relations</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1</span><span class="insert">5.1</span> </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.1</span><span class="insert">5.1.1</span> </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.2</span><span class="insert">5.1.2</span> </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.3</span><span class="insert">5.1.3</span> </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.4</span><span class="insert">5.1.4</span> </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.5</span><span class="insert">5.1.5</span> </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.6</span><span class="insert">5.1.6</span> </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.7</span><span class="insert">5.1.7</span> </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.8</span><span class="insert">5.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2</span><span class="insert">5.2</span> </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.1</span><span class="insert">5.2.1</span> </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.2</span><span class="insert">5.2.2</span> </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.3</span><span class="insert">5.2.3</span> </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2.4</span><span class="insert">5.2.4</span> </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3</span><span class="insert">5.3</span> </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3.1</span><span class="insert">5.3.1</span> </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3.2</span><span class="insert">5.3.2</span> </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3.3</span><span class="insert">5.3.3</span> </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3.4</span><span class="insert">5.3.4</span> </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3.5</span><span class="insert">5.3.5</span> </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.4</span><span class="insert">5.4</span> </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.4.1</span><span class="insert">5.4.1</span> </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">constructor</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle Type</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.5</span><span class="insert">5.5</span> </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Alternate</span><span class="insert">5.5.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Specialization</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Specialization</span><span class="insert">5.5.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Alternate</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.5.3</span><span class="insert">5.5.3</span> </span>Mention</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.6</span><span class="insert">5.6</span> </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span><span class="insert">5.6.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection Memberhsip</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7</span><span class="insert">5.7</span> </span>Further <span class="delete">Expressions</span><span class="insert">Elements of PROV-DM</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.1</span><span class="insert">5.7.1</span> </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.2</span><span class="insert">5.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:label</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.3 </span><span class="delete">Literal</span><span class="delete">3.7.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Reserved Type Values</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:location</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Time Values</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:role</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.4 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:type</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.5 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:value</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Value</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.4</span> </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Qualified Name</span></a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4. </span><span class="delete">Toplevel Bundle</span><span class="insert">6. </span></span><span class="insert">PROV-DM Extensibility Points</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">5. </span><span class="delete">Media Type</span><span class="insert">7. </span></span><span class="insert">Creating Valid Provenance</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-    <div id="introduction" class="section"> 
- 
-      <h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</h2> 
-
-<p><span class="insert"> 
-For the purpose of this specification, </span><dfn id="dfn-provenance" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">provenance</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-provenance"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is defined as a record that describes the people,
-institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing,
-influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.
-In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding
-whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with
-other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its
-originators when reusing it.  In an open and inclusive environment
-such as the Web, where users find information that is often contradictory or
-questionable, provenance can help those users to make trust judgements.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-We present the PROV data model,
-a generic data model for provenance that allows  domain and application specific representations of provenance to be translated into such a data model and  </span><em><span class="insert">interchanged</span></em><span class="insert"> between systems.
-Thus, heterogeneous systems can export their native provenance into such a core data model, and applications that need to make sense of provenance can then import it,
-process it, and reason over it.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-The PROV data model distinguishes </span><em><span class="insert">core structures</span></em><span class="insert"> from
-</span><em><span class="insert">extended structures</span></em><span class="insert">: core structures form the essence of
-provenance information, and are commonly found in various
-domain-specific vocabularies that deal
-with provenance or similar kinds of information [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Mappings"><span class="insert">Mappings</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].
-Extended structures enhance and refine core
-structures with more expressive capabilities to cater for more
-advanced uses of provenance.
-The  PROV data model, comprising both core and extended structures, is a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and
-application-specific extensions to be defined.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-The PROV data model has a modular design and is structured according to six components covering various facets of provenance:</span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert"> component 1: entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> component 2: derivations of entities from others;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> component 3: agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> component 4: bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> component 5: properties to link entities that refer to a same thing;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> component 6: collections forming a logical structure for its members.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">This specification presents the concepts of the PROV Data Model, and
-provenance types and relations, without specific concern for how they are applied.
-With these, it becomes possible to write useful provenance, and publish or embed it alongside the data it relates to. </span></p>
-
-<p><span class="delete"> Provenance</span><span class="insert">However, if something about which provenance</span> is <span class="insert">expressed is subject to change, then it is challenging to express its provenance precisely (e.g. the data from which </span>a <span class="delete">record that describes the people,
-institutions, entities, and activities, involved</span><span class="insert">daily weather report is derived  changes from day to day).
-This is addressed</span> in <span class="delete">producing,
-influencing, or delivering </span>a <span class="delete">piece of data or a thing in the world.  Two
-</span>companion<span class="delete"> specifications respectively define PROV-DM, a data model for
-provenance, allowing provenance descriptions to be expressed  [</span><span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="delete">]  and a set of constraints that provenance descriptions are expected to satisfy   </span><span class="insert">
- specification </span>[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="delete">].</span><span class="insert">] by proposing formal constraints on
- the way that provenance is related to the things it
- describes (such as the use of attributes, temporal information and
- specialization of entities), and additional conclusions that are valid
- to infer.</span>
+<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#purpose" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Purpose of this Document and target audience</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notational-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>General grammar considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#functional-syntax" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#grammar-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#main-productions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Main Productions</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-optionals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3</span><span class="insert">2.4</span> </span>Optional terms in expressions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-standard-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#comments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.5</span><span class="insert">2.6</span> </span>Comments</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-expressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-wasInformedBy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#Derivation-Relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-original-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-bundle-constructor" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">Constructor</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Alternate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span>Mention</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#subexpressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Expressions</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Attribute</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Literal</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-types" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3.1 </span>Reserved Type Values</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3.2 </span>Time Values</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#toplevelBundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Toplevel Bundle</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5. </span></span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#media-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">5.</span><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>Media Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section"> 
+<h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p> Provenance is a record that describes the people,
+institutions, entities, and activities, involved in producing,
+influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing in the world.  Two
+companion specifications respectively define PROV-DM, a data model for
+provenance, allowing provenance descriptions to be expressed  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]  and a set of constraints that provenance descriptions are expected to satisfy   [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].
 </p>
 
-
-
-
-<div id="structure-of-this-document" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span><span class="delete">Purpose</span><span class="insert">Structure</span> of this Document<span class="delete"> and target audience</span></h3>
-
-<span class="delete">A key goal of</span><p><a href="#section-prov-overview"><span class="insert">Section 2</span></a><span class="insert"> provides an overview of the</span> PROV <span class="delete">is the</span><span class="insert">Data Model,  distinguishing a core set of types and  relations, commonly found in provenance, from extended structures catering for more specific uses. It also introduces a modular organization of the data model in components. </span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-notation"><span class="insert">Section 3</span></a><span class="insert"> overviews the Provenance Notation used to illustrate examples of provenance.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-example"><span class="insert">Section 4</span></a><span class="insert"> illustrates how the PROV data model can be used
-to express the provenance of a report published on the Web.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><a href="#data-model-components"><span class="insert">Section 5</span></a><span class="insert"> provides the definitions of PROV concepts, structured according to six components.</span></p>
-
-
-
-<p><a href="#extensibility-section"><span class="insert">Section 6</span></a><span class="insert"> summarizes PROV-DM extensibility points.</span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#valid-provenance"><span class="insert">Section 7</span></a><span class="insert"> introduces the idea that constraints can be applied to the PROV data model to validate provenance; these are covered in the companion</span> specification<span class="delete"> of a machine-processable data model for provenance. However, communicating provenance between humans is also important when teaching, illustrating, formalizing, and discussing provenance-related issues. 
+<div id="purpose" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Purpose of this Document and target audience</h3>
+
+A key goal of PROV is the specification of a machine-processable data model for provenance. However, communicating provenance between humans is also important when teaching, illustrating, formalizing, and discussing provenance-related issues. 
 
 
 
 With these two requirements in mind, this document introduces PROV-N, a syntax notation designed to  write instances of the PROV data model according to the following design principles:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Technology independence. PROV-N provides a simple syntax that can be mapped to several technologies.
-
-</span><span class="delete">Human readability. PROV-N follows a functional syntax style that is meant to be easily human-readable so it can be used in illustrative examples, such as those presented in the PROV documents suite;
-
-</span><span class="delete">Formality. PROV-N is defined through a formal grammar amenable to be used with parser generators.
-
- </span><span class="delete">
+<ul>
+<li>Technology independence. PROV-N provides a simple syntax that can be mapped to several technologies.
+
+</li><li>Human readability. PROV-N follows a functional syntax style that is meant to be easily human-readable so it can be used in illustrative examples, such as those presented in the PROV documents suite;
+
+</li><li>Formality. PROV-N is defined through a formal grammar amenable to be used with parser generators.
+
+ </li></ul>
   
 PROV-N has several known uses:
-</span>
-<span class="delete"> It is the notation used in the examples found in  [</span><span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="delete">], as well as in the definition of PROV constraints</span> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="delete">]; </span>
-<span class="delete">  It is a source language for the encoding of PROV data model instances into a variety of target languages, including amongst others  RDF [</span><span class="delete">PROV-RDF</span><span class="delete">] and XML [</span><span class="delete">PROV-XML</span><span class="delete">]; </span>
-<span class="delete"> It provides the basis for a formal semantics of the PROV data model  [</span><span class="delete">PROV-SEM</span><span class="delete">], in which an interpretation is given to each element of the PROV-N language.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">This document introduces the PROV-N grammar along with examples of its usage.</span><span class="insert">].</span></p>
-<span class="delete">Its target audience is twofold:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Developers of provenance management applications, as well as implementors of new PROV data model encodings, and thus in particular of PROV-N parsers. These readers may be interested in the entire structure of the grammar, starting from the top level nonterminal 
-</span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-<span class="delete">Readers of the  [</span><span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="delete">] and of  [</span><span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span><span class="delete">] documents, who are interested in the details of the formal language underpinning the notation used in the examples and in the definition of the constraints. Those readers may find the  </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete"> nonterminal a useful entry point into the grammar.</span>
-
-
-
-
+<ul>
+<li> It is the notation used in the examples found in  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>], as well as in the definition of PROV constraints [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>]; </li>
+<li>  It is a source language for the encoding of PROV data model instances into a variety of target languages, including amongst others  RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-RDF">PROV-RDF</a></cite>] and XML [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>]; </li>
+<li> It provides the basis for a formal semantics of the PROV data model  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>], in which an interpretation is given to each element of the PROV-N language.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>This document introduces the PROV-N grammar along with examples of its usage.</p>
+<p>Its target audience is twofold:
+</p><ul>
+<li>Developers of provenance management applications, as well as implementors of new PROV data model encodings, and thus in particular of PROV-N parsers. These readers may be interested in the entire structure of the grammar, starting from the top level nonterminal 
+<a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">bundle</a>.</li>
+<li>Readers of the  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and of  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] documents, who are interested in the details of the formal language underpinning the notation used in the examples and in the definition of the constraints. Those readers may find the  <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a> nonterminal a useful entry point into the grammar.</li>
+</ul>
 
 </div>
 
-     
-
-<div id="conventions" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">1.2 <span class="delete">Structure of this Document</span>
-
-<span class="delete">This document structured as follows.
-
-</span><span class="delete">Section 2</span><span class="delete"> provides general consideration about the PROV-N grammar.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Section 3</span><span class="delete"> presents the grammar of all expressions of the language grouped according to the PROV data model components.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Section 4</span><span class="delete"> defines the grammar of toplevel bundles, a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N expressions and namespace declarations.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Section 5</span><span class="delete"> defines media type for the PROV-N notation.</span>
-
-
-     
-
-
-
- <span class="delete">1.3</span> </span>Notational Conventions</h3>
+    <div id="structure-of-this-document" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</h3>
+
+<p>This document <span class="insert">is </span>structured as follows.
+
+</p><p><a href="#general-conventions">Section 2</a> provides general consideration about the PROV-N grammar.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#prov-n-expressions">Section 3</a> presents the grammar of all expressions of the language grouped according to the PROV data model components.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#toplevelBundle">Section 4</a> defines the grammar of toplevel bundles, a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N expressions and namespace declarations.</p>
+
+
+<p><a href="#media-type">Section 5</a> defines media type for the PROV-N notation.</p>
+
+
+    </div> 
+
+
+<div id="notational-conventions" class="section">
+ <h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</h3>
 
 
 
@@ -1264,583 +666,192 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
 <p>
 The following namespaces prefixes are used throughout this document.
 
 </p><div style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<table border="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
 <caption id="namespace-table">Table 1: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption>
 <tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.1</span><span class="insert">5.7.4</span></span></a>)</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see Section <a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration"><span class="delete">4.7.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.4</span></a>)</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a><span class="insert">rdf</span></a></td><td><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</span></td><td><span class="insert">The RDF namespace  [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><span class="insert">RDF-CONCEPTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]</span></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent URI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>]</td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert"> 
-  Examples throughout this document use the PROV-N Provenance
-  Notation, briefly introduced in </span><a href="#prov-notation"><span class="insert">Section 3</span></a><span class="insert"> and specified fully in a separate document [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></p>
-
-
 </div> 
 
 </div> 
 
-
- 
-
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-overview" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno">2. </span><span class="delete">General grammar considerations</span><span class="insert">PROV Overview</span></h2>
-
-<p><span class="insert">This section introduces provenance concepts with informal explanations and illustrative
-examples. PROV distinguishes  </span><em><span class="insert">core structures</span></em><span class="insert">, forming the essence of  provenance, from </span><em><span class="insert">extended structures</span></em><span class="insert"> catering for more advanced uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert"> and </span><a href="#section-extended-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.2</span></a><span class="insert">. Furthermore, the PROV data model is organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see </span><a href="#section-overview-components"><span class="insert">Section 2.3</span></a><span class="insert">). A </span><em><span class="insert">provenance description</span></em><span class="insert"> is an instance of  a core and extended provenance structure described below.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="core-structures" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span><span class="delete">Functional-style Syntax</span><span class="insert">PROV Core Structures</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="delete"> PROV-N adopts a functional-style syntax consisting of a predicate name</span><span class="insert">At its core, provenance describes the use</span> and <span class="delete">an ordered list of terms.
-All PROV data model relations involve two primary elements, the </span><span class="insert">production of
-</span><em><span class="delete">subject</span><span class="insert">entities</span></em> <span class="delete">and the</span><span class="insert">by</span> <em><span class="delete">object</span><span class="insert">activities</span></em>, <span class="insert">which may be 
-influenced </span>in<span class="insert">
-various ways by </span><em><span class="insert">agents</span></em><span class="insert">.  These core types and their relationships
-are illustrated
-by
-the UML diagram of </span><a href="#prov-core-structures-top"><span class="insert">Figure 1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center; ">
-  <span class="figure" id="prov-core-structures-top" style="max-width: 70%; ">
-
-<img src="uml/essentials.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; ">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="prov-core-structures"><span class="insert">Figure 1: PROV Core Structures</span></span></p>
-  </span>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The concepts found in the core of PROV are introduced in the rest of</span> this <span class="delete">order. Furthermore,</span><span class="insert">section.
-They are summarized in  </span><a href="#overview-types-and-relations"><span class="insert">Table 2</span></a><span class="insert">, where they are categorized as
- type or relation.
- The first column lists concepts, the second column indicates whether a concept maps to a type or a relation, whereas the third column contains the corresponding name.    Names of relations have a verbal form in the past tense to express what happened in the past, as opposed to what may or will happen. In the core of PROV, all relations are binary. 
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="overview-types-and-relations"><span class="insert">Table 2: Mapping of PROV core concepts to  types and relations</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b><span class="insert">PROV Concepts</span></b></a></td><td><b><span class="insert">PROV-DM types or relations</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Name</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Overview</span></b></td></tr>
-<tr>
-<td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td><td rowspan="3" style="text-align: center;"><span class="insert">PROV-DM Types</span></td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" href="#dfn-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" href="#dfn-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" href="#dfn-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr>
-<td><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a></td><td rowspan="7" style="text-align: center;"><span class="insert">PROV-DM Relations</span></td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a></td><td><a title="used" href="#dfn-used" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Used</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy" href="#dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasInformedBy</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasDerivedFrom</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-derivation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.2</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo" href="#dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasAttributedTo</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Association</span></a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasAssociatedWith</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">ActedOnBehalfOf</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<form action="#"><p> 
-<input id="hide-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-examples','none'); set_display_by_id('show-examples','');" type="button" value="Hide Concept Examples"> 
-<input id="show-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample',''); set_display_by_id('hide-examples',''); set_display_by_id('show-examples','none');" style="display: none" type="button" value="Show Concept Examples"> 
-</p> 
-</form> 
-
-
-
-
-  
-    <div id="section-entity-activity" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Entity and Activity</span></h4>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">In PROV, things we want to describe the provenance of are called </span><em><span class="insert">entities</span></em><span class="insert"> and have</span> some <span class="delete">expressions</span><span class="insert">fixed aspect. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
-physical things such as a mountain, a building, a printed book, or a car as well as abstract concepts and ideas. 
-</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   An </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">entity</span></span><span class="insert"> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </span></span><span class="insert"> [</span><a href="#term-entity"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="entity-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 1</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">An entity may be the document at URI </span><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723"><span class="insert">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</span></a><span class="insert">, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
+<div id="general-conventions" class="section">
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>General grammar considerations</h2>
+
+<div id="functional-syntax" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</h3>
+
+<p> PROV-N adopts a functional-style syntax consisting of a predicate name and an ordered list of terms.</p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">
+All PROV data model types have an identifier. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it. </span></p>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_1"><span class="insert">Example 1</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">The following expression should be read as "entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">". 
+</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1)
+</span></pre>
+  </div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_2"><span class="insert">Example 2</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">The following expression should be read as "activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">, which occurred
+between </span><code><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span></code><span class="insert"> and </span><code><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span></code><span class="insert">". 
+</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1)
+activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+</span></pre>
+  </div>
 
 <p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  </span></span><span class="insert"> [</span><a href="#term-Activity"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]
-Just as entities cover a broad range of notions, 
-activities can cover a broad range of
-notions:
-information processing activities
- may for example move, copy, or duplicate  digital entities;
- physical activities can include
- driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="activity-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 2</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#activity-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">An activity may be the publishing of a document on the Web, sending a twitter message, extracting metadata embedded in a file, driving a car from Boston to Cambridge, assembling a data set based on a set of measurements, performing a statistical analysis over a data set, sorting news items according to some criteria, running a SPARQL query over a triple store, or editing a file.</span></p>
+All PROV data model relations involve two primary elements, the <em>subject</em> and the <em>object</em>, in this order. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it.
+</p><div class="anexample" id="example_3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3">Example <span class="delete">1</span><span class="insert">3</span></a></div>
+<p>The following expression should be read as "<span class="name">e2</span> was derived from <span class="name">e1</span>". Here <span class="name">e2</span> is the subject, and  <span class="name">e1</span> is the object.
+</p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+</pre>
+  </div>
+  
+<div class="anexample" id="example_4"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4">Example <span class="delete">2</span><span class="insert">4</span></a></div>
+<span class="delete">In the</span><p><span class="insert">The</span> following <span class="delete">expressions,</span><span class="insert">expression expands the above derivation relation by providing
+additional elements</span> the optional activity <span class="name">a</span><span class="delete"> along with</span><span class="insert">,</span> the generation<span class="delete"> and usage identifiers</span> <span class="name">g2</span><span class="insert">,</span> and<span class="insert"> the usage</span> <span class="name">u1</span>:
+</p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+</pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert">Activities and entities are associated with each other in two different ways: activities utilize entities and activities  produce entities. The act of utilizing or producing an entity may have a duration.  
- The term 'generation' refers to the completion of the act of producing; likewise, the term 'usage' refers to the beginning of the act of utilizing entities. Thus, we define the following concepts of generation and usage. </span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Generation</span></span><span class="insert"> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </span></span><span class="insert"> [</span><a href="#term-Generation"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Usage</span></span><span class="insert"> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span></span><span class="insert">  [</span><a href="#term-Usage"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="generation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 3</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Examples of generation are the completed creation of a file by a
-program, the completed creation of a linked data set, and the completed
-publication of a new version of a document.
-</span></p></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by
-driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.  This is answered by
-considering that a single artifact may
-correspond to several entities; in this case, a car in Boston may be a
-different entity from a car in Cambridge.  
-Thus, among other things,
-an entity "car in Boston" would be used, and a new entity "car in
-Cambridge" would be generated by this activity of driving.  The
-provenance trace of the car might include: designed in Japan,
-manufactured in Korea, shipped to Boston USA, purchased by customer,
-driven to Cambridge, serviced by engineer in Cambridge, etc., all of
-which might be important information when deciding whether or not it
-represents a sensible second-hand purchase.  Or some of it might
-alternatively be relevant when trying to determine the truth of a web
-page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
-of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
-digital artifacts.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="usage-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 4</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#usage-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Usage examples include a procedure beginning to consume an argument, a service starting to read a value on a port, a program beginning to read a configuration
-file, or the point at which an ingredient, such as eggs, is being added in a baking activity. Usage may entirely consume an entity (e.g. eggs are no longer available after being added to
-the mix); in contrast, the same entity may be used multiple times, possibly by different activities (e.g. a file on a file system can be read indefinitely).
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The generation of an entity by an activity and its subsequent usage by another activity is termed communication.</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Communication</span></span><span class="insert"> is the exchange of some unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </span></span><span class="insert">   [</span><a href="#term-Communication"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 5</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#communication-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The activity of writing a celebrity article was informed by (a
-communication instance) the activity of intercepting voicemails.
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-
 </div>
 
-    <div id="section-derivation" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></h4>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Activities utilize entities and produce entities. In some cases, utilizing an entity influences the creation of another in some way. This notion of 'influence' is captured by derivations, defined as follows.
+<div id="grammar-notation" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</h3>
+
+<p>The grammar is specified using <span class="insert">a subset of </span>the Extended   Backus-Naur 
+Form (EBNF) <span class="delete">notation.</span><span class="insert">notation, as defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1
+[</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML11"><span class="insert">XML11</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] section </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816/#sec-notation"><span class="insert">6
+Notation</span></a><span class="insert">.
 </span></p>
 
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">derivation</span></span><span class="insert">  is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</span></span><span class="insert">
-   [</span><a href="#term-Derivation"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 6</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
-linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</span></p>
-</div>
-
 
 <p><span class="insert">
-While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
-subtle: implicit is the notion that the generated entity was affected
-in some way by the used entity.  
-
-If an artifact
-was used by an activity that</span> also <span class="delete">admit additional elements </span><span class="insert">generated a new artifact, it does not always follow
-</span>that <span class="insert">the second artifact was derived from the first.  In the activity
-of creating a painting, an artist may have mixed some paint that was
-never actually applied to the canvas: the painting would typically
-not be considered a derivation from the unused paint.  
-
-PROV does not attempt to specify the conditions under which derivations
-exist; rather, derivation is considered to have been determined by unspecified means. 
-Thus, while a chain of usage and generation is necessary for a
-derivation to hold between entities, it is not sufficient; some
-form of influence occurring during the activities involved is also needed. 
-</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Agents and Responsibility</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">For many purposes, a key consideration
- for deciding whether something is reliable and/or trustworthy is
- knowing who or what </span><em><span class="insert">was reponsible</span></em><span class="insert"> for its production.  Data published by
- a respected independent organization may be considered more
- trustworthy than that from a lobby organization; a claim by a
- well-known scientist with an established track record may be more
- believed than a claim by a new student; a calculation performed by an
- established software library may be more reliable than by a one-off
- program.</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   An </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">agent</span></span><span class="insert"> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </span></span><span class="insert">   [</span><a href="#term-agent"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]
- An agent </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
- used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 7</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#agent-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Software for checking the use of grammar in a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity;  one can also describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
-A site selling books on the Web, the services involved in the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
-</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Agents can be related to entities, activities, and other agents.</span></p>  
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref">   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></span><span class="insert"> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </span></span><span class="insert">
-[</span><a href="#term-attribution"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 8</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attribution-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. </span></p>
-
-
+The text below provides an introduction to the EBNF notation used in
+this document.</span></p>
 
 
 <p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An activity </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">association</span></span><span class="insert"> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity.  </span></span><span class="insert">
-[</span><a href="#term-Association"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 9</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
-</span></p><ul>
-<li><span class="insert">creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert">various forms of participation in a panel discussion, including audience member, panelist, or panel chair;</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert">a public event, sponsored by a company, and hosted by a museum;</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></span><span class="insert"> is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work. </span></span><span class="insert">
-[</span><a href="#term-delegation"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]
- The nature of this relation is intended to be broad,  including contractual relation, but also altruistic initiative by the representative agent. </span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 10</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegation-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A student publishing a web page describing an academic
-department could result in both the student and the department being
-agents associated with the activity.  It may not matter which actual
-student published a web page, but it may matter significantly that the department
-told the student to put up the web page.  
-</span></p>
-</div>
-</div>
+  <span class="delete">Each</span><span class="insert">EBNF specifies a series of</span> production <span class="delete">rule (or </span><span class="insert">rules (</span><dfn id="dfn-production">production</dfn><span class="delete">, for short)</span><span class="insert">). 
+A production rule</span> in the grammar defines <span class="delete">one </span><span class="insert">a symbol 
+ </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code><span class="insert">  (</span><dfn id="dfn-non-terminal-symbol">non-terminal symbol <span class="delete">E</span><span class="delete">, in</span></dfn><span class="insert">)
+  using</span> the following form:</p>
+
+<span class="delete">E</span>
+
+
+<div class="grammar">
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code> &nbsp;::= <em>term</em>
 
 
 </div>
-
-<div id="section-extended-structures" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Extended Structures</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While the core of PROV focuses on essential provenance structures commonly found in provenance descriptions, extended structures 
-are designed to support more advanced uses of provenance. 
-The purpose of this section is twofold. First, mechanisms to specify these extended structures are introduced.  Second,  two </span>further <span class="delete">characterize it.
-</span><span class="insert">kinds of provenance structures are overviewed: they cater for provenance of provenance and collections,  respectively.</span></p><span class="delete">Example 1</span><span class="delete">
-The following expression should</span>
-
-
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Extended structures are defined by a variety of mechanisms 
-outlined in this section: subtyping, expanded relations, optional
-identification, and new relations.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Subtyping</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Subtyping can</span> be <span class="delete">read</span><span class="insert">applied to core types. For example, a software agent is special kind of agent, defined</span> as <span class="delete">"</span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> was derived from </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">". Here </span><span class="delete">e2</span> <span class="insert">follows.</span></p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">software agent</span></span>  is <span class="delete">the subject, and</span><span class="insert">running software. </span></span>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Subtyping can also be applied to</span>  <span class="delete">e1</span><span class="insert">core relations. For example, a revision</span> is <span class="delete">the object.
-</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-</span>
-  
-  
-<span class="delete">Example 2</span><span class="delete">
-In the following expressions, the optional activity </span>a<span class="delete"> along with the generation and usage identifiers </span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete">:
-</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-</span>
-<span class="insert"> special kind of derivation, defined as follows.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">revision</span></span><span class="insert">   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </span></span></p>
-
+<p><span class="insert">Symbols are written with an initial capital letter if they are the start symbol of a regular language, otherwise with an initial lowercase letter. 
+A production rule in the grammar defines a symbol 
+ </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">&lt;TERMINAL&gt;</span></code><span class="insert">  (</span><dfn id="dfn-terminal-symbol"><span class="insert">terminal symbol</span></dfn><span class="insert">)
+  using the following form:</span></p>
+<div class="grammar">
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">&lt;TERMINAL&gt;</span></code><span class="insert"> &nbsp;::= </span><em><span class="insert">term</span></em>
 </div>
 
 
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.2 </span><span class="delete">EBNF Grammar</span><span class="insert">2.2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Expanded Relations</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="delete">The grammar</span><a class="section-ref" href="#core-structures"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></span></a><span class="insert"> shows that seven concepts are mapped to binary relations in the core of PROV.  However, some advanced uses of these concepts cannot be captured by a binary relation, but require relations to be expanded to n-ary relations.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">To illustrate expanded relations, we consider the concept of
-association, described
-in </span><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a><span class="insert">.  Agents may adopt </span><em><span class="insert">plans</span></em><span class="insert">, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
-goals in the context of an activity.
-Hence, an expanded form of
-association relation allows for a plan to be specified. Plan</span> is <span class="delete">specified using the Extended  Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation.</span>
-<span class="delete">
-  Each production rule (or </span><span class="delete">production</span><span class="delete">, for short) in the grammar defines one non-terminal symbol </span><span class="delete">E</span><span class="delete">, in the following form:</span><span class="insert">defined by subtyping and 
-full association by an expanded relation, as follows. </span></p>
-
-<span class="delete">E</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">term</span><p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">plan</span></span><span class="insert"> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </span></span>
-</p> 
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An activity </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">association</span></span><span class="insert"> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-<p><span class="delete">Within the term</span><span class="insert">There exist no
-prescriptive requirement</span> on the <span class="delete">right-hand side of</span><span class="insert">nature of plans, their representation, the
-actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals.  Since plans may evolve over time,
-it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are
-entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to  
-validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to  
-manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 11</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">An example of association between an activity and an agent involving</span> a <span class="delete">rule, the following terms are used to match strings of one or more characters:
-</span>
- 
-<span class="delete">E</span><span class="delete">: matches term satisfying rule for symbol E.
-</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">abc</span><span class="delete">: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.
-</span>
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">: optional </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">, matches </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete"> or nothing.
-</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">: matches one or more occurrences of </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
+
+
+
+<p>Within the term on the right-hand side of a rule, the following<span class="delete"> terms</span>
+<em><span class="insert">term</span></em><span class="insert">s</span> are used to match strings of one or more characters:
+</p><ul>
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">E</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>: matches <span class="delete">term satisfying rule</span><span class="insert">production</span> for <span class="insert">non-terminal </span>symbol <span class="delete">E.</span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>
+</li>
+
+
+<li> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code><span class="insert">: matches production for terminal symbol </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code>
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">abc</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">"abc"</span></code>: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.
+</li>
+
+
+<li> 
  
-<span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">: matches zero or more occurrences of </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">: matches one of the two </span><span class="delete">terms</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-
-The grammar is centered</span><span class="insert">plan is:
-an XSLT transform (an activity) launched by a user (an agent) based</span> on <span class="delete">nonterminals for various types of </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">. The main production is introduced here below as it reflects the rationale for the design of the entire grammar. Note that parser developers may use the top level
-</span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete">  nonterminal as a starting point instead.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</span>
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">2</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">expression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">activityExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">generationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">usageExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">startExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">endExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">invalidationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">communicationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">agentExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">associationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">attributionExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">delegationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">derivationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">influenceExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">alternateExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">specializationExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">mentionExpression</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">membershipExpression</span><span class="delete"> )</span>  
-<span class="delete">
-
-
-Each expression non-terminal </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">, i.e., </span><span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete">,  </span><span class="delete">activityExpression</span><span class="delete"> etc., corresponds to one element (entity, activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
-</span><span class="delete">A PROV-N document consists of a collection of </span><span class="delete">expressions</span><span class="delete">, wrapped in a </span><span class="delete">toplevel bundle</span><span class="delete"> with some namespace declarations, such that the text for </span>an <span class="delete">element matches the corresponding </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete"> production of the grammar.</span><span class="insert">XSL style sheet (a plan).</span>
-
-</p></div>
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Optional Identification</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Some concepts exhibit both a core use, expressed as
-binary relation, and an extended use, expressed as n-ary relation.  In
-some cases, mapping the concept to a relation, whether binary or
-n-ary, is not sufficient: instead, it may be required to
-identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, PROV-DM allows for 
-an optional identifier to be
-expressed to identify an instance of an association between two or
-more elements.  This optional identifier can then be used to refer to
-an instance as part of other concepts.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 12</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#identifier-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A service may read a same configuration file on two different occasions. Each  usage can be identifed by its own identifier, allowing them to be distinguished. 
-</span></p></div>
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)?</span></code><span class="insert">: optional, matches </span><em>term</em><span class="delete">: optional </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">, matches </span><span class="delete">term</span> or nothing.
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">term</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)+</span></code>: matches one or more occurrences of <em>term</em>.
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">term</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)*</span></code>: matches zero or more occurrences of <em>term</em>.
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+<span class="delete">term</span> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term</span> | <span class="delete">term</span><span class="insert">term)</span></code>: matches one of the two <em>terms</em>.
+</li>
+
+</ul>
 
 
 </div>
 
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Further Relations</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Finally, PROV-DM supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations.</span></p>
-
-
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="section-provenance-of-provnance" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Provenance of Provenance</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
- A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span><span class="insert"> is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.  </span></span>
-
-</p><p><span class="insert">
-For users to decide whether they can place their trust in
-something, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine
-the agent its provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated. In other words, users need to be able to determine the provenance of provenance.
-Hence, provenance is also
-regarded as an entity (of type Bundle), by which provenance of provenance can then be
-expressed.
-</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 13</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#bundle-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In a decision making situation, decision makers may be presented with the same piece of knowledge, issued by multiple sources.  In order to validate this piece of knowledge, decision makers can consider its provenance, but also the provenance of their provenance, which may help determine whether it can be trusted.
-</span></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-collections" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Collections</span></h4>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">collection</span></span><span class="insert"> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">member of</span></span><span class="insert"> the collections.  </span></span><span class="insert"> Many different types of collections exist, such as a </span><em><span class="insert">sets</span></em><span class="insert">, </span><em><span class="insert">dictionaries</span></em><span class="insert">, or </span><em><span class="insert">lists</span></em><span class="insert">. 
-Using Collections, one can express the provenance of the collection itself in addition to that of the members.  </span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 14</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#collection-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-overview-components" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span><span class="delete">Optional terms in expressions</span><span class="delete">
+<div id="main-productions" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Main Productions</span></h3>
+The grammar <span class="insert">groups the general PROV-N </span><em><span class="insert">non-terminals</span></em><span class="insert"> in a
+</span><em><span class="insert">production rule</span></em><span class="insert"> called </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expression</span></code><span class="insert">
+(shown below). This production </span>is <span class="delete">centered on nonterminals</span><span class="insert">introduced as it provides an 
+entry point</span> for <span class="delete">various types</span><span class="insert">the core expressions</span> of <span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">. The main</span><span class="insert">this grammar. Note that parser
+developers should use the</span> production <span class="delete">is introduced here below</span><span class="insert">rule for the </span><a href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">top
+level </span><span class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span></a> as <span class="delete">it reflects the rationale for the design of the entire grammar. Note that parser developers may use the top level
+</span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete">  nonterminal as </span>a starting point 
+instead.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-expression" name="prod-expression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">2</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">expression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-communicationExpression">communicationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agentExpression">agentExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributionExpression">attributionExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-delegationExpression">delegationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression">derivationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-influenceExpression">influenceExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-alternateExpression">alternateExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-specializationExpression">specializationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-mentionExpression">mentionExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-membershipExpression">membershipExpression</a></span> <span class="insert">| </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-insertionExpression"><span class="insert">insertionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-removalExpression"><span class="insert">removalExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-dictMembershipExpression"><span class="insert">dictMembershipExpression</span></a></span> )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>Each <span class="insert">of the symbols included in </span><code>expression<span class="delete"> non-terminal </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">,</span></code><span class="insert"> above,</span> i.e., <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></code>,  <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></code> etc., corresponds to one element <span class="delete">(entity,</span><span class="insert">(e.g., entity,</span> activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
+</p>
+
+<p>A PROV-N document consists of a collection of <a title="expression">expressions</a>, wrapped in a <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a> with some namespace declarations, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding <a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a> production of the grammar.
+
+</p></div>
+
+
+<div id="prov-n-optionals" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3</span><span class="insert">2.4</span> </span>Optional terms in expressions</h3>
 
 Some terms in an expression may be optional. For example:
 
-</span><span class="delete">Example 3</span>
+<span class="delete">Example 3</span>
 <span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 </span><span class="delete">
@@ -1855,871 +866,554 @@
 </span>
 
 <span class="delete">The general rule for optionals is that, if </span><span class="delete">none</span><span class="delete"> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</span><span class="delete">
-However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="delete">'-'</span><span class="delete"> is used for this purpose.
-
-</span><span class="delete">Example 5</span>
-<span class="delete">In the first expression below, all optionals are specified. However in the second and third, only one optional is specified, forcing the use of the marker for the missing terms. 
-
-</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="delete">'-'</span><span class="delete"> is used for this purpose.</span>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_5"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_5">Example 5</a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+</span></pre><span class="insert">
+In a derivation expression, the activity, generation, and usage are optional terms. They are specified in the first derivation, but not in the second.
+</span></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_6"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_6"><span class="insert">Example 6</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+activity(a1)
+</span></pre><span class="insert">
+The start and end times for Activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
+</span></div>
+
+<p><span class="insert">The general rule for optionals is that, if </span><em><span class="insert">none</span></em><span class="insert"> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</span></p><span class="insert">
+However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">'-'</span></span><span class="insert"> is used for this purpose.
+
+</span><div class="anexample" id="example_7"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_7"><span class="insert">Example 7</span></a></div>
+<p>In the first expression below, all optionals are specified. However in the second and third, only one optional is specified, forcing the use of the marker for the missing terms. 
+
+</p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
-</span>
-<span class="delete">
+</pre>
+</div>
 Note that the more succinct form is just shorthand for a complete expression with all the markers specified:
-</span><span class="delete">Example 6</span>
-<span class="delete">activity(a1)
+<div class="anexample" id="example_8"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_8">Example <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">8</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(a1)
 activity(a1, -, -)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">2.4 </span><span class="delete">Identifiers and attributes</span><span class="insert">Modular Organization</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="delete">Most expressions defined</span><span class="insert">Besides the separation between core and extended structures, PROV-DM
-is further organized according to components, grouping concepts</span> in <span class="delete">the grammar include the use of two terms: an identifier and </span>a<span class="delete"> set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression. By convention, optional identifiers are separated using a semi-colon ';'. This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set of attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</span><span class="insert">
-thematic manner. </span></p>
-
-<span class="delete">Example 7</span>
-<p><span class="delete">Derivation has an optional identifier. In</span> <a href="#components-overview"><span class="insert">Table 3</span></a><span class="insert"> enumerates the six components, five of which have already been implicitly overviewed in this section. All components specify extended structures, whereas only</span> the first <span class="delete">expression, the identifier is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> marker.</span><span class="insert">three  define core structures.
-
-</span></p>
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="prov-n-standard-terms" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</h3>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Almost all expressions defined in the grammar include an identifier. </span>Most expressions<span class="delete"> defined</span><span class="insert">
+can aslo include a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term</span> in <span class="delete">the grammar include the use of two terms: an identifier and</span><span class="insert">any expression.  Optional identifiers </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be separated using</span> a <span class="delete">set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers</span><span class="insert">semi-colon ';', but where the identifiers</span> are <span class="delete">optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression. By convention, optional identifiers are separated using</span><span class="insert">required,</span> a <span class="delete">semi-colon ';'.</span><span class="insert">regular comma ',' </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be used.</span> This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set of attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_9"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_9">Example <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">9</span></a></div>
+<p>Derivation has an optional identifier. In the first expression, the identifier is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the <span class="name">-</span> marker.<span class="insert"> This is equivalent to the first expression. </span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(-; e2, e1)
-</span>
-<span class="delete">
+</pre>
+</div>
 
 Lack of attributes can be equivalently expressed by omitting the list, or by using an empty list.
 
 
 
-</span><span class="delete">Example 8</span>
-<span class="delete">The first and second activities have no attributes.
+<div class="anexample" id="example_10"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_10">Example <span class="delete">8</span><span class="insert">10</span></a></div>
+<p>The first and second activities have no <span class="delete">attributes.</span><span class="insert">attributes, and are equivalent.</span>
 
 The third activity  has two attributes. 
-</span><span class="delete">activity(ex:a10)
+</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10)
 activity(ex:a10, [])
 activity(ex:a10, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">2.5 </span><span class="delete">Comments</span><span class="delete">
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="comments" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.5</span><span class="insert">2.6</span> </span>Comments</h3>
 
 
 Comments in PROV-N take two forms:
-</span>
-<span class="delete"> '//'  outside an </span><span class="delete">IRI_REF</span><span class="delete"> or </span><span class="delete">STRING_LITERAL</span><span class="delete">; such cooments continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A) or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment marker. 
-
-</span><span class="delete"> '/*' ... '*/', outside an </span><span class="delete">IRI_REF</span><span class="delete"> or </span><span class="delete">STRING_LITERAL</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Comments are treated as white space.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3. </span><span class="delete">PROV-N Productions per Component</span>
-
-<span class="delete">This section  introduces grammar productions for each expression, followed by small examples of expressions illustrating the grammar. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid expressions in the PROV-N language.</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.1 </span><span class="delete">Component 1: Entities and Activities</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.1.1 </span><span class="delete">Entity</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">3</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">entityExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"entity" "(" </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">4</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( "," "[" </span><span class="delete">attributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> "]" )?</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">5</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">attributeValuePairs</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">(  | </span><span class="delete">attributeValuePair</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">attributeValuePair</span><span class="delete"> )* )</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">6</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">attributeValuePair</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">attribute</span><span class="delete"> "=" </span><span class="delete">literal</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Entity maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-<div id="components-overview-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<ul>
+<li> '//'  outside an <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></code> or <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>; such <span class="delete">cooments</span><span class="insert">comments</span> continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A) or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment marker. 
+
+</li><li> '/*' ... '*/', outside an <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></code> or <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>.
+</li></ul>
+<p>Comments are treated as white space.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="prov-n-expressions" class="section"> 
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</h2>
+
+<p>This section  introduces grammar productions for each expression, followed by small examples of expressions illustrating the grammar. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid expressions in the PROV-N language.</p>
+
+<div id="component1" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
+
+<div id="expression-Entity" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</h4>
+
+<div class="withPn">
+<p>
+
+
+
+</p><table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entityExpression" name="prod-entityExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">3</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">entityExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"entity" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs" name="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"></a>[<span class="prodNo">4</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">optionalAttributeValuePairs</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( "," "[" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePairs">attributeValuePairs</a></span> "]" )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePairs" name="prod-attributeValuePairs"></a>[<span class="prodNo">5</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributeValuePairs</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">(  | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair">attributeValuePair</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair">attributeValuePair</a></span> )* )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePair" name="prod-attributeValuePair"></a>[<span class="prodNo">6</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributeValuePair</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attribute">attribute</a></span> "=" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal">literal</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Entity maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="components-overview"><span class="insert">Table 3: Components Overview</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><span class="delete">Entity</span><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><span class="insert">Component</span></td><td><span class="insert">Core </span><br><span class="insert">Structures</span></td><td><span class="insert">Overview</span></td><td><span class="insert">Specification</span></td><td><span class="insert">Description</span></td></tr>
- 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="	padding: 8px;"><span class="insert">1</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Entities and Activities</span></td><td><span class="insert">✔</span></td><td><a href="#section-entity-activity"><span class="insert">2.1.1</span></a></td><td><a href="#component1"><span class="insert">5.1</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about entities and activities, and their interrelations</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="delete">id</span><span class="insert">2</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></td><td><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="insert">✔</span></td><td><a href="#section-derivation"><span class="insert">2.1.2</span></a></td><td><a href="#component3"><span class="insert">5.2</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about derivations and its subtypes</span></td></tr>
- 
-<tr><td><span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="insert">3</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Agent and Responsibility</span></td><td><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="insert">✔</span></td><td><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span class="insert">2.1.3</span></a></td><td><a href="#component2"><span class="insert">5.3</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to them</span></td></tr>
- 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">4</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Bundles</span></td><td></td><td><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance"><span class="insert">2.2.2</span></a></td><td><a href="#component4"><span class="insert">5.4</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">5</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Alternate</span></td><td></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td><td><a href="#component5"><span class="insert">5.5</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about relations linking entities referring the same thing</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">6</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Collections</span></td><td></td><td><a href="#section-collections"><span class="insert">2.2.3</span></a></td><td><a href="#component6"><span class="insert">5.6</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about collections</span></td></tr> 
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Entity</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.id"><span class="attribute" id="entity.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
+<div class="anexample" id="example_11"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_11">Example <span class="delete">9</span><span class="insert">11</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document" ])
+</pre>
+  Here <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the entity identifier, and <span class="name">[ prov:type="document" ]</span> groups the optional attributes, only one in this example,  with their values.
+  <pre class="codeexample">
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+</pre>
+Here, the optional attributes are absent.
+</div>
+
+
+
+</div></div> 
+<div id="expression-Activity" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-activityExpression" name="prod-activityExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">7</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">activityExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"activity" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-timeOrMarker" name="prod-timeOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">8</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">timeOrMarker</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time">time</a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Activity maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Activity</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.id"><span class="attribute" id="activity.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.startTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime">startTime</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.endTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime">endTime</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_12"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_12">Example <span class="delete">10</span><span class="insert">12</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [prov:type="createFile"])
+</pre>
+<p>Here <span class="name">ex:a10</span> is the  activity identifier, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span> are the optional start and end times for the activity, and <span class="name">[prov:type="createFile"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10)
+activity(ex:a10, -, -)
+activity(ex:a10, -, -, [prov:type="edit"])
+activity(ex:a10, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, -)
+activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, -, [prov:type="createFile"])
+activity(ex:a10, [prov:type="edit"])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+<div id="expression-Generation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</h4>
+
+
+<div class="withPn">
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-generationExpression" name="prod-generationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">9</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">generationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasGeneratedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalIdentifier" name="prod-optionalIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">10</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">optionalIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker">identifierOrMarker</a></span> ";" )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifierOrMarker" name="prod-identifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">11</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">identifierOrMarker</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Generation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Generation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute" id="generation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_13"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_13">Example <span class="delete">11</span><span class="insert">13</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
+</pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:g1</span> is the optional generation identifier, <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the identifier of the entity being generated,
+  <span class="name">ex:edit1</span> is the optional identifier of the generating activity, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional generation time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="save"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+  
+<pre class="codeexample">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, <span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+wasGeneratedBy(e, ex:edit1,</span><span class="insert">-)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, [ex:fct="save"])     
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p><strong><span class="insert">Note:</span></strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+
+</div></div>
+
+<div id="expression-Usage" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-usageExpression" name="prod-usageExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">12</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">usageExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"used" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="delete">"," </span>( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Usage maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Usage</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute" id="usage.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.activity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr><tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_14"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_14">Example <span class="delete">12</span><span class="insert">14</span></a></div>
+  
+<pre class="codeexample">used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:fct="load"])
+ </pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:u1</span> is the optional usage identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the using activity,
+  <span class="name">ar3:0111</span> is the identifier of the entity being used,
+ <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional usage time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="load"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+  <pre class="codeexample">used(ex:act2)
+used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+used(a1,e1, -, [ex:fct="load"])
+used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">used(a2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">used(-; <span class="delete">e2,</span><span class="insert">a2,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute">entity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="expression-wasInformedBy" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-communicationExpression" name="prod-communicationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">13</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">communicationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasInformedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Communication maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Communication</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.id"><span class="attribute" id="communication.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informed"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed">informed</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informant"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant">informant</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_15"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_15">Example <span class="delete">13</span><span class="insert">15</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:inf1</span> is the optional communication identifier,  <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is the identifier of the informed activity,
+  <span class="name">ex:a2</span> is the identifier of the informant activity,
+and <span class="name">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div id="expression-Start" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</h4>
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-startExpression" name="prod-startExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">14</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">startExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasStartedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Start maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Start</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute" id="start.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.activity"><span class="attribute" id="start.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger">trigger</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute" id="start.starter">starter</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_16"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_16">Example <span class="delete">14</span><span class="insert">16</span></a></div>
+
+  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+  </pre>
+  <p>Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the started activity,
+  <span class="name">ex:trigger</span> is the optional identifier for the entity that triggered the activity start,
+   <span class="name">ex:act1</span> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   <span class="name">ex:trigger</span>,
+ <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional start time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
+  The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+  
+  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, -)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, [ex:param="a"])
+wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, e, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p><strong>Note:</strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasStartedBy(e2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)</span>  and <span class="name">wasStartedBy(-; e2,<span class="insert"> -,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute">starter</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be <span class="delete">present.</span><span class="insert">present (as per [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]).</span></p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="expression-End" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-endExpression" name="prod-endExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">15</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">endExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasEndedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM End maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>End</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute" id="end.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.activity"><span class="attribute" id="end.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger">trigger</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute" id="end.ender">ender</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_17"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_17">Example <span class="delete">15</span><span class="insert">17</span></a></div>
+
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger,ex:act3,  2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  
+<span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the ending activity,
+  <span class="name">ex:trigger</span> is the identifier of the entity that triggered the activity end,
+  <span class="name">ex:act3</span> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   <span class="name">e</span>,
+ <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional usage time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+  
+<pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, -)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2)
+wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p><strong>Note:</strong>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasEndedBy(e2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)</span>  and <span class="name">wasEndedBy(-; e2,<span class="insert"> -,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute">ender</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div id="expression-Invalidation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</h4>
+
+
+<div class="withPn">
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-invalidationExpression" name="prod-invalidationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">16</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">invalidationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasInvalidatedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Invalidation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Invalidation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_18"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_18">Example <span class="delete">16</span><span class="insert">18</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
+</pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:i1</span> is the optional invalidation identifier, <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the identifier of the entity being invalidated,
+  <span class="name">ex:edit1</span> is the optional identifier of the invalidating activity, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional invalidation time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="save"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+  
+<pre class="codeexample">wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasInvalidatedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
+wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
+wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p>Even though the production  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
+since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+</div></div>
+
+
+
 
 
 </div>
 
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="prov-notation" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3. </span></span><span class="insert">The Provenance Notation</span></h2>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">To illustrate the application of PROV concepts to a concrete example (see </span><a href="#prov-dm-example"><span class="insert">Section 4</span></a><span class="insert">) and to provide examples of concepts (see </span><a href="#data-model-components"><span class="insert">Section 5</span></a><span class="insert">),
-we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details, the reader is referred to the companion specification [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].
-PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert">PROV-N expressions adopt a </span><em><span class="insert">functional notation</span></em><span class="insert"> consisting
-of a name and a list of arguments in parentheses.</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">The interpretation of PROV-N arguments is defined according to their </span><em><span class="insert">position</span></em><span class="insert"> in the list of arguments. This convention allows for a compact notation. </span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">
-PROV-N </span><em><span class="insert">optional arguments</span></em><span class="insert"> need not be specified:
-the general rule for optional arguments is that, if none of them are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression. However, it may be the case that only some of the optional arguments need to be specified. Because the position of the arguments in the expression matters, in this case, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The syntactic marker  '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">' is used for this purpose.
-</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">Most expressions 
-include an identifier 
-and a set of attribute-value pairs; both are optional unless otherwise specified. By convention, the identifier occurs in the </span><em><span class="insert">first position</span></em><span class="insert">, and the set of attribute-value pairs in the </span><em><span class="insert">last position</span></em><span class="insert">.
-Consistent with the convention on arguments, the marker  '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">' can be used when the identifier is not available, or can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising. To further disambiguate expressions that contains an optional identifier, the optional identifier or marker must be followed by '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">;</span></span><span class="insert">'.
-</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">9</span><span class="insert">15</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-prov-n"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-An activity with identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and an attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">type</span></span><span class="insert"> with value </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">createFile</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document" ])</span><span class="insert">activity(a1, [prov:type="createFile"])</span>
-</pre><span class="delete">
-  Here</span><span class="insert">
-Two entities with identifiers</span> <span class="name"><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is the entity identifier,</span><span class="insert">e1</span></span> and <span class="name"><span class="delete">[ prov:type="document" ]</span><span class="delete"> groups the optional attributes, only one</span><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The activity  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> used  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">, and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> was generated by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2,a1)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The same descriptions, but with an explicit identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert"> for the usage, and the syntactic marker '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">' to mark the absence of identifier</span> in <span class="delete">this example,</span><span class="insert">the generation. Both are followed by</span>  <span class="delete">with their values.
-  </span><span class="insert">'</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">;</span></span><span class="insert">'.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)</span><span class="insert">used(u1;a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(-;e2,a1)</span>
-</pre><span class="delete">
-Here, the optional attributes are absent.</span>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="prov-dm-example" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4. </span></span><span class="insert">Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</span></h2>
-
-<p><a href="#section-prov-overview"><span class="insert">Section 2</span></a><span class="insert"> has introduced some provenance concepts, and how they are expressed as types or relations in the PROV data model. The purpose of this section is to put these concepts into practice in order to express the provenance of some document published on the Web.  
-With this realistic example, PROV concepts are  composed together,  and a graphical illustration shows a provenance description forming a directed graph, rooted at the entity we want to explain the provenance of, and pointing to the entities, activities, and agents it depended on. This example also shows that, sometimes, multiple provenance descriptions about the same entity can co-exist, which then justifies the need for provenance of provenance.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">In this example, we consider one of the many documents published by the World Wide Web Consortium, and describe its provenance. 
-Specifically, we consider the document identified by
-</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a><span class="insert">. Its provenance can be expressed from several perspectives: first,  provenance can take the authors' viewpoint; second, it can be concerned with the </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> process. Then, attribution of these two provenance descriptions is provided.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="section-example-one" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Example: The Authors View</span></h3>
-
-
-<p style="font-style:italic; "><b><span class="insert">Description:</span></b><span class="insert"> A document
-is edited by some editor, using contributions from various
-contributors.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">In this perspective, provenance of the document
-</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a><span class="insert"> is concerned with the editing activity as perceived by authors.  This kind of information could be used by authors in their CV or in a narrative about this document. </span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">We paraphrase some PROV-DM descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see </span><a href="#prov-a-document1-top"><span class="insert">Figure 2</span></a><span class="insert">).
-Full details of the provenance record can be found </span><a href="examples/w3c-publication3.pn"><span class="insert">here</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center; ">
-  <span class="figure" id="prov-a-document1-top">
-  <img src="images/w3-publication3.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (1)" style="max-width: 98%; ">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document1"><span class="insert">Figure 2: Provenance of a Document (1)</span></span></p>
-  </span>
-</div>
-
-
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert">There was a document </span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a></span><span class="insert">, which from the author's perspective was a document in its second version.</span> 
- 
-<span class="delete">3.1.2 </span><span class="delete">Activity</span>
-
-
-
-<pre><span class="insert">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-  <li><span class="insert">There was an editing activity.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">activity(ex:edit1,[prov:type="edit"])
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a </span><a title="concept-generation"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-
-<li><span class="insert">There were some agents.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">agent(ex:Paolo, </span>[<span class="delete">7</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">activityExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"activity" "(" </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-  <span class="insert"> prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-agent(ex:Simon, </span>[<span class="delete">8</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete"> | "-" )</span>  
-<span class="insert"> prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Paolo, -, [ prov:role="editor" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Simon, -, [ prov:role="contributor" ])
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Provenance descriptions can be </span><em><span class="insert">illustrated</span></em><span class="insert"> graphically. The illustration is not intended to represent all the details of the model, but it is intended to show the essence of a set of
-provenance descriptions.  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</span></p>
-
-<p>The <span class="delete">following</span><span class="insert">graphical illustration takes the form of a graph. Entities, activities and agents are represented as nodes, with oval, rectangular, and pentagonal shapes, respectively.  Usage,
-Generation, Derivation, and Association are represented as directed edges.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Entities are laid out according to the ordering of their generation.  We endeavor to show time progressing from left to right. This means that edges for Usage, Generation,
-Derivation, Association typically point leftwards</span></p>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-example-two" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Example: The Process View</span></h3>
-
-
-<p style="font-style:italic; "><b><span class="insert">Description:</span></b><span class="insert"> The World Wide Web
-Consortium publishes documents according to its publication
-policy.  Working drafts are published regularly to reflect the work
-accomplished by working groups. Every publication of a working draft
-must be preceded by a "publication request" to the Webmaster.  The
-very first version of a document must also be preceded by a
-"transition request" to be approved by the </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> director.  All working
-drafts are made available at a unique URI.  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
-</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-We describe the kind of provenance record that the </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium"><span class="insert">WWW Consortium</span></a><span class="insert"> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with well-defined URIs (some of which refer archived email messages, available to </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> Members).</span></p>
-
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert"> Two versions of a document were involved: </span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (second working draft) and </span><span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></a></span></span><span class="insert"> (first working draft);</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> Both </span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></a></span></span><span class="insert"> were published by the WWW Consortium (</span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium"><span class="insert">w3:Consortium</span></a></span><span class="insert">); </span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> The publication activity for </span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a></span><span class="insert"> was </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act2</span></span><span class="insert">;</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> The publication activity for </span><span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></a></span></span><span class="insert"> was </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act1</span></span><span class="insert">;
-</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert"> The document </span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a></span><span class="insert"> was derived from </span><span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></a></span></span><span class="insert">;</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert"> The publication activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act1</span></span><span class="insert"> used a </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq"><span class="insert">publication request</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Oct/0141"><span class="insert">email:2011Oct/0141</span></a></span><span class="insert">) and a </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#transreq"><span class="insert">transition request</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/chairs/2011OctDec/0004"><span class="insert">chairs:2011OctDec/0004</span></a></span><span class="insert">);</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> The publication activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act2</span></span><span class="insert"> used a </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq"><span class="insert">publication request</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Dec/0111"><span class="insert">email:2011Dec/0111</span></a></span><span class="insert">);</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> Documents were published according to the process rules (</span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance"><span class="insert">process:rec-advance</span></a></span><span class="insert">), a plan in PROV-DM terminology.</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-We now paraphrase some PROV descriptions, and express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see </span><a href="#prov-a-document2-top"><span class="insert">Figure 3</span></a><span class="insert">). Full details of the provenance record can be found </span><a href="examples/w3c-publication1.pn"><span class="insert">here</span></a><span class="insert">.
-
-</span></p><div style="text-align: center;">
-  <span class="figure" id="prov-a-document2-top">
-  <img src="images/w3-publication1.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (2)" style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document2"><span class="insert">Figure 3: Provenance of a Document (2)</span></span></p>
-  </span>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert">There was a document, a working draft (</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#WD"><span class="insert">rec54:WD</span></a><span class="insert">), which is an entity so that we can describe its provenance. Similar descriptions exist for all entities.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-<li><span class="insert">There was a publication activity.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">activity(ex:act2,[prov:type="publish"])
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a </span><a title="concept-Generation"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:act2, -)
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-
-<li><span class="insert">The second draft of the document was derived from the first draft: this was a </span><a title="concept-Derivation"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">The activity required a publication request: this was a </span><a title="concept-Usage"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">used(ex:act2, email:2011Dec/0111, -)
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an </span><a title="concept-activityAssociation"><span class="insert">Activity Association</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(ex:act2, w3:Consortium, process:rec-advance)
-</span></pre>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert"> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available URIs, which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act2</span></span><span class="insert">, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex</span></span><span class="insert">.  We note that the URI scheme developed by </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each URI denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  PROV-DM relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</span></p>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="section-example-c" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">4.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Example: Attribution of Provenance</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The two previous sections  offer two different perspectives on the provenance of a document.  PROV allows for multiple sources to provide the provenance of a subject. For users to decide whether they can place their trust in the document, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine who the provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated, etc. In other words, we need to be able to express the provenance of provenance.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">PROV-DM offers a construct to name a bundle of provenance descriptions (full details: </span><a href="examples/w3c-publication3.pn"><span class="insert">ex:author-view</span></a><span class="insert">). </span></p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:author-view
-
-  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-
-
-...
-
-endBundle
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-
-Likewise, the process view can be expressed as a separate named bundle (full details: </span><a href="examples/w3c-publication1.pn"><span class="insert">ex:process-view</span></a><span class="insert">).
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:process-view
-
-   agent(w3:Consortium, [ prov:type='prov:Organization' ])
-
-...
-
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">To express their respective provenance, these bundles must be seen as entities, and all PROV constructs are now available to express their provenance. In the example below, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:author-view</span></span><span class="insert"> is attributed to the agent  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Simon</span></span><span class="insert">, whereas </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:process-view</span></span><span class="insert"> to  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">w3:Consortium</span></span><span class="insert">.
-
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:author-view, [prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(ex:author-view, ex:Simon)
-
-entity(ex:process-view, [prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(ex:process-view, w3:Consortium)
-</span></pre>
-
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="data-model-components" class="section"> 
-
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5. </span></span><span class="insert">PROV-DM Types and Relations</span></h2>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.
-The components and their dependencies are illustrated in </span><a href="#prov-dm-components"><span class="insert">Figure 4</span></a><span class="insert">. A component that relies on concepts defined in another is displayed above it in the figure.  So, for example, component 5 (alternate) depends on concepts defined in component 4 (bundles), itself dependen on concepts defined in component 1 (entity and activity).
-</span></p>
-
-<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
-<ul>
-<li><b><span class="insert">Component 1: entities and activities.</span></b><span class="insert"> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </span></li>
-<li><b><span class="insert">Component 2: derivations.</span></b><span class="insert">  The second component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</span></li>
-<li><b><span class="insert">Component 3: agents, responsibility, and influence.</span></b><span class="insert"> The third component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</span></li>
-<li><b><span class="insert">Component 4: bundles.</span></b><span class="insert"> The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</span></li>
-<li><b><span class="insert">Component 5: alternate.</span></b><span class="insert"> The fifth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </span></li>
-<li><b><span class="insert">Component 6: collections.</span></b><span class="insert"> The sixth component is about collections. </span></li>
-</ul>
+<div id="component2" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
+<div id="Derivation-Relation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</h4>
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-derivationExpression" name="prod-derivationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">17</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">derivationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasDerivedFrom" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker">gIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker">uIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Derivation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Derivation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.id"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generation"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation">generation</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker">gIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usage"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage">usage</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker">uIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure" style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<img usemap="#componentMap" src="images/components-dependencies.png" alt="PROV-DM Components" style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<map id="componentMap" name="componentMap">
-<area title="collections" href="#component5" coords="220,0,440,70" alt="collections" shape="rect">
-<area title="alternate" href="#component4" coords="450,0,510,140" alt="alternate" shape="rect">
-<area title="annotations" href="#component6" coords="530,0,590,220" alt="annotations" shape="rect">
-<area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="80,150,510,220" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect">
-<area title="derivations" href="#component3" coords="80,0,210,70" alt="derivations" shape="rect">
-<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component2" coords="0,0,70,220" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect">
-</map>
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="prov-dm-components"><span class="insert">Figure 4: PROV-DM Components</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, </span><a href="#relations-at-a-glance"><span class="insert">Table 4</span></a><span class="insert"> indexes all relations according to their two primary elements (referred to as subject and object).  The</span> table <span class="delete">summarizes how each constituent of</span><span class="insert">adopts the same color scheme as </span><a href="#prov-dm-components"><span class="insert">Figure 4</span></a><span class="insert">, allowing components to be readily identified.
-Note that for simplicity, this table  does not include collection-oriented relations.
-Relation names appearing in bold correspond to the core structures introduced
-in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="relations-at-a-glance"><span class="insert">Table 4: PROV-DM Relations At</span> a <span class="delete">PROV-DM Activity maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-<span class="insert">Glance</span></caption>
-<tbody><span class="delete">Activity</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">identifier</span><td colspan="6"><span class="insert">Object</span></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">startTime</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-<span class="delete">endTime</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 10</span>
-<span class="delete">activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [prov:type="createFile"])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Here </span><span class="delete">ex:a10</span><span class="delete"> is the  activity identifier, </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span><span class="delete"> are the optional start and end times for the activity, and </span><span class="delete">[prov:type="createFile"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-</span><span class="delete">activity(ex:a10)
-activity(ex:a10, -, -)
-activity(ex:a10, -, -, [prov:type="edit"])
-activity(ex:a10, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, -)
-activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, -, [prov:type="createFile"])
-activity(ex:a10, [prov:type="edit"])
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.3 </span><span class="delete">Generation</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">9</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">generationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasGeneratedBy" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">10</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> ";" )?</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">11</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">identifierOrMarker</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | "-" )</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Generation maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Generation</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
- 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="2"><span class="insert">Entity</span></td><td colspan="2"><span class="insert">Activity</span></td><td colspan="2"><span class="insert">Agent</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td rowspan="3"><span class="insert">Subject</span></td><td><span class="insert">Entity</span></td><td colspan="2"><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom"><span class="insert">WasDerivedFrom</span></a><br><a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Revision</span></a><br><a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-primarysource" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">PrimarySource</span></a></div><div class="component5-color"><a href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">AlternateOf</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">SpecializationOf</span></a><br><a><span class="insert">ContextualizationOf</span></a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby"><span class="insert">WasGeneratedBy</span></a><br><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasInvalidatedBy</span></a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">R</span></a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">T</span></a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">L</span></a><br></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasattributedto"><span class="insert">WasAttributedTo</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><span class="delete">id</span><span class="insert">Activity</span></td><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-used"><span class="insert">Used</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasStartedBy</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasEndedBy</span></a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">R</span></a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">T</span></a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">L</span></a><br></td><td colspan="2" class="component1-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinformedby"><span class="insert">WasInformedBy</span></a></td><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith"><span class="insert">WasAssociatedWith</span></a></td><td class="component3-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">R</span></a><br></td></tr>
-<tr><td><span class="delete">entity</span><span class="insert">Agent</span></td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><td colspan="2"><span class="insert">—</span></td><td colspan="2"><span class="insert">—</span></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof"><span class="insert">ActedOnBehalfOf</span></a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-</tbody></table>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 11</span>
-
-<span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:g1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional generation identifier, </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the entity being generated,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:edit1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the generating activity, </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span><span class="delete"> is the optional generation time, and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:fct="save"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-  
-</span><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-wasGeneratedBy(e, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-</span>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="delete">Even though the production </span><span class="delete">generationExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows</span><span class="insert">The letters 'R' and 'L' appearing in the right-hand side of some cells of </span><a href="#relations-at-a-glance"><span class="insert">Table 4</span></a><span class="insert"> indicate that attributes 
-</span><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.3</span></span></a><span class="insert">)
-and
-</span><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:location</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-location"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.2</span></span></a><span class="insert">)
-are permitted</span> for <span class="delete">expressions </span><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="insert">these relations.
-The letter 'T' indicates an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em> <a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">time</span></a><span class="insert"> is also permitted.
-</span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span class="insert">Table 5</span></a><span class="insert"> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.</span>  <span class="insert">In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept. Concept names appearing in bold are the core structures introduced in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig" style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span class="insert">Table 5: PROV-DM Types </span>and <span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span> <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.4 </span><span class="delete">Usage</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">12</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">usageExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"used" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," ( "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Usage maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-<span class="insert">Relations</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b><span class="delete">Usage</span><span class="insert">Type or Relation Name</span></b></a></td><td><b><span class="insert">Representation in the PROV-N notation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><span class="insert">Component</span></b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete">entity</span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 12</span>
-  
-<span class="delete">used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:fct="load"])
- </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:u1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional usage identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:act2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the using activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ar3:0111</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the entity being used,
- </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span><span class="delete"> is the optional usage time, and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:fct="load"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes.</span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-  </span><span class="delete">used(ex:act2)
-used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-used(a1,e1, -, [ex:fct="load"])
-used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
-</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Even though the production </span><span class="delete">usageExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">used(a2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">used(-; e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">entity</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span> <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.5 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">13</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">communicationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasInformedBy" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Communication maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Communication</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">informed</span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">informant</span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 13</span>
-<span class="delete">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:inf1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional communication identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the informed activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the informant activity,
-and </span><span class="delete">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2)
-wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.6 </span><span class="delete">Start</span>
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">14</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">startExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasStartedBy" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Start maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Start</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">trigger</span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-<span class="delete">starter</span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 14</span>
-
-  <span class="delete">wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
-  </span>
-  <span class="delete">Here </span><span class="delete">s</span><span class="delete"> is the optional start identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:act2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the started activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:trigger</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier for the entity that triggered the activity start,
-   </span><span class="delete">ex:act1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   </span><span class="delete">ex:trigger</span><span class="delete">,
- </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span><span class="delete"> is the optional start time, and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:param="a"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes.</span><span class="delete">
-  The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-  
-  </span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, -)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, [ex:param="a"])
-wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, e, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Note:</span><span class="delete"> Even though the production </span><span class="delete">startExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since at least one  of </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">trigger</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">starter</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span> <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.7 </span><span class="delete">End</span>
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">15</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">endExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasEndedBy" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM End maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">End</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">trigger</span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-<span class="delete">ender</span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 15</span>
-
-    <span class="delete">wasEndedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger,ex:act3,  2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">s</span><span class="delete"> is the optional start identifier,  
-</span><span class="delete">ex:act2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the ending activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:trigger</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the entity that triggered the activity end,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:act3</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   </span><span class="delete">e</span><span class="delete">,
- </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span><span class="delete"> is the optional usage time, and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:param="a"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation">Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">19</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here
+    <span class="name">d</span> is the optional derivation identifier,
+  <span class="name">e2</span> is the identifier for the entity being derived,
+  <span class="name">e1</span> is the  identifier of the entity from which <span class="name">e2</span> is derived,
+  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
+  <span class="name">g2</span> is the optional identifier of the generation,
+  <span class="name">u1</span> is the optional identifier of the usage,
+  and <span class="name">[ex:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
-</span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, -)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
-wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2)
-wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Note:</span><span class="delete">Even though the production </span><span class="delete">endExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since at least one  of </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">trigger</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">ender</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span> <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Invalidation</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">16</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">invalidationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasInvalidatedBy" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Invalidation maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Invalidation</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">entity</span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">timeOrMarker</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 16</span>
-
-<span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:i1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional invalidation identifier, </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the entity being invalidated,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:edit1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the invalidating activity, </span><span class="delete">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span><span class="delete"> is the optional invalidation time, and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:fct="save"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-  
-</span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasInvalidatedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Even though the production  </span><span class="delete">invalidationExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
-since at least one  of </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span> <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.2 </span><span class="delete">Component 2: Derivations</span>
-
-<span class="delete">3.2.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span>
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">17</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">derivationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasDerivedFrom" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">gIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">uIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Derivation maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-<td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span><a title="dfn-Entity" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity"><span class="insert">entity(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</span></a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1"><span class="insert">Component 1: Entities/Activities</span></a></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">generatedEntity</span>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a title="dfn-Activity" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-activity"><span class="insert">activity(id, st, et, [ attr1=val1, ...])</span></a></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">usedEntity</span>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a title="WasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">e,a</span></span><span class="insert">,t,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">activity</span>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><a title="used" href="#dfn-used" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">used(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">a,e</span></span><span class="insert">,t,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-<span class="delete">generation</span>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">gIdentifierOrMarker</span><a title="wasInformedBy" href="#dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">a2,a1</span></span><span class="insert">,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><span class="delete">usage</span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">uIdentifierOrMarker</span><a title="wasStartedBy" href="#dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><span class="delete">attributes</span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><a title="wasEndedBy" href="#dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 17</span>
-    <span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">d</span><span class="delete"> is the optional derivation identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier for the entity being derived,
-  </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier of the entity from which </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is derived,
-  </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
-  </span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the generation,
-  </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the usage,
-  and </span><span class="delete">[ex:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-  
-</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, u1)
@@ -2727,1951 +1421,468 @@
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, -)
-wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(-, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.2.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 18</span>
-    <span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, 
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(-,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(-;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+<div id="expression-Revision" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_20"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_20">Example <span class="delete">18</span><span class="insert">20</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, 
                [prov:type='prov:Revision', 
                 ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">Here, the derivation from
-</span><span class="delete">Example 17</span><span class="delete">
-is extended with a </span><span class="delete">prov:type</span><span class="delete"> attribute and value </span><span class="delete">prov:Revision</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-
-  
-
-<span class="delete">3.2.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 19</span>
-    <span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(quoteId1; ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, ex:act1, ex:g, ex:u,
+  </pre>
+<p>Here, the derivation from
+<a href="#anexample-derivation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">19</span></span></a>
+is extended with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>.<span class="insert">  The expression </span><code><span class="insert">'prov:Revision'</span></code><span class="insert"> is </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></a></code><span class="insert"> to denote a </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> literal (See  </span><a href="#expression-literal"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.3. Literal</span></a><span class="insert">).</span>
+</p></div>
+
+
+</div>  
+<div id="expression-quotation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</h4>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_21"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_21">Example <span class="delete">19</span><span class="insert">21</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(quoteId1; ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, ex:act1, ex:g, ex:u,
                [ prov:type='prov:Quotation' ])
-  </span>
-
-<span class="delete">Here, the derivation is provided with a </span><span class="delete">prov:type</span><span class="delete"> attribute and value </span><span class="delete">prov:Quotation</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Primary Source</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 20</span>
-    <span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(src1;  ex:e1, ex:e2, ex:act, ex:g, ex:u, 
-               [ prove:type='prov:PrimarySource' ])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Here, the derivation is provided with a </span><span class="delete">prov:type</span><span class="delete"> attribute and value </span><span class="delete">prov:PrimarySource</span><span class="delete">.
+  </pre>
+
+<p>Here, the derivation is provided with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Quotation</span>.
+</p></div>
+
+
+</div>  
+
+
+<div id="expression-original-source" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_22"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_22">Example <span class="delete">20</span><span class="insert">22</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(src1;  ex:e1, ex:e2, ex:act, ex:g, ex:u, 
+               [ <span class="delete">prove:type='prov:PrimarySource'</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:PrimarySource'</span> ])
+</pre>
+<p>Here, the derivation is provided with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span>.
   
-</span>
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.3 </span><span class="delete">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</span>
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Agent</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-  <tr class="component1-color"><td><span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">18</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">agentExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"agent" "(" </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Agent maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Agent</span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(id;e,a,t,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">id</span>
-
-
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">identifier</span><a title="wasDerivedFrom" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(</span></span><span class="insert">id; </span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">e2, e1</span></span><span class="insert">, a, g2, u1, attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td><td rowspan="5"><a href="#component2"><span class="insert">Component 2: Derivations</span></a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Revision</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><a title="Revision" href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Revision' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 21</span>
-<span class="delete">agent(ag4, [ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">Here </span><span class="delete">ag</span><span class="delete"> is the agent identifier, and
-   </span><span class="delete">[ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+</p></div>
+
+
+</div>  
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="component3" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</h3>
+<div id="expression-Agent" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agentExpression" name="prod-agentExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">18</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">agentExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"agent" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Agent maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Agent</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.id"><span class="attribute" id="agent.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_23"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_23">Example <span class="delete">21</span><span class="insert">23</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">agent(ag4, [ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ])
+</pre>
+<p>Here <span class="name">ag</span> is the agent identifier, and
+   <span class="name">[ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 In the next example, the optional attributes are omitted.
 
-</span><span class="delete">agent(ag4)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Attribution</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">19</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">attributionExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasAttributedTo" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Attribution maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Attribution</span><tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><a title="Quotation" href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Quotation' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a></td><td><a title="PrimarySource" href="#dfn-primarysource" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:PrimarySource' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td><a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Influence</span></a></td><td><a title="wasInfluencedBy" href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">entity</span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-<span class="delete">agent</span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 22</span>
-
-<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">    Here </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional attribution identifier,  </span><span class="delete">e</span><span class="delete"> is an entity identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">ag</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the agent to whom the entity is abscribed, 
-and </span><span class="delete">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+<pre class="codeexample">agent(ag4)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+<div id="expression-attribution" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributionExpression" name="prod-attributionExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">19</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasAttributedTo" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Attribution maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Attribution</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.id"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.entity"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.agent"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent">agent</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_24"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_24">Example <span class="delete">22</span><span class="insert">24</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
+  </pre>
+<p>    Here <span class="name">id</span> is the optional attribution identifier,  <span class="name">e</span> is an entity identifier,
+  <span class="name">ag</span> is the identifier of the agent to whom the entity is abscribed, 
+and <span class="name">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-</span><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(e, ag)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasAttributedTo(e, ag)
 wasAttributedTo(e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
-</span>
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Association</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">20</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">associationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"wasAssociatedWith" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">agIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Association maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Association</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-<td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; "><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span><a title="dfn-agent" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-agent"><span class="insert">agent(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</span></a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component3"><span class="insert">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, Influence</span></a></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">activity</span>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><a title="wasAttributedTo" href="#dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">e,ag</span></span><span class="insert">,attr</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">agent</span>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Association</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">agIdentifierOrMarker</span><a title="wasAssociatedWith" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">a,ag</span></span><span class="insert">,pl,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-
-<span class="delete">plan</span>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><a title="actedOnBehalfOf" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">ag2,ag1</span></span><span class="insert">,a,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Plan</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Plan' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 23</span>
-<span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas; ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-  </span>
-
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:agas</span><span class="delete"> is the optional attribution identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is an activity identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:ag1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent associated to the activity,
-  </span><span class="delete">ex:e1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the plan used by the agent in the context of the activity,
-  and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div>  
+
+
+<div id="expression-Association" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-associationExpression" name="prod-associationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">20</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">associationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasAssociatedWith" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="insert">( </span>"," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker">agIdentifierOrMarker</a></span><span class="delete"> (</span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Association maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Association</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute" id="association.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.activity"><span class="attribute" id="association.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute" id="association.agent">agent</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker">agIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute" id="association.plan">plan</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_25"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_25">Example <span class="delete">23</span><span class="insert">25</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas; ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+  </pre>
+
+<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:agas</span> is the optional attribution identifier,
+  <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is an activity identifier,
+  <span class="name">ex:ag1</span> is the optional identifier of the agent associated to the activity,
+  <span class="name">ex:e1</span> is the optional identifier of the plan used by the agent in the context of the activity,
+  and <span class="name"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
   
-</span><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
+<pre class="codeexample">wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
 wasAssociatedWith(a; ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Note:</span><span class="delete">The production </span><span class="delete">associationExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasAssociatiedWith(-; a, -, -)</span><span class="delete">. However, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, 
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p><strong>Note:</strong>The production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasAssociatiedWith(-;</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(-;</span> a, -, -)</span>. However, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, 
 since
-at least one of </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">agent</span><span class="delete">,  </span><span class="delete">plan</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span>  <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Delegation</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">21</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">delegationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"actedOnBehalfOf" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ( "," </span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="delete"> )? </span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Delegation maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Delegation</span><tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Person</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Person' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Organization</span></a></td><td><a title="organization" href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Organization' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">SoftwareAgent</span></a></td><td><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">delegate</span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">responsible</span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 24</span>
-
-  <span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(del1; ag2, ag1, a, [prov:type="contract"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">del1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional delegation identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">ag2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier for the delegate agent,
-  </span><span class="delete">ag1</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
-  </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the delegation link holds,
-  and </span><span class="delete">[prov:type="contract"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+at least one of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute">agent</span></a>,  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute">plan</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+</div>
+<div id="expression-delegation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-delegationExpression" name="prod-delegationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">21</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">delegationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"actedOnBehalfOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Delegation maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Delegation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.id"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.delegate"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate">delegate</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.responsible"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible">responsible</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_26"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_26">Example <span class="delete">24</span><span class="insert">26</span></a></div>
+
+  <pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(del1; ag2, ag1, a, [prov:type="contract"])
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">del1</span> is the optional delegation identifier,
+  <span class="name">ag2</span> is the identifier for the delegate agent,
+  <span class="name">ag1</span> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
+  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the delegation link holds,
+  and <span class="name">[prov:type="contract"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 
-</span><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2)
+<pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2)
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a)
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, -, [prov:type="delegation"])
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
 actedOnBehalfOf(r; ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.3.5 </span><span class="delete">Influence</span>
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">22</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">influenceExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"influence" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Influence maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Influence</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">influencee</span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">influencer</span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 25</span>
-    <span class="delete">influence(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional influence identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is an entity identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier for an ancestor entity that   </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> depends on,
-  and </span><span class="delete">[ex:param="a"]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
-The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-
-  </span><span class="delete">influence(e2,e1)
-influence(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-influence(id; e2,e1)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.4 </span><span class="delete">Component 4: Bundles</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.4.1 </span><span class="delete">Bundle Declaration</span>
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">23</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">namedBundle</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"bundle" </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span><span class="delete">)? (</span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">)* "endBundle"</span>  
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 26</span>
-    <span class="delete">bundle ex:author-view
-  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  ...
-endBundle
-  </span>
-<span class="delete"> Here  </span><span class="delete">ex:author-view</span><span class="delete"> is the name of the bundle.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">3.5 </span><span class="delete">Component 5: Alternate Entities</span>
-
-<span class="delete">3.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Alternate</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">24</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">alternateExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"alternateOf" "(" </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Alternate maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Alternate</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-<td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component4-color"><td><span class="delete">alternate1</span><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Bundle constructor</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a title="dfn-bundle" href="#dfn-bundle-declaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</span></a></td><td rowspan="2"><a href="#component5"><span class="insert">Component 4: Bundles</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-<span class="delete">alternate2</span>
-<tr class="component4-color"><td class="provType"><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Bundle type</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Bundle' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 27</span>
-<span class="delete">alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex:alternate-20111215)
-</span><span class="delete">
-  Here  </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is alternate for   </span><span class="delete">ex:alternate-20111215</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">3.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Specialization</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">25</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">specializationExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"specializationOf" "(" </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Specialization maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Specialization</span><a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Alternate</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">alternateOf(alt1, alt2)</span></a></td><td rowspan="3"><a href="#component4"><span class="insert">Component 5: Alternate</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Specialization</span></a></td><td><a title="specializationOf" href="#dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">specializationOf(infra, supra)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a href="#concept-mention" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Mention</span></a></td><td><a title="mentionOf" href="#dfn-mentionof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">mentionOf(infra, supra,bundle)</span></a></td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<span class="delete">specificEntity</span><tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Collection</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a title="collection" href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Collection' ...</span></a></td><td rowspan="3"><a href="#component6"><span class="insert">Component 6: Collections</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-<span class="delete">generalEntity</span>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">EmptyCollection</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a href="#concept-collection-membership" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Collection Membership</span></a></td><td><a title="memberOf" href="#dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">memberOf(id; c, {e_1, ..., e_n}, cplt, attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-In the rest of the section, each type and relation is defined informally,
- followed by a summary of the information used to represent the concept, and
- illustrated with PROV-N examples.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="component1" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 1: Entities and Activities</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with </span><a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">entities</span></a><span class="insert"> and </span><a title="activity" href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">activities</span></a><span class="insert">, and their interrelations: </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a><span class="insert">.  </span><a href="#figure-component1"><span class="insert">Figure 5</span></a><span class="insert"> uses UML to depict the first component.
-Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of two classes (</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">) and three binary associations between them (</span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a><span class="insert">). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UML"><span class="insert">UML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations (for </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a><span class="insert">). The figure also makes explicit associations with </span><em><span class="insert">time</span></em><span class="insert"> for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.
-</span></p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure">
-
-<img src="uml/component1.png" alt="entities and activities">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component1"><span class="insert">Figure 5: Entities and Activities Component Overview</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-   <div id="term-entity" class="section"> 
-      
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Entity</span></h4>
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><dfn id="concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">entity</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-entity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </span></div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-entity"><span class="insert">An </span><dfn title="dfn-Entity" id="dfn-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">entity</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression" id="pn-entity"><span class="insert">entity(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N, </span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier for an entity; </span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set of attribute-value  pairs ((</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attr1</span></span><span class="insert">, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">val1</span></span><span class="insert">), ...) representing additional information about this entity.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">28</span><span class="insert">16</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-entity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following expression</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">specializationOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,tr:prov-dm)</span><span class="insert">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])</span>
-</pre><span class="delete">
-    Here</span><span class="insert">
-states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></span><span class="insert">,  with type </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">document</span></span><span class="insert"> and version number </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">2</span></span><span class="insert">. The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:version</span></span><span class="insert"> is application specific, whereas the attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">type</span></span><span class="insert"> (see </span><a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">Section 5.7.4.4</span></a><span class="insert">) is reserved in the </span><a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">PROV namespace</span></a><span class="insert">.
-
-</span></div>
-
-
-
-
-    </div> 
-
-    <div id="term-Activity" class="section"> 
-      
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Activity</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><dfn id="concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">activity</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-activity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  </span></div>
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity"><span class="insert"> An </span><dfn title="dfn-Activity" id="dfn-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">activity</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-activity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression" id="pn-activity"><span class="insert">activity(id, st, et, [attr1=val1, ...])</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier for an activity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime"><span class="insert">startTime</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> time (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">st</span></span><span class="insert">) for the start of the activity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime"><span class="insert">endTime</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> time (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">et</span></span><span class="insert">) for the end of the activity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set of attribute-value pairs ((</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attr1</span></span><span class="insert">, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">val1</span></span><span class="insert">), ...) representing additional information about this activity.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 17</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-activity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following expression</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a1,2011-11-16T16:05:00,2011-11-16T16:06:00,
-        [ ex:host="server.example.org", prov:type='ex:edit' ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">states the existence of an activity with identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">, start time </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span></span><span class="insert">, and end time </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span></span><span class="insert">, running on host </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">server.example.org</span></span><span class="insert">, and of type </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">edit</span></span><span class="insert">.  The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">host</span></span><span class="insert">  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex</span></span><span class="insert">).  The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">type</span></span><span class="insert"> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see </span><a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">Section 5.7.4.4</span></a><span class="insert">).</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Further considerations:</span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert">An activity is not an entity. This distinction is similar to the distinction between 
-'continuant' and 'occurrent' in logic [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Logic"><span class="insert">Logic</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].
-</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Generation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Generation</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-generation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </span></div>
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-generation"><dfn title="wasGeneratedBy" id="dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for a generation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span><span class="insert">:  an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">) for a created entity; </span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity that creates the entity;</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.time"><span class="insert">time</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> "generation time" (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">t</span></span><span class="insert">), the time at which the entity was completely created;</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this generation.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#generation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#generation.activity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#generation.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 18</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following expressions</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  wasGeneratedBy(e1, a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52, [ ex:port="p1" ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, 2001-10-26T10:00:00, [ ex:port="p2" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">state the existence of two generations (with respective times </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span></span><span class="insert">), at which new entities,  identified by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">, are created by an
-activity,  identified by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-The first one is available  on port </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">p1</span></span><span class="insert">, whereas the other is available on port </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">p2</span></span><span class="insert">.  The semantics of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">port</span></span><span class="insert"> are application specific.
-</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 19</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In some cases, we may want to record the time at which an entity was generated without having to specify the activity that generated it. To support this requirement, the activity element in generation is optional. Hence,  the following expression indicates the time at which an entity is generated, without naming the activity that did it.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  wasGeneratedBy(e, -, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
-</span></pre>
+</pre>
 </div>
 
 
 </div>
 
-
-<div id="term-Usage" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Usage</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-usage"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span></div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-usage"><dfn title="used" id="dfn-used" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-used"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">used(id; a, e, t, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for a usage;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity that used an entity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">) for the  entity being used;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.time"><span class="insert">time</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> "usage time" (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">t</span></span><span class="insert">), the time at which the entity started to be used;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this usage.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#usage.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#usage.entity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#usage.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-A reference to a given entity </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> appear in multiple usages that share
- a given activity identifier. 
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 20</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-usage"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following usages</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  used(a1, e1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ ex:parameter="p1" ])
-  used(a1, e2, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [ ex:parameter="p2" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">state that the activity identified by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> used two entities identified by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">, at times </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span></span><span class="insert"> and</span>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span></span><span class="insert">, respectively; the first
-one was found as the value of parameter </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">p1</span></span><span class="insert">, whereas the second was found as value of parameter </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">p2</span></span><span class="insert">.  The semantics of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">parameter</span></span><span class="insert"> is application specific.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Communication" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Communication</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-communication"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the exchange of some unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </span></div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A communication implies that activity  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert"> is dependent on another </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and used by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-wasInformedBy"><span class="insert">
-A </span><dfn title="wasInformedBy" id="dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">communication</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinformedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written as 
-</span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(id; a2, a1, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has: 
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="communication.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier  identifying the relation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed"><span class="insert">informed</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">) of the informed activity;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant"><span class="insert">informant</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">) of the informant activity;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this communication.</span></li>
-</ul>
+<div id="expression-influence" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</h4>
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-influenceExpression" name="prod-influenceExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">22</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">influenceExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"influence"</span><span class="insert">"wasInfluencedBy"</span> "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Influence maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Influence</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.id"><span class="attribute" id="influence.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencee"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencee">influencee</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencer"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencer">influencer</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="influence.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 21</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-communication"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Consider two activities  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a1, [ prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing" ])
-activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine paying, check writing, and mailing" ])
-wasInformedBy(a2, a1)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and used by  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
-</span></div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Start" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.6 </span></span><span class="insert">Start</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is when an activity is deemed to have started.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage or generation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to an entity, known as </span><dfn id="concept-start-trigger" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">trigger</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-trigger"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">, that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as </span><dfn id="concept-start-starter" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">starter</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-starter"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">, that generated the trigger. </span></div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-start"><span class="insert">An activity </span><dfn title="wasStartedBy" id="dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">start</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasstartedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for the activity start;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">) for the started activity;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">) for the entity triggering the activity;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.starter"><span class="insert">starter</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.time"><span class="insert">time</span></span><span class="insert">: the </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> time (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">t</span></span><span class="insert">) at which the activity was started; </span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity start.
-</span></li></ul>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_27"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_27">Example <span class="delete">25</span><span class="insert">27</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">influence(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span>
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here
+    <span class="name">id</span> is the optional influence identifier,
+  <span class="name">e2</span> is an entity identifier,
+  <span class="name">e1</span> is the identifier for an ancestor entity that   <span class="name">e2</span> depends on,
+  and <span class="name">[ex:param="a"]</span> is the optional set of attributes. </p>
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+
+  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">influence(e2,e1)
+influence(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
+influence(id;</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1)
+wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
+wasInfluencedBy(id;</span> e2,e1)
+</pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#start.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#start.trigger"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#start.starter"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">starter</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#start.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#start.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 22</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following example contains the description of an activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> (a discussion), which was started at a specific time, and was triggered by an email message </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1, [ prov:type="email message"] )
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="Discuss" ])
-wasStartedBy(a1, e1, -, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-Furthermore, if the message is also an input to the activity, this can be described as follows:
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(a1, e1, -)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">Alternatively, one can also describe the activity that generated the email message.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a0, [ prov:type="Write" ])
-wasGeneratedBy(e1, a0)
-wasStartedBy(a1, e1, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">If </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> is not known, it would also have valid to write:
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(a1, -, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 23</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In the following example, a race is started by a bang, and responsibility for this trigger is attributed to an agent 
- </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Bob</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(ex:foot_race)
-entity(ex:bang)
-wasStartedBy(ex:foot_race, ex:bang, -, 2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00)
-agent(ex:Bob)
-wasAttributedTo(ex:bang, ex:Bob)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 24</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start3"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In this example, filling fuel was started as a consequence of
-observing low fuel. The trigger entity is unspecified, it could
-for instance have been the low fuel warning light, the fuel tank
-indicator needle position, or the engine not running properly.
-
-
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample" id="anexample-start4"><span class="insert">activity(ex:filling-fuel)
-activity(ex:observing-low-fuel)
-
-agent(ex:driver, [ prov:type='prov:Person'  )
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:filling-fuel, ex:driver)
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:observing-low-fuel, ex:driver)
-
-wasStartedBy(ex:filling-fuel, -, ex:observing-low-fuel, -)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The relations wasStartedBy and used are orthogonal, and thus need to be expressed independently, according to the situation being described.</span></p>
-
 </div>
 
-<div id="term-End" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.7 </span></span><span class="insert">End</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is when an activity is deemed to have ended.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to an entity, known as </span><dfn id="concept-end-trigger" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">trigger</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-trigger"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">, that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as </span><dfn id="concept-end-ender" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">ender</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-ender"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> that generated the trigger. </span></div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-end"><span class="insert">An activity </span><dfn title="wasEndedBy" id="dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">end</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasendedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withAsn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for the activity end;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">) for the ended activity;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">) for the entity triggering the activity ending;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="end.ender"><span class="insert">ender</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.time"><span class="insert">time</span></span><span class="insert">: the </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> time (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">t</span></span><span class="insert">) at which the activity was ended; </span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity end.
-</span></li></ul>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#end.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#end.trigger"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#end.ender"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">ender</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#end.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#end.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 25</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-end"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following example is a description of an activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> (editing) that was ended following an approval document </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1, [ prov:type="approval document" ])
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="Editing" ])
-wasEndedBy(a1, e1)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Invalidation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.8 </span></span><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></h4>
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-invalidation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</span></div>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Entities have a duration. Generation marks the beginning of an entity, whereas invalidation marks its end. 
-An entity's lifetime can end for different reasons:</span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert"> an entity was destroyed: e.g. a painting was destroyed by fire; a Web page is taken out of a site;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> an entity was consumed: e.g. Bob ate all his soup, Alice ran out of gas when driving to work;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> an entity expires: e.g. a "buy one beer, get one free" offer is valid during happy hour (7-8pm);
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> an entity is time limited: e.g. the BBC news site on April 3rd, 2012;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> an entity attribute is changing: e.g. the traffic light changed from green to red.
-</span></li></ul>
-<p><span class="insert">In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the last three cases, there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the traffic light became red and therefore is regarded as a different entity to the green light.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-invalidation"><dfn title="wasInvalidatedBy" id="dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for a invalidation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span><span class="insert">:  an identifier for the invalidated entity; </span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for the activity that invalidated the entity;</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time"><span class="insert">time</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> "invalidation time", the time at which the entity began to be invalidated;</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this invalidation.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 26</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-<em><span class="insert">The Painter</span></em><span class="insert">, a Picasso painting, is known to have been destroyed in a </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_artworks#20th_century"><span class="insert">plane accident</span></a><span class="insert">.
-
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:The-Painter)
-agent(ex:Picasso)
-wasAttributedTo(ex:The-Painter, ex:Picasso)
-activity(ex:crash)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:The-Painter, ex:crash, 1998-09-03T01:31:00, [ ex:circumstances="plane accident" ])
-</span></pre>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 27</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:bbcNews2012-04-03</span></span><span class="insert">
-contained a reference to a given news item
- </span><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-17595024"><span class="insert">bbc:news/uk-17595024</span></a><span class="insert">,
-but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03)
-memberOf(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, {bbc:news/uk-17595024})
-wasGeneratedBy  (ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T00:00:01)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T23:59:59)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-
-We refer to example
-</span><a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 42</span></span></a><span class="insert">
- for further descriptions of the BBC Web site, and to  </span><a href="#term-dictionary-membership"><span class="insert">Section 5.6.5</span></a><span class="insert"> for a description of the relation </span><a title="memberOf" href="#dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">memberOf</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 28</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation3"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In this example, the  "buy one beer, get one free" offer expired at the end of the happy hour.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-wasAttributedTo(proprietor)
-wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 -,2012-03-10T18:00:00)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">In contrast, in the following descriptions, Bob redeemed the offer 45 minutes before it expired, and got two beers.  
-</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-wasAttributedTo(proprietor)
-activity(redeemOffer)
-entity(twoBeers)
-
-wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer,bob)
-used(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-     redeemOffer, 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
-wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 redeemOffer, 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
-wasGeneratedBy(twoBeers,redeemOffer)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">We see that the offer was both used to be converted into </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">twoBeers</span></span><span class="insert"> and invalidated by the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">redeemOffer</span></span><span class="insert"> activity: in other words, the combined usage and invalidation indicate consumption of the offer.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="component2" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 2: Derivations</span></h3>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The second component of PROV-DM is concerned with: </span><a title="derivation" href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivations</span></a><span class="insert"> of </span><a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">entities</span></a><span class="insert"> from other entities and derivation subtypes </span><a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Revision</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a><span class="insert">.
- </span><a href="#figure-component2"><span class="insert">Figure 6</span></a><span class="insert"> depicts the third component
-with PROV core structures in the yellow area, including two classes
-(</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">) and binary association
-(</span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a><span class="insert">). PROV extended structures are found outside this
-area. UML association classes express expanded n-ary relations.
-The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that the corresponding types are valid values for the attribute </span><a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure">
-
-<img src="uml/component2.png" alt="derivation">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component2"><span class="insert">Figure 6: Derivation Component Overview</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Derivation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-derivation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</span></div>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">According to </span><a href="#section-prov-overview"><span class="insert">Section 2</span></a><span class="insert">, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
-underpinning activities performing the necessary actions resulting in such a derivation.  
-A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates two entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this activity can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the generated and used entities, respectively, can be provided, so as to make the derivation path, through usage, activity, and generation, explicit.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </span></p>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivation"><span class="insert">A </span><dfn title="wasDerivedFrom" id="dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression" id="pn-wasDerivedFrom"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier  for a derivation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="insert">generatedEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">) of the entity generated by the derivation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity"><span class="insert">usedEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">) of the entity used by the derivation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation"><span class="insert">generation</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert">) for the generation involving the generated entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">) and activity;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage"><span class="insert">usage</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the usage involving the used entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">) and activity;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 29</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following descriptions are about derivations between  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> and  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [ prov:type="physical transform" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The following description expresses that activity  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">, 
-using the entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> according to usage </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">,
- derived the
-entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> and generated it according to generation
- </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert">. It is followed by descriptions for generation </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert"> and usage </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasGeneratedBy(g2; e2, a, -)
-used(u1; a, e1, -)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the original entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</span></p>
-</div>
+<div id="component4" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
+
+<div id="expression-bundle-constructor" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">Constructor</span></h4>
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namedBundle" name="prod-namedBundle"></a>[<span class="prodNo">23</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namedBundle</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"bundle" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations">namespaceDeclarations</a></span>)? (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></span>)* "endBundle"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Named bundles cannot be nested because </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is not an </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code><span class="insert">, and therefore cannot occurs inside another </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that bundle. In other words, for every identifier with a prefix </span><code><span class="insert">p</span></code><span class="insert"> within a named bundle, there </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a namespace declaration for </span><code><span class="insert">p</span></code><span class="insert"> in this named bundled; for every identifier  without prefix, there </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a default namespace declaration  in this named bundled.</span></p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_28"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_28">Example <span class="delete">26</span><span class="insert">28</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:author-view<span class="insert">
+  prefix ex  &lt;http://example.org/&gt;</span>
+  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+  <span class="delete">...</span><span class="insert">//...</span>
+endBundle
+  </pre>
+<p> Here  <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is the name of the bundle.
+ 
+</p>
 
 
 
 
 </div>
 
-<div id="term-revision" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Revision</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">revision</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-revision"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </span></span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-  The implication here is that
-     the resulting entity contains substantial content from the
-     original.
-Revision is a particular case of </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert"> of an entity into its revised version.
-The type is of a revision derivation is denoted by:
-</span><dfn title="Revision" id="dfn-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Revision</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-revision"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-revision"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 30</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-revision"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Revisiting the example of </span><a href="#section-example-two"><span class="insert">Section 4.2</span></a><span class="insert">,
-we can now state that the report 
- </span><span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> <span class="insert">was a revision of 
- the report </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'  ])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'  ])
-wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, 
-               tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, 
-               [ prov:type='prov:Revision' ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>  
-
-<div id="term-quotation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></h4>
-
-<p> 
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">quotation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-quotation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  is <span class="insert">the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone who may or may not be its original author. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Quotation
- is </span>a <span class="delete">specialization of </span><span class="insert">particular case of  </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert"> in which an entity is derived from an original entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
-The type is of a quotation derivation is denoted by:
-</span><dfn title="Quotation" id="dfn-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="delete">tr:prov-dm</span><span class="insert">prov:Quotation</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-quotation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>.
-</p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-quotation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 31</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-quotation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following paragraph is a quote from one of  </span><a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/"><span class="insert">the author's blogs</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><blockquote id="bl-dagstuhl"><em><span class="insert">
-"During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.  This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across systems and through databases and be able to understand the mathematical properties of this interconnection."</span></em>
-</blockquote>
-<p><span class="insert">If </span><a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/"><span class="name"><span class="insert">wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/</span></span></a><span class="insert"> denotes the original blog by agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Paul</span></span><span class="insert">, and 
- </span><a href="#bl-dagstuhl"><span class="name"><span class="insert">dm:bl-dagstuhl</span></span></a><span class="insert"> denotes the above paragraph, then the following descriptions express that the above paragraph was copied by agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Luc</span></span><span class="insert"> from a part of the blog, attributed to the agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Paul</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/)
-entity(dm:bl-dagstuhl)
-agent(ex:Luc)
-agent(ex:Paul)
-wasDerivedFrom(dm:bl-dagstuhl,
-               wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/,
-               [ prov:type='prov:Quotation' ])
-wasAttributedTo(dm:bl-dagstuhl, ex:Luc)
-wasAttributedTo(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/, ex:Paul)
-</span></pre>
-
-</div>
-
-
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="term-primary-source" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></h4>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">primary source</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-primary-source"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Because of the directness
-of </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_source"><span class="insert">primary
-sources</span></a><span class="insert">, they "speak for themselves" in ways that cannot be
-captured through the filter of secondary sources. As such, it is
-important for secondary sources to reference those primary sources
-from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be
-investigated.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">primary source</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-primary-source"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation is a particular case of </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert"> of
-secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that
-the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and
-should be done according to conventions accepted within the
-application's domain. 
-The type is of a  primary source derivation is denoted by:
-</span><dfn title="PrimarySource" id="dfn-primarysource" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:PrimarySource</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-primarysource"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-primary-source1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 32</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-primary-source1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Let us consider Charles Joseph Minard's flow map of Napoleon's March in
-1812, which was published in 1869. Although the map is not a primary source,
-Minard probably used the journal of Pierre-Irénée Jacob, pharmacist
-to Napoleon's army during the Russian campaign. This primary source relation
-can be encoded as follows.</span></p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813, [ prov:type="map" ])
-entity(ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII, [ prov:type="journal" ])
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813,
-               ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII,
-               [ prov:type='prov:PrimarySource' ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>  
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="component3" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The second component of PROV-DM, depicted in  </span><a href="#figure-component3"><span class="insert">Figure 7</span></a><span class="insert">, is concerned with </span><a title="agent" href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">agents</span></a><span class="insert"> and the notions of
-</span><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Association</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a><span class="insert">, relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.
- Core structures are displayed in the yellow area and include three classes and three binary associations. Outside the yellow area, extended structures comprise and UML association classes to express expanded n-ary relations, and subclasses </span><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Plan</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Person</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">SofwareAgent</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Organization</span></a><span class="insert">. The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that that these are valid values for the attribute </span><a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></a>
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure">
-
-<img src="uml/component3.png" alt="agents and responsibilities">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component3"><span class="insert">Figure 7: Agents and Responsibility Overview</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Component 3 further defines a general notion of </span><a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">influence</span></a><span class="insert">, as a super-relation of all relations defined so far. </span><a href="#figure-component3b"><span class="insert">Figure 7b</span></a><span class="insert"> displays one new association class, generalizing previously introduced associations.</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure">
-<img src="uml/Component3b.png" alt="Influence">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component3b"><span class="insert">Figure 7b: Influence</span></span></p>
-</span>
 </div>
-
-<div id="term-agent" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.3.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Agent</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><dfn id="concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">agent</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-agent"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </span></div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-agent"><span class="insert">An </span><dfn title="dfn-agent" id="dfn-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">agent</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-agent"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression" id="pn-agent"><span class="insert">agent(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="agent.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier for an agent;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: a set of attribute-value pairs ((</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attr1</span></span><span class="insert">, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">val1</span></span><span class="insert">), ...) representing additional information about this agent.
-</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-
-It is useful to define some basic categories of agents from an interoperability perspective.
-There are three types of agents that are common across most anticipated domains of use; it is acknowledged that these types do not cover all kinds of agent. </span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="name"><span class="insert">SoftwareAgent</span></span>
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-software-agent" title="software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">software agent</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-software-agent"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  is running software. </span></div>
-
-<p></p></li>
-
-<li><span class="name"><span class="insert">Organization</span></span>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   Agents of type </span><dfn id="concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Organization</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-organization"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  are social or legal institutions such as companies, societies, etc. </span></div>
-
-<p></p></li>
-
-<li><span class="name"><span class="insert">Person</span></span>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   Agents of type </span><dfn id="concept-person" title="person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Person</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-person"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  are people. </span></div></li> 
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_33"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 33</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_33"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following expression is about an agent identified by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">, which is a person, named Alice, with employee number 1234.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">agent(e1, [ex:employee="1234", ex:name="Alice", prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">It is optional to specify the type of an agent. When present, it is expressed using the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
- 
-
-
-<div id="term-attribution" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.5.3</span><span class="insert">5.3.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Attribution</span></h4> 
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-attribution"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </span></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">When an entity  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert"> is attributed to agent  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag</span></span><span class="insert">, entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert"> was generated by some unspecified activity that in turn was associated to agent  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag</span></span><span class="insert">. Thus, this relation is useful when the activity is not known, or irrelevant.</span></p>
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-attribution"><span class="insert">An </span><dfn title="wasAttributedTo" id="dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">attribution</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasattributedto"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for the relation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span><span class="insert">: an entity identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag</span></span><span class="insert">) of the agent whom the entity is ascribed to, and therefore bears some responsibility for its existence;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this attribution.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-attribution"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 34</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-attribution"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Revisiting the example of 
-</span><a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-one"><span><span class="insert">Section 4.1</span></span></a><span class="insert">,
-we can ascribe </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></span><span class="insert"> to some agents without an explicit activity. The reserved attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">role</span></span><span class="insert"> (see </span><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.3</span></span></a><span class="insert">) allows for role of the agent in the attribution to be specified.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
-wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="editorship" ])
-wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Simon, [ prov:type="authorship" ])
-</span></pre>
 </div>
 
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="term-Association" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.3.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Association</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An activity </span><dfn id="concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">association</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-activityAssociation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity. </span></div>
-
-<p></p>
-<div class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">plan</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-plan"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </span></div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity-association"><span class="insert">An </span><dfn title="wasAssociatedWith" id="dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">activity association</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(id; a, ag, pl, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for the association between an activity and an agent;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag</span></span><span class="insert">) for the agent associated with the activity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.plan"><span class="insert">plan</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">pl</span></span><span class="insert">) for the plan adopted by the agent in the context of this activity;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this association of this activity with this agent.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#association.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#association.agent"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a><span class="insert">,  </span><a href="#association.plan"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">plan</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#association.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 35</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">In the following example, a designer agent and an operator agent are associated with an activity. The designer's goals are achieved by a workflow </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:wf</span></span><span class="insert">, described as an an entity of type </span><span class="name"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">plan</span></a></span><span class="insert">.   </span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
-agent(ex:ag1,  [ prov:type="operator" ])
-agent(ex:ag2,  [ prov:type="designer" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag1, -,     [ prov:role="loggedInUser", ex:how="webapp" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag2, ex:wf, [ prov:role="designer", ex:context="project1" ])
-entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' , 
-                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-                prov:location="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI ])
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-Since the workflow </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:wf</span></span><span class="insert"> is itself an entity, its provenance can also be expressed in PROV-DM: it can be generated by some activity and derived from other entities,
-for instance.
-</span></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 36</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">In some cases, one wants to indicate a plan was followed, without having to specify which agent was involved.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, -, ex:wf)
-entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan', 
-                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-                ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI])
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-In this case, it is assumed that an agent exists, but it has not been specified.
-</span></div>
-
-
-
-
-</div>  
-
-<div id="term-delegation" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.3.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-delegation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work. </span></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">For example, a
-student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the
-department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those
-agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but
-we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what
-degree. </span></p>
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-delegation"><span class="insert">
-A </span><dfn title="actedOnBehalfOf" id="dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">delegation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> link</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(id; ag2, ag1, a, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier for the delegation link between delegate and responsible;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate"><span class="insert">delegate</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag2</span></span><span class="insert">) for the agent associated with an activity, acting on behalf of the responsible
-agent;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible"><span class="insert">responsible</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the agent,  on behalf of which the delegate agent acted;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">) of an activity for which the delegation link holds;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this delegation link.</span></li>
-</ul></div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_37"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 37</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_37"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following fragment describes three agents: a programmer, a researcher, and a funder.  The programmer and researcher are associated with a workflow activity.  The programmer acts on behalf
-of the researcher (line-management) encoding the commands specified by the researcher; the researcher acts on behalf of the funder, who has a contractual agreement with the researcher. The terms
-'line-management' and 'contract' used in this example are domain specific.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a,[ prov:type="workflow" ])
-agent(ag1, [ prov:type="programmer" ])
-agent(ag2, [ prov:type="researcher" ])
-agent(ag3, [ prov:type="funder" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag1, [ prov:role="loggedInUser" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag2)
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag3)
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a, [ prov:type="line-management" ])
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [ prov:type="contract" ])
-</span></pre>
+<div id="component5" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</h3>
+<div id="expression-alternate" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Alternate</h4>
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-alternateExpression" name="prod-alternateExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">24</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">alternateExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"alternateOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Alternate maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Alternate</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate1"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1">alternate1</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate2"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2">alternate2</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+</tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-influence" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.3.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Influence</span></h4>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-influence" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Influence</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-influence"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the capacity an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert"> An influence relation between two objects </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o2</span></span><span class="insert"> and  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o1</span></span><span class="insert"> is a generic dependency of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o2</span></span><span class="insert">
-on  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o1</span></span><span class="insert"> that signifies some form of influence of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o1</span></span><span class="insert"> on </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><dfn title="wasInfluencedBy" id="dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Influence</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(id; o2, o1, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:</span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="influence.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier identifying the relation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencee"><span class="insert">influencee</span></span><span class="insert">:  an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o2</span></span><span class="insert">) for an entity, activity, or agent;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencer"><span class="insert">influencer</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">o1</span></span><span class="insert">) for an ancestor entity, activity, or agent that the former depends on;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="influence.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">start</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">end</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">communication</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">attribution</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">association</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">delegation</span></a><span class="insert"> are particular cases of  influence. It is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="recommended"><span class="insert">recommended</span></em><span class="insert"> to adopt these more specific relations when writing provenance descriptions. It is anticipated that the </span><a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Influence</span></a><span class="insert"> relation may be useful to express queries over provenance information.
-</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_38"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 38</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_38"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">We refer to the example of </span><a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-two"><span><span class="insert">Section 4.2</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and specifically to </span><a href="#prov-a-document2-top"><span class="insert">Figure 3</span></a><span class="insert">.
-We could have expressed that the influence of
-</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">w3:Consortium</span></span><span class="insert"> 
-on </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> wasInfluencedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-Instead, it is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="recommended"><span class="insert">recommended</span></em><span class="insert"> to express the more specific description:
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
+<div class="anexample" id="example_29"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_29">Example <span class="delete">27</span><span class="insert">29</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex:alternate-20111215)
+</pre>
+  Here  <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is alternate for   <span class="name">ex:alternate-20111215</span>.
 </div>
 
 
 </div>
-
-
-
-<div id="component4" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 4: Bundles</span></h3>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The fourth component of PROV-DM is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance. 
-</span><a href="#figure-component4"><span class="insert">Figure 8</span></a><span class="insert">  depicts a UML class diagram for the fourth component.  It comprises a </span><a href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Bundle</span></a><span class="insert"> class defined as a subclass of </span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure">
-
-<img src="uml/component4.png" alt="bundles">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component4"><span class="insert">Figure 8: Bundle Component Overview</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="term-bundle" class="section"> 
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.4.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle constructor</span></h4>
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn id="concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundle</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-bundle"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.  </span></span>
- </p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-bundle"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn title="dfn-bundle" id="dfn-bundle-declaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundle constructor</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-bundle-declaration"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  allows the content and the name of a bundle to be specified; it is written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</span></span><span class="insert"> and consists of:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="bundle.declaration.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an identifier for the bundle;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="bundle.declaration.descriptions"><span class="insert">descriptions</span></span><span class="insert">: a set of provenance descriptions </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">
-description_1</span></span><span class="insert">, ..., </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">description_n</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></li>
-</ul>
-<p><span class="insert">A bundle's identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert"> identifies a unique set of descriptions.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">There may be other kinds of bundles not directly expressible by this constructor, such as napkin, whiteboard, etc.  What ever the means by which bundles are expressed, all can be described, as in the following section.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-bundle-entity" class="section"> 
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle Type</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A  bundle is a named set of descriptions, but it is also an entity so that its provenance can be described.  </span></p><span class="insert">
-
-PROV defines the following type for bundles:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span><span class="insert"> is the type that denotes </span><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundles</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-A  bundle description is of the form </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">entity(id,[prov:type='prov:Bundle', attr1=val1, ...])</span></span><span class="insert">
-where </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert"> is  an identifier denoting a bundle,
- a type </span><span><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span><span class="insert"> and
-an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set of attribute-value  pairs ((</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attr1</span></span><span class="insert">, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">val1</span></span><span class="insert">), ...) representing additional information about this bundle.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The provenance of provenance can then be described using PROV constructs, as illustrated by
-</span><a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 39</span></span></a><span class="insert">
-and
-</span><a href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 40</span></span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 39</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Let us consider two entities </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Let us assume that Bob observed the creation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-A first bundle can be expressed.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle bob:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">In contrast,
-Alice observed the creation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert"> and its derivation from </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-A separate bundle can also be expressed.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle alice:bundle2
-  entity(ex:report1)
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The first bundle contains the descriptions corresponding to  Bob observing the creation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">. Its provenance can be described as follows.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-entity(bob:bundle1, [prov:type='prov:Bundle'])
-wasGeneratedBy(bob:bundle1, -, 2012-05-24T10:30:00)
-wasAttributedTo(bob:bundle1, ex:Bob)
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">In contrast, the second bundle is attributed to Alice who
-observed the derivation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert"> from </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-entity(alice:bundle2, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasGeneratedBy(alice:bundle2, -, 2012-05-25T11:15:00)
-wasAttributedTo(alice:bundle2, ex:Alice)
-</span></pre>
+<div id="expression-specialization" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Specialization</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-specializationExpression" name="prod-specializationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">25</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">specializationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"specializationOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Specialization maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Specialization</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+</tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-aggregation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 40</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A provenance aggregator could merge two bundles, resulting in a novel bundle, whose provenance is described as follows.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle agg:bundle3
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-
-entity(agg:bundle3, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-agent(ex:aggregator01, [ prov:type='ex:Aggregator' ])
-wasAttributedTo(agg:bundle3, ex:aggregator01)
-wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, bob:bundle1)
-wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, alice:bundle2)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The new bundle is given a new identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">agg:bundle3</span></span><span class="insert"> and is attributed to the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:aggregator01</span></span><span class="insert"> agent.
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div> 
-
-
-<div id="component5" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 5: Alternate Entities</span></h3>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The fifth component of PROV-DM is concerned with
-relations </span><a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">specialization</span></a><span class="insert"> and </span><a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">alternate</span></a><span class="insert"> between entities.
- </span><a href="#figure-component5"><span class="insert">Figure 9</span></a><span class="insert"> depicts
-the fifth component with a single class,  two binary associations, and a ternary association.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure">
-
-<img src="uml/component5.png" alt="alternates">
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component5"><span class="insert">Figure 9: Alternates Component Overview</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Two provenance descriptions about the same thing may emphasize differents aspects of that thing.</span></p>
-<div class="anexample" id="entity-example1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 41</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">User Alice writes an article. In its provenance, she wishes to refer to the precise version of the article with a date-specific IRI, as she might edit the article later. Alternatively, user Bob refers to the article in general, independently of its variants over time.</span></p>
-</div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The PROV data model introduces relations, called specialization and alternate
-that allow entities  to be linked together. They are defined as follows. </span></p>
-
-
-<div id="term-specialization" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.5.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Specialization</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An entity that is a </span><dfn id="concept-specialization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">specialization</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-specialization"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> of another shares all aspects of the latter, and additionally presents more specific aspects of the same thing as the latter. In particular, the lifetime of the entity being specialized  contains that of any specialization. </span></span> 
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Examples of aspects include a time period, an abstraction, and a context associated with the entity.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-specialization"><span class="insert">A </span><dfn title="specializationOf" id="dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">specialization</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-specializationof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  relation</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">specializationOf(infra, supra)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">infra</span></span><span class="insert">)
-of the entity that is a specialization of the general entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">supra</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity"><span class="insert">generalEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">supra</span></span><span class="insert">) of the entity that is being specialized.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-specialization"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 42</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-specialization"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The BBC news home page on 2012-03-23 </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span></span><span class="insert">
-is a specialization of the BBC news page in general
- </span><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/"><span class="insert">bbc:news/</span></a><span class="insert">. This can be expressed as follows.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">specializationOf(ex:bbcNews2012-03-23, bbc:news/)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-We have created a new qualified name,  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span></span><span class="insert">, in the namespace </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex</span></span><span class="insert">, to identify the specific page carrying this day's news, which would otherwise be the generic  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">bbc:news/</span></span><span class="insert"> page.
-</span></div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-alternate" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.5.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Alternate</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   Two </span><dfn id="concept-alternate" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">alternate</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-alternate"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> entities present aspects of the same thing. These aspects may be the same or different, and the alternate entities may or may not overlap in time.  </span></span>
-
-
-  
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-alternate"><span class="insert">An </span><dfn title="alternateOf" id="dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">alternate</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-alternateof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">alternateOf(e1, e2)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1"><span class="insert">alternate1</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">) of the first of the two entities;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2"><span class="insert">alternate2</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">) of the second of the two entities.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 43</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-A given news item on the BBC News site 
- </span><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723"><span class="insert">bbc:news/science-environment-17526723</span></a><span class="insert"> for desktop
-is an alternate of a 
- </span><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile/science-environment-17526723"><span class="insert">bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723</span></a><span class="insert"> for mobile devices.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, 
-       [ prov:type="a news item for desktop"])
-entity(bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723, 
-       [ prov:type="a news item for mobile devices"])
-alternateOf(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, 
-            bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 44</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Considering again the two versions of the technical report </span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (second working draft) and </span><span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></a></span></span><span class="insert"> (first working draft). They are alternate of each other.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">They are both specialization of the page </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_30"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_30">Example <span class="delete">28</span><span class="insert">30</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">specializationOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,tr:prov-dm)
+</pre>
+    Here  <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is a specialization of <span class="name">tr:prov-dm</span>.
 </div>
 
 </div>
 
 
-<div id="term-mention" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.5.3</span> </span>Mention</h4>
+
+<div id="expression-mention" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span>Mention</h4>
 
 <div class="note">
-<span class="insert">This construct is a </span><b><span class="insert">FEATURE AT RISK</span></b><span class="insert">. 
-</span></div>
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">Note: This feature</span><span class="insert">The following notion</span> is <span class="delete">"</span><span class="delete">at risk</span><span class="delete">"</span><span class="insert">a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle. </span></p> 
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   The </span><dfn id="concept-mention" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">mention</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-mention"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> of an entity in a bundle (containing a description of this entity) is another entity that is a specialization of the former</span> and <span class="delete">may be removed from</span><span class="insert">that presents the bundle as a further additional aspect. </span></span>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-An entity is interpreted with respect to a bundle's description in a
-domain specific manner.  The mention of</span> this <span class="delete">specification based on feedback. Please send feedback</span><span class="insert">entity with respect</span> to<span class="delete"> [email protected]</span><span class="insert">
-this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some
-domain-specific interpretation.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A mention of an entity in a bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the  bundle that it is described in. 
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-mention"><span class="insert">A </span><dfn title="mentionOf" id="dfn-mentionof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">mention</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-mentionof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  relation</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">mentionOf(infra, supra, b)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">infra</span></span><span class="insert">)
-of the entity that is a mention of the general entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">supra</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity"><span class="insert">generalEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">supra</span></span><span class="insert">) of the entity that is being mentioned.</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">b</span></span><span class="insert">) of a bundle that contains a description of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">supra</span></span><span class="insert"> and further constitutes one additional aspect presented by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">infra</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-mention-rating"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 45</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-mention-rating"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">In the following example, two bundles </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run2</span></span><span class="insert"> refer to an agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Bob</span></span><span class="insert"> that controlled two activities </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a2</span></span><span class="insert">. </span></p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:run1
-    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1,ex:Bob,[prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-
-bundle ex:run2
-    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00,2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2,ex:Bob,[prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-</span></pre> 
-<p><span class="insert">A performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. </span>The <span class="delete">expression Mention</span><span class="insert">performance rating tool creates a new bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:analysis01</span></span><span class="insert"> containing the following. A new agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span></span><span class="insert"> is declared as a mention of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Bob</span></span><span class="insert"> as described in</span>  <span class="delete">might</span><span class="insert">bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run1</span></span><span class="insert">, and likewise for  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span></span><span class="insert"> with respect to </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run2</span></span><span class="insert">. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to</span> be <span class="delete">removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems</span><span class="insert">good since the duration of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a2</span></span><span class="insert">'s duration is seven hours.
-
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle tool:analysis01
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
-    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
-
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
-    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="aexample-mention-viz"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 46</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#aexample-mention-viz"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle obs:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [prov:type="report", ex:version=1])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1,-,2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-  entity(ex:report2, [prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2,-,2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-Bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">obs:bundle1</span></span><span class="insert"> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the tool configuration for this bundle to be shared along</span> with <span class="delete">supporting this construct.</span><span class="insert">the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle tool:bundle2
-  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
-
-  entity(tool:report1, [viz:color="orange"])
-  mentionOf(tool:report1, obs:bundle1, ex:report1)
-
-  entity(tool:report2, [viz:color="blue"])              
-  mentionOf(tool:report2, obs:bundle1, ex:report2)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">In bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:bundle2</span></span><span class="insert">, the prefix </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">viz</span></span><span class="insert"> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:bundle2</span></span><span class="insert"> is given type </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">viz:Configuration</span></span><span class="insert"> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
-</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The visualisation tool
- created  new identifiers </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:report1</span></span><span class="insert"> and
-</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:report2</span></span><span class="insert">.
-They denote entities which are specializations of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert">, described in bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">obs:bundle1</span></span><span class="insert">, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">26</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">mentionExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"mentionOf" "(" </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">bIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
+<p>Note: This feature is "<a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">at risk</a>" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</p>
+
+
+<p>The expression Mention   might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
 </div>
 
-<div id="component6" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 6: Collections</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The sixth component of PROV-DM is concerned with the notion of collections. 
-A collection is an entity that has some members. The members are themselves entities, and therefore their provenance can be expressed. Some applications need to be able to express the provenance of the collection  itself: e.g. who maintains the collection (attribution), which members it contains as it evolves, and how it was assembled. The purpose of Component 6 is to define the types and relations that are useful to express the provenance of collections.  </span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#figure-component6"><span class="insert">Figure 10</span></a><span class="insert"> depicts
-the sixth component with two  new classes (Collection, Empty Collection) and one association (MemberOf).
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure" style="max-width: 95%; ">
-<img src="uml/component6.png" alt="collection">
-
-<p><span class="figcaption" id="figure-component6"><span class="insert">Figure 10: Collections Component Overview</span></span></p>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="term-collection" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection</span></h4>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">collection</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-collection"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be </span><dfn id="dfn-member-of" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">member of</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-member-of"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> the collections.  </span></span>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><dfn id="concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">empty collection</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-empty-collection"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a collection without members.  </span></span>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">PROV-DM defines the following types related to collections:</span></p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li> <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span><span class="insert">  denotes an entity of type Collection, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst collections;
-
-  </span></li><li><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyCollection</span></span><span class="insert"> denotes an empty collection.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_47"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 47</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_47"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(c0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ])  // c0 is an empty collection
-entity(c1, [prov:type='prov:Collection'  ])      // c1 is a collection, with unknown content
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-collection-membership" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection Memberhsip</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><strong><span class="insert">collection membership</span></strong><span class="insert"> relation is defined, to allow stating the  members of a Collection. </span></p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"> <dfn id="concept-collection-membership" title="collection membership" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Membership</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-collection-membership"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the belonging of an entity  to a collection. </span></span>
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn title="memberOf" id="dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">membership</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-memberof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">memberOf(id; c, {e_1, ..., e_n}, cplt, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert">, has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier identifying the relation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.collection"><span class="insert">collection</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">c</span></span><span class="insert">) for the collection whose members are asserted; </span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.entity-set"><span class="insert">entity-set</span></span><span class="insert">: a set of entities  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e_1</span></span><span class="insert">, ..., </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e_n</span></span><span class="insert"> that are members of the collection;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> boolean 
-</span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">cplt</span></span><span class="insert">). It is interpreted as follows:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="insert">if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the entity-set;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert">if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the entity-set;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert">if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the entity-set, and it </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> include more.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="membership.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-</div>
-
-<p id="complete-attribute-note"><span class="insert">
-Note that the attribute </span><a href="#membership.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></a><span class="insert"> indicates that the </span><a title="memberOf" href="#dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">membership</span></a><span class="insert"> relation provides a complete description of the collection membership. It is possible for  different provenance descriptions to provide different membership statements regarding the same collection. </span>The <span class="delete">following table summarizes how each constituent of</span><span class="insert">resolution of any potential conflict amongst such membership statements is defined by applications.</span></p>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-  
-</div>   
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="second-class-elements" class="section">
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7 </span></span><span class="insert">Further Elements of PROV-DM</span></h3><span class="insert">
-
-This section introduces further elements of PROV-DM.
-
-
-
-
-</span><div id="term-identifier" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Identifier</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-An </span><dfn id="dfn-identifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">identifier</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-identifier"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is</span> a <a href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">qualified
- name</span></a><span class="insert">. 
-</span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-attribute" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Attribute</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">An </span><dfn title="dfn-attribute" id="dfn-attribute" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">attribute</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-attribute"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a </span><a href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">qualified name</span></a><span class="insert">. 
-
-
-</span></p><p><span class="insert">The PROV data model introduces a pre-defined set of attributes in the </span><a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">PROV namespace</span></a><span class="insert">, which we define below. 
-This specification does not provide any interpretation for any attribute declared in any other namespace.</span></p>
-
-<div id="attributes-at-a-glance-divz" style="text-align: left;">
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" name="prod-mentionExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">26</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">mentionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"mentionOf" "(" <span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> "," <span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Mention maps to a non-terminal.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="attributes-at-a-glance"><span class="insert">Table 6: </span>PROV-DM <span class="delete">Mention maps to</span><span class="insert">Attributes At</span> a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span>
-
-<span class="insert">Glance</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="delete">Mention</span><span class="insert">Attribute</span></b></td><td><b><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span><span class="insert">Allowed In</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">value</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Section</span></b></td></tr>
- 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-
-<tr><td><span class="delete">specificEntity</span><a title="label" href="#concept-label" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:label</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><em><span class="insert">any construct</span></em></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert"> of type </span><a class="section-ref" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="insert">xsd:string</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-label"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.1</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-
-
-
-<tr><td><span class="delete">generalEntity</span><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:location</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-location"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.2</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><span class="delete">bundle</span><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">bIdentifier</span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Association</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.3</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a title="type" href="#concept-type" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></a></td><td><em><span class="insert">any construct</span></em></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-type"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.4</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="value-attribute" href="#concept-value-attribute" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">prov:value</span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-value"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.5</span></span></a> </td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b>Mention</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle">bundle</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-label" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:label</span></h5>
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">    The attribute </span><dfn id="concept-label" title="label" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:label</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-label"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> provides a human-readable representation of an instance of a PROV-DM type or relation.   </span></span><span class="insert">
-The value associated with the attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:label</span></span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a string.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_48"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">29</span><span class="insert">48</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_48"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following entity is provided with a label attribute.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> entity(ex:e1, [ prov:label="This is a human-readable label" ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-location" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:location</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-location" title="location" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">location</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-location"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column.</span>  <span class="delete">mention(ex:report1_as_in_b1, ex:report1, ex:b1)   
-</span></span><span class="insert">
-As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate,
-address, landmark, and so forth. This  document does not specify how to concretely express  locations, but instead provide a mechanism to introduce locations, by means of a reserved attribute. </span></p> 
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:location</span></span><span class="insert"> is an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> attribute of </span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a><span class="insert">.  The value associated with the  attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:location</span></span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a PROV-DM </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert">, expected to denote a location.
-</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example-location"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 49</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example-location"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following expression describes entity Mona Lisa, a painting, with a location attribute. </span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> entity(ex:MonaLisa, [ prov:location="Le Louvre, Paris", prov:type="StillImage" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The following expression describes a cell, at coordinates (5,5), with value 10. </span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> entity(ex:cell, [ prov:location="(5,5)", prov:value="10" %% xsd:integer ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-role" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:role</span></h5>
-
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">role</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-role"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity, in the context of a </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">,</span>  <span class="delete">Here
-  </span><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">association</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">start</span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">end</span></a><span class="insert">. </span></span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">ex:report1_as_in_b1</span><span class="insert">prov:role</span></span> is <span class="insert">allowed to occur multiple times in a list of attribute-value pairs. The value associated with a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a PROV-DM </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-role"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 50</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-role"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following activity is associated with </span>an <span class="insert">agent acting as the operator. </span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> wasAssociatedWith(a, ag, [ prov:role="operator" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">In the following expression, the activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:div01</span></span><span class="insert"> used </span>entity <span class="delete">identifier,
-  </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">ex:report1</span><span class="insert">ex:cell</span></span><span class="insert"> in the role of divisor.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(ex:div01, ex:cell, [ prov:role="divisor" ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-attribute-type" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.4 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:type</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   The attribute </span><dfn id="concept-type" title="type" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-type"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  provides further typing information  for any construct with an optional set of attribute-value pairs. </span></span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-PROV-DM liberally
-defines a type as a category of things having common characteristics. PROV-DM</span> is <span class="insert">agnostic about the representation of types, and only states that
-the value associated with a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a PROV-DM </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value.</span></a><span class="insert"> The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert">
-is allowed to occur multiple times.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_51"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 51</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_51"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following describes </span>an <span class="delete">entity identifier,
-  </span><span class="insert">agent of type software agent.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">   agent(ag, [ prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The following types are pre-defined in PROV, and are valid values for the </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">ex:b1</span><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute.</span></p>
-
-
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-predefined-types"><span class="insert">Table 7: PROV-DM Predefined Types</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Type</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Specification</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Core concept</span></b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-bundle"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.4.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="collection" href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-collection"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.6.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="dictionary" href="#concept-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Dictionary</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-dictionary"><span><span class="insert">Section </span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="empty dictionary" href="#concept-empty-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyDictionary</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-dictionary"><span><span class="insert">Section </span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="primary source" href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:PrimarySource</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-primary-source"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.2.4</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="organization" href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Organization</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Person</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Plan</span></span></a></td> <td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-entity"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.1.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:SoftwareAgent</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="Quotation" href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Quotation</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-quotation"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.2.3</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="Revision" href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Revision</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-revision"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.2.2</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-value" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.2.5 </span></span><span class="insert">prov:value</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   The attribute </span><dfn id="concept-value-attribute" title="value-attribute" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:value</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-value-attribute"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  provides a </span><a href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert"> for an entity. </span></span></p>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:value</span></span> is <span class="delete">the identifier for</span><span class="insert">an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> attribute of entity.  The value associated with the  attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:value</span></span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be</span> a <span class="delete">bundle
-</span><span class="insert">PROV-DM </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert">. The attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:value</span></span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> occur at most once in a set of attribute-value pairs.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_52"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 52</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_52"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following example illustrates the provenance of the number </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">4</span></span><span class="insert"> obtained by an activity that computed the length of an input string </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">"abcd"</span></span><span class="insert">.
-The input and the output are expressed as entities </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:in</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:out</span></span><span class="insert">, respectively. They each have a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:value</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute associated with the corresponding value.
-</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:in, [ prov:value="abcd" ]) 
-entity(ex:out, [ prov:value=4 ]) 
-activity(ex:len, [ prov:type="string-length" ])
-used(ex:len, ex:in)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:out, ex:len)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:out, ex:in)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_31"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_31">Example <span class="delete">29</span><span class="insert">31</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">  mention(ex:report1_as_in_b1, ex:report1, ex:b1)   
+</pre>
+<p>  Here
+  <span class="name">ex:report1_as_in_b1</span> is an entity identifier,
+  <span class="name">ex:report1</span> is an entity identifier,
+  <span class="name">ex:b1</span> is the identifier for a bundle
+</p></div>
 
 
 
@@ -4684,151 +1895,189 @@
 
 
 
- 
-<span class="delete">3.6 </span><span class="delete">Component 6: Collections</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-value" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span>
-
-
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">27</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">membershipExpression</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"memberOf" "(" </span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span> <span class="delete">cIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> "," </span><span class="delete">entitySet</span> <span class="delete">complete</span> <span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> ")"</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">28</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">complete</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( "," ( "true" | "false" | "-" ) )?</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">29</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">entitySet</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"{" (</span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete">)* "}"</span>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Membership maps to a non-terminal.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Collection Membership</span><span class="delete">Non-Terminal</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">optionalIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">collection</span><span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
-
-<span class="delete">entity-set</span><span class="delete">entitySet</span>
-
-<span class="delete">complete</span><span class="delete">complete</span>
-
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 30</span>
-    <span class="delete">   memberOf(mId, c, {e1, e2, e3}, [])   // Collection membership
-  </span>
-<span class="delete">  Here
-    </span><span class="delete">mId</span><span class="delete"> is the optional membership identifier,
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection whose membership is stated,
-  </span><span class="delete"> {e1, e2, e3}</span><span class="delete"> is the entity-set indicating the members of 
-  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
-    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">  
+<div id="component6" class="section"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</h3>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<div id="expression-collection-membership" class="section">