pictures and re-worked intro (incomplete)
authorRoger Menday <roger.menday@uk.fujitsu.com>>
Mon, 28 Apr 2014 01:41:41 +0100
changeset 570 bff715c833a0
parent 568 540842f6055c
child 571 549d2075b801
pictures and re-worked intro (incomplete)
images/.DS_Store
ldp-primer/ldp-primer.html
Binary file images/.DS_Store has changed
--- a/ldp-primer/ldp-primer.html	Thu Apr 24 18:17:42 2014 +0200
+++ b/ldp-primer/ldp-primer.html	Mon Apr 28 01:41:41 2014 +0100
@@ -1,260 +1,1 @@
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    <section id='abstract'>
      This primer provides an introduction to Linked Data Platform (LDP), including the basic concepts 
      of LDP including Linked Data Platform Resource (LDPR) and Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC) 
      and their affordances, and a running example showing how an LDP client can interact with a LDP server 
      in the context of read-write Linked Data application i.e. how to HTTP for accessing, updating, 
      creating and deleting resources from servers that expose their resources as Linked Data.
    </section>
    
    <section id='sotd'>
    <p>
        This is the first draft of LDP Primer Note of W3C LDP WG.
    </p>
    </section>

    <section id="intro-section">
	<h1 id="intro">Introduction</h1>

	 <p>Linked Data is a universal approach for handling data which fundamentally includes the notion linking between data items. 
    	Much like the Web is giant network of interlinked documents for a human reader, the graph of Linked Data in the Web is a 
    	data layer on top of which applications are delivered, information is modified, processed, visualized and shared.
    </p>
    <p> Linked Data Platform specification discusses standard HTTP and RDF techniques and best practices that you should use, and 
    	anti-patterns you should avoid, when constructing clients and servers that read and write Linked Data resources. 
    </p>

	<p>The Primer aims to provide introductory examples and guidance in the use of the LDP protocol. For a systematic account the 
	reader should consult the normative LDP reference [[LDP]]. For an overview of the use cases for LDP and the elicited requirements 
	that guided its design, the reader should consult the LDP Use Cases and Requirements [[LDP-UCR]] and for best practises and guidelines, 
	the reader should consult the LDP LDP Best Practices and Guidelines document [[LDP-BP]]. </p>
    	
    <b id="conventions">Conventions Used in This Document</b>

    <p>The examples in this guide are given as a serialization of RDF graphs using the Turtle [[TURTLE]] and JSON-LD [[JSON-LD]] syntaxes of RDF.</p>

	<div class="syntaxmenu">
	<p>The buttons below can be used to show or hide the available syntaxes.</p>
	<form><p>
      <input id="hide-ts" onclick="display('turtle', 'none'); set_display_by_id('hide-ts', 'none'); set_display_by_id('show-ts', ''); return false;" type="button" value="Hide Turtle Syntax" />
      <input id="show-ts" onclick="display('turtle', ''); set_display_by_id('hide-ts', ''); set_display_by_id('show-ts', 'none'); return false;" style="display:none" type="button" value="Show Turtle Syntax" />
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    </form>
	</div>

	<p>Commonly used namespace prefixes omitted from the Turtle serialisations:</p>
	<pre style="word-wrap: break-word; white-space: pre-wrap;">	
	@prefix rdf:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
	@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
	@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
	@prefix ldp:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#&gt; .
	@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
	@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
	@prefix foaf: 	 &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
	@prefix wdrs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2007/05/powder-s#&gt; . 
	@prefix bt:      &lt;http://example.org/vocab/bugtracker#&gt; . </pre>

	<p>The JSON-LD examples refer to the following (external) context document:</p>
	<pre style="word-wrap: break-word; white-space: pre-wrap;">	
      { 
       "@context":
       {
         "rdf":     "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
         "rdfs":    "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#",
         "owl":     "http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#",
         "ldp":     "http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#",
         "xsd":     "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
         "dcterms": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
         "foaf":    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
         "wdrs":    "http://www.w3.org/2007/05/powder-s#",
         "bt":      "http://example.org/vocab/bugtracker#"
       }	
      }
	</pre>
    <p>
    
    </p>

    <h2>LDP concepts in a glance</h2>

    <p> The LDP consists of two main building blocks: Linked Data Platform Resource (LDPR) and 
        Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC).
    </p>
    
    <ul>
        <li>A Linked Data Platform Resource (LDPR) is any HTTP resource whose state is represented 
        in any way that conforms to the simple lifecycle patterns and conventions in defined in LDP Specification.</li>
        <li>A Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC) is a specialization of a LDPR representing a collection of links to LDPRs
        or information resources [[WEBARCH]] that responds to client requests for creation, modification, and/or enumeration of 
        its linked members and documents.</li>
    </ul>    
-    
-   <p class="note"> Formal definitions of two terms LDPR and LDPC and other concepts introduced by LDP can be found in the 'Terminology' section of the 
-   Linked Data Platform 1.0 specification [[LDP]] </p>
    
   <p> A server hosting LDPRs may manage two kinds of LDPRs, those resources who whose state is represented using RDF which are called LDP-RDF Sources (LDP-RS) and 
   those using other formats which are called LDP-NonRDF Sources (LDP-NR) such as html files, images, other binary files,  etc. </p>
   
   <p> A FOAF document file of a person that could be a good example of an LDP-RDF Source. When creating LDP-RSs, it is recommended that they reuse 
   existing vocabularies instead of inventing their own duplicate vocabulary terms. It is also recommended that LDP-RSs have at least one rdf:type set explicitly to 
   make the representations more useful to client applications that don’t support inferencing. For example, a FOAF file of a person as shown in Example 1 can be a LDP-RSs
   if it conforms to lifecycle patterns and conventions in defined in LDP Specification. Following the LDP Best Practices and Guidelines [[LDP-BP]], it uses terms from Dublin Core 
   [[DC-TERMS]], Friend of a Friend [[FOAF]] vocabularies.
    </p>

    <table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="nandana_foaf.png" /></td>
			<td>
		<pre title="An example LDPR" class='example' data-include='ldpr_ex.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>

    <p> An avatar image of a person hosted in the same LDP server could be an example of an LDP-NR.  These non-RDF resources also conform to the lifecycle patterns and 
    conventions defined in the LDP specification that are applicable to all LDPRs including non-RDF LDPRs such as  they must have an Etags, and must support HEAD, OPTIONS 
    operations.
    
 
	<p> Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC) is a specialization of an LDPR. An LDPC is a collection of same-subject, same-predicate triples which is uniquely identified by 
-   a URI that responds to client requests for creation, modification, and enumeration of its members. For example, may be a person wants to keep information about her friends 
-   organized as a collection of documents about those friends. This collection acts as an enumeration of links to existing documents that contain information about her friends 
-   and also can be used to create documents about new friends when necessary. Example 2 shows an example of an LDP Container.
	</p>

	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="nandana_friends.png" /></td>
			<td>
<pre title="An example LDPC" class='example' data-include='ldpc_ex.txt'	data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="roger.png" /></td>
			<td>
<pre title="A member resource of LDPC in Example 2"	class='example' data-include='ldpc_ex_m.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
-
-   <p>
-   There are three different types of LDP Containers defined in the LDP specification: Basic Containers, Direct Containers, and Indirect Containers. Example 2 shows the 
-   most simplest type that is LDP Basic Container. The other types of containers will be explained later in the primer.
-   </p>	
-   
	<p>	
		Elements of the collection of which are denoted by ldp:contains predicate shows the information documents contained by the LDP Container. These elements does not have to 
-      be LDPRs. Any HTTP resource can be contained in an LDPC. For example,
	</p>
    

	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="photos.png" /></td>
			<td>
    <pre title="An example LDPC with non-LDPRs" class='example' data-include='ldpc_ex_non_ldpr.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
 	
	<p>
		Use cases [[LDP-UCR]] that motivated LDP specification varies from just publishing a dataset as Linked Data with advanced features as pagination, 
		providing read/write access to using Linked Data for application integration. The Linked Data Platform Use Cases and Requirements document provides 
		a more detailed information on the use cases that motivated the LDP specification. 
	</p>									
    <p>There are several categories of systems implementing the LDP specification. Two main categories of LDP servers include:</p>
    <dl class="glossary">
	<dt>Generic / vanilla LDP servers</dt>
	<dd>RDF storage systems that allow interacting with their resources by means of the LDP specification. These servers do not impose any restriction on LDPRs and generally act as storage systems without any domain 
-	specific application logic and vocabularies. The document storage system in the first example of the primer falls into this category. </dd>
    <dt>Application specific LDP severs </dt>
    <dd>Existing applications with their own data model and business logic exposing their data using the LDP specification. These systems impose restrictions on LDPRs since the LDP interaction should be compliant with the underlying 
-    business logic and data model. The bug tracker example presented in the latter part of the primer is an example of an application specific LDP server.</dd>
    </dl>

    </section>
-    
-    <section id="photomanager">
    	<h1>Online document store example (LDP Basics)</h1>
-    
-    <p>
-   This section provides a set of examples of using an online document store application that provides read / write data storage on the Web using the Linked Data Platform protocol. These examples will
-   demonstrate the behaviour of LDPRs including both LDR-RSs (which have RDF representations) and LDP-NRs (which do not have RDF representations such as binary resources) and LDP Basic 
-   Containers.	    
-	
-   When one registers in the document store application, she will get some data storage space (a root Basic Container) where she can store all sorts of web resources that are supported by 
-   Linked Data Platform such as RDF resources (LDP-RS) and binary resources (LDP-NR). Using this root Basic Container she can create new documents and also child containers to 
-   organize these documents. 
-   </p>
-    
-   <table class="simple">
		<thead>
			<th>Path</th>
			<th>Method</th>
			<th>Description</th>
		</thead>
		<tbody>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="5">/{username}/</td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Lists all the documents in the root container. </td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Create a new document under the root container.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the description and/or list of files of the root container.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Update the description and/or list of files of the root container.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Not allowed.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td  class="col1" rowspan="5"><div class='code'>/{username}/{document*}/</div></td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Retrive the document.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Not allowed</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the document.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Partial update to the document if PATCH is supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Delete the project description and associated bug reports.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="2"><div class='code'>/*/*</div></td>
				<td>OPTIONS</td>
				<td>Discover the allowed operations over a resource</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>HEAD</td>
				<td>Only retrieve metainformation about a resource</td>		
			</tr>
		</tbody>
	</table>
-   
-   <p class="note"> In the above API description, {document*} is considered a non-Container. The child containers such as /{username}/{ldpc}/ or /{username}/**/{ldpc}/ behave similar to the root container
-   /{username}/ except for that fact, deleting those child containers are allowed. </p>
-   
-   In this example, we will see how Alice, a user of this system, manages the read / write document storage using the LDP protocol.
-   	
-   <p>First, Alice registers in the system and she is given a space that she can store her documents (She could use LDP protocol to register herself by POSTing to a container of users 
-   but that is out of scope of this example). When she registers she is informed the starting point URL to manage her documents, a basic container, http://data.example.org/alice/. </p>
-	
-   <section id="filelookup">
	<h2>Looking up a basic container (GET on an LDP-BC) </h2>
-	   
-	   <p> First Alice looks up her storage by retrieving the LDP Basic Container assigned to her. As it was just created, it is an empty container.</p>
-	   
-	   <pre  title="A request for retrieving a basic container" class="example">
    GET /alice/ HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.org
-    Accept: text/turtle
		</pre>
-	   
-	  <pre title="The response of retrieving a basic container" class='example'>
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
-    Content-Type: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
-    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/BasicContainer&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-    ETag: W/&quot;123456789&quot;
-	
-    @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt;.
-    @prefix ldp: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#&gt;.
-	
-    &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/&gt; a ldp:Container, ldp:BasicContainer;
-       dcterms:title &quot;Alice’s data storage on the Web&quot; .		
	</pre>
-			
-   </section>
-	
-	
-	<section> 
-   <h2> Discovering the affordances (OPTIONS on an LDP-BC) </h2>
-
-   <p>
-   Now, Alice wants to know what she can do with her document space. She can use the OPTIONS operation to find out what are the operations she can do with her LDP-BC.
-   </p>
-
-   <pre  title="A request for retrieving the OPTIONS of a basic container" class="example">
 		OPTIONS /alice/ HTTP/1.1
 		Host: example.org
	</pre>
-
-   <pre  title="The response for retrieving the OPTIONS of a basic container" class="example">
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
-Allow: OPTIONS,HEAD,GET,POST,PUT,PATCH
-Accept-Post: text/turtle, application/ld+json, image/bmp, image/jpeg
-Accept-Patch: example/patch
-Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/BasicContainer&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-Content-Length: 0 
	</pre>   
-   
-   <p> Looking at the response, Alice (Alice's LDP client) can discover that this is an LDP-Basic Container and the container allows her to POST things of both RDF types (text/turtle, application/ld+json) 
-   and images (image/bmp and image/jpeg).</p>
-  
-   </section> 
-   
-   <section> 
-   <h2> Creating a RDF resource (POST an RDF resource to an LDP-BC) </h2>  
-   
-   <p>Alice decides to create a FOAF profile for her using the LDP-BC by POSTing her FOAF personal profile document. </p>
-   
-   <pre  title="A request for creating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
-POST /alice/ HTTP/1.1
-Host: data.example.org
-Slug: foaf
-Content-Type: text/turtle
-
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
-
-&lt;&gt; a foaf:PersonalProfileDocument;
-    foaf:primaryTopic &lt;#me&gt; ;
-    dc:title &quot;Alice’s FOAF file&quot; .
-
-&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
-    foaf:name &quot;Alice Smith&quot;  .    
-   </pre>  
-   
-   <pre  title="The response for creating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
-HTTP/1.1 201 Created
-Location: /alice/foaf
-Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-Content-Length: 0   
-   </pre>
-   
-   <p> Once the resource is created, Alice can check the container again to see whether it correctly contains the newly created resource. </p>
-
-	 <pre  title="A request for retrieving a basic container after the new resource is created" class="example">
    GET /alice/ HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.org
-    Accept: text/turtle
	 </pre>
-	   
-	 <pre title="The response of retrieving a basic container after the new resource is created" class='example'>
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
-    Content-Type: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
-    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/BasicContainer&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-    ETag: W/&quot;123456789&quot;
-	
-    @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt;.
-    @prefix ldp: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#&gt;.
-	
-    &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/&gt; a ldp:Container, ldp:BasicContainer;
-       dcterms:title &quot;Alice’s data storage on the Web&quot; ;
-       
-       ldp:contains &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/foaf&gt; .		
	</pre>
-   
-   
-   </section>
-   
-   <section> 
-   <h2> Creating a non-RDF (binary) resource (POST an image to an LDP-BC) </h2>  
-   
-	<p> Next, Alice wants to upload a photo of her to the document storage. She can create an image by POSTing it in the same way she created the RDF document. </p>
-	
-	   <pre  title="A request for creating a non-RDF resource" class="example"> 
-POST /alice/ HTTP/1.1
-Host: data.example.org
-Slug: avatar
-Content-Type: image/png
-Content- Length: nnn
-
-### binary data ###
- 
-   </pre> 
-   
-   <pre  title="The response for creating a non-RDF resource" class="example"> 
-HTTP/1.1 201 Created
-Location: /alice/avatar
-Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-Link: &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/avatar/meta&gt;; rel=&quot;describedby&quot;
-Content-Length: 0   
-   </pre>   
-   
-   <p> The outcome of creating a non-RDF is similar to creating a RDF resource. If successful, the server  will return a 201 success code with a Location header that points to the created resource. However,
-   in the case of binary resources the server may create an additional file to maintain the metadata about the binary file like shown in the above example. </p>
-   
-   </section>
-   
-   <section> 
-   <h2> Update a RDF LDP resource (PUT on an LDP-RS) </h2>  
-   
-   <p> After creating the image, Alice now wants to update her FOAF profile with a link to the image. So she first retrieves her FOAF profile. </p>
-   
-	   <pre  title="A request for retrieving a RDF resource" class="example">
    GET /alice/foaf HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.org
-    Accept: text/turtle
		</pre>
-	   
-	  <pre title="The response of retrieving a RDF resource" class='example'>
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
-    Content-Type: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
-    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
-    ETag: W/&quot;123454321&quot;
-    
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
-
-&lt;&gt; a foaf:PersonalProfileDocument;
-    foaf:primaryTopic &lt;#me&gt; ;
-    dc:title &quot;Alice’s FOAF file&quot; .
-
-&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
-    foaf:name &quot;Alice Smith&quot;  .    		
	</pre>  
-	
-	<p> Then she updates the document and amending the document with a link to her photo and updating the document with a PUT.</p> 
-	
-	   <pre  title="A request for updating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
-PUT /alice/foaf HTTP/1.1
-Host: data.example.org
-If-Match: W/&quot;123454321&quot;
-Content-Type: text/turtle
-
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
-
-&lt;&gt; a foaf:PersonalProfileDocument;
-    foaf:primaryTopic &lt;#me&gt; ;
-    dc:title &quot;Alice’s FOAF file&quot; .
-
-&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
-    foaf:name &quot;Alice Smith&quot;  ;
-    foaf:img &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/avatar&gt;
-        
-   </pre>  
-   
-   <pre  title="The response for updating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
-HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
-Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot; 
-ETag: W/&quot;123454322&quot;  
-   </pre>
-   
-   <p> If the operation is successful, the document will be updated with new information. </p>
-   
-   </section>
-   
-   <section> 
-   <h2> Deleting a resource (DELETE on an LDPR) </h2>  
-   
-   <p>If Alice decides to delete the document, she can do that with a delete operation. </p>
-   
-   
-   <pre  title="A request for deleting a RDF resource" class="example"> 
-DELETE /alice/foaf HTTP/1.1
-Host: data.example.org
-If-Match: W/&quot;123454322&quot;        
-   </pre> 
-   
-      <pre  title="The response for deleting a RDF resource" class="example"> 
-HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
-Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot; 
-ETag: W/&quot;123454322&quot;  
-   </pre>
-   
-   </section>
-   
-   </section> 

	<section id="bugtracker">
    <h1>Bug Tracker Example (Direct and Indirect containers)</h1>
        
-   <p> The previous section provided practical examples of basic LDP interactions. One thing to note the example
-   was using LDP Basic Containers. One of the limitations of LDP Basic Containers is that it only uses LDP 
-   vocabulary. However, there are scenarios where the applications want to use their own domain specific vocabulary
-   for listing members of a container. For example, an application which already had its own vocabulary would like 
-   continue using the same vocabulary when using LDP protocol. LDP Direct containers allow the domain-specific 
-   vocabulary to be used when listing members in a container. </p>
-   
-   <p> In addition to using the domain-specific vocabularies, in some applications would like to represent 
-   relationships other than the containment relationship of information resources within the containers. One example is 
-   that information resources contains relationship about non-information resources or real world things. LDP Indirect 
-   Containers allows the containers use these relations when new resources are created.
-   
-   </p> 
-   
-   <p class="note">For more information on information resources (documents) vs Thing separation please refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#id-resources">Web Arch</a>, 
	    	, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/#semweb">Cool URIs</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/urls-in-data/#landing-pages">URLs in Data</a>.</p>
-    
	<p>
    This section provides a set of examples to show the Linked Data Platform interactions. Note, this is a primer and should 
    not be considered as a canonical example of ideal LDP modeling.
    The examples in this section will revolve around a very simple Bug Tracker application. Bug Tracker application records 
    the bugs of several products allowing reporting, updating and deleting bugs and products. We can re-use simple domain vocabulary, 
    e.g. has_bug or related, to express our data. LDP provides the additional interaction capability in the protocol to perform dynamic 
    evolution of knowledge representation.
	</p>
	
	<p>RESTful APIs are often documented by through listing valid operations operating on URLs described as templates. A RESTful API for a simple Bug Tracker system might be described as follows:</p>
	
	<table class="simple">
		<thead>
			<th>Path</th>
			<th>Method</th>
			<th>Description</th>
		</thead>
		<tbody>
			<!--tr>
				<td rowspan="5">/app/</td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Lists all the product descriptions.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Create a new product description.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the app description and/or list of product descriptions</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Update the app description and/or list of product descriptions</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Not allowed.</td>		
			</tr-->
			<tr>
				<td  class="col1" rowspan="5"><div class='code'>/app/{product-id}/</div></td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Lists the bug reports associated with a product.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Create a new bug report associated with a product.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the project description.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Not supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Delete the project description and associated bug reports.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="5"><div class='code'>/app/{product-id}/{bug-id}</div></td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Gets the bug report.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Not supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the bug report.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Not supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Delete the bug report.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="2"><div class='code'>/*/*</div></td>
				<td>OPTIONS</td>
				<td>Discover the allowed operations over a resource</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>HEAD</td>
				<td>Only retrieve metainformation about a resource</td>		
			</tr>
		</tbody>
	</table>
	
    <p class="note">Do we want to say something about suggested, user-friendly URIs ? </p>

	<section id="navandret">
	<h2>Navigation and Retreival</h2>
	
	<b>Lookup a Product (LDPC?)</b>
	<p> One of the main use cases of the example bug tracker is to list of the bugs of a given product. Assuming 
		that a user got a URL of a product by out of band means, one can look it up to get more information including 
		the bugs associated with it.</p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="product_lookup.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>To get the description of the product, a client can do a GET request on the URI of the known product resource. LDPR 
					servers should provide text/turtle representations of the requested LDPRs and may provide RDF format representations
					using standard HTTP content negotiation.   </p>
				<pre class="example" title="Product lookup request"
				data-include='product_lookup_req.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
				<p>If the product resource is available, the server responds with the representation of the resource using the requested media type,
					<code>text/turtle</code> in this case.</p>
                    <pre title="HTTP response for product lookup" class='example' data-include='product_lookup_resp.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	<p>
	The project description resource contains both information about the project such as the title and the information about members of the product LDPC
	i.e. the bugs associated with the product.		
		
	</p>
	
	<p>Looking up a bug is similar to looking up a product. </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_lookup.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>Based on links in the representation of the Product, the client uses GET to navigate to a known Bug resource.</p>
				<pre class="example" title="Bug lookup request" 
					data-include='bug_look_up_req.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
				<p>The server responds with the representation of the bug.</p>
                                <pre title="Bug lookup response"
					class='example' data-include='bug_look_up_resp.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>			
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
		
	<section>
	<h3 id="BugCreate">Creation</h3>
	<p>Continuing from the previous example, we can report a Bug against 'product1' by creating a Bug LDPR under the 'Product' LDPC.
The client POSTs a representation of a Bug to the Bug Tracker LDPC. </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_create.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client POSTs a representation of a Bug to the Bug Tracker LDPC.</p>
                <pre title="A request for creating a bug"
					class='example' data-include='bug_create_req.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>If the create is successful, the server responds with location of the newly created resource.</p>
                <pre title="A response of creating new a bug"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode'>
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product1/67
Content-Length: 0 					
					</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="product_postcreate.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>If the creation fails, the server will respond with an appropriate status code depending on the error. 
					After the resource is creation, the Product A LDPC will have the following representation.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the product LDPC after the bug creation"
					class='example' data-include='bug_create_s1.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug67.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>And the created Bug resource will have the following representation. Note that server has added a 
					server managed property, creation date (dcterms:created), and a default value for the state (bt:isInState) 
					to the Bug in addition to what was being POSTed.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the bug LDPR"
					class='example' data-include='bug_create_s2.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>						
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
	
	<section>
	<h3 id="BugUpdate">Update</h3>
	<p> TODO - Description </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_update.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>TODO - Description</p>
                                <pre title="A request for updating a bug"
					class='example' data-include='bug_update_req.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>If the update is successful, the server will respond with a success status and a new etag.</p>
<pre class="example">
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
ETag: W/"123456790"  
</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
	
	<section>
	<h3 id="BugDelete">Deletion</h3>
	<p> TODO - Description </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_delete.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>TODO - Description</p>
				<pre class="example">
 DELETE /app/product1/bug3 HTTP/1.1 
 Host: example.org
				</pre>
				<p>If the update is successful, the server will respond with a success status and a new etag.</p>
				<pre class="example">
 HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
 ETag: W/"123456790"  
				</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
	
	<section>
	<h3 id="meta-structure">Structural Manipulation</h3>
	<p>If the bug tracker allows creating new Products in the tracker, that can done by posting a representation of a new Product to the Bug Tracker container. In this example the client includes the necessary ldp membership properties making the new Product a container for Bug resources.</p>
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class='col1'><img src="app.png" /></td> 
			<td>
				<p>The status of the bug tracker before creating the new product.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the Bug Tracker LDPC"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_s1.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="app_post.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client POSTs a representation of a Product to the Bug Tracker LDPC.</p>
                <pre title="A request for creating a product"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_req.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>If the create is successful, the server responds with location of the newly created resource.</p>
 				<pre title="The response after creating new product"   class="example">
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product2
Content-Length: 0  
				</pre>	               		
			</td>	
		</tr>
        <tr>
        	<td></td><td>
        		<p>After creation of this new container, 'product2', the representation of the 'Tracker' container will be</p>
        		<pre title="The state of the Bug Tracker after the product creation"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_s2.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>and the 'product2' will have the following representation.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the new Product"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_s3.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>		
        	</td>	
        </tr>
	</table>
	</section>



	<section>
	<h3 id="ProductLookup">Operation Discovery</h3>
	<p>
		Assuming that a user got the URL of the product by out of band means, a starting point would be to discover
		which operations can be performed on the product resource.
	</p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client does an OPTIONS with the URI of a known product description resource.</p>
<pre class="example">OPTIONS /app/product1/ HTTP/1.1
Host: example.org 
</pre>
				<p>If the product description resource is available, the server responds with the allowed HTTP operations on the product
					resource along with some other metadata.</p>
					<div class="turtle">
<pre title="HTTP response for OPTIONS on a product" class='example'>
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Allow: OPTIONS,HEAD,GET,POST,PUT,PATCH
Accept-Post: text/turtle, application/ld+json 
Accept-Patch: example/patch
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel="type"
Link: &lt;?nonMemberProperties&gt;;rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#nonMemberResource"
Content-Length: 0
</pre>				
                    </div>
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	
	<p> According to the response, HTTP operations {OPTIONS,GET,POST,PUT,PATCH} are allowed on the product description resource.
		In addition to the allowed operations, Accept-Post and Accept-Patch provides which media types are supported by respective operations. 
		The rel="type" Link header advertises that this is resource supports LDP protocol and the the rel="ldp:nonMemberResource" provides a link 
		to the non-member resource of this product description.
	</p>
	</section>
		
		<!-- section id="paging">	
		<h3>Pagination</h3>
		
		<p>It sometimes happens that a resource is too large to reasonably transmit its representation in a single HTTP response.  For example, if the
		   bug resource in our example includes comments, It might happen that it may be become too large. To address this problem, LDPRs should support 
		   a technique called Paging.</p>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>If a client does a get on an LDPR that supports paging, it will be redirected to the first page of the resource.</p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1/bug3 HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
					</pre>
					<pre class="example">
	HTTP/1.1 303 See Other
	Location: /app/product1/bug3?firstpage
					</pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>Alternatively if the client wants to know in advance whether the resource is paged or not, it can do an OPTIONS request on the LDPR URI</p>
					<pre class="example">
	OPTIONS /app/product1/bug3 HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
					</pre>
					<p>If the resource is paged, the response contains a HTTP Link header with rel="first"; and the target URI of that header would be  the URL of 
						the first page resource.  </p>
					<pre class="example">
	HTTP/1.1 200 OK
	Allow: OPTIONS,HEAD,GET,PUT,PATCH
	Accept-Patch: example/patch
	Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel="type"
	Link: &lt;/app/product1/bug3?firstpage&gt;; rel="first"
	Content-Length: 0
					</pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>After knowing the URL of the first page resource, the client can retrieve it using a HTTP GET</p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1/bug3?firstpage HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
	Accept: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
					</pre>
		             <pre title="HTTP response for getting the first page resource"
							class='example' data-include='paging_page1_res.txt'
							data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>The first page contains a link to the second page with LDPR as the subject, 
						ldp:nextPage as the predicate and the subsequent page as the object.</p>					
				</td>
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>The second page can be retrieved the same way as the first page was retrieved.</p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1/bug3?secondPage HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
	Accept: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
					</pre>
		             <pre title="HTTP response for getting the second page resource"
							class='example' data-include='paging_page2_res.txt'
							data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>The last page of resource contains with LDPR as the subject, 
						ldp:nextPage as the predicate and the rdf:nil as the object.</p>					
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		
		</section !-->
		<!-- section id="odering">	
		<h3>Ordering</h3>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>There are many cases where an ordering of the members of the container is important. </p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1?firstPage HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
	Accept: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
					</pre>
				    <pre title="The representation of an ordered LDPC"
					class='example' data-include='ordered_ldpc_resp.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>			
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>	
		</section -->
			
		<!-- section id="binary-res">	
		<h3>Binary resources</h3>
		
		<b>Creating a binary resource</b>
		<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>We have an LDPC which we can use to create binary resources</p>
				<pre title="The state of the attachments LDPC"
					class='example' data-include='attachments_s1.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client POSTs a binary resource to the LDPC</p>
                <pre title="A request for creating a product"
					class='example'>POST /app/product1/bug3/attachments/ HTTP/1.1
Host: example.org
Content-Type: image/png
Slug: login-page.png
Content-Length: 1254

#### binary data #####		
					</pre>	
				<p>If the create is successful, the server it responds with a Location header and a Link header to
					the automatically created metadata LDPR.</p>
                <pre title="A response after creating new a binary resource" class='example'>HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png
Link: &lt;/app/product1/bug3/attachments/1&gt;; rel="meta"
Content-Length: 0
			</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td></td>
			<td>
				<p>After the creation, LDPC representation looks like</p>
				<pre title="The state of the attachments LDPC after creation"
					class='example' data-include='attachments_s2.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Accessing the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>The client can retrieve the binary resource by doing a GET on the binary resource URI.</p>
	<pre class="example">GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png  HTTP/1.1
Host: example.org
Accept: image/png
	</pre>
					<p>LDPR server responds with</p>
	                <pre title="HTTP response for getting the binary resource"
						class='example'>HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
Content-Type: image/png
Link: &lt;/app/product1/bug3/attachments/1&gt;; rel="meta"
ETag: W/"123456789"

#### binary data ##### 
						
						</pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Accessing the metadata about the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>The client can retrieve the metadata of the binary resource by doing a GET on the metadata-LDPR URI.</p>
	<pre class="example">GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/1
Host: example.org
Accept: text/turtle 
	</pre>
					<p>LDPR server responds with</p>
	                <pre title="HTTP response for getting the binary resource"
						class='example' data-include='attachments_m_get_res.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Updating the metadata about the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>TODO</p>
					<pre title="Updating the metadata of the binary resource"
						class='example' data-include='attachments_m_update_req.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				   <p>LDPR server responds with</p>		
					<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
ETag: W/"123456790"
	</pre>					
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Deleting the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>TODO</p>
					<pre class="example"> DELETE /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png HTTP/1.1
 Host: example.org 
	</pre>			
					<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
 ETag: W/"123456790" 
	</pre>			
						<pre class="example">GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png HTTP/1.1
 Host: example.org 
	</pre>			
						<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 410 Gone 
	</pre>		
						<pre class="example"> GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/1
 Host: example.org 
	</pre>			
						<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 410 Gone 
	</pre>						
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		</section !-->
	
	</section>
	
	<!-- section>
	<h1 id="advexamples">Advanced Examples</h1>
		<section>
		<h3 id="ldpmemx">Uses of membership{Subject,Predicate,Object} predicates </h3>
		
-   <p class="note"> Now we can get rid of this section. </p>		
-		
-		<p>In most of the previous examples we kept the ldp:membershipSubject as the LDPC itself and ldp:membershipObject as the ldp:MemberSubject. However, these 
			predicates can be used to change the semantics of the membership relationship in LDPCs. </p>
	    
	    <p class="note">TO DO: A small note on document vs Thing separation linking to <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#id-resources">Web Arch</a>, 
	    	, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/#semweb">Cool URIs</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/urls-in-data/#landing-pages">URLs in Data</a>.</p>
	    	
	   	<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>If the separation between real world resource and information is important, the product description of the previous Bug Tracker example can 
						be alternatively designed as following.</p>
					<pre title="Representation of the product description"
						class='example' data-include='product_alt_s1.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>In the above example, the product description information resource is explicitly seperated from the real world product resource. Now the RDF representation
						contains information about both the information resource that is identified by the URI &lt;/app/product1/&gt; and the real world resource identified by the 
						URI &lt;/app/product1/#it&gt;. </p>
					<p>With this seperation, now the ldp:membershipSubject of the container is not the container URI itself but &lt;/app/product1/#it&gt;. The effect of these is that
						membership relation triples added when new resources are POSTed to this container will now have the subject &lt;/app/product1/#it&gt; not the container URI. Further,
						ldp:membershipObject of this container is foaf:primaryTopic. Thus, the object of the membership triple will not be the newly created resource but the foaf:primaryTopic
						defined inside that newly created resource as shown in the following example. </p>	 
					<pre title="HTTP request for creating a new bug report"
						class='example' data-include='bug_alt_create_req.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>And the server will respond with the URI of the newly created information resource in the Location header.</p>
					<pre title="Representation of the newly created bug"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode'>
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product1/67
Content-Length: 0 					
					</pre>
					<p>After the resource creation, the representations of the LDPC and newly created LDPR would be </p>
					<pre title="Representation of the LDPC"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='product_alt_s2.txt'></pre>
					<pre title="Representation of the newly created bug"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='bug_alt_s1.txt'></pre>
							
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table> 			
	   </section>
	   
	   <section>
	    <h3 id="mempredinv">ldp:membershipPredicateInverse predicate</h3>	
	    <p>In sometimes the membership relationship can defined in a way such that the container is becomes the object of the membership triple. For example, 
	    	in our example, if the membership triple was like &lt; bug, bt:relatedProduct, product &gt; the product container would look like</p>
	    <pre title="Representation of an LDPC with ldp:membershipPredicateInverse predicate"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='product_inv_s1.txt'></pre>	
	    <p>TODO - Find a better example</p>	
	   </section>
	   
	    <section id="res-inlining">	
		<h3>Resource Inlining</h3>
			<p> TODO - Description </p>
	
	  <table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>TODO - Description</p>
	            <pre title="A HTTP request to a LDPR with inlined resources"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='res_inline_req.txt'></pre>
				<p> </p>
	            <pre title="A HTTP response from a LDPR with inlined resources"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='res_inline_res.txt'></pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
		
		
		</section>
		
	    <section id="mem-inlining">	
		<h3>Member Inlining</h3>
		</section>
	
	</section !-->
	
	<section>
		<h1>Security</h1>
      <p> It is not the focus of the Linked Data Platform WG to provide security mechanisms for read/write Linked Data applications. Though most of the security mechanisms that are applicable to 
-      general web applications are equally applicable to Linked Data applications, there is still some space to build security mechanisms specific to Linked Data applications by leverage the Linked Data
-      technologies and providing concrete security requirements of Linked Data applications. In this context, LDP WG has started to create a WG note on Access Control which aims to produce use cases for 
-      security scenarios of LDP applications that can be used as the input to later initiative that will be focused on developing standard security mechanisms for LDP applications.  </p>		
    </section>
	
	<section>
	<h1 id="ldpc">LDP Implementations</h1>
	A list of implementations that plan to be LDP compliant is available in the LDP Implementations wiki page. LDP Implementation report provides the coverage of the specification by each LDP implementation.
	</section>
	
    <section>
	<h1 id="next">What To Read Next</h1>
		The primer only provide an overview of the Linked Data Platform specifications. LDP WG has produced following documents that contribute to the Linked Data Platform specification.
		
		<ul>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/TR/ldp-ucr.html">Linked Data Platform Use Cases and Requirements</a> [[LDP-UCR]]</li>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/ldp.html">Linked Data Platform 1.0 specifcation</a> [[LDP]]</li>
			<li>Linked Data Platform 1.0 Primer (This document)</li>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/ldp-bp/ldp-bp.html">LDP Best Practices and Guidelines</a> [[LDP-BP]]</li>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/Test%20Cases/LDP%20Test%20Cases.html">Linked Data Platform 1.0 Test Cases</a>[[LDP-TESTS]]</li>
		</ul>
		
		
	</section>
	

	<section class='appendix informative' id="history">
	<h1>Change History</h1>
	<p>The change history is up to the editors to insert a brief summary of
	changes, ordered by most recent changes first and with heading from which
	public draft it has been changed from.
	</p>
	<ul>
		<li>2013-08-05 - Providing JSON-LD representations of the examples.</li>	
		<li>2013-07-03 - Moving the content from the wiki to the note.</li>	
	</ul>
    </section>
  
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    <section id='abstract'>
      This primer provides an introduction to Linked Data Platform (LDP), including the basic concepts 
      of LDP including Linked Data Platform Resource (LDPR) and Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC) 
      and their affordances, and a running example showing how an LDP client can interact with a LDP server 
      in the context of read-write Linked Data application i.e. how to HTTP for accessing, updating, 
      creating and deleting resources from servers that expose their resources as Linked Data.
    </section>
    
    <section id='sotd'>
    <p>
        This is the first draft of LDP Primer Note of W3C LDP WG.
    </p>
    </section>

    <section id="intro-section">
	<h1 id="intro">Introduction</h1>

	 <p>Linked Data is a universal approach for handling data which fundamentally includes the notion linking between data items. 
    	Much like the Web is giant network of interlinked documents for a human reader, the graph of Linked Data in the Web is a 
    	data layer on top of which applications are delivered, information is modified, processed, visualized and shared.
    </p>
    <p> Linked Data Platform specification discusses standard HTTP and RDF techniques and best practices that you should use, and 
    	anti-patterns you should avoid, when constructing clients and servers that read and write Linked Data resources. 
    </p>

	<p>The Primer aims to provide introductory examples and guidance in the use of the LDP protocol. For a systematic account the 
	reader should consult the normative LDP reference [[LDP]]. For an overview of the use cases for LDP and the elicited requirements 
	that guided its design, the reader should consult the LDP Use Cases and Requirements [[LDP-UCR]] and for best practises and guidelines, 
	the reader should consult the LDP LDP Best Practices and Guidelines document [[LDP-BP]]. </p>
    	
    <b id="conventions">Conventions Used in This Document</b>

    <p>The examples in this guide are given as a serialization of RDF graphs using the Turtle [[TURTLE]] and JSON-LD [[JSON-LD]] syntaxes of RDF.</p>

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	</div>

	<p>Commonly used namespace prefixes omitted from the Turtle serialisations:</p>
	<pre style="word-wrap: break-word; white-space: pre-wrap;">	
	@prefix rdf:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
	@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
	@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
	@prefix ldp:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#&gt; .
	@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
	@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
	@prefix foaf: 	 &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
	@prefix wdrs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2007/05/powder-s#&gt; . 
	@prefix bt:      &lt;http://example.org/vocab/bugtracker#&gt; . </pre>

	<p>The JSON-LD examples refer to the following (external) context document:</p>
	<pre style="word-wrap: break-word; white-space: pre-wrap;">	
      { 
       "@context":
       {
         "rdf":     "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
         "rdfs":    "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#",
         "owl":     "http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#",
         "ldp":     "http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#",
         "xsd":     "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
         "dcterms": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
         "foaf":    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
         "wdrs":    "http://www.w3.org/2007/05/powder-s#",
         "bt":      "http://example.org/vocab/bugtracker#"
       }	
      }
	</pre>
    <p>
    
    </p>

    <h2>LDP concepts in a glance</h2>

<p> 
A server hosting LDPRs may manage two kinds of LDPRs, those resources who whose state is represented using RDF called LDP RDF Sources (LDP-RS) and those using other formats called LDP Non-RDF Source (LDP-NR) such as html files, images, other binary files,  etc. </p>
</p>
<p>
  <img src="images/resources.png" />
</p>
<p>
LDP-RS are a source to a number of triples. These Resource and their descriptions are discovered and processed during as links are followed. The links between the Resources and associated affordances together specify what might be termed the API. The description obtained might focus on specific entity or it might be more general. A common pattern is where one resource is be made up of a number of others, e.g. a Document Store consists of Documents, a BugTracker consists of Bugs, a PhotoAlbum consists of Photos, a Networth of a person consists of Assets and Liabilities. 
</p>
<p>
LDP covers applications with both passive and non-passive interactions. Writable aspects include updates (using PATCH) and deletion of resources. 
</p>
<p>
Likewise, Resource creation is an essential feature providing structured creation of resources. Affordances published by the server show that some Resources can be used to create other Resources. This special kind of Resource is a Container, and this is able to respond to requests to create new resources. During creation the created resource is appended to its Container and a containment link between the Container and the new entry is made. 
</p> 
<p>
A Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC) is a specialization of a LDP-RS representing a collection of links to LDPRs
or information resources [[WEBARCH]] that responds to client requests for creation, modification, and/or enumeration of its linked members and documents. The simplest container is the Basic Container (LDP-BC). It defines the basic containment described using generic vocabularly. This can be used in a generic storage service to manage a containment hierarchy of resources.  
</p>
<figure id="fig-bc">
  <img src="images/bc.png" alt=".." />
  <figcaption>Generic document storage using a Basic Container.</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>
Such servers do not impose any restriction on LDPRs and generally act as storage systems without any domain 
specific application logic and vocabularies. The document storage system in the first example of the primer falls into this category. 
</p>
<p>
A Direct Container allows to use some domain specific vocabulary to relate the resources of the hierarchy. The additional assertion is called the membership property.
</p>
<figure id="fig-dc1">
  <img src="images/dc1.png" alt=".." />
  <figcaption>Using domain vocabularly with a Direct container.</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>
Direct Containers can also use domain specific vocabulary and link from a resource other than the Container resource to the new resource.
</p>
<figure id="fig-dc_photos">
  <img src="images/dc_photos.png" alt=".." />
  <figcaption>Membership triples with a non-Container subject.</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>
Different facets of a Resource can be managed using multiple Containers. 
</p>
<figure id="fig-dc_bugs">
  <img src="images/dc_bugs.png" alt=".." />
  <figcaption>Managing multiple facets of a Bug with two Direct Containers.</figcaption>
</figure>
<p>
  Existing applications with their own data model and business logic can expose their data using the LDP specification. These systems impose restrictions on LDPRs since the LDP interaction should be compliant with the underlying 
    business logic and data model. The bug tracker example presented in the latter part of the primer is an example of an application specific LDP server.
</p>
     
<p class="note"> Formal definitions of two terms LDPR and LDPC and other concepts introduced by LDP can be found in the 'Terminology' section of the Linked Data Platform 1.0 specification [[LDP]] </p>
    
<!--
   <p> A FOAF document file of a person that could be a good example of an LDP-RDF Source. When creating LDP-RSs, it is recommended that they reuse 
   existing vocabularies instead of inventing their own duplicate vocabulary terms. It is also recommended that LDP-RSs have at least one rdf:type set explicitly to 
   make the representations more useful to client applications that don’t support inferencing. For example, a FOAF file of a person as shown in Example 1 can be a LDP-RSs
   if it conforms to lifecycle patterns and conventions in defined in LDP Specification. Following the LDP Best Practices and Guidelines [[LDP-BP]], it uses terms from Dublin Core 
   [[DC-TERMS]], Friend of a Friend [[FOAF]] vocabularies.
    </p>

    <table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="nandana_foaf.png" /></td>
			<td>
		<pre title="An example LDPR" class='example' data-include='ldpr_ex.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>

    <p> An avatar image of a person hosted in the same LDP server could be an example of an LDP-NR.  These non-RDF resources also conform to the lifecycle patterns and 
    conventions defined in the LDP specification that are applicable to all LDPRs including non-RDF LDPRs such as  they must have an Etags, and must support HEAD, OPTIONS 
    operations.
    
 
	<p> Linked Data Platform Container (LDPC) is a specialization of an LDPR. An LDPC is a collection of same-subject, same-predicate triples which is uniquely identified by 
   a URI that responds to client requests for creation, modification, and enumeration of its members. For example, may be a person wants to keep information about her friends 
   organized as a collection of documents about those friends. This collection acts as an enumeration of links to existing documents that contain information about her friends 
   and also can be used to create documents about new friends when necessary. Example 2 shows an example of an LDP Container.
	</p>

	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="nandana_friends.png" /></td>
			<td>
<pre title="An example LDPC" class='example' data-include='ldpc_ex.txt'	data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="roger.png" /></td>
			<td>
<pre title="A member resource of LDPC in Example 2"	class='example' data-include='ldpc_ex_m.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>

   <p>
   There are three different types of LDP Containers defined in the LDP specification: Basic Containers, Direct Containers, and Indirect Containers. Example 2 shows the 
   most simplest type that is LDP Basic Container. The other types of containers will be explained later in the primer.
   </p>	
   
	<p>	
		Elements of the collection of which are denoted by ldp:contains predicate shows the information documents contained by the LDP Container. These elements does not have to 
      be LDPRs. Any HTTP resource can be contained in an LDPC. For example,
	</p>
    

	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="photos.png" /></td>
			<td>
    <pre title="An example LDPC with non-LDPRs" class='example' data-include='ldpc_ex_non_ldpr.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
 	
	<p>
		Use cases [[LDP-UCR]] that motivated LDP specification varies from just publishing a dataset as Linked Data with advanced features as pagination, 
		providing read/write access to using Linked Data for application integration. The Linked Data Platform Use Cases and Requirements document provides 
		a more detailed information on the use cases that motivated the LDP specification. 
	</p>									
    <p>There are several categories of systems implementing the LDP specification. Two main categories of LDP servers include:</p>
    <dl class="glossary">
	<dt>Generic / vanilla LDP servers</dt>
	<dd>RDF storage systems that allow interacting with their resources by means of the LDP specification. These servers do not impose any restriction on LDPRs and generally act as storage systems without any domain 
	specific application logic and vocabularies. The document storage system in the first example of the primer falls into this category. </dd>
    <dt>Application specific LDP severs </dt>
    <dd>Existing applications with their own data model and business logic exposing their data using the LDP specification. These systems impose restrictions on LDPRs since the LDP interaction should be compliant with the underlying 
    business logic and data model. The bug tracker example presented in the latter part of the primer is an example of an application specific LDP server.</dd>
    </dl>

-->

    </section>
    
    <section id="photomanager">
    	<h1>Online document store example (LDP Basics)</h1>
    
    <p>
   This section provides a set of examples of using an online document store application that provides read / write data storage on the Web using the Linked Data Platform protocol. These examples will
   demonstrate the behaviour of LDPRs including both LDR-RSs (which have RDF representations) and LDP-NRs (which do not have RDF representations such as binary resources) and LDP Basic 
   Containers.	    
	
   When one registers in the document store application, she will get some data storage space (a root Basic Container) where she can store all sorts of web resources that are supported by 
   Linked Data Platform such as RDF resources (LDP-RS) and binary resources (LDP-NR). Using this root Basic Container she can create new documents and also child containers to 
   organize these documents. 
   </p>
    
   <table class="simple">
		<thead>
			<th>Path</th>
			<th>Method</th>
			<th>Description</th>
		</thead>
		<tbody>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="5">/{username}/</td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Lists all the documents in the root container. </td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Create a new document under the root container.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the description and/or list of files of the root container.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Update the description and/or list of files of the root container.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Not allowed.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td  class="col1" rowspan="5"><div class='code'>/{username}/{document*}/</div></td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Retrive the document.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Not allowed</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the document.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Partial update to the document if PATCH is supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Delete the project description and associated bug reports.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="2"><div class='code'>/*/*</div></td>
				<td>OPTIONS</td>
				<td>Discover the allowed operations over a resource</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>HEAD</td>
				<td>Only retrieve metainformation about a resource</td>		
			</tr>
		</tbody>
	</table>
   
   <p class="note"> In the above API description, {document*} is considered a non-Container. The child containers such as /{username}/{ldpc}/ or /{username}/**/{ldpc}/ behave similar to the root container
   /{username}/ except for that fact, deleting those child containers are allowed. </p>
   
   In this example, we will see how Alice, a user of this system, manages the read / write document storage using the LDP protocol.
   	
   <p>First, Alice registers in the system and she is given a space that she can store her documents (She could use LDP protocol to register herself by POSTing to a container of users 
   but that is out of scope of this example). When she registers she is informed the starting point URL to manage her documents, a basic container, http://data.example.org/alice/. </p>
	
   <section id="filelookup">
	<h2>Looking up a basic container (GET on an LDP-BC) </h2>
	   
	   <p> First Alice looks up her storage by retrieving the LDP Basic Container assigned to her. As it was just created, it is an empty container.</p>
	   
	   <pre  title="A request for retrieving a basic container" class="example">
    GET /alice/ HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.org
    Accept: text/turtle
		</pre>
	   
	  <pre title="The response of retrieving a basic container" class='example'>
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
    Content-Type: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/BasicContainer&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
    ETag: W/&quot;123456789&quot;
	
    @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt;.
    @prefix ldp: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#&gt;.
	
    &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/&gt; a ldp:Container, ldp:BasicContainer;
       dcterms:title &quot;Alice’s data storage on the Web&quot; .		
	</pre>
			
   </section>
	
	
	<section> 
   <h2> Discovering the affordances (OPTIONS on an LDP-BC) </h2>

   <p>
   Now, Alice wants to know what she can do with her document space. She can use the OPTIONS operation to find out what are the operations she can do with her LDP-BC.
   </p>

   <pre  title="A request for retrieving the OPTIONS of a basic container" class="example">
 		OPTIONS /alice/ HTTP/1.1
 		Host: example.org
	</pre>

   <pre  title="The response for retrieving the OPTIONS of a basic container" class="example">
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Allow: OPTIONS,HEAD,GET,POST,PUT,PATCH
Accept-Post: text/turtle, application/ld+json, image/bmp, image/jpeg
Accept-Patch: example/patch
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/BasicContainer&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
Content-Length: 0 
	</pre>   
   
   <p> Looking at the response, Alice (Alice's LDP client) can discover that this is an LDP-Basic Container and the container allows her to POST things of both RDF types (text/turtle, application/ld+json) 
   and images (image/bmp and image/jpeg).</p>
  
   </section> 
   
   <section> 
   <h2> Creating a RDF resource (POST an RDF resource to an LDP-BC) </h2>  
   
   <p>Alice decides to create a FOAF profile for her using the LDP-BC by POSTing her FOAF personal profile document. </p>
   
   <pre  title="A request for creating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
POST /alice/ HTTP/1.1
Host: data.example.org
Slug: foaf
Content-Type: text/turtle

@prefix dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .

&lt;&gt; a foaf:PersonalProfileDocument;
    foaf:primaryTopic &lt;#me&gt; ;
    dc:title &quot;Alice’s FOAF file&quot; .

&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
    foaf:name &quot;Alice Smith&quot;  .    
   </pre>  
   
   <pre  title="The response for creating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /alice/foaf
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
Content-Length: 0   
   </pre>
   
   <p> Once the resource is created, Alice can check the container again to see whether it correctly contains the newly created resource. </p>

	 <pre  title="A request for retrieving a basic container after the new resource is created" class="example">
    GET /alice/ HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.org
    Accept: text/turtle
	 </pre>
	   
	 <pre title="The response of retrieving a basic container after the new resource is created" class='example'>
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
    Content-Type: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/BasicContainer&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
    ETag: W/&quot;123456789&quot;
	
    @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt;.
    @prefix ldp: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#&gt;.
	
    &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/&gt; a ldp:Container, ldp:BasicContainer;
       dcterms:title &quot;Alice’s data storage on the Web&quot; ;
       
       ldp:contains &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/foaf&gt; .		
	</pre>
   
   
   </section>
   
   <section> 
   <h2> Creating a non-RDF (binary) resource (POST an image to an LDP-BC) </h2>  
   
	<p> Next, Alice wants to upload a photo of her to the document storage. She can create an image by POSTing it in the same way she created the RDF document. </p>
	
	   <pre  title="A request for creating a non-RDF resource" class="example"> 
POST /alice/ HTTP/1.1
Host: data.example.org
Slug: avatar
Content-Type: image/png
Content- Length: nnn

### binary data ###
 
   </pre> 
   
   <pre  title="The response for creating a non-RDF resource" class="example"> 
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /alice/avatar
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
Link: &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/avatar/meta&gt;; rel=&quot;describedby&quot;
Content-Length: 0   
   </pre>   
   
   <p> The outcome of creating a non-RDF is similar to creating a RDF resource. If successful, the server  will return a 201 success code with a Location header that points to the created resource. However,
   in the case of binary resources the server may create an additional file to maintain the metadata about the binary file like shown in the above example. </p>
   
   </section>
   
   <section> 
   <h2> Update a RDF LDP resource (PUT on an LDP-RS) </h2>  
   
   <p> After creating the image, Alice now wants to update her FOAF profile with a link to the image. So she first retrieves her FOAF profile. </p>
   
	   <pre  title="A request for retrieving a RDF resource" class="example">
    GET /alice/foaf HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.org
    Accept: text/turtle
		</pre>
	   
	  <pre title="The response of retrieving a RDF resource" class='example'>
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
    Content-Type: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
    Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot;
    ETag: W/&quot;123454321&quot;
    
@prefix dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .

&lt;&gt; a foaf:PersonalProfileDocument;
    foaf:primaryTopic &lt;#me&gt; ;
    dc:title &quot;Alice’s FOAF file&quot; .

&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
    foaf:name &quot;Alice Smith&quot;  .    		
	</pre>  
	
	<p> Then she updates the document and amending the document with a link to her photo and updating the document with a PUT.</p> 
	
	   <pre  title="A request for updating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
PUT /alice/foaf HTTP/1.1
Host: data.example.org
If-Match: W/&quot;123454321&quot;
Content-Type: text/turtle

@prefix dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .

&lt;&gt; a foaf:PersonalProfileDocument;
    foaf:primaryTopic &lt;#me&gt; ;
    dc:title &quot;Alice’s FOAF file&quot; .

&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
    foaf:name &quot;Alice Smith&quot;  ;
    foaf:img &lt;http://data.example.org/alice/avatar&gt;
        
   </pre>  
   
   <pre  title="The response for updating a RDF resource" class="example"> 
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot; 
ETag: W/&quot;123454322&quot;  
   </pre>
   
   <p> If the operation is successful, the document will be updated with new information. </p>
   
   </section>
   
   <section> 
   <h2> Deleting a resource (DELETE on an LDPR) </h2>  
   
   <p>If Alice decides to delete the document, she can do that with a delete operation. </p>
   
   
   <pre  title="A request for deleting a RDF resource" class="example"> 
DELETE /alice/foaf HTTP/1.1
Host: data.example.org
If-Match: W/&quot;123454322&quot;        
   </pre> 
   
      <pre  title="The response for deleting a RDF resource" class="example"> 
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel=&quot;type&quot; 
ETag: W/&quot;123454322&quot;  
   </pre>
   
   </section>
   
   </section> 

	<section id="bugtracker">
    <h1>Bug Tracker Example (Direct and Indirect containers)</h1>
        
   <p> The previous section provided practical examples of basic LDP interactions. One thing to note the example
   was using LDP Basic Containers. One of the limitations of LDP Basic Containers is that it only uses LDP 
   vocabulary. However, there are scenarios where the applications want to use their own domain specific vocabulary
   for listing members of a container. For example, an application which already had its own vocabulary would like 
   continue using the same vocabulary when using LDP protocol. LDP Direct containers allow the domain-specific 
   vocabulary to be used when listing members in a container. </p>
   
   <p> In addition to using the domain-specific vocabularies, in some applications would like to represent 
   relationships other than the containment relationship of information resources within the containers. One example is 
   that information resources contains relationship about non-information resources or real world things. LDP Indirect 
   Containers allows the containers use these relations when new resources are created.
   
   </p> 
   
   <p class="note">For more information on information resources (documents) vs Thing separation please refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#id-resources">Web Arch</a>, 
	    	, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/#semweb">Cool URIs</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/urls-in-data/#landing-pages">URLs in Data</a>.</p>
    
	<p>
    This section provides a set of examples to show the Linked Data Platform interactions. Note, this is a primer and should 
    not be considered as a canonical example of ideal LDP modeling.
    The examples in this section will revolve around a very simple Bug Tracker application. Bug Tracker application records 
    the bugs of several products allowing reporting, updating and deleting bugs and products. We can re-use simple domain vocabulary, 
    e.g. has_bug or related, to express our data. LDP provides the additional interaction capability in the protocol to perform dynamic 
    evolution of knowledge representation.
	</p>
	
	<p>RESTful APIs are often documented by through listing valid operations operating on URLs described as templates. A RESTful API for a simple Bug Tracker system might be described as follows:</p>
	
	<table class="simple">
		<thead>
			<th>Path</th>
			<th>Method</th>
			<th>Description</th>
		</thead>
		<tbody>
			<!--tr>
				<td rowspan="5">/app/</td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Lists all the product descriptions.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Create a new product description.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the app description and/or list of product descriptions</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Update the app description and/or list of product descriptions</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Not allowed.</td>		
			</tr-->
			<tr>
				<td  class="col1" rowspan="5"><div class='code'>/app/{product-id}/</div></td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Lists the bug reports associated with a product.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Create a new bug report associated with a product.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the project description.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Not supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Delete the project description and associated bug reports.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="5"><div class='code'>/app/{product-id}/{bug-id}</div></td>
				<td>GET</td>
				<td>Gets the bug report.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>POST</td>
				<td>Not supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PUT</td>
				<td>Update the bug report.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>PATCH</td>
				<td>Not supported.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>DELETE</td>
				<td>Delete the bug report.</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td rowspan="2"><div class='code'>/*/*</div></td>
				<td>OPTIONS</td>
				<td>Discover the allowed operations over a resource</td>		
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td>HEAD</td>
				<td>Only retrieve metainformation about a resource</td>		
			</tr>
		</tbody>
	</table>
	
    <p class="note">Do we want to say something about suggested, user-friendly URIs ? </p>

	<section id="navandret">
	<h2>Navigation and Retreival</h2>
	
	<b>Lookup a Product (LDPC?)</b>
	<p> One of the main use cases of the example bug tracker is to list of the bugs of a given product. Assuming 
		that a user got a URL of a product by out of band means, one can look it up to get more information including 
		the bugs associated with it.</p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="product_lookup.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>To get the description of the product, a client can do a GET request on the URI of the known product resource. LDPR 
					servers should provide text/turtle representations of the requested LDPRs and may provide RDF format representations
					using standard HTTP content negotiation.   </p>
				<pre class="example" title="Product lookup request"
				data-include='product_lookup_req.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
				<p>If the product resource is available, the server responds with the representation of the resource using the requested media type,
					<code>text/turtle</code> in this case.</p>
                    <pre title="HTTP response for product lookup" class='example' data-include='product_lookup_resp.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	<p>
	The project description resource contains both information about the project such as the title and the information about members of the product LDPC
	i.e. the bugs associated with the product.		
		
	</p>
	
	<p>Looking up a bug is similar to looking up a product. </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_lookup.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>Based on links in the representation of the Product, the client uses GET to navigate to a known Bug resource.</p>
				<pre class="example" title="Bug lookup request" 
					data-include='bug_look_up_req.txt' data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
				<p>The server responds with the representation of the bug.</p>
                                <pre title="Bug lookup response"
					class='example' data-include='bug_look_up_resp.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>			
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
		
	<section>
	<h3 id="BugCreate">Creation</h3>
	<p>Continuing from the previous example, we can report a Bug against 'product1' by creating a Bug LDPR under the 'Product' LDPC.
The client POSTs a representation of a Bug to the Bug Tracker LDPC. </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_create.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client POSTs a representation of a Bug to the Bug Tracker LDPC.</p>
                <pre title="A request for creating a bug"
					class='example' data-include='bug_create_req.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>If the create is successful, the server responds with location of the newly created resource.</p>
                <pre title="A response of creating new a bug"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode'>
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product1/67
Content-Length: 0 					
					</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="product_postcreate.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>If the creation fails, the server will respond with an appropriate status code depending on the error. 
					After the resource is creation, the Product A LDPC will have the following representation.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the product LDPC after the bug creation"
					class='example' data-include='bug_create_s1.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug67.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>And the created Bug resource will have the following representation. Note that server has added a 
					server managed property, creation date (dcterms:created), and a default value for the state (bt:isInState) 
					to the Bug in addition to what was being POSTed.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the bug LDPR"
					class='example' data-include='bug_create_s2.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>						
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
	
	<section>
	<h3 id="BugUpdate">Update</h3>
	<p> TODO - Description </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_update.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>TODO - Description</p>
                                <pre title="A request for updating a bug"
					class='example' data-include='bug_update_req.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>If the update is successful, the server will respond with a success status and a new etag.</p>
<pre class="example">
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
ETag: W/"123456790"  
</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
	
	<section>
	<h3 id="BugDelete">Deletion</h3>
	<p> TODO - Description </p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="bug_delete.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>TODO - Description</p>
				<pre class="example">
 DELETE /app/product1/bug3 HTTP/1.1 
 Host: example.org
				</pre>
				<p>If the update is successful, the server will respond with a success status and a new etag.</p>
				<pre class="example">
 HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
 ETag: W/"123456790"  
				</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	</section>
	
	<section>
	<h3 id="meta-structure">Structural Manipulation</h3>
	<p>If the bug tracker allows creating new Products in the tracker, that can done by posting a representation of a new Product to the Bug Tracker container. In this example the client includes the necessary ldp membership properties making the new Product a container for Bug resources.</p>
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class='col1'><img src="app.png" /></td> 
			<td>
				<p>The status of the bug tracker before creating the new product.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the Bug Tracker LDPC"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_s1.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="app_post.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client POSTs a representation of a Product to the Bug Tracker LDPC.</p>
                <pre title="A request for creating a product"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_req.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>If the create is successful, the server responds with location of the newly created resource.</p>
 				<pre title="The response after creating new product"   class="example">
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product2
Content-Length: 0  
				</pre>	               		
			</td>	
		</tr>
        <tr>
        	<td></td><td>
        		<p>After creation of this new container, 'product2', the representation of the 'Tracker' container will be</p>
        		<pre title="The state of the Bug Tracker after the product creation"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_s2.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				<p>and the 'product2' will have the following representation.</p>
				<pre title="The state of the new Product"
					class='example' data-include='product_create_s3.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>		
        	</td>	
        </tr>
	</table>
	</section>



	<section>
	<h3 id="ProductLookup">Operation Discovery</h3>
	<p>
		Assuming that a user got the URL of the product by out of band means, a starting point would be to discover
		which operations can be performed on the product resource.
	</p>
	
	<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client does an OPTIONS with the URI of a known product description resource.</p>
<pre class="example">OPTIONS /app/product1/ HTTP/1.1
Host: example.org 
</pre>
				<p>If the product description resource is available, the server responds with the allowed HTTP operations on the product
					resource along with some other metadata.</p>
					<div class="turtle">
<pre title="HTTP response for OPTIONS on a product" class='example'>
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Allow: OPTIONS,HEAD,GET,POST,PUT,PATCH
Accept-Post: text/turtle, application/ld+json 
Accept-Patch: example/patch
Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel="type"
Link: &lt;?nonMemberProperties&gt;;rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#nonMemberResource"
Content-Length: 0
</pre>				
                    </div>
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
	
	<p> According to the response, HTTP operations {OPTIONS,GET,POST,PUT,PATCH} are allowed on the product description resource.
		In addition to the allowed operations, Accept-Post and Accept-Patch provides which media types are supported by respective operations. 
		The rel="type" Link header advertises that this is resource supports LDP protocol and the the rel="ldp:nonMemberResource" provides a link 
		to the non-member resource of this product description.
	</p>
	</section>
		
		<!-- section id="paging">	
		<h3>Pagination</h3>
		
		<p>It sometimes happens that a resource is too large to reasonably transmit its representation in a single HTTP response.  For example, if the
		   bug resource in our example includes comments, It might happen that it may be become too large. To address this problem, LDPRs should support 
		   a technique called Paging.</p>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>If a client does a get on an LDPR that supports paging, it will be redirected to the first page of the resource.</p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1/bug3 HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
					</pre>
					<pre class="example">
	HTTP/1.1 303 See Other
	Location: /app/product1/bug3?firstpage
					</pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>Alternatively if the client wants to know in advance whether the resource is paged or not, it can do an OPTIONS request on the LDPR URI</p>
					<pre class="example">
	OPTIONS /app/product1/bug3 HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
					</pre>
					<p>If the resource is paged, the response contains a HTTP Link header with rel="first"; and the target URI of that header would be  the URL of 
						the first page resource.  </p>
					<pre class="example">
	HTTP/1.1 200 OK
	Allow: OPTIONS,HEAD,GET,PUT,PATCH
	Accept-Patch: example/patch
	Link: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp/Resource&gt;; rel="type"
	Link: &lt;/app/product1/bug3?firstpage&gt;; rel="first"
	Content-Length: 0
					</pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>After knowing the URL of the first page resource, the client can retrieve it using a HTTP GET</p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1/bug3?firstpage HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
	Accept: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
					</pre>
		             <pre title="HTTP response for getting the first page resource"
							class='example' data-include='paging_page1_res.txt'
							data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>The first page contains a link to the second page with LDPR as the subject, 
						ldp:nextPage as the predicate and the subsequent page as the object.</p>					
				</td>
			</tr>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>The second page can be retrieved the same way as the first page was retrieved.</p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1/bug3?secondPage HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
	Accept: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
					</pre>
		             <pre title="HTTP response for getting the second page resource"
							class='example' data-include='paging_page2_res.txt'
							data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>The last page of resource contains with LDPR as the subject, 
						ldp:nextPage as the predicate and the rdf:nil as the object.</p>					
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		
		</section !-->
		<!-- section id="odering">	
		<h3>Ordering</h3>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>There are many cases where an ordering of the members of the container is important. </p>
					<pre class="example">
	GET /app/product1?firstPage HTTP/1.1
	Host: example.org 
	Accept: text/turtle; charset=UTF-8
					</pre>
				    <pre title="The representation of an ordered LDPC"
					class='example' data-include='ordered_ldpc_resp.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>			
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>	
		</section -->
			
		<!-- section id="binary-res">	
		<h3>Binary resources</h3>
		
		<b>Creating a binary resource</b>
		<table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>We have an LDPC which we can use to create binary resources</p>
				<pre title="The state of the attachments LDPC"
					class='example' data-include='attachments_s1.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>The client POSTs a binary resource to the LDPC</p>
                <pre title="A request for creating a product"
					class='example'>POST /app/product1/bug3/attachments/ HTTP/1.1
Host: example.org
Content-Type: image/png
Slug: login-page.png
Content-Length: 1254

#### binary data #####		
					</pre>	
				<p>If the create is successful, the server it responds with a Location header and a Link header to
					the automatically created metadata LDPR.</p>
                <pre title="A response after creating new a binary resource" class='example'>HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png
Link: &lt;/app/product1/bug3/attachments/1&gt;; rel="meta"
Content-Length: 0
			</pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
		<tr>
			<td></td>
			<td>
				<p>After the creation, LDPC representation looks like</p>
				<pre title="The state of the attachments LDPC after creation"
					class='example' data-include='attachments_s2.txt'
					data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
			</td>
		</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Accessing the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>The client can retrieve the binary resource by doing a GET on the binary resource URI.</p>
	<pre class="example">GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png  HTTP/1.1
Host: example.org
Accept: image/png
	</pre>
					<p>LDPR server responds with</p>
	                <pre title="HTTP response for getting the binary resource"
						class='example'>HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
Content-Type: image/png
Link: &lt;/app/product1/bug3/attachments/1&gt;; rel="meta"
ETag: W/"123456789"

#### binary data ##### 
						
						</pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Accessing the metadata about the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>The client can retrieve the metadata of the binary resource by doing a GET on the metadata-LDPR URI.</p>
	<pre class="example">GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/1
Host: example.org
Accept: text/turtle 
	</pre>
					<p>LDPR server responds with</p>
	                <pre title="HTTP response for getting the binary resource"
						class='example' data-include='attachments_m_get_res.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>				
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Updating the metadata about the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>TODO</p>
					<pre title="Updating the metadata of the binary resource"
						class='example' data-include='attachments_m_update_req.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
				   <p>LDPR server responds with</p>		
					<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 204 No Content 
ETag: W/"123456790"
	</pre>					
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		<b>Deleting the binary resource</b>
		
		<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>TODO</p>
					<pre class="example"> DELETE /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png HTTP/1.1
 Host: example.org 
	</pre>			
					<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
 ETag: W/"123456790" 
	</pre>			
						<pre class="example">GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/login-page.png HTTP/1.1
 Host: example.org 
	</pre>			
						<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 410 Gone 
	</pre>		
						<pre class="example"> GET /app/product1/bug3/attachments/1
 Host: example.org 
	</pre>			
						<pre class="example">HTTP/1.1 410 Gone 
	</pre>						
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table>
		</section>
		
		</section !-->
	
	</section>
	
	<!-- section>
	<h1 id="advexamples">Advanced Examples</h1>
		<section>
		<h3 id="ldpmemx">Uses of membership{Subject,Predicate,Object} predicates </h3>
		
   <p class="note"> Now we can get rid of this section. </p>		
		
		<p>In most of the previous examples we kept the ldp:membershipSubject as the LDPC itself and ldp:membershipObject as the ldp:MemberSubject. However, these 
			predicates can be used to change the semantics of the membership relationship in LDPCs. </p>
	    
	    <p class="note">TO DO: A small note on document vs Thing separation linking to <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#id-resources">Web Arch</a>, 
	    	, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/#semweb">Cool URIs</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/urls-in-data/#landing-pages">URLs in Data</a>.</p>
	    	
	   	<table>
			<tr>
				<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
				<td>
					<p>If the separation between real world resource and information is important, the product description of the previous Bug Tracker example can 
						be alternatively designed as following.</p>
					<pre title="Representation of the product description"
						class='example' data-include='product_alt_s1.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>In the above example, the product description information resource is explicitly seperated from the real world product resource. Now the RDF representation
						contains information about both the information resource that is identified by the URI &lt;/app/product1/&gt; and the real world resource identified by the 
						URI &lt;/app/product1/#it&gt;. </p>
					<p>With this seperation, now the ldp:membershipSubject of the container is not the container URI itself but &lt;/app/product1/#it&gt;. The effect of these is that
						membership relation triples added when new resources are POSTed to this container will now have the subject &lt;/app/product1/#it&gt; not the container URI. Further,
						ldp:membershipObject of this container is foaf:primaryTopic. Thus, the object of the membership triple will not be the newly created resource but the foaf:primaryTopic
						defined inside that newly created resource as shown in the following example. </p>	 
					<pre title="HTTP request for creating a new bug report"
						class='example' data-include='bug_alt_create_req.txt'
						data-oninclude='fixCode'></pre>	
					<p>And the server will respond with the URI of the newly created information resource in the Location header.</p>
					<pre title="Representation of the newly created bug"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode'>
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: /app/product1/67
Content-Length: 0 					
					</pre>
					<p>After the resource creation, the representations of the LDPC and newly created LDPR would be </p>
					<pre title="Representation of the LDPC"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='product_alt_s2.txt'></pre>
					<pre title="Representation of the newly created bug"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='bug_alt_s1.txt'></pre>
							
				</td>
			</tr>
		</table> 			
	   </section>
	   
	   <section>
	    <h3 id="mempredinv">ldp:membershipPredicateInverse predicate</h3>	
	    <p>In sometimes the membership relationship can defined in a way such that the container is becomes the object of the membership triple. For example, 
	    	in our example, if the membership triple was like &lt; bug, bt:relatedProduct, product &gt; the product container would look like</p>
	    <pre title="Representation of an LDPC with ldp:membershipPredicateInverse predicate"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='product_inv_s1.txt'></pre>	
	    <p>TODO - Find a better example</p>	
	   </section>
	   
	    <section id="res-inlining">	
		<h3>Resource Inlining</h3>
			<p> TODO - Description </p>
	
	  <table>
		<tr>
			<td class="col1"><img src="replace.png" /></td>
			<td>
				<p>TODO - Description</p>
	            <pre title="A HTTP request to a LDPR with inlined resources"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='res_inline_req.txt'></pre>
				<p> </p>
	            <pre title="A HTTP response from a LDPR with inlined resources"
					class='example' data-oninclude='fixCode' data-include='res_inline_res.txt'></pre>				
			</td>
		</tr>
	</table>
		
		
		</section>
		
	    <section id="mem-inlining">	
		<h3>Member Inlining</h3>
		</section>
	
	</section !-->
	
	<section>
		<h1>Security</h1>
      <p> It is not the focus of the Linked Data Platform WG to provide security mechanisms for read/write Linked Data applications. Though most of the security mechanisms that are applicable to 
      general web applications are equally applicable to Linked Data applications, there is still some space to build security mechanisms specific to Linked Data applications by leverage the Linked Data
      technologies and providing concrete security requirements of Linked Data applications. In this context, LDP WG has started to create a WG note on Access Control which aims to produce use cases for 
      security scenarios of LDP applications that can be used as the input to later initiative that will be focused on developing standard security mechanisms for LDP applications.  </p>		
    </section>
	
	<section>
	<h1 id="ldpc">LDP Implementations</h1>
	A list of implementations that plan to be LDP compliant is available in the LDP Implementations wiki page. LDP Implementation report provides the coverage of the specification by each LDP implementation.
	</section>
	
    <section>
	<h1 id="next">What To Read Next</h1>
		The primer only provide an overview of the Linked Data Platform specifications. LDP WG has produced following documents that contribute to the Linked Data Platform specification.
		
		<ul>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/TR/ldp-ucr.html">Linked Data Platform Use Cases and Requirements</a> [[LDP-UCR]]</li>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/ldp.html">Linked Data Platform 1.0 specifcation</a> [[LDP]]</li>
			<li>Linked Data Platform 1.0 Primer (This document)</li>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/ldp-bp/ldp-bp.html">LDP Best Practices and Guidelines</a> [[LDP-BP]]</li>
			<li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ldpwg/raw-file/default/Test%20Cases/LDP%20Test%20Cases.html">Linked Data Platform 1.0 Test Cases</a>[[LDP-TESTS]]</li>
		</ul>
		
		
	</section>
	

	<section class='appendix informative' id="history">
	<h1>Change History</h1>
	<p>The change history is up to the editors to insert a brief summary of
	changes, ordered by most recent changes first and with heading from which
	public draft it has been changed from.
	</p>
	<ul>
		<li>2013-08-05 - Providing JSON-LD representations of the examples.</li>	
		<li>2013-07-03 - Moving the content from the wiki to the note.</li>	
	</ul>
    </section>
  
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