Moved date-stamped spec to match document date, damn you UTC!
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Mon, 21 May 2012 23:59:21 -0400
changeset 671 ffb7796d50ba
parent 670 65a87cb96397
child 672 4d4b5f8d7cef
child 674 3ed90e003f2a
Moved date-stamped spec to match document date, damn you UTC!
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120521/diff-20120426.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120521/index.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120522/diff-20120426.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120522/index.html
--- a/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120521/diff-20120426.html	Mon May 21 23:58:01 2012 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,16274 +0,0 @@
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-
-
-<body style="display: inherit; ">
-<div class="head">
-<p>
-</p>
-<h1 property="dcterms:title" class="title" id="title">
-JSON-LD
-Syntax
-1.0
-</h1>
-<h2 property="bibo:subtitle" id="subtitle">
-A
-Context-based
-JSON
-Serialization
-for
-Linking
-Data
-</h2>
-<h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2012-05-22T07:54:18+0000" id="unofficial-draft-22-may-2012">
-Unofficial
-Draft
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-April
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">22
-May
-</ins>
-2012
-</h2>
-<dl>
-<dt>
-Editors:
-</dt>
-<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
-Manu
-Sporny
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
-Digital
-Bazaar
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
-Gregg
-Kellogg
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
-Kellogg
-Associates
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
-Markus
-Lanthaler
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
-Graz
-University
-of
-Technology
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dt>
-Authors:
-</dt>
-<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
-Manu
-Sporny
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
-Digital
-Bazaar
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
-Dave
-Longley
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
-Digital
-Bazaar
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
-Gregg
-Kellogg
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
-Kellogg
-Associates
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
-Markus
-Lanthaler
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
-Graz
-University
-of
-Technology
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
-<span typeof="foaf:Person">
-<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Mark Birbeck" href="http://webbackplane.com/">
-Mark
-Birbeck
-</a>,
-<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://webbackplane.com/">
-Backplane
-Ltd.
-</a>
-</span>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-<p>
-This
-document
-is
-also
-available
-in
-this
-non-normative
-format:
-<a href="diff-20120426.html">
-diff
-to
-previous
-version
-</a>.
-</p>
-<p class="copyright">
-This
-document
-is
-licensed
-under
-a
-<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
-Creative
-Commons
-Attribution
-3.0
-License
-</a>.
-</p>
-<hr />
-</div>
-<div id="abstract" class="introductory section" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#abstract" rel="bibo:chapter">
-<h2>
-Abstract
-</h2>
-<p>
-JSON
-has
-proven
-to
-be
-a
-highly
-useful
-object
-serialization
-and
-messaging
-format.
-In
-an
-attempt
-to
-harmonize
-the
-representation
-of
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>
-in
-JSON,
-this
-specification
-outlines
-a
-common
-JSON
-representation
-format
-for
-expressing
-directed
-graphs;
-mixing
-both
-Linked
-Data
-and
-non-Linked
-Data
-in
-a
-single
-document.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="sotd" class="introductory section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sotd" rel="bibo:chapter">
-<h2>
-Status
-of
-This
-Document
-</h2>
-<p>
-This
-document
-is
-merely
-a
-public
-working
-draft
-of
-a
-potential
-specification.
-It
-has
-no
-official
-standing
-of
-any
-kind
-and
-does
-not
-represent
-the
-support
-or
-consensus
-of
-any
-standards
-organisation.
-</p>
-<p>
-This
-document
-is
-an
-experimental
-work
-in
-progress.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="toc" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#toc" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h2 class="introductory">
-Table
-of
-Contents
-</h2>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-1.
-</span>
-Introduction
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-1.1
-</span>
-How
-to
-Read
-this
-Document
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-1.2
-</span>
-Syntax
-Tokens
-and
-Keywords
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-1.3
-</span>
-Contributing
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-2.
-</span>
-Design
-Goals
-and
-Rationale
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.
-</span>
-Basic
-Concepts
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#linking-data" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.1
-</span>
-Linking
-Data
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.1.1
-</span>
-The
-Context
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.1.2
-</span>
-From
-JSON
-to
-JSON-LD
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.2
-</span>
-IRIs
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.3
-</span>
-Identifying
-the
-Subject
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.4
-</span>
-Specifying
-the
-Type
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.5
-</span>
-String
-Internationalization
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.6
-</span>
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.
-</span>
-Advanced
-Concepts
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#typed-values" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.1
-</span>
-Typed
-Values
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#compact-iris" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.2
-</span>
-Compact
-IRIs
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#external-contexts" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.3
-</span>
-External
-Contexts
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.4
-</span>
-Referencing
-Contexts
-from
-JSON
-Documents
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#expanded-term-definition" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.5
-</span>
-Expanded
-Term
-Definition
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.6
-</span>
-Type
-Coercion
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.7
-</span>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-Expansion
-Within
-a
-Context
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#embedding" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.8
-</span>
-Embedding
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#named-graphs" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.9
-</span>
-Named
-Graphs
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.10
-</span>
-Identifying
-Unlabeled
-Nodes
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.11
-</span>
-Aliasing
-Keywords
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#expanded-document-form" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.12
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Expansion
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Expanded
-Document
-Form
-</ins>
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#compact-document-form" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-4.13
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Compaction
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
-Document
-Form
-</ins>
-</a>
-</li>
-<del class="diff-old">4.14
-Framing
-</del>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.14.1
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Framing
-Operators
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
-Grammar
-</ins>
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.
-</ins>
-</span>
-Markup
-Examples
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#turtle" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.1
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.1
-</ins>
-</span>
-Turtle
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#prefix-definitions" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.1.1
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.1
-</ins>
-</span>
-Prefix
-definitions
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#embedding-1" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.1.2
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.2
-</ins>
-</span>
-Embedding
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.1.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.3
-</ins>
-</span>
-Lists
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.2
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
-</ins>
-</span>
-RDFa
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.3
-</ins>
-</span>
-Microformats
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.4
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">B.4
-</ins>
-</span>
-Microdata
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<del class="diff-old">B.
-Linked
-Data
-C.
-Mashing
-Up
-Vocabularies
-</del>
-<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">D.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">C.
-</ins>
-</span>
-IANA
-Considerations
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">E.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">D.
-</ins>
-</span>
-Acknowledgements
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">F.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">E.
-</ins>
-</span>
-References
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">F.1
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">E.1
-</ins>
-</span>
-Normative
-references
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">F.2
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">E.2
-</ins>
-</span>
-Informative
-references
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-<div class="informative section" id="introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#introduction" rel="bibo:chapter">
-<h2>
-<span class="secno">
-1.
-</span>
-Introduction
-</h2>
-<p>
-<em>
-This
-section
-is
-non-normative.
-</em>
-</p>
-<p>
-JSON,
-as
-specified
-in
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
-RFC4627
-</a>
-</cite>
-],
-is
-a
-simple
-language
-for
-representing
-data
-on
-the
-Web.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>
-is
-a
-technique
-for
-creating
-a
-<del class="diff-old">graph
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">network
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">interlinked
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">inter-connected
-</ins>
-data
-across
-different
-<ins class="diff-new">Web
-</ins>
-documents
-<del class="diff-old">or
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">and
-</ins>
-Web
-sites.
-<del class="diff-old">Data
-entities
-are
-described
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-thing
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-in
-this
-data
-network
-is
-typically
-identified
-</ins>
-using
-<ins class="diff-new">an
-</ins>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">s,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">(Internationalized
-Resource
-Identifier),
-</ins>
-which
-<del class="diff-old">are
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">is
-</ins>
-typically
-<del class="diff-old">dereferencable
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">dereference-able,
-</ins>
-and
-thus
-may
-be
-used
-to
-find
-more
-information
-about
-<del class="diff-old">an
-entity,
-creating
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">the
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-thing
-</ins></em>.<ins class="diff-chg">
-The
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-allows
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">&quot;Web
-of
-Knowledge&quot;.
-JSON-LD
-is
-intended
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">software
-program
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">be
-a
-simple
-publishing
-method
-for
-expressing
-not
-only
-Linked
-Data
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">start
-at
-one
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-thing
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-and
-follow
-links
-to
-other
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-things
-</ins></em>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">JSON,
-but
-also
-for
-adding
-semantics
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">order
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">existing
-JSON.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">learn
-more
-about
-all
-of
-the
-things
-described
-on
-the
-Web.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-is
-designed
-as
-a
-lightweight
-syntax
-that
-can
-be
-used
-to
-express
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>.
-It
-is
-primarily
-intended
-to
-be
-a
-way
-to
-use
-Linked
-Data
-in
-Javascript
-and
-other
-Web-based
-programming
-environments.
-It
-is
-also
-useful
-when
-building
-<del class="diff-old">interoperable
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">inter-operable
-</ins>
-Web
-services
-and
-when
-storing
-Linked
-Data
-in
-JSON-based
-document
-storage
-engines.
-It
-is
-practical
-and
-designed
-to
-be
-as
-simple
-as
-possible,
-utilizing
-the
-large
-number
-of
-JSON
-parsers
-and
-libraries
-available
-today.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-syntax
-does
-not
-necessarily
-require
-applications
-to
-change
-their
-JSON,
-but
-allows
-one
-to
-easily
-add
-meaning
-by
-simply
-adding
-or
-referencing
-a
-context.
-The
-syntax
-is
-designed
-to
-not
-disturb
-already
-deployed
-systems
-running
-on
-JSON,
-but
-provide
-a
-smooth
-upgrade
-path
-from
-JSON
-to
-<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
-with
-added
-semantics.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD.
-</ins>
-Finally,
-the
-format
-is
-intended
-to
-be
-easy
-to
-parse,
-efficient
-to
-generate,
-and
-only
-requires
-a
-very
-small
-memory
-footprint
-in
-order
-to
-operate.
-</p>
-<div id="how-to-read-this-document" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#how-to-read-this-document" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-1.1
-</span>
-How
-to
-Read
-this
-Document
-</h3>
-<p>
-This
-document
-is
-a
-detailed
-specification
-for
-a
-serialization
-of
-Linked
-Data
-in
-JSON.
-The
-document
-is
-primarily
-intended
-for
-the
-following
-audiences:
-</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-Software
-developers
-that
-want
-to
-encode
-Linked
-Data
-in
-a
-way
-that
-is
-cross-language
-compatible
-via
-JSON.
-</li>
-<li>
-Software
-developers
-that
-want
-to
-understand
-the
-design
-decisions
-and
-language
-syntax
-for
-JSON-LD.
-</li>
-<li>
-Software
-developers
-that
-want
-to
-implement
-processors
-and
-APIs
-for
-JSON-LD.
-</li>
-</ul>
-<p>
-This
-specification
-does
-not
-describe
-the
-programming
-interfaces
-for
-the
-JSON-LD
-Syntax.
-The
-specification
-that
-describes
-the
-programming
-interfaces
-for
-JSON-LD
-documents
-is
-the
-JSON-LD
-Application
-Programming
-Interface
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
-JSON-LD-API
-</a>
-</cite>
-].
-</p>
-<p>
-To
-understand
-the
-basics
-in
-this
-specification
-you
-must
-first
-be
-familiar
-with
-JSON,
-which
-is
-detailed
-in
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
-RFC4627
-</a>
-</cite>
-].
-<del class="diff-old">To
-understand
-the
-API
-and
-how
-it
-is
-intended
-to
-operate
-in
-a
-programming
-environment,
-it
-is
-useful
-to
-have
-working
-knowledge
-of
-the
-JavaScript
-programming
-language
-[
-ECMA-262
-]
-and
-WebIDL
-[
-WEBIDL
-].
-</del>
-</p>
-<p>
-JSON
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
-RFC4627
-</a>
-</cite>
-]
-defines
-several
-terms
-which
-are
-used
-throughout
-this
-document:
-</p>
-<dl>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-An
-object
-structure
-is
-represented
-as
-a
-pair
-of
-curly
-brackets
-surrounding
-zero
-or
-more
-<del class="diff-old">name/value
-pairs
-(or
-members).
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">name-value
-pairs.
-</ins>
-A
-name
-is
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>.
-A
-single
-colon
-comes
-after
-each
-name,
-separating
-the
-name
-from
-the
-value.
-A
-single
-comma
-separates
-a
-value
-from
-a
-following
-name.
-The
-names
-within
-an
-object
-<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
-should
-</em>
-be
-unique.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
-array
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<del class="diff-old">An
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">In
-JSON,
-an
-</ins>
-array
-is
-an
-<em>
-ordered
-</em>
-collection
-of
-values.
-An
-array
-<del class="diff-old">structure
-</del>
-is
-represented
-as
-square
-brackets
-surrounding
-zero
-or
-more
-values
-<del class="diff-old">(or
-elements).
-Elements
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">that
-</ins>
-are
-separated
-by
-commas.
-<del class="diff-old">Within
-JSON-LD,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">While
-JSON-LD
-uses
-the
-same
-</ins>
-array
-<ins class="diff-new">representation
-as
-JSON,
-the
-collection
-is
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
-unordered
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-by
-default.
-While
-</ins>
-order
-is
-<del class="diff-old">not
-</del>
-preserved
-<del class="diff-old">by
-default,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">in
-regular
-JSON
-arrays,
-it
-is
-not
-in
-regular
-JSON-LD
-arrays
-</ins>
-unless
-specific
-markup
-is
-provided
-(see
-<a href="#sets-and-lists">
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>
-).
-<del class="diff-old">This
-is
-because
-the
-basic
-data
-model
-of
-JSON-LD
-is
-a
-linked
-data
-graph
-,
-which
-is
-inherently
-unordered.
-</del>
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
-string
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-A
-string
-is
-a
-sequence
-of
-zero
-or
-more
-Unicode
-<ins class="diff-new">(UTF-8)
-</ins>
-characters,
-wrapped
-in
-double
-quotes,
-using
-backslash
-<del class="diff-old">escapes.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">escapes
-(if
-necessary).
-</ins>
-A
-character
-is
-represented
-as
-a
-single
-character
-string.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
-number
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-A
-number
-is
-is
-similar
-to
-that
-used
-in
-most
-programming
-languages,
-except
-that
-the
-octal
-and
-hexadecimal
-formats
-are
-not
-used
-and
-that
-leading
-zeros
-are
-not
-allowed.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
-true
-</dfn>
-and
-<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
-false
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Values
-that
-are
-used
-to
-express
-one
-of
-two
-possible
-boolean
-states.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
-null
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Unless
-otherwise
-specified,
-a
-JSON-LD
-processor
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-act
-as
-if
-a
-key-value
-pair
-in
-the
-body
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-was
-never
-declared
-when
-the
-value
-equals
-<em>
-null
-</em>.
-If
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-or
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-is
-set
-to
-<em>
-null
-</em>
-in
-expanded
-form,
-then
-the
-entire
-JSON
-object
-is
-ignored.
-If
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-is
-set
-to
-<em>
-null
-</em>,
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>
-is
-reset
-and
-when
-used
-within
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>,
-it
-removes
-any
-definition
-associated
-with
-the
-key,
-unless
-otherwise
-specified.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="subject_definition" id="dfn-subject_definition">
-subject
-definition
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-used
-to
-represent
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>
-and
-one
-or
-more
-properties
-of
-that
-subject.
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-is
-a
-subject
-definition
-if
-it
-does
-not
-contain
-they
-keys
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-or
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-and
-it
-has
-one
-or
-more
-keys
-other
-than
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<dfn title="subject_reference" id="dfn-subject_reference">
-subject
-reference
-</dfn>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-used
-to
-reference
-a
-subject
-having
-only
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key.
-</dd>
-</dl>
-<p>
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-1.2
-</span>
-Syntax
-Tokens
-and
-Keywords
-</h3>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-specifies
-a
-number
-of
-syntax
-tokens
-and
-<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
-keywords
-</dfn>
-that
-are
-<del class="diff-old">using
-in
-all
-algorithms
-described
-in
-this
-section:
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">a
-core
-part
-of
-the
-language:
-</ins>
-</p>
-<dl>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-define
-the
-short-hand
-names
-that
-are
-used
-throughout
-a
-JSON-LD
-document.
-These
-short-hand
-names
-are
-called
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-and
-help
-developers
-to
-express
-specific
-identifiers
-in
-a
-compact
-manner.
-The
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-detail
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#the-context">
-The
-Context
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-explicitly
-express
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
-linked
-data
-graph
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-uniquely
-identify
-<em>
-things
-</em>
-that
-are
-being
-described
-in
-the
-document.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#identifying-the-subject">
-Identifying
-the
-Subject
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-specify
-the
-data
-that
-is
-associated
-with
-a
-particular
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
-property
-</a>
-in
-the
-graph.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-sections
-titled
-<a href="#string-internationalization">
-String
-Internationalization
-</a>
-and
-<a href="#typed-values">
-Typed
-Values
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-specify
-the
-native
-language
-for
-a
-particular
-value
-or
-the
-default
-language
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#string-internationalization">
-String
-Internationalization
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-set
-the
-data
-type
-of
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
-typed
-value
-</a>.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#typed-values">
-Typed
-Values
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-set
-the
-container
-of
-a
-particular
-value.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#sets-and-lists">
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-express
-an
-ordered
-set
-of
-data.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#sets-and-lists">
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-Used
-to
-express
-an
-unordered
-set
-of
-data.
-This
-keyword
-is
-described
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#sets-and-lists">
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-<code>:
-</code>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-The
-separator
-for
-JSON
-keys
-and
-values
-that
-use
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-IRIs
-</a>.
-</dd>
-</dl>
-<p>
-For
-the
-avoidance
-of
-doubt,
-all
-keys,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keywords
-</a>,
-and
-values
-in
-JSON-LD
-are
-case-sensitive.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="contributing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#contributing" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-1.3
-</span>
-Contributing
-</h3>
-<p>
-There
-are
-a
-number
-of
-ways
-that
-one
-may
-participate
-in
-the
-development
-of
-this
-specification:
-</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-Technical
-discussion
-typically
-occurs
-on
-the
-public
-mailing
-list:
-<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
-</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
-Public
-teleconferences
-</a>
-are
-held
-every
-week
-on
-Tuesdays
-at
-1500
-UTC.
-</li>
-<li>
-Specification
-bugs
-and
-issues
-should
-be
-reported
-<del class="diff-old">in
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">using
-</ins>
-the
-<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
-issue
-tracker
-</a>.
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
-Source
-code
-</a>
-for
-the
-specification
-can
-be
-found
-on
-Github.
-</li>
-<li>
-The
-<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
-#json-ld
-</a>
-IRC
-channel
-is
-available
-for
-real-time
-discussion
-on
-irc.freenode.net.
-</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-</div>
-<div class="informative section" id="design-goals-and-rationale" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#design-goals-and-rationale" rel="bibo:chapter">
-<h2>
-<span class="secno">
-2.
-</span>
-Design
-Goals
-and
-Rationale
-</h2>
-<p>
-<em>
-This
-section
-is
-non-normative.
-</em>
-</p>
-<p>
-A
-number
-of
-design
-<del class="diff-old">considerations
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">goals
-</ins>
-were
-<del class="diff-old">explored
-during
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">established
-before
-</ins>
-the
-creation
-of
-this
-markup
-language:
-</p>
-<dl>
-<dt>
-Simplicity
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<ins class="diff-new">No
-extra
-processors
-or
-software
-libraries
-should
-be
-necessary
-to
-use
-JSON-LD
-in
-its
-most
-basic
-form.
-The
-language
-will
-provide
-developers
-with
-a
-very
-easy
-learning
-curve.
-</ins>
-Developers
-need
-only
-know
-JSON
-and
-two
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keywords
-</a>
-(
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-and
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-)
-to
-use
-the
-basic
-functionality
-in
-JSON-LD.
-<del class="diff-old">No
-extra
-processors
-or
-software
-libraries
-are
-necessary
-to
-use
-JSON-LD
-in
-its
-most
-basic
-form.
-The
-language
-attempts
-to
-ensure
-that
-developers
-have
-an
-easy
-learning
-curve.
-</del>
-</dd>
-<dt>
-Compatibility
-</dt>
-<dd>
-The
-JSON-LD
-markup
-must
-be
-100%
-compatible
-with
-JSON.
-This
-ensures
-that
-all
-of
-the
-standard
-JSON
-libraries
-work
-seamlessly
-with
-JSON-LD
-documents.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-Expressiveness
-</dt>
-<dd>
-The
-syntax
-must
-be
-able
-to
-express
-directed
-graphs,
-which
-have
-been
-proven
-to
-be
-able
-to
-express
-almost
-every
-real
-world
-data
-model.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-Terseness
-</dt>
-<dd>
-The
-JSON-LD
-syntax
-must
-be
-very
-terse
-and
-human
-readable,
-requiring
-as
-little
-effort
-as
-possible
-from
-the
-developer.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-Zero
-Edits,
-most
-of
-the
-time
-</dt>
-<dd>
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">provides
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">must
-provide
-</ins>
-a
-<a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
-mechanism
-</a>
-that
-allows
-developers
-to
-specify
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-in
-a
-way
-that
-is
-out-of-band.
-This
-allows
-organizations
-that
-have
-already
-deployed
-large
-JSON-based
-infrastructure
-to
-add
-meaning
-to
-their
-JSON
-documents
-in
-a
-way
-that
-is
-not
-disruptive
-to
-their
-day-to-day
-operations
-and
-is
-transparent
-to
-their
-current
-customers.
-At
-times,
-mapping
-JSON
-to
-a
-graph
-representation
-can
-become
-difficult.
-In
-these
-instances,
-rather
-than
-having
-JSON-LD
-support
-<ins class="diff-new">an
-</ins>
-esoteric
-<del class="diff-old">markup,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">use
-case,
-</ins>
-we
-chose
-not
-to
-support
-the
-use
-case
-and
-support
-a
-simplified
-syntax
-instead.
-So,
-while
-Zero
-Edits
-is
-a
-goal,
-it
-is
-not
-always
-possible
-without
-adding
-great
-complexity
-to
-the
-language.
-</dd>
-<dt>
-One-pass
-Processing
-</dt>
-<dd>
-JSON-LD
-supports
-one-pass
-processing,
-which
-results
-in
-a
-very
-small
-memory
-footprint
-when
-processing
-documents.
-For
-example,
-to
-expand
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-from
-a
-compacted
-form,
-only
-one
-pass
-is
-required
-over
-the
-data.
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-<div id="basic-concepts" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#basic-concepts" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h2>
-<span class="secno">
-3.
-</span>
-Basic
-Concepts
-</h2>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-is
-designed
-to
-ensure
-that
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>
-concepts
-can
-be
-marked
-up
-in
-a
-way
-that
-is
-simple
-to
-understand
-and
-create
-by
-Web
-authors.
-In
-many
-cases,
-regular
-JSON
-markup
-can
-become
-Linked
-Data
-with
-the
-simple
-addition
-of
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>.
-As
-more
-JSON-LD
-features
-are
-used,
-more
-semantics
-are
-added
-to
-the
-JSON
-markup.
-</p>
-<div id="linking-data" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#linking-data" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-3.1
-</span>
-Linking
-Data
-</h3>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">An
-Internationalized
-Resource
-Identifier
-(
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">The
-following
-definition
-for
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
-Linked
-Data
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-is
-the
-one
-that
-will
-be
-used
-for
-this
-specification.
-</ins></p><ol><li><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
-Linked
-Data
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
-is
-a
-set
-of
-documents,
-each
-containing
-a
-representation
-of
-a
-linked
-data
-graph.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-A
-</ins><dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
-linked
-data
-graph
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
-is
-an
-unordered
-labeled
-directed
-graph,
-where
-nodes
-are
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
-subject
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-or
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s,
-and
-edges
-are
-properties.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-A
-</ins><dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
-subject
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
-is
-any
-node
-in
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
-linked
-data
-graph
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-with
-at
-least
-one
-outgoing
-edge.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
-subject
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-chg">
-should
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-labeled
-with
-an
-</ins>
-<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</dfn>
-<del class="diff-old">),
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">(an
-Internationalized
-Resource
-Identifier
-</ins>
-as
-described
-in
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
-RFC3987
-</a>
-</cite>
-<del class="diff-old">],
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">]).
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-An
-</ins><dfn title="object" id="dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-object
-</ins></dfn>
-is
-a
-<del class="diff-old">mechanism
-for
-representing
-unique
-identifiers
-on
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">node
-in
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
-linked
-data
-graph
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-with
-at
-least
-one
-incoming
-edge.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-An
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-object
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
-may
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-labeled
-with
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-A
-node
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
-may
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
-subject
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-and
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-at
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">Web.
-In
-Linked
-Data
-,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">same
-time.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-A
-</ins><dfn title="property" id="dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
-property
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
-is
-</ins>
-an
-<ins class="diff-new">edge
-of
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
-linked
-data
-graph
-</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
-A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
-property
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
-should
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-be
-labeled
-with
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
-An
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-<ins class="diff-new">that
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">commonly
-used
-for
-expressing
-</del>
-a
-<ins class="diff-new">label
-in
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
-linked
-data
-graph
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
-should
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-be
-dereferencable
-to
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
-Linked
-Data
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-document
-describing
-the
-labeled
-</ins>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>,
-<del class="diff-old">a
-property
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
-<ins class="diff-chg">object
-</ins>
-</a>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
-<ins class="diff-new">property
-</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
-A
-</ins><dfn title="value" id="dfn-value"><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-</ins>
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
-object
-</a>
-<ins class="diff-new">with
-a
-label
-that
-is
-not
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a></li></ol><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
-An
-illustration
-of
-a
-linked
-data
-graph
-would
-probably
-help
-here.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
-Note
-that
-the
-definition
-for
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
-Linked
-Data
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-above
-is
-silent
-on
-the
-topic
-of
-unlabeled
-nodes.
-Unlabeled
-nodes
-are
-not
-considered
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
-Linked
-Data
-</ins>
-</a>.
-<ins class="diff-new">However,
-this
-specification
-allows
-for
-the
-expression
-of
-unlabled
-nodes,
-as
-most
-graph-based
-data
-sets
-on
-the
-Web
-contain
-a
-number
-of
-associated
-nodes
-that
-are
-not
-named
-and
-thus
-are
-not
-directly
-de-referenceable.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-defines
-a
-mechanism
-to
-map
-JSON
-terms,
-i.e.,
-keys
-and
-values,
-to
-IRIs.
-This
-does
-not
-mean
-that
-JSON-LD
-requires
-every
-key
-or
-value
-to
-be
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>,
-but
-rather
-ensures
-that
-keys
-and
-values
-can
-be
-mapped
-to
-IRIs
-if
-the
-developer
-desires
-to
-transform
-their
-data
-into
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>.
-There
-are
-a
-few
-techniques
-that
-can
-ensure
-that
-developers
-will
-generate
-good
-Linked
-Data
-for
-the
-Web.
-JSON-LD
-formalizes
-those
-techniques.
-</p>
-<p>
-We
-will
-be
-using
-the
-following
-JSON
-markup
-as
-the
-example
-for
-the
-rest
-of
-this
-section:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<div id="the-context" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#the-context" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h4>
-<span class="secno">
-3.1.1
-</span>
-The
-Context
-</h4>
-<p>
-In
-JSON-LD,
-a
-<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
-context
-</dfn>
-is
-used
-to
-map
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s,
-i.e.,
-properties
-with
-associated
-values
-in
-an
-JSON
-document,
-to
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s.
-A
-<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
-term
-</dfn>
-is
-a
-short
-word
-that
-expands
-to
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-Term
-</a>
-s
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-defined
-as
-any
-valid
-JSON
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>
-other
-than
-a
-JSON-LD
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>.
-To
-avoid
-forward-compatibility
-issues,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-starting
-with
-an
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-character
-<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">
-should
-not
-</em>
-be
-used
-as
-they
-might
-be
-used
-as
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keywords
-</a>
-in
-future
-versions
-of
-JSON-LD.
-<ins class="diff-new">Furthermore,
-the
-use
-of
-empty
-terms
-(
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-&quot;&quot;
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-)
-is
-discouraged
-as
-not
-all
-programming
-languages
-are
-able
-to
-handle
-empty
-property
-names.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-Web
-uses
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-IRIs
-</a>
-for
-unambiguous
-identification.
-The
-idea
-is
-that
-these
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-mean
-something
-that
-may
-be
-of
-use
-to
-other
-developers
-and
-that
-it
-is
-useful
-to
-give
-them
-an
-unambiguous
-identifier.
-That
-is,
-it
-is
-useful
-for
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-to
-expand
-to
-IRIs
-so
-that
-developers
-don't
-accidentally
-step
-on
-each
-other's
-<dfn title="vocabulary" id="dfn-vocabulary">
-vocabulary
-</dfn>
-terms.
-Furthermore,
-developers,
-and
-machines,
-are
-able
-to
-use
-this
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-(by
-plugging
-it
-directly
-into
-a
-web
-browser,
-for
-instance)
-to
-go
-to
-the
-term
-and
-get
-a
-definition
-of
-what
-the
-term
-means.
-<del class="diff-old">Much
-like
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">This
-mechanism
-is
-analogousto
-the
-way
-</ins>
-we
-can
-use
-<a href="http://wordnet.princeton.edu/">
-WordNet
-</a>
-today
-to
-see
-the
-definition
-of
-words
-in
-the
-English
-language.
-Developers
-and
-machines
-need
-the
-same
-sort
-of
-definition
-of
-terms.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-IRIs
-</a>
-provide
-a
-way
-to
-ensure
-that
-these
-terms
-are
-unambiguous.
-For
-example,
-the
-term
-<code>
-name
-</code>
-may
-map
-directly
-to
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<code>
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-</code>.
-This
-allows
-JSON-LD
-documents
-to
-be
-constructed
-using
-the
-common
-JSON
-practice
-of
-simple
-name/value
-pairs
-while
-ensuring
-that
-the
-data
-is
-useful
-outside
-of
-the
-page,
-API
-or
-database
-in
-which
-it
-resides.
-The
-value
-of
-a
-term
-mapping
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-either;
-1)
-a
-simple
-string
-with
-the
-lexical
-form
-of
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-or
-2)
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-or
-3)
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-containing
-an
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-or
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-keyword
-(all
-other
-keywords
-are
-ignored
-by
-a
-JSON-LD
-processor).
-</p>
-<p>
-These
-Linked
-Data
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-are
-typically
-collected
-in
-a
-context
-document
-that
-would
-look
-something
-like
-this:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;depiction&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-  }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;depiction&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-  }
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-Assuming
-that
-this
-context
-document
-can
-be
-retrieved
-at
-<code>
-http://json-ld.org/contexts/person
-</code>,
-it
-can
-be
-referenced
-from
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-by
-adding
-a
-single
-line.
-The
-JSON
-markup
-shown
-in
-the
-previous
-section
-could
-be
-changed
-as
-follows:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,</span>
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-additions
-above
-transform
-the
-previous
-JSON
-document
-into
-a
-JSON
-document
-with
-added
-semantics
-because
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-specifies
-how
-the
-<strong>
-name
-</strong>,
-<strong>
-homepage
-</strong>,
-and
-<strong>
-depiction
-</strong>
-terms
-map
-to
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-IRIs
-</a>.
-Mapping
-those
-keys
-to
-IRIs
-gives
-the
-data
-global
-context.
-If
-two
-developers
-use
-the
-same
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-to
-describe
-a
-property,
-they
-are
-more
-than
-likely
-expressing
-the
-same
-concept.
-This
-allows
-both
-developers
-to
-re-use
-each
-others
-data
-without
-having
-to
-agree
-to
-how
-their
-data
-will
-interoperate
-on
-a
-site-by-site
-basis.
-Contexts
-may
-also
-contain
-type
-information
-for
-certain
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-as
-well
-as
-other
-processing
-instructions
-for
-the
-JSON-LD
-processor.
-</p>
-<p>
-Contexts
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-specified
-in-line.
-This
-ensures
-that
-JSON-LD
-documents
-can
-be
-processed
-when
-a
-JSON-LD
-processor
-does
-not
-have
-access
-to
-the
-Web.
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;depiction&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
-<ins class="diff-chg">  {
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;depiction&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    },
-  },</span>
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-Contexts
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-used
-at
-any
-time
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-is
-defined.
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-specify
-multiple
-contexts,
-using
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
-array
-</a>,
-which
-is
-processed
-in
-order.
-This
-is
-useful
-when
-an
-author
-would
-like
-to
-use
-an
-existing
-context
-and
-add
-application-specific
-terms
-to
-the
-existing
-context.
-Duplicate
-context
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-overridden
-using
-a
-last-defined-overrides
-mechanism.
-</p>
-<p class="note">
-If
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-is
-re-defined
-within
-a
-context,
-all
-previous
-rules
-associated
-with
-the
-previous
-definition
-are
-removed.
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-defined
-in
-a
-previous
-context
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-removed,
-if
-it
-is
-re-defined
-to
-<code>
-null
-</code>.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-set
-of
-contexts
-defined
-within
-a
-specific
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-are
-referred
-to
-as
-<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
-local
-context
-</dfn>
-s.
-Setting
-the
-context
-to
-<code>
-null
-</code>
-effectively
-sets
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
-local
-context
-</a>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">it's
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">its
-</ins>
-initial
-state.
-The
-<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</dfn>
-refers
-to
-the
-accumulation
-of
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
-local
-context
-</a>
-s
-that
-are
-in
-scope
-at
-a
-specific
-point
-within
-the
-document.
-The
-following
-example
-specifies
-an
-external
-context
-and
-then
-layers
-a
-local
-context
-on
-top
-of
-the
-external
-context:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: [
-    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
-    {
-      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
-    }
-  ],
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: [
-<ins class="diff-chg">    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
-    {
-      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
-    }
-  ],</span>
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;</span>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-To
-ensure
-the
-best
-possible
-performance,
-it
-is
-a
-best
-practice
-to
-put
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-definition
-at
-the
-top
-of
-the
-JSON-LD
-document.
-If
-it
-isn't
-listed
-first,
-processors
-have
-to
-save
-each
-key-value
-pair
-until
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-is
-processed.
-This
-creates
-a
-memory
-and
-complexity
-burden
-for
-one-pass
-processors.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="from-json-to-json-ld" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#from-json-to-json-ld" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h4>
-<span class="secno">
-3.1.2
-</span>
-From
-JSON
-to
-JSON-LD
-</h4>
-<p>
-If
-a
-set
-of
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-such
-as,
-<strong>
-name
-</strong>,
-<strong>
-homepage
-</strong>,
-and
-<strong>
-depiction
-</strong>,
-are
-defined
-in
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>,
-and
-that
-context
-is
-used
-to
-resolve
-the
-names
-in
-JSON
-objects,
-machines
-are
-able
-to
-automatically
-expand
-the
-terms
-to
-something
-meaningful
-and
-unambiguous,
-like
-this:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
-  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction</span>&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-Doing
-this
-allows
-JSON
-to
-be
-unambiguously
-machine-readable
-without
-requiring
-developers
-to
-drastically
-change
-their
-workflow.
-</p>
-<p class="note">
-The
-example
-above
-does
-not
-use
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-to
-set
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>
-of
-the
-node
-being
-described
-above.
-This
-type
-of
-node
-is
-called
-an
-<dfn title="unlabeled_node" id="dfn-unlabeled_node">
-unlabeled
-node
-</dfn>
-and
-is
-considered
-to
-be
-a
-weaker
-form
-of
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>.
-It
-is
-advised
-that
-all
-nodes
-described
-in
-JSON-LD
-are
-given
-unique
-identifiers
-via
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-keyword
-unless
-the
-data
-is
-not
-intended
-to
-be
-linked
-to
-from
-other
-data
-sets.
-</p>
-<p>
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-used
-to
-define
-property
-values
-is
-called
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
-subject
-definition
-</a>.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
-Subject
-definitions
-</a>
-do
-not
-require
-a
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-in
-which
-case
-they
-are
-considered
-to
-be
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
-unlabeled
-node
-</a>.
-</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-<div id="iris" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iris" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-3.2
-</span>
-IRIs
-</h3>
-<p>
-Expressing
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s
-are
-fundamental
-to
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>
-as
-that
-is
-how
-most
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>
-s,
-all
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
-properties
-</a>
-and
-many
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
-object
-</a>
-s
-are
-identified.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s
-can
-be
-expressed
-in
-a
-variety
-of
-different
-ways
-in
-JSON-LD.
-</p>
-<ol>
-<li>
-Except
-within
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-definition,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-in
-the
-key
-position
-in
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-that
-have
-a
-mapping
-to
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-or
-another
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-in
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>
-are
-expanded
-to
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-by
-JSON-LD
-processors.
-</li>
-<li>
-An
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-is
-generated
-for
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>
-value
-specified
-using
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-or
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>.
-</li>
-<li>
-An
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-is
-generated
-for
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>
-value
-of
-any
-key
-for
-which
-there
-are
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
-coercion
-</a>
-rules
-in
-effect
-that
-identify
-the
-value
-as
-an
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>.
-</li>
-</ol>
-<p>
-IRIs
-may
-be
-represented
-as
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
-relative
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>,
-or
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>.
-</p>
-<p>
-An
-<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</dfn>
-is
-defined
-in
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
-RFC3987
-</a>
-</cite>
-]
-containing
-a
-<em>
-scheme
-</em>
-along
-with
-<em>
-path
-</em>
-and
-optional
-<em>
-query
-</em>
-and
-<em>
-fragment
-</em>
-segments.
-A
-<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
-relative
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</dfn>
-is
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-that
-is
-relative
-some
-other
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<del class="diff-old">;
-in
-the
-case
-of
-</del>
-</a>.
-<ins class="diff-chg">In
-</ins>
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">this
-is
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">all
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
-relative
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-are
-resolved
-relative
-to
-</ins>
-the
-<dfn title="base_iri" id="dfn-base_iri">
-base
-<del class="diff-old">location
-of
-</del>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
-associated
-with
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">document.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">document
-(typically,
-the
-directory
-that
-contains
-the
-document
-or
-the
-document
-itself).
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-IRIs
-can
-be
-expressed
-directly
-in
-the
-key
-position
-like
-so:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-the
-example
-above,
-the
-key
-<code>
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-</code>
-is
-interpreted
-as
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-as
-opposed
-to
-being
-interpreted
-as
-a
-<del class="diff-old">string.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">string
-because
-it
-contains
-a
-colon
-(
-</ins><code>:</code><ins class="diff-chg">
-)
-delimiting
-a
-valid
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
-scheme.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-Term
-expansion
-occurs
-for
-IRIs
-if
-the
-value
-matches
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-defined
-within
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;&quot;
-...
-  },
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;
-...
-  },
-  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;status&quot;: &quot;trollin'&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-new">Term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-s
-are
-case
-sensitive,
-and
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
-must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-be
-matched
-using
-a
-case-sensitive
-comparison.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
-JSON
-keys
-that
-do
-not
-expand
-to
-an
-absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
-are
-ignored,
-or
-removed
-in
-some
-cases,
-by
-the
-[
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API"><ins class="diff-new">
-JSON-LD-API
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
-].
-However,
-JSON
-keys
-that
-do
-not
-include
-a
-mapping
-in
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-new">
-context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-are
-still
-considered
-valid
-expressions
-in
-JSON-LD
-documents
--
-the
-keys
-just
-don't
-have
-any
-machine-readable,
-semantic
-meaning.
-</ins></p><p>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-Prefix
-</a>
-es
-are
-expanded
-when
-the
-form
-of
-the
-value
-<ins class="diff-new">is
-a
-</ins>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-represented
-as
-<del class="diff-old">is
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">a
-</ins>
-<code>
-prefix:suffix
-<del class="diff-old">,
-</del>
-</code>
-<ins class="diff-chg">combination,
-</ins>
-and
-the
-prefix
-matches
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-defined
-within
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;&quot;
-...
-  },
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>&quot;
-...
-  },
-  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">Term
-s
-are
-case
-sensitive,
-and
-must
-be
-matched
-using
-a
-case-sensitive
-comparison.
-Keys
-that
-do
-not
-expand
-to
-an
-absolute
-IRI
-are
-ignored.
-</del>
-<code>
-foaf:name
-</code>
-above
-will
-automatically
-expand
-out
-to
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<code>
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-</code>.
-See
-<a href="#compact-iris">
-Compact
-IRIs
-</a>
-for
-more
-details.
-</p>
-<p>
-An
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-is
-generated
-when
-a
-<del class="diff-old">value
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
-object
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">associated
-with
-a
-key
-using
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">used
-in
-</ins>
-the
-<ins class="diff-new">value
-position
-that
-contains
-an
-</ins>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-keyword:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-Specifying
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-with
-an
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key
-is
-used
-to
-identify
-that
-object
-using
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>.
-This
-facility
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-also
-be
-used
-to
-link
-<del class="diff-old">a
-subject
-with
-an
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">to
-another
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-JSON
-</ins>
-object
-</a>
-using
-a
-mechanism
-called
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="embedding" href="#dfn-embedding">
-embedding
-</a>,
-which
-is
-covered
-in
-the
-section
-titled
-<a href="#embedding">
-Embedding
-</a>.
-</p>
-<p>
-If
-type
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
-coercion
-</a>
-rules
-are
-specified
-in
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-for
-a
-particular
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-or
-property
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>,
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-is
-generated:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ...
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-    ...
-  }
-...
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ...
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-    ...
-  }</span>
-...
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">Even
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">In
-the
-example
-above,
-even
-</ins>
-though
-the
-value
-<code>
-http://manu.sporny.org/
-</code>
-is
-<ins class="diff-new">expressed
-as
-</ins>
-a
-<ins class="diff-new">JSON
-</ins>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>,
-the
-type
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
-coercion
-</a>
-rules
-will
-transform
-the
-value
-into
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-when
-processed
-by
-a
-JSON-LD
-Processor.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="identifying-the-subject" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#identifying-the-subject" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-3.3
-</span>
-Identifying
-the
-Subject
-</h3>
-<p>
-To
-be
-able
-to
-externally
-reference
-<del class="diff-old">nodes,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
-in
-a
-graph,
-</ins>
-it
-is
-important
-that
-each
-node
-has
-an
-unambiguous
-identifier.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s
-are
-a
-fundamental
-concept
-of
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>,
-and
-nodes
-should
-have
-a
-de-referencable
-identifier
-used
-to
-name
-and
-locate
-them.
-For
-nodes
-to
-be
-truly
-linked,
-de-referencing
-the
-identifier
-should
-result
-in
-a
-representation
-of
-that
-<del class="diff-old">node.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">node
-(for
-example,
-using
-a
-URL
-to
-retrieve
-a
-web
-page).
-</ins>
-Associating
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-with
-a
-node
-tells
-an
-application
-that
-the
-returned
-document
-contains
-a
-description
-of
-the
-node
-requested.
-</p>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-documents
-may
-also
-contain
-descriptions
-of
-other
-nodes,
-so
-it
-is
-necessary
-to
-be
-able
-to
-uniquely
-identify
-each
-node
-which
-may
-be
-externally
-referenced.
-</p>
-<p>
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>
-of
-an
-object
-in
-JSON
-is
-declared
-using
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key.
-The
-subject
-is
-the
-first
-piece
-of
-information
-needed
-by
-the
-JSON-LD
-processor
-in
-order
-to
-create
-the
-(subject,
-property,
-object)
-tuple,
-also
-known
-as
-a
-triple.
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-example
-above
-would
-set
-the
-subject
-to
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<code>
-http://example.org/people#joebob
-</code>.
-</p>
-<p>
-A
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-used
-to
-define
-property
-values
-is
-called
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
-subject
-definition
-</a>.
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
-Subject
-definitions
-</a>
-do
-not
-require
-<del class="diff-old">a
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">an
-</ins>
-<code>
[email protected]
-<del class="diff-old">,
-in
-which
-case
-they
-are
-considered
-to
-be
-</del>
-</code>.
-<ins class="diff-chg">A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
-subject
-definition
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-that
-does
-not
-contain
-an
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-property
-is
-called
-</ins>
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
-unlabeled
-node
-</a>.
-</p>
-<p class="note">
-To
-ensure
-the
-best
-possible
-performance,
-it
-is
-a
-best
-practice
-to
-put
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-before
-other
-key-value
-pairs
-in
-an
-object.
-If
-it
-isn't
-listed
-first,
-processors
-have
-to
-save
-each
-key-value
-pair
-until
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-is
-processed
-before
-they
-can
-start
-generating
-triples.
-Not
-specifying
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-keyword
-first
-creates
-a
-memory
-and
-complexity
-burden
-for
-one-pass
-processors.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="specifying-the-type" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#specifying-the-type" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-3.4
-</span>
-Specifying
-the
-Type
-</h3>
-<p>
-The
-type
-of
-a
-particular
-subject
-can
-be
-specified
-using
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>.
-Specifying
-the
-type
-in
-this
-way
-will
-generate
-a
-triple
-of
-the
-form
-(subject,
-type,
-type-
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-).
-To
-be
-considered
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>,
-types
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-uniquely
-identified
-by
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>.
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-</div>
-<div id="string-internationalization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#string-internationalization" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-3.5
-</span>
-String
-Internationalization
-</h3>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">In
-different
-scenarios
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">At
-times,
-</ins>
-it
-is
-important
-to
-annotate
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>
-with
-its
-language.
-In
-JSON-LD
-this
-is
-possible
-in
-a
-variety
-of
-ways.
-Firstly,
-it
-is
-possible
-to
-define
-a
-default
-language
-for
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-by
-setting
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key
-in
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-or
-in
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-definition:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: ,
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: 
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
-<ins class="diff-chg">  {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },</span>
-  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;花澄&quot;</span>,
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;科学者&quot;</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-example
-above
-would
-associate
-the
-<code>
-ja
-</code>
-language
-code
-with
-the
-two
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>
-s
-<em>
-花澄
-</em>
-and
-<em>
-科学者
-</em>.
-Languages
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-expressed
-in
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
-BCP47
-</a>
-</cite>
-]
-format.
-</p>
-<p>
-It
-is
-possible
-to
-override
-the
-default
-language
-by
-using
-the
-expanded
-form
-of
-a
-value:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: {
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
-  }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff">{
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
-  }</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-It
-is
-also
-possible
-to
-override
-the
-default
-language
-or
-specify
-a
-plain
-value
-by
-omitting
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-tag
-or
-setting
-it
-to
-<code>
-null
-</code>
-when
-expressing
-the
-expanded
-value:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: {
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;occupation&quot;:  {
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">{
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Frank&quot;
-  },</span>
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff"> {
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
-  }</span>,
-  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-Please
-note
-that
-language
-associations
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-only
-be
-applied
-to
-plain
-literal
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-string
-</a>
-s.
-That
-is,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
-typed
-value
-</a>
-s
-or
-values
-that
-are
-subject
-to
-<a href="#type-coercion">
-type
-coercion
-</a>
-won't
-be
-language
-tagged.
-</p>
-<p>
-To
-clear
-the
-default
-language
-for
-a
-subtree,
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-can
-be
-set
-to
-<code>
-null
-</code>
-in
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
-local
-context
-</a>
-as
-follows:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
-  &quot;details&quot;: {
-    &quot;@context&quot;: {
-      &quot;@language&quot;: null
-    },
-    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
-  }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
-  &quot;details&quot;: {
-</ins><span class="diff">    &quot;@context&quot;: {<ins class="diff-chg">
-      &quot;@language&quot;: null
-    },</span>
-    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
-  }
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-JSON-LD
-allows
-<ins class="diff-new">one
-</ins>
-to
-associate
-language
-information
-with
-<del class="diff-old">terms.
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-chg">term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s.
-</ins>
-See
-<a href="#expanded-term-definition">
-Expanded
-Term
-Definition
-</a>
-for
-more
-details.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="sets-and-lists" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sets-and-lists" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-3.6
-</span>
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</h3>
-<p>
-A
-JSON-LD
-author
-can
-express
-multiple
-values
-in
-a
-compact
-way
-by
-using
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
-array
-</a>
-s.
-<del class="diff-old">But,
-because
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Since
-</ins>
-graphs
-do
-not
-describe
-ordering
-for
-links
-between
-nodes,
-<del class="diff-old">in
-contrast
-to
-plain
-JSON,
-</del>
-arrays
-in
-JSON-LD
-do
-not
-provide
-an
-ordering
-of
-the
-listed
-objects
-by
-default.
-<ins class="diff-new">This
-is
-exactly
-the
-opposite
-from
-regular
-JSON
-arrays,
-which
-are
-ordered
-by
-default.
-</ins>
-For
-example,
-consider
-the
-following
-simple
-document:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]</span>,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-markup
-shown
-above
-would
-result
-in
-three
-triples
-being
-generated,
-each
-relating
-the
-subject
-to
-an
-individual
-object,
-with
-no
-inherent
-order:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
-   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
-      &quot;joe&quot; .
-&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
-   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
-      &quot;bob&quot; .
-&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
-   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
-<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
-      &quot;joe&quot; .
-&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
-   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
-      &quot;bob&quot; .
-&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
-   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
-</ins>
-&quot;jaybee&quot;
-.
-</pre>
-<p>
-Multiple
-values
-may
-also
-be
-expressed
-using
-the
-expanded
-object
-form:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/articles/8&quot;,
-  &quot;dc:title&quot;: 
-  [
-    {
-      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Das Kapital&quot;,
-      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;de&quot;
-    },
-    {
-      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Capital&quot;,
-      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
-    }
-  ]
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/articles/8&quot;,
-  &quot;dc:title&quot;: <span class="diff">
-  [
-    {
-      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Das Kapital&quot;,
-      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;de&quot;
-    },
-    {
-      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Capital&quot;,
-      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
-    }
-  ]</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-markup
-shown
-above
-would
-generate
-the
-following
-triples,
-again
-with
-no
-inherent
-order:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
-   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
-      &quot;Das Kapital&quot;@de .
-&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
-   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
-<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
-      &quot;Das Kapital&quot;@de .
-&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
-   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
-</ins>
-&quot;Capital&quot;@en
-.
-</pre>
-<p>
-As
-the
-notion
-of
-ordered
-collections
-is
-rather
-important
-in
-data
-modeling,
-it
-is
-useful
-to
-have
-specific
-language
-support.
-In
-JSON-LD,
-a
-list
-may
-be
-represented
-using
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-as
-follows:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;@list&quot;: [ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]
-  },
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:
-</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;@list&quot;: [ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]
-  }</span>,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-This
-describes
-the
-use
-of
-this
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
-array
-</a>
-as
-being
-ordered,
-and
-order
-is
-maintained
-<del class="diff-old">through
-operations
-such
-as
-Expansion
-,
-Compaction
-,
-and
-Framing
-.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">when
-processing
-a
-document.
-</ins>
-If
-every
-use
-of
-a
-given
-multi-valued
-property
-is
-a
-list,
-this
-may
-be
-abbreviated
-by
-setting
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-to
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-in
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ...
-    &quot;nick&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&quot;,
-      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
-    }
-  },
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
-<ins class="diff-chg">  {
-    ...
-    &quot;nick&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&quot;,
-      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
-    }
-  }</span>,
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]</span>,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-List
-of
-lists
-are
-not
-allowed
-in
-this
-version
-of
-JSON-LD.
-If
-a
-list
-of
-lists
-is
-detected,
-a
-JSON-LD
-processor
-will
-throw
-an
-exception.
-<ins class="diff-new">This
-decision
-was
-made
-due
-to
-the
-extreme
-amount
-of
-added
-complexity
-when
-processing
-lists
-of
-lists.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-Similarly
-to
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>,
-there
-exists
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-to
-describe
-unordered
-sets.
-While
-its
-use
-in
-the
-body
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-represents
-just
-syntactic
-sugar
-that
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-optimized
-away
-when
-processing
-the
-document,
-it
-is
-very
-helpful
-<del class="diff-old">for
-Compaction
-and
-Framing
-.
-The
-value
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">when
-used
-within
-the
-context
-of
-a
-document.
-Values
-</ins>
-of
-terms
-associated
-with
-a
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">-
-</del>
-or
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">-
[email protected]
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">container
-</ins>
-are
-always
-represented
-in
-the
-form
-of
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
-array
-</a>
--
-even
-if
-there
-is
-just
-a
-single
-<del class="diff-old">value.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-that
-would
-otherwise
-be
-optimized
-to
-a
-non-array
-form
-in
-a
-</ins><a href="#compact-document-form"><ins class="diff-chg">
-compacted
-document
-</ins></a>.
-This
-makes
-post-processing
-of
-the
-data
-easier
-as
-the
-data
-is
-<ins class="diff-new">always
-</ins>
-in
-<ins class="diff-new">array
-form,
-even
-if
-the
-array
-only
-contains
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">deterministic
-form.
-If
-no
-such
[email protected]
-is
-specified,
-</del>
-single
-<del class="diff-old">values
-are
-optimized
-to
-a
-non-array
-form.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p class="note">
-The
-use
-of
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-in
-the
-body
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document,
-i.e.,
-outside
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">is
-</del>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-<ins class="diff-chg">must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-</ins>
-ignored
-by
-JSON-LD
-processors.
-</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-<div id="advanced-concepts" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#advanced-concepts" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h2>
-<span class="secno">
-4.
-</span>
-Advanced
-Concepts
-</h2>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-has
-a
-number
-of
-features
-that
-provide
-functionality
-above
-and
-beyond
-the
-core
-functionality
-described
-above.
-The
-following
-<del class="diff-old">sections
-outline
-the
-features
-that
-are
-specific
-to
-JSON-LD.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">section
-describes
-this
-advanced
-functionality
-in
-more
-detail.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<div id="typed-values" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#typed-values" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.1
-</span>
-Typed
-Values
-</h3>
-<p>
-A
-value
-with
-an
-associated
-type,
-also
-known
-as
-a
-<dfn title="typed_value" id="dfn-typed_value">
-typed
-value
-</dfn>,
-is
-indicated
-by
-associating
-a
-value
-with
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-which
-indicates
-the
-value's
-type.
-Typed
-values
-may
-be
-expressed
-in
-JSON-LD
-in
-three
-ways:
-</p>
-<ol>
-<li>
-By
-utilizing
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-when
-defining
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-within
-a
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-section.
-</li>
-<li>
-By
-utilizing
-the
-expanded
-form
-for
-specifying
-objects.
-</li>
-<li>
-By
-using
-a
-native
-JSON
-type.
-</li>
-</ol>
-<p>
-The
-first
-example
-uses
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-keyword
-to
-<del class="diff-old">express
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">associate
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">typed
-value:
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">type
-with
-a
-particular
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
-term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-in
-the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
-</ins></code>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;modified&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:dateTime&quot;
-    }
-  }
-...
-  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
-<ins class="diff-chg">  {
-    &quot;modified&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
-    }
-  },</span>
-...
-  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-<em>
-<ins class="diff-new">modified
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-key's
-value
-above
-is
-automatically
-type
-coerced
-to
-a
-datetime
-value
-because
-of
-the
-information
-specified
-in
-the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
-</ins></code>.</p><p><ins class="diff-new">
-The
-</ins>
-second
-example
-uses
-the
-expanded
-form
-<del class="diff-old">for
-specifying
-objects:
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">of
-setting
-the
-type
-information
-in
-the
-body
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document:
-</ins>
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;modified&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:dateTime&quot;
-  }
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;modified&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;
-    }
-  },
-...
-  &quot;modified&quot;:
-</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
-  }</span>
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-Both
-examples
-above
-would
-generate
-an
-object
-with
-the
-value
-of
-<code>
-2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
-</code>
-and
-the
-type
-of
-<code>
-http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
-</code>.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-third
-example
-uses
-a
-built-in
-native
-JSON
-type,
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
-number
-</a>,
-to
-express
-a
-type:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;age&quot;: 
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">31</span>
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-example
-above
-is
-really
-just
-a
-shorthand
-for
-the
-following:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;age&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;31&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&quot;
-  }
-...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
-  &quot;age&quot;:
-</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;31&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&quot;
-  }</span>
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-The
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-is
-also
-used
-to
-associate
-a
-type
-with
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>.
-Although
-the
-same
-keyword
-is
-used
-in
-both
-places,
-the
-concept
-of
-an
-<em>
-object
-type
-</em>
-and
-a
-<em>
-value
-type
-</em>
-are
-different.
-This
-is
-similar
-to
-object-oriented
-programming
-languages
-where
-both
-scalar
-and
-structured
-types
-use
-the
-same
-class
-inheritance
-mechanism,
-even
-though
-scalar
-types
-and
-structured
-types
-are
-inherently
-different.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="compact-iris" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#compact-iris" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.2
-</span>
-Compact
-IRIs
-</h3>
-<p>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-Term
-</a>
-s
-in
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
-Linked
-Data
-</a>
-documents
-may
-draw
-from
-a
-number
-of
-different
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
-vocabularies
-</a>.
-At
-times,
-declaring
-every
-single
-term
-that
-a
-document
-uses
-can
-require
-the
-developer
-to
-declare
-tens,
-if
-not
-hundreds
-of
-potential
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
-vocabulary
-</a>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-that
-are
-used
-across
-an
-application.
-This
-is
-a
-concern
-for
-at
-least
-<del class="diff-old">three
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">two
-</ins>
-reasons:
-the
-first
-is
-the
-cognitive
-load
-on
-the
-developer
-of
-remembering
-all
-of
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s,
-<ins class="diff-new">and
-</ins>
-the
-second
-is
-the
-serialized
-size
-of
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-if
-it
-is
-specified
-<del class="diff-old">inline,
-the
-third
-is
-future-proofing
-embedded
-application
-context
-s
-that
-may
-not
-be
-easy
-to
-change
-after
-they
-are
-deployed.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">inline.
-</ins>
-In
-order
-to
-address
-these
-issues,
-the
-concept
-of
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-is
-introduced.
-</p>
-<p>
-A
-<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</dfn>
-is
-a
-way
-of
-expressing
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-using
-a
-<em>
-prefix
-</em>
-and
-<em>
-suffix
-<del class="diff-old">.
-Generally,
-these
-prefixes
-are
-used
-by
-concatenating
-the
-prefix
-</del>
-</em>
-<del class="diff-old">and
-a
-suffix
-,
-which
-is
-</del>
-separated
-by
-a
-colon
-(
-<code>:
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">).
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">)
-which
-is
-similar
-to
-the
-</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies"><ins class="diff-chg">
-CURIE
-Syntax
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
-in
-[
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE"><ins class="diff-chg">
-RDFA-CORE
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
-].
-</ins>
-The
-<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
-prefix
-</dfn>
-is
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-taken
-from
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>
-and
-is
-a
-short
-string
-identifying
-a
-particular
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-in
-a
-JSON-LD
-document.
-For
-example,
-the
-prefix
-<code>
-foaf
-</code>
-may
-be
-used
-as
-a
-short
-hand
-for
-the
-Friend-of-a-Friend
-vocabulary,
-which
-is
-identified
-using
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<code>
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
-</code>.
-A
-developer
-may
-append
-any
-of
-the
-FOAF
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
-vocabulary
-</a>
-terms
-to
-the
-end
-of
-the
-prefix
-to
-specify
-a
-short-hand
-version
-of
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-for
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
-vocabulary
-</a>
-term.
-For
-example,
-<code>
-foaf:name
-</code>
-would
-be
-expanded
-out
-to
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<code>
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-</code>.
-Instead
-of
-having
-to
-remember
-and
-type
-out
-the
-entire
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>,
-the
-developer
-can
-instead
-use
-the
-prefix
-in
-their
-JSON-LD
-markup.
-</p>
-<p>
-Terms
-are
-interpreted
-as
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s
-if
-they
-contain
-at
-least
-one
-colon
-and
-the
-first
-colon
-is
-not
-followed
-by
-two
-slashes
-(
-<code>
-//
-</code>,
-as
-in
-<code>
-http://example.com
-</code>
-).
-To
-generate
-the
-full
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-the
-value
-is
-first
-split
-into
-a
-<em>
-prefix
-</em>
-and
-<em>
-suffix
-</em>
-at
-the
-first
-occurrence
-of
-a
-colon
-(
-<code>:
-</code>
-).
-If
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>
-contains
-a
-term
-mapping
-for
-<em>
-prefix
-</em>,
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-is
-generated
-by
-prepending
-the
-mapped
-<em>
-prefix
-</em>
-to
-the
-(possibly
-empty)
-<em>
-suffix
-</em>
-using
-textual
-concatenation.
-If
-no
-prefix
-mapping
-is
-defined,
-the
-value
-is
-interpreted
-as
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>.
-If
-the
-prefix
-is
-an
-underscore
-(
-<code>
-_
-</code>
-),
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-remains
-unchanged.
-This
-effectively
-means
-that
-every
-term
-containing
-a
-colon
-will
-be
-interpreted
-by
-a
-JSON-LD
-processor
-as
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>.
-</p>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">The
-ability
-to
-use
-compact
-IRIs
-reduces
-the
-need
-for
-developers
-to
-declare
-every
-vocabulary
-term
-that
-they
-intend
-to
-use
-in
-the
-JSON-LD
-context
-.
-This
-reduces
-stand-alone
-JSON-LD
-document
-serialization
-size
-because
-every
-vocabulary
-term
-need
-not
-be
-declared
-in
-the
-embedded
-context.
-Compact
-IRIs
-also
-reduces
-the
-cognitive
-load
-on
-the
-developer.
-It
-is
-far
-easier
-to
-remember
-foaf:name
-than
-it
-is
-to
-remember
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-.
-The
-use
-of
-prefixes
-also
-ensures
-that
-a
-context
-document
-does
-not
-have
-to
-be
-updated
-in
-lock-step
-with
-an
-externally
-defined
-vocabulary
-.
-Without
-prefixes,
-a
-developer
-would
-need
-to
-keep
-their
-application
-context
-terms
-in
-lock-step
-with
-an
-externally
-defined
-vocabulary.
-Rather,
-by
-just
-declaring
-the
-vocabulary
-prefix,
-one
-can
-use
-new
-terms
-as
-they're
-declared
-without
-having
-to
-update
-the
-application's
-JSON-LD
-context
-.
-</del>
-Consider
-the
-following
-example:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">  {
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    
-    
-  },
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
-  &quot;@type&quot;: ,
-  :
-  {
-    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: ,
-    : &quot;Plato&quot;,
-    : &quot;The Republic&quot;,
-    :
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: ,
-      : &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
-      : &quot;The Introduction&quot;
-    }
-  }
-</del>
-  <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;dc&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot;,</span>    <span class="diff">&quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/vocab#&quot;</span><ins class="diff-chg">
-  },
-  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
-  &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Library&quot;</span>,
-</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>:<ins class="diff-chg">
-  {
-    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Book&quot;</span>,
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:creator&quot;</span>: &quot;Plato&quot;,    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Republic&quot;,    <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>:<ins class="diff-chg">
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Chapter&quot;</span>,
-</ins>      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:description&quot;</span>: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Introduction&quot;<ins class="diff-chg">
-    }
-  }
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-this
-example,
-two
-different
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
-vocabularies
-</a>
-are
-referred
-to
-using
-prefixes.
-Those
-prefixes
-are
-then
-used
-as
-type
-and
-property
-values
-using
-the
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<code>
-prefix:suffix
-</code>
-notation.
-</p>
-<p>
-It's
-also
-possible
-to
-use
-compact
-IRIs
-within
-the
-context
-as
-shown
-in
-the
-following
-example:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">  {
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
-    : { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },
-    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: , &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
-  },
-  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
-  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
-  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
-</del>
-  <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:homepage&quot;</span>: { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:depiction&quot;</span>, &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
-  },
-  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
-  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
-  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<del class="diff-old">Compact
-IRIs
-,
-also
-known
-as
-CURIEs,
-are
-defined
-more
-formally
-in
-RDFa
-Core
-1.1,
-Section
-6
-&quot;CURIE
-Syntax
-Definition&quot;
-[
-RDFA-CORE
-].
-JSON-LD
-does
-not
-support
-the
-square-bracketed
-CURIE
-syntax
-as
-the
-mechanism
-is
-not
-required
-to
-disambiguate
-IRI
-s
-in
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-like
-it
-is
-in
-HTML
-documents.
-</del>
-</div>
-<div id="external-contexts" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#external-contexts" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.3
-</span>
-External
-Contexts
-</h3>
-<p>
-Authors
-may
-choose
-to
-declare
-JSON-LD
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-s
-in
-external
-documents
-to
-promote
-re-use
-of
-contexts
-as
-well
-as
-reduce
-the
-size
-of
-JSON-LD
-documents.
-</p>
-<p>
-In
-order
-to
-use
-an
-external
-context,
-an
-author
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-specify
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-to
-a
-valid
-JSON-LD
-document.
-The
-referenced
-document
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-have
-a
-top-level
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>.
-The
-value
-of
-any
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key
-within
-that
-object
-is
-substituted
-for
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-within
-the
-referencing
-document
-to
-have
-the
-same
-effect
-as
-if
-the
-value
-were
-specified
-inline
-within
-the
-referencing
-document.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-following
-example
-demonstrates
-the
-use
-of
-an
-external
-context:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  ,
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;</span>,
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-Authors
-may
-also
-import
-multiple
-contexts
-or
-a
-combination
-of
-external
-and
-local
-contexts
-by
-specifying
-a
-list
-of
-contexts:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  [
-    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
-    {
-      &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/event&quot;,
-  ]
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-  &quot;celebrates&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
-    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
-    &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
-  }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
-<ins class="diff-chg">  [
-    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
-    {
-      &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/event&quot;,
-  ]</span>
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;celebrates&quot;:<ins class="diff-chg">
-  {
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
-    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
-    &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
-  }</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-Each
-context
-in
-a
-list
-will
-be
-evaluated
-in-order.
-Duplicate
-mappings
-among
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-s
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-overwritten
-on
-a
-last-defined-overrides
-basis.
-The
-context
-list
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-contain
-either
-de-referenceable
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-s
-that
-conform
-to
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-syntax
-as
-described
-in
-this
-document.
-</p>
-<p>
-An
-author
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-nest
-contexts
-within
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-s,
-with
-the
-more
-deeply
-nested
-contexts
-overriding
-the
-values
-in
-previously
-defined
-contexts:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
-    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
-  ...
-  &quot;details&quot;:
-  {
-    
-    &quot;&quot;: &quot;Graz University of Technology&quot;
-  }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
-<ins class="diff-chg">  {
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
-    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
-  },</span>
-  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
-  ...
-  &quot;details&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: {<ins class="diff-chg">
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/organization#name&quot;
-    },</span>
-    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Graz University of Technology&quot;
-  }
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-the
-example
-above,
-the
-<code>
-name
-</code>
-prefix
-is
-overridden
-in
-the
-more
-deeply
-nested
-<code>
-details
-</code>
-structure.
-Note
-that
-this
-is
-rarely
-a
-good
-authoring
-practice
-and
-is
-typically
-used
-when
-the
-JSON
-object
-has
-legacy
-applications
-using
-the
-structure
-of
-the
-object.
-</p>
-<p>
-External
-JSON-LD
-context
-documents
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-contain
-extra
-information
-located
-outside
-of
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key,
-such
-as
-documentation
-about
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-prefixes
-</a>
-declared
-in
-the
-document.
-When
-importing
-a
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-value
-from
-an
-external
-JSON-LD
-context
-document,
-any
-extra
-information
-contained
-outside
-of
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-value
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-discarded.
-It
-is
-also
-<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">
-recommended
-</em>
-that
-a
-human-readable
-document
-<del class="diff-old">encoded
-in
-HTML+RDFa
-[
-HTML-RDFA
-]
-or
-other
-Linked
-Data
-compatible
-format
-</del>
-is
-served
-as
-well
-to
-explain
-the
-correct
-usage
-of
-the
-JSON-LD
-context
-document.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.4
-</span>
-Referencing
-Contexts
-from
-JSON
-Documents
-</h3>
-<p>
-Ordinary
-JSON
-documents
-can
-be
-transformed
-into
-JSON-LD
-documents
-by
-referencing
-to
-an
-external
-JSON-LD
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-in
-an
-HTTP
-Link
-Header.
-Doing
-this
-allows
-JSON
-to
-be
-unambiguously
-machine-readable
-without
-requiring
-developers
-to
-drastically
-change
-their
-workflow
-and
-provides
-an
-upgrade
-path
-for
-existing
-infrastructure
-without
-breaking
-existing
-clients
-that
-rely
-on
-the
-<code>
-application/json
-</code>
-media
-type.
-</p>
-<p>
-In
-order
-to
-use
-an
-external
-context
-with
-an
-ordinary
-JSON
-document,
-an
-author
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-specify
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-to
-a
-valid
-JSON-LD
-document
-in
-an
-HTTP
-Link
-Header
-[
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC5988">
-RFC5988
-</a>
-</cite>
-]
-using
-the
-<code>
-describedby
-</code>
-link
-relation.
-The
-referenced
-document
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-have
-a
-top-level
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>.
-The
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-subtree
-within
-that
-object
-is
-added
-to
-the
-top-level
-object
-of
-the
-referencing
-document.
-If
-an
-array
-is
-at
-the
-top-level
-of
-the
-referencing
-document
-and
-its
-items
-are
-objects,
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-subtree
-is
-added
-to
-all
-array
-items.
-All
-extra
-information
-located
-outside
-of
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-subtree
-in
-the
-referenced
-document
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-discarded.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-following
-example
-demonstrates
-the
-use
-of
-an
-external
-context
-with
-an
-ordinary
-JSON
-document:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
-Host: example.com
-Accept: application/json,*/*;q=0.1
-
-====================================
-
-HTTP/1.0 200 OK
-...
-Content-Type: application/json
-
-
-{
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
-<ins class="diff-chg">Host: example.com
-Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
-====================================
-HTTP/1.0 200 OK
-...
-Content-Type: <span class="diff">application/json</span>
-</ins><span class="diff">Link: &lt;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&gt;; rel=&quot;describedby&quot;; type=&quot;application/ld+json&quot;</span><ins class="diff-chg">
-{
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p class="note">
-JSON-LD
-documents
-served
-with
-the
-<code>
-application/ld+json
-</code>
-media
-type
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-have
-all
-context
-information,
-including
-references
-to
-external
-contexts,
-within
-the
-body
-of
-the
-document.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="expanded-term-definition" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#expanded-term-definition" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.5
-</span>
-Expanded
-Term
-Definition
-</h3>
-<p>
-Within
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-definition,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-defined
-using
-an
-expanded
-notation
-to
-allow
-for
-additional
-information
-associated
-with
-the
-term
-to
-be
-specified
-(see
-also
-<a href="#type-coercion">
-Type
-Coercion
-</a>
-and
-<a href="#sets-and-lists">
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>
-).
-</p>
-<p>
-Instead
-of
-using
-a
-string
-representation
-of
-an
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>,
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-specified
-using
-an
-object
-having
-an
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key.
-The
-value
-of
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-be
-either
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>,
-a
-<del class="diff-old">prefix
-:suffix
-value,
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-<ins class="diff-chg">compact
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>,
-or
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>.
-<del class="diff-old">Type
-information
-may
-be
-specified
-</del>
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;foaf&quot;: ,
-    &quot;name&quot;: ,
-    &quot;homepage&quot;: ,
-    &quot;depiction&quot;: 
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;foaf&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot; }</span>,
-    &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot; }</span>,
-    &quot;homepage&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:homepage&quot; }</span>,
-    &quot;depiction&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:depiction&quot; }</span>
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-This
-allows
-additional
-information
-to
-be
-associated
-with
-the
-term.
-This
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-used
-for
-<a href="#type-coercion">
-Type
-Coercion
-</a>,
-<a href="#sets-and-lists">
-Sets
-and
-Lists
-</a>
-),
-or
-to
-associate
-language
-information
-with
-a
-term
-as
-shown
-in
-the
-following
-example:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot;,
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:name&quot;,  },
-    &quot;occupation&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot; },
-    &quot;occupation_en&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;,  },
-    &quot;occupation_de&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;,  }
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Yagyū Muneyoshi&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;忍者&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation_en&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: &quot;Nindža&quot;,
-  ...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    ...
-    &quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot;,
-    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:name&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: null</span> },
-    &quot;occupation&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot; },
-    &quot;occupation_en&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;</span> },
-    &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: &quot;cs&quot;</span> }
-  },
-</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;name&quot;: &quot;Yagyū Muneyoshi&quot;,<ins class="diff-chg">
-  &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;忍者&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation_en&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
-  &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: &quot;Nindža&quot;,</span>
-  ...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-example
-above
-would
-associate
-<em>
-忍者
-</em>
-with
-the
-specified
-default
-language
-code
-<code>
-ja
-</code>,
-<em>
-Ninja
-</em>
-with
-the
-language
-code
-<code>
-en
-</code>,
-and
-<em>
-Nindža
-</em>
-with
-the
-language
-code
-<code>
-cs
-</code>.
-The
-value
-of
-<code>
-name
-</code>,
-<em>
-Yagyū
-Muneyoshi
-</em>
-wouldn't
-be
-associated
-with
-any
-language
-code
-since
-<del class="diff-old">it
-</del>
-<code>
-<ins class="diff-chg">@language
-</ins></code>
-was
-reset
-<ins class="diff-new">to
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-new">
-null
-</ins></a>
-in
-the
-expanded
-term
-definition.
-</p>
-<p>
-Expanded
-terms
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-also
-be
-defined
-using
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-<del class="diff-old">Compact
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">compact
-</ins>
-IRIs
-</a>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
-</ins>
-IRIs
-</a>
-as
-keys.
-If
-the
-definition
-does
-not
-include
-an
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key,
-the
-expanded
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-is
-determined
-by
-performing
-expansion
-of
-the
-key
-within
-the
-current
-active
-context.
-<ins class="diff-new">This
-mechanism
-is
-mainly
-used
-to
-associate
-type
-or
-language
-information
-with
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
-compact
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
-or
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
-absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.
-</p>
-<p class="note">
-<del class="diff-old">Although
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">While
-</ins>
-it
-is
-possible
-to
-define
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-or
-<ins class="diff-new">an
-absolute
-</ins>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-to
-expand
-to
-some
-other
-<ins class="diff-new">unrelated
-</ins>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-<del class="diff-old">,
-</del>
-</abbr>
-<ins class="diff-chg">(for
-example,
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-foaf:name
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-expanding
-to
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-http://example.org/unrelated#species
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-),
-</ins>
-such
-usage
-is
-strongly
-discouraged.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="type-coercion" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#type-coercion" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.6
-</span>
-Type
-Coercion
-</h3>
-<p>
-JSON-LD
-supports
-the
-coercion
-of
-values
-to
-particular
-data
-types.
-Type
-<dfn title="coercion" id="dfn-coercion">
-coercion
-</dfn>
-allows
-someone
-deploying
-JSON-LD
-to
-coerce
-the
-incoming
-or
-outgoing
-<del class="diff-old">types
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">values
-</ins>
-to
-the
-proper
-data
-type
-based
-on
-a
-mapping
-of
-data
-type
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-s
-to
-<del class="diff-old">property
-types.
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-chg">term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s.
-</ins>
-Using
-type
-coercion,
-value
-representation
-is
-preserved
-without
-requiring
-the
-data
-type
-to
-be
-specified
-with
-each
-<del class="diff-old">usage.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">piece
-of
-data.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-Type
-coercion
-is
-specified
-within
-an
-<a href="#expanded-term-definition">
-expanded
-term
-definition
-</a>
-using
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key.
-The
-<del class="diff-old">values
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-</ins>
-of
-this
-key
-<del class="diff-old">represent
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">represents
-a
-</ins>
-type
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
-</del>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr>
-and
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-take
-the
-form
-of
-<ins class="diff-new">a
-</ins>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>,
-or
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>.
-Specifying
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-indicates
-that
-within
-the
-body
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document,
-<ins class="diff-new">a
-</ins>
-string
-<del class="diff-old">values
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">keys
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
-term
-</ins></a>
-coerced
-<del class="diff-old">as
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">to
-</ins>
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">are
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">is
-</ins>
-to
-be
-interpreted
-as
-<ins class="diff-new">an
-</ins>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-<del class="diff-old">s.
-</del>
-</a>.
-</p>
-<p>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-Terms
-</a>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-IRIs
-</a>
-used
-as
-the
-value
-of
-a
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-defined
-within
-the
-same
-context.
-<ins class="diff-new">This
-means
-that
-one
-may
-specify
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
-term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-like
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-xsd
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-and
-then
-use
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-xsd:integer
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-within
-the
-same
-context
-definition
--
-the
-JSON-LD
-processor
-will
-be
-able
-to
-determine
-the
-proper
-expansion
-for
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-xsd:integer
-</ins></code>.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-example
-below
-demonstrates
-how
-a
-JSON-LD
-author
-can
-coerce
-values
-to
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
-typed
-value
-</a>
-s,
-IRIs
-and
-lists.
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;,
-      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
-  &quot;age&quot;: ,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;:
-  [
-    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
-    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
-  ]
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;age&quot;:
-</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    }</span>,
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;,
-      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
-    }</span>
-  },
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
-  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;:
-</ins>  <span class="diff">[<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
-    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
-  ]</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-The
-example
-above
-would
-generate
-the
-following
-Turtle:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
-
-[ foaf:name &quot;John Smith&quot;;
-  foaf:age  &quot;41&quot;^^xsd:integer;
-  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
-</del>
-<pre class="example">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
-<ins class="diff-chg">[ foaf:name &quot;John Smith&quot;;
-  foaf:age  &quot;41&quot;^^xsd:integer;
-  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
-</ins>
-]
-.
-</pre>
-<p>
-Terms
-may
-also
-be
-defined
-using
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-IRIs
-</a>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-IRIs
-</a>.
-This
-allows
-coercion
-rules
-to
-by
-applied
-to
-keys
-which
-are
-not
-represented
-as
-a
-simple
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>.
-For
-example:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ,
-    &quot;&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>&quot;:
-</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }</span>
-  },
-  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
-  &quot;foaf:age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
-  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:
-</ins>  <span class="diff">[<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
-    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
-  ]</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-this
-<del class="diff-old">case,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">case
-</ins>
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-definition
-is
-optional,
-but
-if
-it
-does
-exist,
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-is
-treated
-as
-a
-term
-<ins class="diff-new">(not
-a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-prefix:suffix
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-construct)
-</ins>
-so
-that
-the
-actual
-definition
-of
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-prefix
-</a>
-becomes
-unnecessary.
-</p>
-<p class="note">
-Keys
-in
-the
-context
-are
-treated
-as
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-terms
-</a>
-for
-the
-purpose
-of
-expansion
-and
-value
-coercion.
-<del class="diff-old">This
-allows
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">At
-times,
-this
-may
-result
-in
-</ins>
-multiple
-representations
-for
-the
-same
-expanded
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-<del class="diff-old">,
-which
-may
-</del>
-</abbr>.
-<ins class="diff-chg">For
-example,
-one
-could
-specify
-that
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-dog
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-and
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-cat
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-both
-expanded
-to
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-http://example.com/vocab#animal
-</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
-Doing
-this
-could
-</ins>
-be
-useful
-for
-establishing
-different
-type
-coercion
-<ins class="diff-new">or
-language
-specification
-</ins>
-rules.
-It
-also
-allows
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-(or
-even
-an
-absolute
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-)
-to
-be
-defined
-as
-something
-else
-<del class="diff-old">entirely,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">entirely.
-For
-example,
-one
-could
-specify
-that
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
-term
-</ins></a><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-http://example.org/zoo
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-should
-expand
-to
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-http://example.org/river
-</ins></code>,
-but
-this
-usage
-is
-<del class="diff-old">discouraged.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">discouraged
-because
-it
-would
-lead
-to
-a
-great
-deal
-of
-confusion
-among
-developers
-attempting
-to
-understand
-the
-JSON-LD
-document.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
-Type
-coercion
-is
-performed
-using
-the
-unexpanded
-value
-of
-the
-key,
-which
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-<del class="diff-old">exactly
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">have
-an
-exact
-</ins>
-match
-<del class="diff-old">a
-coercion
-rule
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">for
-an
-entry
-</ins>
-in
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-active
-context
-</a>.
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="iri-expansion-within-a-context" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.7
-</span>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-Expansion
-Within
-a
-Context
-</h3>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">To
-be
-consistent
-with
-JSON-LD,
-in
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">In
-</ins>
-general,
-<del class="diff-old">anywhere
-an
-IRI
-is
-expected,
-</del>
-normal
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-expansion
-rules
-apply
-<ins class="diff-new">anywhere
-an
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-expected
-</ins>
-(see
-<a href="#iris">
-IRIs
-</a>
-).
-Within
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-definition,
-this
-can
-mean
-that
-terms
-defined
-within
-<del class="diff-old">a
-given
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">the
-</ins>
-context
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-also
-be
-used
-within
-that
-<del class="diff-old">context,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins>
-as
-long
-as
-there
-are
-no
-circular
-dependencies.
-For
-example,
-it
-is
-common
-to
-use
-the
-<code>
-xsd
-</code>
-namespace
-when
-defining
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
-typed
-value
-</a>
-s:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: 
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-    &quot;age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;xsd:integer&quot;</span>
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-this
-example,
-the
-<code>
-xsd
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">defined,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">defined
-</ins>
-and
-used
-as
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-prefix
-</a>
-for
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-coercion
-of
-the
-<code>
-age
-</code>
-property.
-</p>
-<p>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-Term
-</a>
-s
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-also
-be
-used
-when
-defining
-the
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-of
-another
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ,
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: ,
-    &quot;age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: ,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: ,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:name&quot;</span>,
-    &quot;age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:age&quot;</span>,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;homepage&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:homepage&quot;</span>,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">Not
-only
-term
-s,
-but
-also
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-Compact
-IRIs
-</a>
-and
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-IRIs
-</a>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-used
-on
-the
-left-hand
-side
-of
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-new">term
-</ins></a>
-definition.
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    ,
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
-    &quot;&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
-    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>&quot;:
-</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }</span>
-  },
-  ...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-this
-example,
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
-compact
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-form
-is
-used
-in
-two
-different
-ways.
-<del class="diff-old">The
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">In
-the
-</ins>
-first
-<del class="diff-old">way,
-as
-shown
-with
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">approach,
-</ins>
-<code>
-foaf:age
-</code>
-declares
-both
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-for
-the
-term
-(using
-short-form)
-as
-well
-as
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-associated
-with
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>.
-<del class="diff-old">The
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">In
-the
-</ins>
-second
-<del class="diff-old">way,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">approach,
-</ins>
-only
-<del class="diff-old">declares
-</del>
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-associated
-with
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-<del class="diff-old">.
-In
-the
-second
-case,
-the
-</del>
-</a>
-<ins class="diff-chg">is
-specified.
-The
-</ins>
-JSON-LD
-processor
-will
-<del class="diff-old">still
-</del>
-derive
-the
-full
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-<ins class="diff-new">for
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-foaf:homepage
-</ins></code>
-by
-looking
-up
-the
-<code>
-foaf
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-prefix
-</a>
-in
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-<del class="diff-old">for
-foaf:homepage
-.
-</del>
-</a>.
-</p>
-<p>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-Absolute
-IRIs
-</a>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-also
-be
-used
-<del class="diff-old">on
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">in
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">left-hand
-side
-of
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">key
-position
-in
-</ins>
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
-    &quot;foaf:age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
-    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
-    &quot;foaf:age&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-order
-for
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-to
-match
-above,
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
-absolute
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
-</a>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-also
-be
-used
-in
-the
-JSON-LD
-document.
-Also
-note
-that
-<code>
-foaf:homepage
-</code>
-will
-not
-use
-the
-<code>
-{
-&quot;@type&quot;:
-&quot;@id&quot;
-}
-</code>
-declaration
-because
-<code>
-foaf:homepage
-</code>
-is
-not
-the
-same
-as
-<code>
-http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
-</code>.
-That
-is,
-a
-JSON-LD
-processor
-will
-use
-direct
-string
-comparison
-when
-looking
-up
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-term
-</a>
-s
-in
-a
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-before
-it
-applies
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-prefix
-</a>
-lookup
-mechanism.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-only
-exception
-for
-using
-terms
-in
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-is
-that
-they
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
-must
-not
-</em>
-be
-used
-in
-a
-circular
-manner.
-That
-is,
-a
-definition
-of
-<em>
-term-1
-</em>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
-must
-not
-</em>
-depend
-on
-the
-definition
-of
-<em>
-term-2
-</em>
-if
-<em>
-term-2
-</em>
-also
-depends
-on
-<em>
-term-1
-</em>.
-For
-example,
-the
-following
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
-definition
-is
-illegal:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;term1&quot;: &quot;term2:foo&quot;,
-    &quot;term2&quot;: &quot;term1:bar&quot;
-  },
-  ...
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;term1&quot;: &quot;term2:foo&quot;,<ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;term2&quot;: &quot;term1:bar&quot;</span>
-  },
-  ...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-</div>
-<div id="embedding" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#embedding" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.8
-</span>
-Embedding
-</h3>
-<p>
-Object
-<dfn title="embedding" id="dfn-embedding">
-embedding
-</dfn>
-is
-a
-JSON-LD
-feature
-that
-allows
-an
-author
-to
-use
-the
-definition
-of
-JSON-LD
-objects
-as
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
-property
-</a>
-values.
-This
-is
-a
-commonly
-used
-mechanism
-for
-creating
-a
-parent-child
-relationship
-between
-two
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-subject
-</a>
-s.
-</p>
-<p>
-The
-example
-shows
-two
-subjects
-related
-by
-a
-property
-from
-the
-first
-subject:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">  {
-...
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;&quot;,
-    &quot;&quot;,
-  }
-...
-</del>
-  <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">...
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;<span class="diff">knows</span>&quot;:
-  {
-    &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Person</span>&quot;,
-    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Gregg Kellogg</span>&quot;,
-  }
-...
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-An
-object
-definition,
-like
-the
-one
-used
-above,
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
-be
-used
-<del class="diff-old">as
-a
-JSON
-value
-at
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">in
-</ins>
-any
-<del class="diff-old">point
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-position
-</ins>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">the
-body
-of
-a
-JSON-LD
-document.
-</ins>
-</p>
-</div>
-<div id="named-graphs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#named-graphs" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-4.9
-</span>
-Named
-Graphs
-</h3>
-<p>
-The
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-is
-used
-to
-<del class="diff-old">identify
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">express
-</ins>
-a
-set
-of
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">object
-definitions
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
-<ins class="diff-chg">subject
-definition
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
-that
-may
-not
-be
-directly
-related
-<ins class="diff-new">to
-one
-another
-</ins>
-through
-a
-<del class="diff-old">property,
-or
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">property.
-The
-mechanism
-may
-also
-be
-used
-</ins>
-where
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="embedding" href="#dfn-embedding">
-embedding
-</a>
-is
-not
-<del class="diff-old">appropriate.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">desirable
-to
-the
-application.
-</ins>
-For
-example:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">  {
-  &quot;@context&quot;: ...,
-  &quot;&quot;:
-  [
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-      &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
-    },
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
-      &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
-    }
-  ]
-</del>
-  <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: ...,
-  &quot;<span class="diff">@graph</span>&quot;:
-  [
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-      &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
-    },
-    {
-      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
-      &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
-    }
-  ]
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
-In
-this
-case,
-embedding
-doesn't
-work
-as
-each
-JSON-LD
-object
-references
-the
-other.
-Using
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
-keyword
-</a>
-allows
-multiple
-resources
-to
-be
-defined
-within
-an
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
-array
-</a>,
-and
-allows
-the
-use
-of
-a
-shared
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>.
-This
-is
-equivalent
-to
-using
-multiple
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
-definitions
-in
-array
-and
-defining
-the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-within
-each
-object:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">  
-  {
-    
-    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-    &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
-  },
-  {
-    
-    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
-    &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
-  }
-</del>
-  <pre class="example"><span class="diff">[</span>
-<ins class="diff-chg">  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: ...,</span><ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-    &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
-  },
-  {
-</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: ...,</span><ins class="diff-chg">
-    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
-    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
-    &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
-  }
-</ins>
-<span class="diff">
-]
-</span>
-</pre>
-<p>