Added time-stamped JSON-LD Syntax spec for RDF WG review.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Mon, 21 May 2012 23:58:01 -0400
changeset 670 65a87cb96397
parent 669 e903b19a84f5
child 671 ffb7796d50ba
Added time-stamped JSON-LD Syntax spec for RDF WG review.
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120521/diff-20120426.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120521/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120521/diff-20120426.html	Mon May 21 23:58:01 2012 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,16274 @@
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[email protected] screen {
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+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body style="display: inherit; ">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 property="dcterms:title" class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 property="bibo:subtitle" id="subtitle">
+A
+Context-based
+JSON
+Serialization
+for
+Linking
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2012-05-22T07:54:18+0000" id="unofficial-draft-22-may-2012">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">26
+April
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">22
+May
+</ins>
+2012
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Mark Birbeck" href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Mark
+Birbeck
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20120426.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#abstract" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sotd" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#toc" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linking-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Linking
+Data
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1.2
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#typed-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#external-contexts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+External
+Contexts
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+Within
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.8
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+Named
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.10
+</span>
+Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.11
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.12
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Expansion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expanded
+Document
+Form
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.13
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Compaction
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
+Document
+Form
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">4.14
+Framing
+</del>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.14.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Framing
+Operators
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Markup
+Examples
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#turtle" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#prefix-definitions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.1.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Prefix
+definitions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.1.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.1.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<del class="diff-old">B.
+Linked
+Data
+C.
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</del>
+<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">D.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">C.
+</ins>
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">F.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">E.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">F.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">E.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">F.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">E.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="informative section" id="introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#introduction" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+<del class="diff-old">graph
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">network
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">interlinked
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">inter-connected
+</ins>
+data
+across
+different
+<ins class="diff-new">Web
+</ins>
+documents
+<del class="diff-old">or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+</ins>
+Web
+sites.
+<del class="diff-old">Data
+entities
+are
+described
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+thing
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+this
+data
+network
+is
+typically
+identified
+</ins>
+using
+<ins class="diff-new">an
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier),
+</ins>
+which
+<del class="diff-old">are
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+</ins>
+typically
+<del class="diff-old">dereferencable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dereference-able,
+</ins>
+and
+thus
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information
+about
+<del class="diff-old">an
+entity,
+creating
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+thing
+</ins></em>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+allows
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Web
+of
+Knowledge&quot;.
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">software
+program
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+not
+only
+Linked
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">start
+at
+one
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+thing
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+follow
+links
+to
+other
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+things
+</ins></em>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">JSON,
+but
+also
+for
+adding
+semantics
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">order
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">existing
+JSON.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">learn
+more
+about
+all
+of
+the
+things
+described
+on
+the
+Web.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+lightweight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+<del class="diff-old">interoperable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">inter-operable
+</ins>
+Web
+services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+does
+not
+necessarily
+require
+applications
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+allows
+one
+to
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+simply
+adding
+or
+referencing
+a
+context.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+with
+added
+semantics.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD.
+</ins>
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+easy
+to
+parse,
+efficient
+to
+generate,
+and
+only
+requires
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#how-to-read-this-document" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+describe
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax.
+The
+specification
+that
+describes
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents
+is
+the
+JSON-LD
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+<del class="diff-old">To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+ECMA-262
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+WEBIDL
+].
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+defines
+several
+terms
+which
+are
+used
+throughout
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+<del class="diff-old">name/value
+pairs
+(or
+members).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">name-value
+pairs.
+</ins>
+A
+name
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+JSON,
+an
+</ins>
+array
+is
+an
+<em>
+ordered
+</em>
+collection
+of
+values.
+An
+array
+<del class="diff-old">structure
+</del>
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+<del class="diff-old">(or
+elements).
+Elements
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">that
+</ins>
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+<del class="diff-old">Within
+JSON-LD,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+the
+same
+</ins>
+array
+<ins class="diff-new">representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+unordered
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+by
+default.
+While
+</ins>
+order
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+</del>
+preserved
+<del class="diff-old">by
+default,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+</ins>
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+).
+<del class="diff-old">This
+is
+because
+the
+basic
+data
+model
+of
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+linked
+data
+graph
+,
+which
+is
+inherently
+unordered.
+</del>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+<ins class="diff-new">(UTF-8)
+</ins>
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+<del class="diff-old">escapes.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+</ins>
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Unless
+otherwise
+specified,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+act
+as
+if
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+never
+declared
+when
+the
+value
+equals
+<em>
+null
+</em>.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+null
+</em>
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+JSON
+object
+is
+ignored.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+null
+</em>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+reset
+and
+when
+used
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+it
+removes
+any
+definition
+associated
+with
+the
+key,
+unless
+otherwise
+specified.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject_definition" id="dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+subject.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+a
+subject
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+they
+keys
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject_reference" id="dfn-subject_reference">
+subject
+reference
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+reference
+a
+subject
+having
+only
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</dfn>
+that
+are
+<del class="diff-old">using
+in
+all
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+core
+part
+of
+the
+language:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+define
+the
+short-hand
+names
+that
+are
+used
+throughout
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+These
+short-hand
+names
+are
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+help
+developers
+to
+express
+specific
+identifiers
+in
+a
+compact
+manner.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+detail
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#the-context">
+The
+Context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+explicitly
+express
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+that
+are
+being
+described
+in
+the
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#identifying-the-subject">
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+data
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+sections
+titled
+<a href="#string-internationalization">
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#typed-values">
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+native
+language
+for
+a
+particular
+value
+or
+the
+default
+language
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#string-internationalization">
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#typed-values">
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+container
+of
+a
+particular
+value.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+unordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+For
+the
+avoidance
+of
+doubt,
+all
+keys,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>,
+and
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#contributing" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Technical
+discussion
+typically
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+every
+week
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500
+UTC.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+<del class="diff-old">in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+</ins>
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="informative section" id="design-goals-and-rationale" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#design-goals-and-rationale" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+<del class="diff-old">considerations
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">goals
+</ins>
+were
+<del class="diff-old">explored
+during
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">established
+before
+</ins>
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<ins class="diff-new">No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+should
+be
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+will
+provide
+developers
+with
+a
+very
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+</ins>
+Developers
+need
+only
+know
+JSON
+and
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+(
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+)
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+<del class="diff-old">No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+are
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+attempts
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+an
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+</del>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+must
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+must
+be
+able
+to
+express
+directed
+graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+effort
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">provides
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">must
+provide
+</ins>
+a
+<a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
+mechanism
+</a>
+that
+allows
+developers
+to
+specify
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+documents
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+At
+times,
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+can
+become
+difficult.
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+having
+JSON-LD
+support
+<ins class="diff-new">an
+</ins>
+esoteric
+<del class="diff-old">markup,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">use
+case,
+</ins>
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+Zero
+Edits
+is
+a
+goal,
+it
+is
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+One-pass
+Processing
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+one-pass
+processing,
+which
+results
+in
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+when
+processing
+documents.
+For
+example,
+to
+expand
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+from
+a
+compacted
+form,
+only
+one
+pass
+is
+required
+over
+the
+data.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="basic-concepts" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#basic-concepts" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+create
+by
+Web
+authors.
+In
+many
+cases,
+regular
+JSON
+markup
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>.
+As
+more
+JSON-LD
+features
+are
+used,
+more
+semantics
+are
+added
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup.
+</p>
+<div id="linking-data" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#linking-data" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Linking
+Data
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+(
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+following
+definition
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+the
+one
+that
+will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+</ins></p><ol><li><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+an
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+any
+node
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</ins>
+<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">),
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(an
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+</ins>
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">],
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">]).
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><dfn title="object" id="dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></dfn>
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">mechanism
+for
+representing
+unique
+identifiers
+on
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+node
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+at
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">Web.
+In
+Linked
+Data
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">same
+time.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="property" id="dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+</ins>
+an
+<ins class="diff-new">edge
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
+property
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">that
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">commonly
+used
+for
+expressing
+</del>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">label
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+dereferencable
+to
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+document
+describing
+the
+labeled
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">a
+property
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+<ins class="diff-new">property
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="value" id="dfn-value"><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a></li></ol><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+illustration
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph
+would
+probably
+help
+here.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Note
+that
+the
+definition
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+above
+is
+silent
+on
+the
+topic
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes.
+Unlabeled
+nodes
+are
+not
+considered
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-new">However,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+of
+unlabled
+nodes,
+as
+most
+graph-based
+data
+sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+associated
+nodes
+that
+are
+not
+named
+and
+thus
+are
+not
+directly
+de-referenceable.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+defines
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+terms,
+i.e.,
+keys
+and
+values,
+to
+IRIs.
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+JSON-LD
+requires
+every
+key
+or
+value
+to
+be
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+but
+rather
+ensures
+that
+keys
+and
+values
+can
+be
+mapped
+to
+IRIs
+if
+the
+developer
+desires
+to
+transform
+their
+data
+into
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+There
+are
+a
+few
+techniques
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+Linked
+Data
+for
+the
+Web.
+JSON-LD
+formalizes
+those
+techniques.
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+will
+be
+using
+the
+following
+JSON
+markup
+as
+the
+example
+for
+the
+rest
+of
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<div id="the-context" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#the-context" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</h4>
+<p>
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
+context
+</dfn>
+is
+used
+to
+map
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s,
+i.e.,
+properties
+with
+associated
+values
+in
+an
+JSON
+document,
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+A
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+term
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+expands
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+as
+any
+valid
+JSON
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+other
+than
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+To
+avoid
+forward-compatibility
+issues,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+starting
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+character
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">
+should
+not
+</em>
+be
+used
+as
+they
+might
+be
+used
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+in
+future
+versions
+of
+JSON-LD.
+<ins class="diff-new">Furthermore,
+the
+use
+of
+empty
+terms
+(
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+&quot;&quot;
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+)
+is
+discouraged
+as
+not
+all
+programming
+languages
+are
+able
+to
+handle
+empty
+property
+names.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+Web
+uses
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+that
+these
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+mean
+something
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers
+and
+that
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+give
+them
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+That
+is,
+it
+is
+useful
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+to
+expand
+to
+IRIs
+so
+that
+developers
+don't
+accidentally
+step
+on
+each
+other's
+<dfn title="vocabulary" id="dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</dfn>
+terms.
+Furthermore,
+developers,
+and
+machines,
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(by
+plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+<del class="diff-old">Much
+like
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+mechanism
+is
+analogousto
+the
+way
+</ins>
+we
+can
+use
+<a href="http://wordnet.princeton.edu/">
+WordNet
+</a>
+today
+to
+see
+the
+definition
+of
+words
+in
+the
+English
+language.
+Developers
+and
+machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+definition
+of
+terms.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+are
+unambiguous.
+For
+example,
+the
+term
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+constructed
+using
+the
+common
+JSON
+practice
+of
+simple
+name/value
+pairs
+while
+ensuring
+that
+the
+data
+is
+useful
+outside
+of
+the
+page,
+API
+or
+database
+in
+which
+it
+resides.
+The
+value
+of
+a
+term
+mapping
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+either;
+1)
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+2)
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+3)
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+(all
+other
+keywords
+are
+ignored
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor).
+</p>
+<p>
+These
+Linked
+Data
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+are
+typically
+collected
+in
+a
+context
+document
+that
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Assuming
+that
+this
+context
+document
+can
+be
+retrieved
+at
+<code>
+http://json-ld.org/contexts/person
+</code>,
+it
+can
+be
+referenced
+from
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+line.
+The
+JSON
+markup
+shown
+in
+the
+previous
+section
+could
+be
+changed
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+additions
+above
+transform
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+specifies
+how
+the
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+depiction
+</strong>
+terms
+map
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+the
+data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+the
+same
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+more
+than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+This
+allows
+both
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+others
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+interoperate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+Contexts
+may
+also
+contain
+type
+information
+for
+certain
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+as
+well
+as
+other
+processing
+instructions
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+</p>
+<p>
+Contexts
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+This
+ensures
+that
+JSON-LD
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+when
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+does
+not
+have
+access
+to
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  },</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Contexts
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+at
+any
+time
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+defined.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+specify
+multiple
+contexts,
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+which
+is
+processed
+in
+order.
+This
+is
+useful
+when
+an
+author
+would
+like
+to
+use
+an
+existing
+context
+and
+add
+application-specific
+terms
+to
+the
+existing
+context.
+Duplicate
+context
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+overridden
+using
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+mechanism.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+re-defined
+within
+a
+context,
+all
+previous
+rules
+associated
+with
+the
+previous
+definition
+are
+removed.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+in
+a
+previous
+context
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+removed,
+if
+it
+is
+re-defined
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+a
+specific
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+as
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+s.
+Setting
+the
+context
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+effectively
+sets
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">it's
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">its
+</ins>
+initial
+state.
+The
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+a
+specific
+point
+within
+the
+document.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+a
+local
+context
+on
+top
+of
+the
+external
+context:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
+    }
+  ],
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: [
+<ins class="diff-chg">    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
+    }
+  ],</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;</span>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+at
+the
+top
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+is
+processed.
+This
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+one-pass
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="from-json-to-json-ld" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#from-json-to-json-ld" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1.2
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</h4>
+<p>
+If
+a
+set
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+such
+as,
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+depiction
+</strong>,
+are
+defined
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+JSON
+objects,
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+automatically
+expand
+the
+terms
+to
+something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction</span>&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+The
+example
+above
+does
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+to
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+of
+the
+node
+being
+described
+above.
+This
+type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+an
+<dfn title="unlabeled_node" id="dfn-unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+node
+</dfn>
+and
+is
+considered
+to
+be
+a
+weaker
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+It
+is
+advised
+that
+all
+nodes
+described
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+given
+unique
+identifiers
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+unless
+the
+data
+is
+not
+intended
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+other
+data
+sets.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+is
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+Subject
+definitions
+</a>
+do
+not
+require
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+in
+which
+case
+they
+are
+considered
+to
+be
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+node
+</a>.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="iris" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iris" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expressing
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+are
+fundamental
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s,
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+properties
+</a>
+and
+many
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+s
+are
+identified.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+Except
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+another
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+in
+effect
+that
+identify
+the
+value
+as
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+fragment
+</em>
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">;
+in
+the
+case
+of
+</del>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">this
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">all
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+are
+resolved
+relative
+to
+</ins>
+the
+<dfn title="base_iri" id="dfn-base_iri">
+base
+<del class="diff-old">location
+of
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+associated
+with
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+(typically,
+the
+directory
+that
+contains
+the
+document
+or
+the
+document
+itself).
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+as
+opposed
+to
+being
+interpreted
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">string.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+because
+it
+contains
+a
+colon
+(
+</ins><code>:</code><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+delimiting
+a
+valid
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+scheme.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Term
+expansion
+occurs
+for
+IRIs
+if
+the
+value
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;status&quot;: &quot;trollin'&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-new">Term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s
+are
+case
+sensitive,
+and
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+matched
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+ignored,
+or
+removed
+in
+some
+cases,
+by
+the
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD-API
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+].
+However,
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+include
+a
+mapping
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+still
+considered
+valid
+expressions
+in
+JSON-LD
+documents
+-
+the
+keys
+just
+don't
+have
+any
+machine-readable,
+semantic
+meaning.
+</ins></p><p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+Prefix
+</a>
+es
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+<ins class="diff-new">is
+a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+represented
+as
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins>
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">combination,
+</ins>
+and
+the
+prefix
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Term
+s
+are
+case
+sensitive,
+and
+must
+be
+matched
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison.
+Keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+absolute
+IRI
+are
+ignored.
+</del>
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+See
+<a href="#compact-iris">
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+for
+more
+details.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+<del class="diff-old">value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">associated
+with
+a
+key
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">value
+position
+that
+contains
+an
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+Specifying
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+is
+used
+to
+identify
+that
+object
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+facility
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+to
+link
+<del class="diff-old">a
+subject
+with
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+another
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+</ins>
+object
+</a>
+using
+a
+mechanism
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="embedding" href="#dfn-embedding">
+embedding
+</a>,
+which
+is
+covered
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#embedding">
+Embedding
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+property
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+  }
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+  }</span>
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Even
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+the
+example
+above,
+even
+</ins>
+though
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">expressed
+as
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+the
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+when
+processed
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+Processor.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#identifying-the-subject" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</h3>
+<p>
+To
+be
+able
+to
+externally
+reference
+<del class="diff-old">nodes,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+in
+a
+graph,
+</ins>
+it
+is
+important
+that
+each
+node
+has
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+and
+nodes
+should
+have
+a
+de-referencable
+identifier
+used
+to
+name
+and
+locate
+them.
+For
+nodes
+to
+be
+truly
+linked,
+de-referencing
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+<del class="diff-old">node.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+(for
+example,
+using
+a
+URL
+to
+retrieve
+a
+web
+page).
+</ins>
+Associating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+with
+a
+node
+tells
+an
+application
+that
+the
+returned
+document
+contains
+a
+description
+of
+the
+node
+requested.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+documents
+may
+also
+contain
+descriptions
+of
+other
+nodes,
+so
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+each
+node
+which
+may
+be
+externally
+referenced.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+of
+an
+object
+in
+JSON
+is
+declared
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+subject
+is
+the
+first
+piece
+of
+information
+needed
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+in
+order
+to
+create
+the
+(subject,
+property,
+object)
+tuple,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+triple.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+is
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+Subject
+definitions
+</a>
+do
+not
+require
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">,
+in
+which
+case
+they
+are
+considered
+to
+be
+</del>
+</code>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+definition
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+that
+does
+not
+contain
+an
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+is
+called
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+node
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+before
+other
+key-value
+pairs
+in
+an
+object.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+processed
+before
+they
+can
+start
+generating
+triples.
+Not
+specifying
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+first
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+one-pass
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="specifying-the-type" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#specifying-the-type" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+subject
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+Specifying
+the
+type
+in
+this
+way
+will
+generate
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form
+(subject,
+type,
+type-
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+).
+To
+be
+considered
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+types
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+uniquely
+identified
+by
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="string-internationalization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#string-internationalization" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">In
+different
+scenarios
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">At
+times,
+</ins>
+it
+is
+important
+to
+annotate
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+its
+language.
+In
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+possible
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+ways.
+Firstly,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+default
+language
+for
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+setting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+definition:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: ,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: 
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;花澄&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;科学者&quot;</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+code
+with
+the
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+s
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+科学者
+</em>.
+Languages
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+expressed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+format.
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+by
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+a
+value:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+or
+specify
+a
+plain
+value
+by
+omitting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+tag
+or
+setting
+it
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+when
+expressing
+the
+expanded
+value:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;occupation&quot;:  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Frank&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff"> {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }</span>,
+  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+Please
+note
+that
+language
+associations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+only
+be
+applied
+to
+plain
+literal
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+s.
+That
+is,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s
+or
+values
+that
+are
+subject
+to
+<a href="#type-coercion">
+type
+coercion
+</a>
+won't
+be
+language
+tagged.
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+clear
+the
+default
+language
+for
+a
+subtree,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+can
+be
+set
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;details&quot;: {
+    &quot;@context&quot;: {
+      &quot;@language&quot;: null
+    },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;details&quot;: {
+</ins><span class="diff">    &quot;@context&quot;: {<ins class="diff-chg">
+      &quot;@language&quot;: null
+    },</span>
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+JSON-LD
+allows
+<ins class="diff-new">one
+</ins>
+to
+associate
+language
+information
+with
+<del class="diff-old">terms.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+See
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition">
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</a>
+for
+more
+details.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sets-and-lists" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sets-and-lists" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+express
+multiple
+values
+in
+a
+compact
+way
+by
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+s.
+<del class="diff-old">But,
+because
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Since
+</ins>
+graphs
+do
+not
+describe
+ordering
+for
+links
+between
+nodes,
+<del class="diff-old">in
+contrast
+to
+plain
+JSON,
+</del>
+arrays
+in
+JSON-LD
+do
+not
+provide
+an
+ordering
+of
+the
+listed
+objects
+by
+default.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+is
+exactly
+the
+opposite
+from
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+which
+are
+ordered
+by
+default.
+</ins>
+For
+example,
+consider
+the
+following
+simple
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+result
+in
+three
+triples
+being
+generated,
+each
+relating
+the
+subject
+to
+an
+individual
+object,
+with
+no
+inherent
+order:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;joe&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;bob&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;joe&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;bob&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+</ins>
+&quot;jaybee&quot;
+.
+</pre>
+<p>
+Multiple
+values
+may
+also
+be
+expressed
+using
+the
+expanded
+object
+form:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/articles/8&quot;,
+  &quot;dc:title&quot;: 
+  [
+    {
+      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Das Kapital&quot;,
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;de&quot;
+    },
+    {
+      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Capital&quot;,
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+    }
+  ]
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/articles/8&quot;,
+  &quot;dc:title&quot;: <span class="diff">
+  [
+    {
+      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Das Kapital&quot;,
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;de&quot;
+    },
+    {
+      &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Capital&quot;,
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+    }
+  ]</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples,
+again
+with
+no
+inherent
+order:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+      &quot;Das Kapital&quot;@de .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+      &quot;Das Kapital&quot;@de .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+</ins>
+&quot;Capital&quot;@en
+.
+</pre>
+<p>
+As
+the
+notion
+of
+ordered
+collections
+is
+rather
+important
+in
+data
+modeling,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+specific
+language
+support.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+list
+may
+be
+represented
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@list&quot;: [ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]
+  },
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;@list&quot;: [ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]
+  }</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This
+describes
+the
+use
+of
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+as
+being
+ordered,
+and
+order
+is
+maintained
+<del class="diff-old">through
+operations
+such
+as
+Expansion
+,
+Compaction
+,
+and
+Framing
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">when
+processing
+a
+document.
+</ins>
+If
+every
+use
+of
+a
+given
+multi-valued
+property
+is
+a
+list,
+this
+may
+be
+abbreviated
+by
+setting
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;nick&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&quot;,
+      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    ...
+    &quot;nick&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&quot;,
+      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
+    }
+  }</span>,
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot; ]</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+List
+of
+lists
+are
+not
+allowed
+in
+this
+version
+of
+JSON-LD.
+If
+a
+list
+of
+lists
+is
+detected,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+throw
+an
+exception.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+decision
+was
+made
+due
+to
+the
+extreme
+amount
+of
+added
+complexity
+when
+processing
+lists
+of
+lists.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Similarly
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+there
+exists
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+describe
+unordered
+sets.
+While
+its
+use
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+represents
+just
+syntactic
+sugar
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+optimized
+away
+when
+processing
+the
+document,
+it
+is
+very
+helpful
+<del class="diff-old">for
+Compaction
+and
+Framing
+.
+The
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">when
+used
+within
+the
+context
+of
+a
+document.
+Values
+</ins>
+of
+terms
+associated
+with
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">-
+</del>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">-
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">container
+</ins>
+are
+always
+represented
+in
+the
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+-
+even
+if
+there
+is
+just
+a
+single
+<del class="diff-old">value.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+that
+would
+otherwise
+be
+optimized
+to
+a
+non-array
+form
+in
+a
+</ins><a href="#compact-document-form"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compacted
+document
+</ins></a>.
+This
+makes
+post-processing
+of
+the
+data
+easier
+as
+the
+data
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">always
+</ins>
+in
+<ins class="diff-new">array
+form,
+even
+if
+the
+array
+only
+contains
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">deterministic
+form.
+If
+no
+such
[email protected]
+is
+specified,
+</del>
+single
+<del class="diff-old">values
+are
+optimized
+to
+a
+non-array
+form.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+The
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+i.e.,
+outside
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+<ins class="diff-chg">must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+</ins>
+ignored
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="advanced-concepts" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#advanced-concepts" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+<del class="diff-old">sections
+outline
+the
+features
+that
+are
+specific
+to
+JSON-LD.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+describes
+this
+advanced
+functionality
+in
+more
+detail.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<div id="typed-values" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#typed-values" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+type,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn title="typed_value" id="dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</dfn>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+value
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+value's
+type.
+Typed
+values
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+type.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">associate
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">typed
+value:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">type
+with
+a
+particular
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:dateTime&quot;
+    }
+  }
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+    }
+  },</span>
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-new">modified
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+key's
+value
+above
+is
+automatically
+type
+coerced
+to
+a
+datetime
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins>
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+<del class="diff-old">for
+specifying
+objects:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">of
+setting
+the
+type
+information
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:dateTime&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+an
+object
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+and
+the
+type
+of
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+third
+example
+uses
+a
+built-in
+native
+JSON
+type,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>,
+to
+express
+a
+type:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: 
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">31</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+is
+really
+just
+a
+shorthand
+for
+the
+following:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;31&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;:
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;31&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+also
+used
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>.
+Although
+the
+same
+keyword
+is
+used
+in
+both
+places,
+the
+concept
+of
+an
+<em>
+object
+type
+</em>
+and
+a
+<em>
+value
+type
+</em>
+are
+different.
+This
+is
+similar
+to
+object-oriented
+programming
+languages
+where
+both
+scalar
+and
+structured
+types
+use
+the
+same
+class
+inheritance
+mechanism,
+even
+though
+scalar
+types
+and
+structured
+types
+are
+inherently
+different.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="compact-iris" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#compact-iris" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+documents
+may
+draw
+from
+a
+number
+of
+different
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabularies
+</a>.
+At
+times,
+declaring
+every
+single
+term
+that
+a
+document
+uses
+can
+require
+the
+developer
+to
+declare
+tens,
+if
+not
+hundreds
+of
+potential
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+used
+across
+an
+application.
+This
+is
+a
+concern
+for
+at
+least
+<del class="diff-old">three
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">two
+</ins>
+reasons:
+the
+first
+is
+the
+cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer
+of
+remembering
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s,
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+</ins>
+the
+second
+is
+the
+serialized
+size
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+if
+it
+is
+specified
+<del class="diff-old">inline,
+the
+third
+is
+future-proofing
+embedded
+application
+context
+s
+that
+may
+not
+be
+easy
+to
+change
+after
+they
+are
+deployed.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">inline.
+</ins>
+In
+order
+to
+address
+these
+issues,
+the
+concept
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+introduced.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+<del class="diff-old">.
+Generally,
+these
+prefixes
+are
+used
+by
+concatenating
+the
+prefix
+</del>
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+a
+suffix
+,
+which
+is
+</del>
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">)
+which
+is
+similar
+to
+the
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies"><ins class="diff-chg">
+CURIE
+Syntax
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDFA-CORE
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+</ins>
+The
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+taken
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+is
+a
+short
+string
+identifying
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+For
+example,
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+a
+short
+hand
+for
+the
+Friend-of-a-Friend
+vocabulary,
+which
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+A
+developer
+may
+append
+any
+of
+the
+FOAF
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+terms
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+prefix
+to
+specify
+a
+short-hand
+version
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+term.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+would
+be
+expanded
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+Instead
+of
+having
+to
+remember
+and
+type
+out
+the
+entire
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+developer
+can
+instead
+use
+the
+prefix
+in
+their
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+</p>
+<p>
+Terms
+are
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+if
+they
+contain
+at
+least
+one
+colon
+and
+the
+first
+colon
+is
+not
+followed
+by
+two
+slashes
+(
+<code>
+//
+</code>,
+as
+in
+<code>
+http://example.com
+</code>
+).
+To
+generate
+the
+full
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+the
+value
+is
+first
+split
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+at
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+).
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+term
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+If
+no
+prefix
+mapping
+is
+defined,
+the
+value
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+an
+underscore
+(
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+),
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+remains
+unchanged.
+This
+effectively
+means
+that
+every
+term
+containing
+a
+colon
+will
+be
+interpreted
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+ability
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+reduces
+the
+need
+for
+developers
+to
+declare
+every
+vocabulary
+term
+that
+they
+intend
+to
+use
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+context
+.
+This
+reduces
+stand-alone
+JSON-LD
+document
+serialization
+size
+because
+every
+vocabulary
+term
+need
+not
+be
+declared
+in
+the
+embedded
+context.
+Compact
+IRIs
+also
+reduces
+the
+cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer.
+It
+is
+far
+easier
+to
+remember
+foaf:name
+than
+it
+is
+to
+remember
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+.
+The
+use
+of
+prefixes
+also
+ensures
+that
+a
+context
+document
+does
+not
+have
+to
+be
+updated
+in
+lock-step
+with
+an
+externally
+defined
+vocabulary
+.
+Without
+prefixes,
+a
+developer
+would
+need
+to
+keep
+their
+application
+context
+terms
+in
+lock-step
+with
+an
+externally
+defined
+vocabulary.
+Rather,
+by
+just
+declaring
+the
+vocabulary
+prefix,
+one
+can
+use
+new
+terms
+as
+they're
+declared
+without
+having
+to
+update
+the
+application's
+JSON-LD
+context
+.
+</del>
+Consider
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    
+    
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+  :
+  {
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+    : &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    : &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    :
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+      : &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      : &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+    }
+  }
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;dc&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot;,</span>    <span class="diff">&quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/vocab#&quot;</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Library&quot;</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>:<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Book&quot;</span>,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:creator&quot;</span>: &quot;Plato&quot;,    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Republic&quot;,    <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>:<ins class="diff-chg">
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Chapter&quot;</span>,
+</ins>      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:description&quot;</span>: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Introduction&quot;<ins class="diff-chg">
+    }
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+two
+different
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabularies
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+using
+prefixes.
+Those
+prefixes
+are
+then
+used
+as
+type
+and
+property
+values
+using
+the
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+notation.
+</p>
+<p>
+It's
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+within
+the
+context
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+    : { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },
+    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: , &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:homepage&quot;</span>: { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:depiction&quot;</span>, &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">Compact
+IRIs
+,
+also
+known
+as
+CURIEs,
+are
+defined
+more
+formally
+in
+RDFa
+Core
+1.1,
+Section
+6
+&quot;CURIE
+Syntax
+Definition&quot;
+[
+RDFA-CORE
+].
+JSON-LD
+does
+not
+support
+the
+square-bracketed
+CURIE
+syntax
+as
+the
+mechanism
+is
+not
+required
+to
+disambiguate
+IRI
+s
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+like
+it
+is
+in
+HTML
+documents.
+</del>
+</div>
+<div id="external-contexts" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#external-contexts" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+External
+Contexts
+</h3>
+<p>
+Authors
+may
+choose
+to
+declare
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+s
+in
+external
+documents
+to
+promote
+re-use
+of
+contexts
+as
+well
+as
+reduce
+the
+size
+of
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context,
+an
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+specify
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document.
+The
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+top-level
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+The
+value
+of
+any
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+within
+that
+object
+is
+substituted
+for
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+within
+the
+referencing
+document
+to
+have
+the
+same
+effect
+as
+if
+the
+value
+were
+specified
+inline
+within
+the
+referencing
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  ,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Authors
+may
+also
+import
+multiple
+contexts
+or
+a
+combination
+of
+external
+and
+local
+contexts
+by
+specifying
+a
+list
+of
+contexts:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/event&quot;,
+  ]
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+  &quot;celebrates&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
+    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
+    &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/event&quot;,
+  ]</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;celebrates&quot;:<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
+    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
+    &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Each
+context
+in
+a
+list
+will
+be
+evaluated
+in-order.
+Duplicate
+mappings
+among
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+overwritten
+on
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+basis.
+The
+context
+list
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+contain
+either
+de-referenceable
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+s
+that
+conform
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+syntax
+as
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+nest
+contexts
+within
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+s,
+with
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+contexts
+overriding
+the
+values
+in
+previously
+defined
+contexts:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
+    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  ...
+  &quot;details&quot;:
+  {
+    
+    &quot;&quot;: &quot;Graz University of Technology&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
+    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  ...
+  &quot;details&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: {<ins class="diff-chg">
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/organization#name&quot;
+    },</span>
+    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Graz University of Technology&quot;
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+prefix
+is
+overridden
+in
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+<code>
+details
+</code>
+structure.
+Note
+that
+this
+is
+rarely
+a
+good
+authoring
+practice
+and
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+the
+JSON
+object
+has
+legacy
+applications
+using
+the
+structure
+of
+the
+object.
+</p>
+<p>
+External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+contain
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefixes
+</a>
+declared
+in
+the
+document.
+When
+importing
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+from
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+context
+document,
+any
+extra
+information
+contained
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+It
+is
+also
+<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">
+recommended
+</em>
+that
+a
+human-readable
+document
+<del class="diff-old">encoded
+in
+HTML+RDFa
+[
+HTML-RDFA
+]
+or
+other
+Linked
+Data
+compatible
+format
+</del>
+is
+served
+as
+well
+to
+explain
+the
+correct
+usage
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+context
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</h3>
+<p>
+Ordinary
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+transformed
+into
+JSON-LD
+documents
+by
+referencing
+to
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header.
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow
+and
+provides
+an
+upgrade
+path
+for
+existing
+infrastructure
+without
+breaking
+existing
+clients
+that
+rely
+on
+the
+<code>
+application/json
+</code>
+media
+type.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document,
+an
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+specify
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC5988">
+RFC5988
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+using
+the
+<code>
+describedby
+</code>
+link
+relation.
+The
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+top-level
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+within
+that
+object
+is
+added
+to
+the
+top-level
+object
+of
+the
+referencing
+document.
+If
+an
+array
+is
+at
+the
+top-level
+of
+the
+referencing
+document
+and
+its
+items
+are
+objects,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+is
+added
+to
+all
+array
+items.
+All
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+in
+the
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+Host: example.com
+Accept: application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+
+====================================
+
+HTTP/1.0 200 OK
+...
+Content-Type: application/json
+
+
+{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+<ins class="diff-chg">Host: example.com
+Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+====================================
+HTTP/1.0 200 OK
+...
+Content-Type: <span class="diff">application/json</span>
+</ins><span class="diff">Link: &lt;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&gt;; rel=&quot;describedby&quot;; type=&quot;application/ld+json&quot;</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+served
+with
+the
+<code>
+application/ld+json
+</code>
+media
+type
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+all
+context
+information,
+including
+references
+to
+external
+contexts,
+within
+the
+body
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="expanded-term-definition" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#expanded-term-definition" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</h3>
+<p>
+Within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+using
+an
+expanded
+notation
+to
+allow
+for
+additional
+information
+associated
+with
+the
+term
+to
+be
+specified
+(see
+also
+<a href="#type-coercion">
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+).
+</p>
+<p>
+Instead
+of
+using
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+specified
+using
+an
+object
+having
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+either
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+a
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+:suffix
+value,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">Type
+information
+may
+be
+specified
+</del>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: ,
+    &quot;name&quot;: ,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: ,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;: 
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot; }</span>,
+    &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot; }</span>,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:homepage&quot; }</span>,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:depiction&quot; }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This
+allows
+additional
+information
+to
+be
+associated
+with
+the
+term.
+This
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+for
+<a href="#type-coercion">
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>,
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+),
+or
+to
+associate
+language
+information
+with
+a
+term
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:name&quot;,  },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot; },
+    &quot;occupation_en&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;,  },
+    &quot;occupation_de&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;,  }
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Yagyū Muneyoshi&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;忍者&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_en&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: &quot;Nindža&quot;,
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:name&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: null</span> },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot; },
+    &quot;occupation_en&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;</span> },
+    &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: &quot;cs&quot;</span> }
+  },
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;name&quot;: &quot;Yagyū Muneyoshi&quot;,<ins class="diff-chg">
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;忍者&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_en&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: &quot;Nindža&quot;,</span>
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+<em>
+忍者
+</em>
+with
+the
+specified
+default
+language
+code
+<code>
+ja
+</code>,
+<em>
+Ninja
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+en
+</code>,
+and
+<em>
+Nindža
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+cs
+</code>.
+The
+value
+of
+<code>
+name
+</code>,
+<em>
+Yagyū
+Muneyoshi
+</em>
+wouldn't
+be
+associated
+with
+any
+language
+code
+since
+<del class="diff-old">it
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@language
+</ins></code>
+was
+reset
+<ins class="diff-new">to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></a>
+in
+the
+expanded
+term
+definition.
+</p>
+<p>
+Expanded
+terms
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+<del class="diff-old">Compact
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins>
+IRIs
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+</ins>
+IRIs
+</a>
+as
+keys.
+If
+the
+definition
+does
+not
+include
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+determined
+by
+performing
+expansion
+of
+the
+key
+within
+the
+current
+active
+context.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+mechanism
+is
+mainly
+used
+to
+associate
+type
+or
+language
+information
+with
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+<del class="diff-old">Although
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">While
+</ins>
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+<ins class="diff-new">an
+absolute
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+expand
+to
+some
+other
+<ins class="diff-new">unrelated
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(for
+example,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf:name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+expanding
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/unrelated#species
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+),
+</ins>
+such
+usage
+is
+strongly
+discouraged.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="type-coercion" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#type-coercion" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+<dfn title="coercion" id="dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</dfn>
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+<del class="diff-old">types
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+</ins>
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+data
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+<del class="diff-old">property
+types.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+the
+data
+type
+to
+be
+specified
+with
+each
+<del class="diff-old">usage.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">piece
+of
+data.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</a>
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+<del class="diff-old">values
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins>
+of
+this
+key
+<del class="diff-old">represent
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">represents
+a
+</ins>
+type
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+take
+the
+form
+of
+<ins class="diff-new">a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Specifying
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+indicates
+that
+within
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+<ins class="diff-new">a
+</ins>
+string
+<del class="diff-old">values
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">keys
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>
+coerced
+<del class="diff-old">as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+</ins>
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+<ins class="diff-new">an
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">s.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Terms
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+used
+as
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+within
+the
+same
+context.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+means
+that
+one
+may
+specify
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+like
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+xsd
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+then
+use
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+xsd:integer
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+within
+the
+same
+context
+definition
+-
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+be
+able
+to
+determine
+the
+proper
+expansion
+for
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+xsd:integer
+</ins></code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s,
+IRIs
+and
+lists.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;,
+      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: ,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;:
+  [
+    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
+  ]
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    }</span>,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;,
+      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
+    }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;:
+</ins>  <span class="diff">[<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
+  ]</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+Turtle:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
+
+[ foaf:name &quot;John Smith&quot;;
+  foaf:age  &quot;41&quot;^^xsd:integer;
+  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">[ foaf:name &quot;John Smith&quot;;
+  foaf:age  &quot;41&quot;^^xsd:integer;
+  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
+</ins>
+]
+.
+</pre>
+<p>
+Terms
+may
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+This
+allows
+coercion
+rules
+to
+by
+applied
+to
+keys
+which
+are
+not
+represented
+as
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+For
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ,
+    &quot;&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>&quot;:
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:
+</ins>  <span class="diff">[<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
+  ]</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+<del class="diff-old">case,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">case
+</ins>
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+is
+optional,
+but
+if
+it
+does
+exist,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+treated
+as
+a
+term
+<ins class="diff-new">(not
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix:suffix
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+construct)
+</ins>
+so
+that
+the
+actual
+definition
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+becomes
+unnecessary.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+Keys
+in
+the
+context
+are
+treated
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+for
+the
+purpose
+of
+expansion
+and
+value
+coercion.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+allows
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">At
+times,
+this
+may
+result
+in
+</ins>
+multiple
+representations
+for
+the
+same
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">,
+which
+may
+</del>
+</abbr>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+dog
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+cat
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+both
+expanded
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/vocab#animal
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Doing
+this
+could
+</ins>
+be
+useful
+for
+establishing
+different
+type
+coercion
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+language
+specification
+</ins>
+rules.
+It
+also
+allows
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(or
+even
+an
+absolute
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+)
+to
+be
+defined
+as
+something
+else
+<del class="diff-old">entirely,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">entirely.
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/zoo
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+expand
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/river
+</ins></code>,
+but
+this
+usage
+is
+<del class="diff-old">discouraged.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">discouraged
+because
+it
+would
+lead
+to
+a
+great
+deal
+of
+confusion
+among
+developers
+attempting
+to
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+performed
+using
+the
+unexpanded
+value
+of
+the
+key,
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">exactly
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">have
+an
+exact
+</ins>
+match
+<del class="diff-old">a
+coercion
+rule
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">for
+an
+entry
+</ins>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-expansion-within-a-context" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+Within
+a
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">To
+be
+consistent
+with
+JSON-LD,
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+</ins>
+general,
+<del class="diff-old">anywhere
+an
+IRI
+is
+expected,
+</del>
+normal
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion
+rules
+apply
+<ins class="diff-new">anywhere
+an
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+expected
+</ins>
+(see
+<a href="#iris">
+IRIs
+</a>
+).
+Within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+this
+can
+mean
+that
+terms
+defined
+within
+<del class="diff-old">a
+given
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+context
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+within
+that
+<del class="diff-old">context,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+</ins>
+as
+long
+as
+there
+are
+no
+circular
+dependencies.
+For
+example,
+it
+is
+common
+to
+use
+the
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+namespace
+when
+defining
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: 
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;xsd:integer&quot;</span>
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+the
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">defined,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">defined
+</ins>
+and
+used
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+for
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+of
+the
+<code>
+age
+</code>
+property.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+when
+defining
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+of
+another
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: ,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: ,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: ,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:name&quot;</span>,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:age&quot;</span>,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:homepage&quot;</span>,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Not
+only
+term
+s,
+but
+also
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+on
+the
+left-hand
+side
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-new">term
+</ins></a>
+definition.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
+    &quot;&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>&quot;:
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }</span>
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+form
+is
+used
+in
+two
+different
+ways.
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+the
+</ins>
+first
+<del class="diff-old">way,
+as
+shown
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">approach,
+</ins>
+<code>
+foaf:age
+</code>
+declares
+both
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+term
+(using
+short-form)
+as
+well
+as
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+the
+</ins>
+second
+<del class="diff-old">way,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">approach,
+</ins>
+only
+<del class="diff-old">declares
+</del>
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+<del class="diff-old">.
+In
+the
+second
+case,
+the
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+specified.
+The
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+<del class="diff-old">still
+</del>
+derive
+the
+full
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">for
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+foaf:homepage
+</ins></code>
+by
+looking
+up
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+<del class="diff-old">for
+foaf:homepage
+.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+Absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+<del class="diff-old">on
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">left-hand
+side
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+position
+in
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf:age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf:age&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+order
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+match
+above,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+Also
+note
+that
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+will
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
+{
+&quot;@type&quot;:
+&quot;@id&quot;
+}
+</code>
+declaration
+because
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+is
+not
+the
+same
+as
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
+</code>.
+That
+is,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+use
+direct
+string
+comparison
+when
+looking
+up
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+before
+it
+applies
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+lookup
+mechanism.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+only
+exception
+for
+using
+terms
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+is
+that
+they
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+used
+in
+a
+circular
+manner.
+That
+is,
+a
+definition
+of
+<em>
+term-1
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+depend
+on
+the
+definition
+of
+<em>
+term-2
+</em>
+if
+<em>
+term-2
+</em>
+also
+depends
+on
+<em>
+term-1
+</em>.
+For
+example,
+the
+following
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+is
+illegal:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;term1&quot;: &quot;term2:foo&quot;,
+    &quot;term2&quot;: &quot;term1:bar&quot;
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;term1&quot;: &quot;term2:foo&quot;,<ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;term2&quot;: &quot;term1:bar&quot;</span>
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="embedding" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#embedding" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.8
+</span>
+Embedding
+</h3>
+<p>
+Object
+<dfn title="embedding" id="dfn-embedding">
+embedding
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+feature
+that
+allows
+an
+author
+to
+use
+the
+definition
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+values.
+This
+is
+a
+commonly
+used
+mechanism
+for
+creating
+a
+parent-child
+relationship
+between
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shows
+two
+subjects
+related
+by
+a
+property
+from
+the
+first
+subject:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;&quot;,
+    &quot;&quot;,
+  }
+...
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">knows</span>&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Person</span>&quot;,
+    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Gregg Kellogg</span>&quot;,
+  }
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+An
+object
+definition,
+like
+the
+one
+used
+above,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+<del class="diff-old">as
+a
+JSON
+value
+at
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+any
+<del class="diff-old">point
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+position
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="named-graphs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#named-graphs" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+Named
+Graphs
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+used
+to
+<del class="diff-old">identify
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">express
+</ins>
+a
+set
+of
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">object
+definitions
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject
+definition
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+that
+may
+not
+be
+directly
+related
+<ins class="diff-new">to
+one
+another
+</ins>
+through
+a
+<del class="diff-old">property,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property.
+The
+mechanism
+may
+also
+be
+used
+</ins>
+where
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="embedding" href="#dfn-embedding">
+embedding
+</a>
+is
+not
+<del class="diff-old">appropriate.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">desirable
+to
+the
+application.
+</ins>
+For
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: ...,
+  &quot;&quot;:
+  [
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+      &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
+    },
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
+      &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
+    }
+  ]
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: ...,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@graph</span>&quot;:
+  [
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+      &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
+    },
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
+      &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
+    }
+  ]
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+case,
+embedding
+doesn't
+work
+as
+each
+JSON-LD
+object
+references
+the
+other.
+Using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+allows
+multiple
+resources
+to
+be
+defined
+within
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+and
+allows
+the
+use
+of
+a
+shared
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>.
+This
+is
+equivalent
+to
+using
+multiple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+definitions
+in
+array
+and
+defining
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+within
+each
+object:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  
+  {
+    
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+    &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
+    &quot;knows&quot; &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+  <pre class="example"><span class="diff">[</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: ...,</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+    &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;
+  },
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: ...,</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;,
+    &quot;knows&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;
+  }
+</ins>
+<span class="diff">
+]
+</span>
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
[email protected]
+keyword
+takes
+on
+additional
+meaning
+when
+it
+is
+used
+along
+with
+other
+properties,
+or
+is
+used
+within
+an
+embedded
+</del>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">object.
+In
+this
+case,
+the
+set
+of
+subject
+definitions
+,
+or
+subject
+references
+contained
+within
+a
[email protected]
+is
+given
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allows
+you
+to
+</ins>
+<em>
+name
+<del class="diff-old">,
+based
+</del>
+</em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">things
+</ins>
+on
+the
+<del class="diff-old">label
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+object
+containing
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Web
+by
+assigning
+an
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@graph
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">property,
+either
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+them,
+which
+is
+typically
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">,
+or
+</del>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+notion
+extends
+to
+the
+ability
+to
+identify
+graphs
+in
+the
+same
+manner.
+A
+developer
+may
+name
+data
+expressed
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+by
+pairing
+it
+with
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">unlabeled
+node
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins>
+</a>.
+This
+<del class="diff-old">allows
+statements
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">enables