Added date-stamped JSON-LD API spec for review purposes.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Sun, 30 Sep 2012 16:18:38 -0400
changeset 886 b84be6883cb0
parent 885 2f34d39fb417
child 887 b58edce0884a
Added date-stamped JSON-LD API spec for review purposes.
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120930/diff-20120712.html
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120930/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120930/diff-20120712.html	Sun Sep 30 16:18:38 2012 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,21002 @@
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+<style type='text/css'>
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+</head>
+
+
+<body>
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+API
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+An
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</h2>
+<h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-30-september-2012">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Working
+</del>
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Editor's
+</ins>
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">12
+July
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">30
+September
+</ins>
+2012
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-json-ld-api-20120712/
+</del>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html">
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<del class="diff-old">Dave
+Longley
+,
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</del>
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20120712.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2010-2012
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+harmonizes
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON
+by
+outlining
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+This
+document
+outlines
+an
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+and
+a
+set
+of
+algorithms
+for
+programmatically
+transforming
+JSON-LD
+documents
+in
+order
+to
+make
+them
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+programming
+environments
+like
+JavaScript,
+Python,
+and
+Ruby.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+has
+been
+under
+development
+for
+over
+18
+months
+in
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group.
+The
+document
+has
+recently
+been
+transferred
+to
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+for
+review,
+improvement,
+and
+publication
+along
+the
+Recommendation
+track.
+<del class="diff-old">While
+this
+is
+a
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+publication,
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+specification
+has
+undergone
+significant
+development,
+review,
+and
+changes
+during
+the
+course
+of
+the
+last
+18
+<del class="diff-old">months
+and
+is
+more
+mature
+than
+the
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+status
+implies.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">months.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+currently
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">
+five
+interoperable
+implementations
+</a>
+of
+this
+specification.
+There
+is
+a
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">
+fairly
+complete
+test
+suite
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">
+live
+JSON-LD
+editor
+</a>
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+demonstrating
+the
+features
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+While
+development
+on
+implementations,
+the
+test
+suite
+and
+the
+live
+editor
+will
+continue,
+they
+are
+believed
+to
+be
+mature
+enough
+to
+be
+integrated
+into
+a
+non-production
+system
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time
+with
+the
+expectation
+that
+they
+could
+be
+used
+in
+a
+production
+system
+within
+the
+next
+year.
+</p>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+<del class="diff-old">1
+</del>
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+It
+is
+important
+for
+readers
+to
+understand
+that
+the
+scope
+of
+this
+document
+is
+currently
+under
+debate
+and
+new
+features
+may
+be
+added
+to
+the
+specification.
+Existing
+features
+may
+be
+modified
+heavily
+or
+removed
+entirely
+from
+the
+specification
+upon
+further
+review
+and
+feedback
+from
+the
+broader
+community.
+This
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress
+and
+publication
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">First
+Public
+</del>
+Working
+Draft
+does
+not
+require
+that
+all
+Working
+Group
+members
+agree
+on
+the
+content
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</ins></p><ul><li><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
+</ins><a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/"><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></a></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
+</ins><a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/"><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></a></li><li><a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/"><ins class="diff-new">
+Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+open
+to
+the
+public.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+to
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues"><ins class="diff-new">
+issue
+tracker
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+</ins></li><li><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec"><ins class="diff-new">
+Source
+code
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld"><ins class="diff-new">
+#json-ld
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</ins></li></ul><p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">a
+First
+Public
+Working
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+Editor's
+</ins>
+Draft.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+W3C
+Recommendation.
+</del>
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+).
+All
+feedback
+is
+welcome.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+<del class="diff-old">a
+Working
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+Editor's
+</ins>
+Draft
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Preface
+1.1
+Contributing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Introduction
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#features" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Introduction
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Features
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Conversion
+to
+and
+from
+</del>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">2.4
+Framing
+and
+Normalization
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Conversion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-application-programming-interface" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#general-terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldprocessor" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#callbacks" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Callbacks
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldprocessingerror" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">JsonLdCallback
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JsonLdProcessingError
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldcallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.1.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Methods
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JsonLdCallback
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#quadcallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.3.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+QuadCallback
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformancecallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.2.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Methods
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ConformanceCallback
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-structures" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Data
+Structures
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldoptions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.2
+</span>
+JsonLdOptions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#quad" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.3
+</span>
+Quad
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.3.1
+Attributes
+</del>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.4
+</span>
+Node
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.5.1
+Attributes
+</del>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#blank-node" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.6
+</span>
+Blank
+Node
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.6.1
+Attributes
+</del>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#literal" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.7
+</span>
+Literal
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.7.1
+Attributes
+</del>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-processing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Context
+Processing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.1
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#term-rank-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.2
+</span>
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.7.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.8
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.8.1
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#flattening" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Flattening
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#flattening-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.9.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Flattening
+Algorithm
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#node-map-generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.9.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Node
+Map
+Generation
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.9.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Generate
+Blank
+Node
+Identifier
+</ins></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-conversion-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.10
+</ins></span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Overview
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#parsing-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Parsing
+Examples
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Convert
+to
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#list-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+List
+Conversion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Convert
+from
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<del class="diff-old">A.
+Initial
+Context
+</del>
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="introduction">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Preface
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Introduction
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+an
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Web
+authors
+and
+developers
+that
+want
+a
+very
+detailed
+view
+of
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+and
+the
+API
+operates.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+You
+must
+also
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+is
+the
+base
+syntax
+used
+by
+all
+of
+the
+algorithms
+in
+this
+document.
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-ECMA-262">
+ECMA-262
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBIDL">
+WEBIDL
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+how
+JSON-LD
+maps
+to
+RDF,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+be
+familiar
+with
+the
+basic
+RDF
+concepts
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">1.1
+Contributing
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
[email protected]
+Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
[email protected]
+Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+to
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+issue
+tracker
+if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+Source
+code
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+The
+#json-ld
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</del>
+</section>
+<section id="features">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Introduction
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Features
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+outlines
+a
+language
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+Often,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+be
+able
+to
+transform
+JSON-LD
+documents
+so
+that
+they
+may
+be
+easily
+processed
+in
+a
+programming
+environment
+like
+JavaScript,
+Python
+or
+Ruby.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+<del class="diff-old">three
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">four
+</ins>
+major
+types
+of
+transformation
+that
+are
+discussed
+in
+this
+document;
+compaction,
+expansion,
+and
+RDF
+conversion.
+</p>
+<section id="expansion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Software
+algorithms
+are
+easiest
+to
+write
+when
+the
+data
+that
+they
+are
+processing
+have
+a
+regular
+form.
+Since
+information
+can
+be
+represented
+by
+JSON-LD
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways,
+transforming
+all
+of
+these
+methods
+into
+a
+uniform
+structure
+allows
+the
+developer
+to
+simplify
+their
+processing
+code.
+For
+example,
+note
+that
+the
+following
+input
+uses
+only
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+is
+fairly
+compact:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span></div><pre class="example">var input1 = {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+next
+input
+example
+uses
+one
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+express
+a
+property,
+but
+leaves
+the
+rest
+of
+the
+information
+untouched.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span></div><pre class="example">var input2 = {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+While
+both
+inputs
+are
+valid
+JSON-LD,
+writing
+a
+program
+to
+handle
+every
+permutation
+of
+possible
+inputs
+can
+be
+difficult,
+especially
+when
+the
+incoming
+context
+could
+change
+as
+well.
+To
+ensure
+that
+the
+data
+can
+be
+given
+a
+more
+uniform
+structure,
+JSON-LD
+introduces
+the
+notion
+of
+expansion.
+<dfn title="expansion" id="dfn-expansion">
+Expansion
+</dfn>
+performs
+two
+important
+operations.
+The
+first
+is
+to
+expand
+all
+values
+that
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+their
+fully
+expanded
+form.
+The
+second
+is
+to
+express
+all
+values
+in
+<dfn title="expanded_form" id="dfn-expanded_form">
+expanded
+form
+</dfn>.
+To
+transform
+both
+inputs
+above
+to
+the
+same
+representation,
+the
+developer
+could
+do
+the
+following:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span></div><pre class="example">function expansionCallback(output) {
+   console.log(output);
+}
+// the second parameter is 'null' because the developer does not wish to
+// inject another context value
+jsonld.expand(input1, null, expansionCallback);
+jsonld.expand(input2,
+null,
+expansionCallback);
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+output
+for
+both
+calls
+above
+will
+be:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span></div><pre class="example">[{
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+  }],
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+  }]
+}]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+in
+the
+example
+above;
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definitions
+have
+been
+removed,
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+and
+prefixes
+have
+been
+expanded
+to
+full
+IRIs,
+and
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+s
+are
+expressed
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_form" href="#dfn-expanded_form">
+expanded
+form
+</a>.
+While
+the
+output
+is
+more
+difficult
+for
+a
+human
+to
+read,
+it
+is
+easier
+for
+a
+software
+program
+to
+process
+because
+of
+its
+very
+regular
+structure.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="compaction">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+While
+expansion
+expands
+a
+given
+input
+as
+much
+as
+possible,
+compaction
+performs
+the
+opposite
+operation
+-
+expressing
+a
+given
+input
+as
+succinctly
+as
+possible.
+While
+expansion
+is
+meant
+to
+produce
+something
+that
+is
+easy
+to
+process
+by
+software
+programs,
+compaction
+is
+meant
+to
+produce
+something
+that
+is
+easy
+to
+<del class="diff-old">ready
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">read
+</ins>
+by
+software
+developers.
+Compaction
+uses
+a
+developer-supplied
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+to
+compresses
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es,
+and
+compacts
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+s
+expressed
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_form" href="#dfn-expanded_form">
+expanded
+form
+</a>
+as
+much
+as
+possible.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+expresses
+input
+that
+has
+already
+been
+fully
+expanded:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span></div><pre class="example">var expandedInput = [{
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+  }],
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+  }]
+}]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+developer
+that
+wants
+to
+transform
+the
+data
+above
+into
+a
+more
+human-readable
+form,
+could
+do
+the
+following
+using
+the
+JSON-LD
+API:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span></div><pre class="example">function compactionCallback(output) {
+   console.log(output);
+}
+jsonld.compact(expandedInput,
+&quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+compactionCallback);
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+would
+be
+the
+result
+of
+the
+call
+above:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span></div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+have
+been
+compressed
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+has
+been
+injected
+into
+the
+output.
+While
+compacted
+output
+is
+most
+useful
+to
+humans,
+it
+can
+also
+be
+carefully
+used
+to
+generate
+structures
+that
+are
+easy
+to
+use
+for
+developers
+to
+program
+against
+as
+well.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="rdf-conversion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Conversion
+to
+and
+from
+</del>
+RDF
+<ins class="diff-new">Conversion
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+used
+to
+losslessly
+express
+the
+RDF
+data
+model
+as
+described
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+This
+ensures
+that
+data
+can
+be
+round-tripped
+from
+any
+RDF
+syntax,
+like
+N-Triples
+or
+TURTLE,
+without
+any
+loss
+in
+the
+fidelity
+of
+the
+data.
+Assume
+the
+following
+RDF
+input
+in
+N-Triples
+format:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span></div><pre class="example">var data = &quot;
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; \&quot;Manu Sporny\&quot; .\n
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&gt;
+&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;
+.&quot;;
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+developer
+can
+use
+the
+JSON-LD
+API
+to
+transform
+the
+markup
+above
+into
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span></div><pre class="example">function conversionCallback(result)
+{
+  console.log(&quot;JSON-LD Document: &quot;, result);
+};
+jsonld.fromRDF(data,
+conversionCallback,
+{&quot;format&quot;:
+&quot;ntriples&quot;});
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+expanded
+output
+would
+be
+the
+result
+of
+the
+call
+above:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span></div><pre class="example">[{
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+  }],
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+  }]
+}]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+the
+output
+above,
+could
+easily
+be
+compacted
+to
+produce
+the
+following
+using
+the
+technique
+outlined
+in
+the
+previous
+section:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span></div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&quot;,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Transforming
+the
+<del class="diff-old">object
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins>
+above
+back
+to
+RDF
+is
+as
+simple
+as
+calling
+the
+<code>
+toRDF()
+</code>
+method:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span></div><pre class="example">var jsonldDocument = ...; // assign the JSON-LD document here
+function rdfCallback(quads)
+{
+  console.log(&quot;RDF Data: &quot;, quads);
+};
+jsonld.toRDF(jsonldDocument,
+rdfCallback);
+</pre>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">2.4
+Framing
+and
+Normalization
+Issue
+2
+There
+are
+currently
+two
+other
+API
+methods
+that
+are
+in
+active
+development
+and
+were
+not
+ready
+for
+publication
+at
+the
+time
+this
+document
+was
+published.
+Framing
+allows
+a
+developer
+to
+force
+a
+different
+layout
+for
+the
+data
+and
+effectively
+perform
+query-by-example
+on
+JSON-LD
+documents
+-
+this
+is
+most
+useful
+when
+a
+JSON-LD-based
+REST
+API
+does
+not
+know
+the
+exact
+form
+of
+the
+data
+it
+is
+getting
+in,
+but
+still
+wants
+to
+operate
+upon
+it
+if
+some
+bare
+essentials
+are
+found
+in
+the
+data.
+JSON-LD
+normalization
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+deterministically
+serialized
+such
+that
+they
+can
+be
+digitally
+signed
+or
+be
+used
+to
+find
+the
+differences
+between
+two
+linked
+data
+graph
+s.
+It
+is
+expected
+that
+framing
+will
+be
+a
+part
+of
+the
+final
+API.
+It
+is
+expected
+that
+normalization
+will
+be
+an
+optional
+feature
+that
+JSON-LD
+processors
+may
+implement.
+</del>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="the-application-programming-interface">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+API
+provides
+a
+clean
+mechanism
+that
+enables
+developers
+to
+convert
+JSON-LD
+data
+into
+a
+a
+variety
+of
+output
+formats
+that
+are
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+various
+programming
+languages.
+If
+a
+JSON-LD
+API
+is
+provided
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+the
+entirety
+of
+the
+following
+API
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+implemented.
+</p>
+<section id="general-terminology">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</h3>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+<del class="diff-old">3
+</del>
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+intent
+of
+the
+Working
+Group
+and
+the
+Editors
+of
+this
+specification
+is
+to
+eventually
+align
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document
+with
+the
+terminology
+used
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document
+to
+the
+extent
+to
+which
+it
+makes
+sense
+to
+do
+so.
+In
+general,
+if
+there
+is
+an
+analogue
+to
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document,
+the
+preference
+is
+to
+use
+the
+terminology
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+is
+an
+explanation
+of
+the
+general
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name-value
+pairs.
+A
+name
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+that
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+(UTF-8)
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Unless
+otherwise
+specified,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+must
+act
+as
+if
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+use
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+never
+declared
+when
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+equals
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+<del class="diff-old">.
+If
[email protected]
+,
[email protected]
+,
+or
[email protected]
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+within
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">set
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">null
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ignore
+or
+reset
+values.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">object
+is
+ignored.
+If
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+that
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">set
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specific
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">null
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD,
+specified
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">active
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+Syntax
+specification
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+reset
+and
+when
+used
+within
+a
+context
+,
+it
+removes
+any
+definition
+associated
+with
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">]
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">key,
+unless
+otherwise
+specified.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+titled
+</ins><cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</ins></a></cite>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+definition
+</del>
+<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+object
+used
+to
+represent
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+of
+rules
+for
+interpreting
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+as
+specified
+in
+</ins><cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#the-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Context
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+</del>
+</cite>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">that
+subject.
+A
+JSON
+object
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+a
+subject
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+they
+keys
[email protected]
+,
[email protected]
+or
[email protected]
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
[email protected]
+.
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">]
+specification.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+reference
+</del>
+<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+JSON
+object
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3987
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">used
+to
+reference
+a
+subject
+having
+only
+the
[email protected]
+key.
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">].
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+dataset
+</del>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<del class="diff-old">node
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">object
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+node
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Blank
+Nodes
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+other
+values.
+</ins>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">piece
+of
+information
+that
+is
+represented
+in
+a
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+a
+generalized
+representation
+of
+a
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF
+graph
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="named_graph" id="dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">has
+one
+or
+more
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+identified
+by
+an
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">that
+are
+used
+to
+refer
+to
+it.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="graph_name" id="dfn-graph_name">
+graph
+name
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">that
+is
+a
+reference
+to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">identifying
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="named_graph" href="#dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="default_graph" id="dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+When
+executing
+an
+algorithm,
+the
+graph
+where
+data
+should
+be
+placed
+if
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="named_graph" href="#dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</a>
+is
+not
+specified.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<dfn title="node" id="dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Any
+node
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+piece
+of
+information
+that
+is
+represented
+</ins>
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+<del class="diff-old">with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="node_definition" id="dfn-node_definition">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+definition
+</ins></dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+node.
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+node
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+the
+keys
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</dd><dt>
+<dfn title="node_reference" id="dfn-node_reference">
+<ins class="diff-new">node
+reference
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+in
+[
+RFC3987
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">]).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+to
+reference
+a
+node
+having
+only
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">object
+</del>
+<dfn title="blank_node" id="dfn-blank_node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">blank
+node
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">that
+does
+not
+contain
+a
+de-referenceable
+identifier
+because
+it
+is
+either
+ephemeral
+in
+nature
+or
+does
+not
+contain
+information
+that
+needs
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+outside
+of
+the
+linked
+data
+graph.
+A
+blank
+node
+is
+assigned
+an
+identifier
+starting
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+prefix
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+_:
+</ins></code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+edge
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+label
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+edge
+in
+a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+</del>
+<dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge,
+related
+to
+an
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+through
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt>
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins></dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="quad" id="dfn-quad">
+quad
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+piece
+of
+information
+that
+contains
+four
+items;
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>,
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="graph_name" href="#dfn-graph_name">
+graph
+name
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">context
+</del>
+<dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+JSON
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">that
+contains
+rules
+for
+interpreting
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expressed
+as
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+document.
+keyword
+A
+JSON
+key
+that
+is
+specific
+to
+JSON-LD,
+specified
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+specification
+[
+JSON-LD
+]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+such
+as
+a
+string,
+number
+or
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+section
+titled
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expanded
+form.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="jsonldprocessor">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">Processor
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">processor
+</ins>
+interface
+is
+the
+high-level
+programming
+structure
+that
+developers
+use
+to
+access
+the
+JSON-LD
+transformation
+methods.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Note
+</ins></span></div><p class=""><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+signatures
+are
+the
+same
+across
+all
+programming
+languages.
+Due
+to
+the
+fact
+that
+asynchronous
+programming
+is
+uncommon
+in
+certain
+languages,
+developers
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+implement
+a
+processor
+with
+a
+synchronous
+interface
+instead.
+In
+that
+case,
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+parameter
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+not
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+included
+and
+the
+result
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+returned
+as
+a
+return
+value
+instead.
+</ins></p></div>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdProcessor">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdProcessor</span> {
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-void-object-or-object---or-IRI-input-object-or-IRI-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">expand</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or IRI</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or IRI</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-void-object-or-object---or-IRI-input-object-or-IRI-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">compact</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or IRI</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or IRI</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-fromRDF-void-QuadArray-input-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">fromRDF</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code>Quad</code></a>[]</span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-toRDF-void-object-or-object---or-IRI-input-QuadCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">toRDF</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or IRI</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType"><code>QuadCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section id="methods">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h4>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-void-object-or-object---or-IRI-input-object-or-IRI-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+compact
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#compaction">
+Compacts
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+using
+the
+<code>
+context
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+compacted
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+<del class="diff-old">exception
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">error
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">thrown.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">returned
+via
+the
+callback.
+</ins><dl title="InvalidContext"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+this
+error
+would
+be
+returned
+via
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+callback
+</ins></code>.</dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+LOAD_ERROR
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+was
+a
+problem
+encountered
+loading
+a
+remote
+context.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl title="ProcessingError"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+LOSSY_COMPACTION
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+compaction
+would
+lead
+to
+a
+loss
+of
+information,
+such
+as
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+value.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+CONFLICTING_DATATYPES
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+target
+datatype
+specified
+in
+the
+coercion
+rule
+and
+the
+datatype
+for
+the
+typed
+literal
+do
+not
+match.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+LIST_OF_LISTS_DETECTED
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+list
+of
+lists
+was
+detected.
+The
+list
+of
+lists
+feature
+is
+not
+supported
+in
+this
+version
+of
+JSON-LD
+due
+to
+the
+algorithmic
+complexity
+associated
+with
+conversion
+to
+RDF.
+</ins></dd></dl>
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+compaction
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+compact.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+context
+to
+use
+when
+compacting
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+;
+either
+in
+the
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+or
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<ins class="diff-chg">✔
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+also
+includes
+<code>
+optimize
+</code>,
+which
+if
+set
+will
+cause
+processor-specific
+optimization.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-void-object-or-object---or-IRI-input-object-or-IRI-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+expand
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#expansion">
+Expands
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+expanded
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+expansion
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+<del class="diff-old">exception
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">error
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">thrown.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">returned
+via
+the
+callback.
+</ins><dl title="InvalidContext"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+this
+error
+type
+will
+be
+set
+in
+the
+error
+sent
+to
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+callback
+</ins></code>.</dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+LOAD_ERROR
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+was
+a
+problem
+encountered
+loading
+a
+remote
+context.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl title="ProcessingError"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+LIST_OF_LISTS_DETECTED
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+list
+of
+lists
+was
+detected.
+The
+list
+of
+lists
+feature
+is
+not
+supported
+in
+this
+version
+of
+JSON-LD
+due
+to
+the
+algorithmic
+complexity
+associated
+with
+conversion
+to
+RDF.
+</ins></dd></dl>
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+expansion
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+expand.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+An
+optional
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+when
+expanding
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<ins class="diff-chg">✔
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-fromRDF-void-QuadArray-input-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+fromRDF
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Creates
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+given
+an
+set
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Quad" href="#idl-def-Quad">
+<code>
+Quads
+</code>
+</a>.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+[]
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+<del class="diff-old">dataset
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">s
+</ins>
+represented
+as
+an
+array
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Quad" href="#idl-def-Quad">
+<code>
+Quads
+</code>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<ins class="diff-chg">✔
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+will
+affect
+the
+algorithm.
+This
+includes
+<code>
+notType
+</code>,
+which
+if
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true">
+true
+</a>
+causes
+the
+resulting
+document
+to
+use
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+as
+a
+property,
+instead
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-toRDF-void-object-or-object---or-IRI-input-QuadCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+toRDF
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Processes
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm">
+Convert
+to
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>,
+calling
+the
+provided
+<code>
+callback
+</code>
+for
+each
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Quad" href="#idl-def-Quad">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+generated.
+<dl title="InvalidContext">
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">INVALID_SYNTAX
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-new">
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+this
+error
+will
+be
+returned.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-new">
+LOAD_ERROR
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+There
+was
+a
+problem
+encountered
+loading
+a
+remote
+context.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl title="ProcessingError"><dt><ins class="diff-new">
+LIST_OF_LISTS_DETECTED
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+list
+of
+lists
+was
+detected.
+This
+is
+not
+supported
+in
+this
+version
+of
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></dd></dl>
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+convert
+to
+RDF
+or
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+convert
+to
+RDF.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+QuadCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+a
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Quad" href="#idl-def-Quad">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+created
+from
+processing
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<ins class="diff-chg">✔
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+conversion
+to
+RDF
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="callbacks">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Callbacks
+</h3>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/153">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Issue
+153
+</ins></span></a></div><p class=""><ins class="diff-chg">
+Developers
+should
+note
+that
+the
+details
+of
+error
+handling
+and
+conformance
+handling
+are
+being
+actively
+debated.
+</ins></p></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+processors
+utilize
+a
+variety
+of
+callbacks
+in
+order
+to
+return
+information
+in
+an
+asynchronous
+manner
+to
+calling
+applications.
+This
+section
+details
+the
+parameters
+sent
+to
+those
+callbacks
+as
+well
+as
+the
+desired
+operation
+of
+the
+callbacks.
+</ins></p><section id="jsonldprocessingerror">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.1
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">JsonLdProcessingError
+</ins></h4><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdError
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+type
+is
+used
+to
+encapsulate
+a
+variety
+of
+parameters
+that
+outline
+the
+cause
+of
+a
+particular
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessor" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdProcessor
+</ins></code></a><ins class="diff-new">
+error.
+</ins></p>      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlDictionary" id="idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError">dictionary <span class="idlDictionaryID">JsonLdProcessingError</span> {<span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>string</a></span>                                 <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessingError-type">type</a></span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>string</a></span>                                 <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessingError-operation">operation</a></span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>object or object</a>[]</span>                     <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessingError-source">source</a></span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>string</a></span>                                 <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessingError-sourceKey">sourceKey</a></span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>object or object[] or string or number</a></span> <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessingError-sourceValue">sourceValue</a></span>;</span><ins class="diff-new">
+};
+</ins></span></pre><section><h5 id="dictionary-jsonldprocessingerror-members"><ins class="diff-new">
+Dictionary
+</ins><a class="idlType" href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdProcessingError
+</ins></code></a><ins class="diff-new">
+Members
+</ins></h5><dl class="dictionary-members"><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessingError-operation"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+operation
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a></span></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+a
+string
+representing
+the
+operation
+that
+was
+being
+performed
+when
+the
+conformance
+issue
+was
+raised.
+Valid
+values
+for
+the
+string
+include
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+compact
+</ins></code>,<code><ins class="diff-new">
+expand
+</ins></code>,<code><ins class="diff-new">
+toRDF
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+fromRDF
+</ins></code>.</dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessingError-source"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+source
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+array
+of
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+or
+object
+</ins></a></span></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+object
+reference
+to
+the
+original
+JSON-LD
+document
+being
+processed.
+</ins></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessingError-sourceKey"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+sourceKey
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a></span></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+key
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+value
+that
+triggered
+the
+conformance
+issue.
+</ins></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessingError-sourceValue"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+sourceValue
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+string
+or
+number
+</ins></a></span></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+value
+that
+triggered
+the
+conformance
+issue.
+</ins></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessingError-type"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+type
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a></span></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+a
+string
+representing
+the
+particular
+error
+type,
+such
+as
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+LIST_OF_LISTS_DETECTED
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+as
+described
+in
+the
+various
+algorithms
+in
+this
+document.
+</ins></dd></dl></section></section><section id="jsonldcallback"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+3.3.2
+</ins></span>
+JsonLdCallback
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+used
+to
+return
+a
+processed
+JSON-LD
+representation
+as
+the
+result
+of
+processing
+an
+API
+method.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdCallback</span> {
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdCallback-processingComplete-void-JsonLdProcessingError-error-object-or-objectArray-document">processingComplete</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdProcessingError</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">error</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object</a>[]</span> <span class="idlParamName">document</span></span>);</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.1.1
+</del>
+<h5 id="methods-1">
+Methods
+</h5>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdCallback-processingComplete-void-JsonLdProcessingError-error-object-or-objectArray-document">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">jsonLd
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">processingComplete
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+when
+processing
+is
+complete.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+<del class="diff-old">jsonld
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">error
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+JsonLdProcessingError
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-chg">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-chg">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+then
+no
+error
+occurred.
+If
+the
+value
+is
+non-
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+processing
+error
+occurred
+and
+the
+details
+will
+be
+contained
+within
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+error
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+object.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-chg">
+document
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object
+</a>
+[]
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+processed
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="quadcallback">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.3.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+QuadCallback
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+QuadCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+called
+whenever
+the
+processor
+generates
+a
+quad
+during
+<del class="diff-old">the
+quad()
+call.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">processing.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-QuadCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">QuadCallback</span> {
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-QuadCallback-quad-void-JsonLdProcessingError-error-Quad-quad">quad</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdProcessingError</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">error</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code>Quad</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">quad</span></span>);</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.2.1
+</del>
+<h5 id="methods-2">
+Methods
+</h5>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-QuadCallback-quad-void-JsonLdProcessingError-error-Quad-quad">
+<code>
+quad
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+whenever
+a
+quad
+is
+generated
+by
+the
+processor.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+<ins class="diff-new">error
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdProcessingError
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+then
+no
+error
+occurred.
+If
+the
+value
+is
+non-
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+a
+processing
+error
+occurred
+and
+the
+details
+will
+be
+contained
+within
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+error
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+object.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">
+quad
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+<del class="diff-old">The
+quad.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+there
+is
+no
+error,
+the
+quad
+that
+was
+generated.
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="conformancecallback">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">3.3.4
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+ConformanceCallback
+</ins></h4><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-ConformanceCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+ConformanceCallback
+</ins></code></a><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+specified
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdOptions
+</ins></code></a><ins class="diff-new">
+via
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+conformanceCallback
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+parameter.
+If
+specified,
+the
+callback
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+recoverable
+conformance
+issue
+is
+detected.
+The
+developer
+may
+then
+determine
+whether
+or
+not
+processing
+should
+continue
+based
+on
+the
+type
+of
+conformance
+issue.
+</ins></p>      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-ConformanceCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]<ins class="diff-new">
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">ConformanceCallback</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-ConformanceCallback-issue-void-JsonLdProcessingError-issue-function-callback">issue</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdProcessingError</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">issue</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>function</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>);</span><ins class="diff-new">
+};
+</ins></span></pre><section><h5 id="methods-3"><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></h5><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-ConformanceCallback-issue-void-JsonLdProcessingError-issue-function-callback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+issue
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+when
+a
+conformance
+issue
+is
+detected
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+</ins><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+issue
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessingError" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdProcessingError
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+Details
+about
+the
+conformance
+issue.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+function
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+function
+that
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+called
+when
+the
+program
+has
+determined
+how
+to
+respond
+to
+the
+conformance
+issue.
+A
+single
+parameter
+must
+be
+passed
+to
+the
+callback.
+The
+value
+of
+the
+parameter
+should
+be
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+if
+processing
+should
+continue
+by
+acting
+as
+if
+the
+key-value
+that
+triggered
+the
+issue
+never
+existed.
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+issue
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+passed
+to
+the
+callback
+without
+modification
+if
+processing
+should
+stop.
+</ins></td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+void
+</ins></a></code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="data-structures">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Data
+Structures
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+section
+describes
+datatype
+definitions
+used
+within
+the
+JSON-LD
+API.
+</p>
+<section id="iri">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+datatype
+is
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<pre class="idl">
+<span class="idlTypedef" id="idl-def-IRI">
+typedef
+<span class="idlTypedefType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>
+<span class="idlTypedefID">
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</span>
+;
+</span>
+</pre>
+<div class="idlTypedefDesc">
+This
+datatype
+indicates
+that
+the
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></em>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+<del class="diff-old">a
+Universal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+Internationalized
+</ins>
+Resource
+<del class="diff-old">Locator
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Identifier
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+</ins>
+identifying
+a
+document,
+which
+when
+parsed
+as
+JSON
+yields
+either
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="jsonldoptions">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.2
+</span>
+JsonLdOptions
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+type
+is
+used
+to
+<del class="diff-old">convert
+a
+set
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pass
+various
+</ins>
+options
+to
+<del class="diff-old">an
+interface
+method.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdProcessor" class="idlType">
+<del class="diff-old">typedef
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JsonLdProcessor
+</ins></code>
+<del class="diff-old">object
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">JsonLdOptions
+;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">methods.
+</ins></p>    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlDictionary" id="idl-def-JsonLdOptions">dictionary <span class="idlDictionaryID">JsonLdOptions</span> {<span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType"><code>IRI</code></a>?</span>     <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-base">base</a></span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>boolean</a></span>  <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-compactArrays">compactArrays</a></span> = <span class="idlMemberValue">true</span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>boolean</a></span>  <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-flatten">flatten</a></span> = <span class="idlMemberValue">false</span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>boolean</a></span>  <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-optimize">optimize</a></span> = <span class="idlMemberValue">false</span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>boolean</a></span>  <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-useRdfType">useRdfType</a></span> = <span class="idlMemberValue">false</span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>boolean</a></span>  <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-useNativeTypes">useNativeTypes</a></span> = <span class="idlMemberValue">true</span>;</span><span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>function</a></span> <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-conformanceCallback">conformanceCallback</a></span> = <span class="idlMemberValue">null</span>;</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+};
+</ins>
+</span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<h5 id="dictionary-jsonldoptions-members">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Dictionary
+</ins><a class="idlType" href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JsonLdOptions
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">Members
+</ins></h5><dl class="dictionary-members"><dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-base"><code>
+base
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></code></a></span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+nullable
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+Base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+use
+when
+expanding
+the
+document.
+This
+overrides
+the
+value
+of
+<em>
+input
+</em>
+if
+it
+is
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">URL
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+not
+specified
+and
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+input
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+not
+an
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></code></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+defaults
+to
+the
+current
+document
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+if
+in
+a
+browser
+context,
+</ins>
+or
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+empty
+string
+if
+there
+is
+no
+document
+context.
+</ins></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-compactArrays"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+compactArrays
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+boolean
+</ins></a></span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+defaulting
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+true
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+set
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+true
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+replaces
+arrays
+with
+just
+one
+element
+with
+that
+element
+during
+compaction.
+If
+set
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+false
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+all
+arrays
+will
+remain
+arrays
+even
+</ins>
+if
+<ins class="diff-new">they
+have
+just
+one
+element.
+</ins></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-conformanceCallback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+conformanceCallback
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+function
+</ins></a></span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+defaulting
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+purpose
+of
+this
+option
+is
+to
+instruct
+the
+processor
+about
+whether
+or
+not
+</ins>
+it
+<ins class="diff-new">should
+continue
+processing.
+If
+the
+value
+</ins>
+is
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-new">null
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+the
+processor
+should
+ignore
+any
+key-value
+pair
+associated
+with
+any
+recoverable
+conformance
+issue
+and
+continue
+processing.
+More
+details
+about
+this
+feature
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-ConformanceCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+ConformanceCallback
+</ins></code></a><ins class="diff-new">
+section.
+</ins></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-flatten"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+flatten
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+boolean
+</ins></a></span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+defaulting
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+false
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+set
+to
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">value
+that
+is
+not
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">object
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">false
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+must
+modify
+the
+output
+of
+the
+</ins><a href="#compaction-algorithm"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+the
+</ins><a href="#expansion-algorithm"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+by
+coalescing
+all
+properties
+associated
+with
+each
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+via
+the
+</ins><a href="#flattening-algorithm"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Flattening
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+value
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+flatten
+</ins>
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+<ins class="diff-new">must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+either
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+representing
+the
+name
+of
+the
+graph
+to
+flatten,
+</ins>
+or
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">object[]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">true
+</ins>
+</code>.
+<ins class="diff-new">If
+the
+value
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+true
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+then
+the
+first
+graph
+encountered
+in
+the
+input
+document
+is
+selected
+and
+flattened.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<del class="diff-old">boolean
+</del>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-optimize">
+<code>
+optimize
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+boolean
+</ins></a></span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+defaulting
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+false
+</ins></code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+set
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+is
+allowed
+to
+optimize
+the
+output
+of
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+to
+produce
+even
+compacter
+representations.
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compaction
+optimization
+is
+beyond
+the
+scope
+of
+this
+specification
+and
+thus
+not
+defined.
+Consequently,
+different
+implementations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+implement
+different
+optimization
+algorithms.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-useNativeTypes">
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">useNativeTypes
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a>
+boolean
+<del class="diff-old">noType
+</del>
+</a>
+</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">defaulting
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+true
+</ins></code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+set
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+<del class="diff-old">not
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">try
+to
+convert
+datatyped
+literals
+to
+JSON
+native
+types
+instead
+of
+using
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">expanded
+object
+form
+when
+</ins><a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+converting
+from
+RDF
+</ins></a>.
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">xsd:boolean
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+values
+will
+be
+converted
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true"><ins class="diff-chg">
+true
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="false" href="#dfn-false"><ins class="diff-chg">
+false
+</ins></a>.<code><ins class="diff-chg">
+xsd:integer
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">property
+when
+generating
+the
+output,
+</del>
+and
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-new">xsd:double
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+values
+will
+be
+converted
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+numbers
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdOptions-useRdfType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+useRdfType
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+type
+</ins><span class="idlMemberType"><a><ins class="diff-new">
+boolean
+</ins></a></span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+defaulting
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+false
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+set
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+true
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+</ins>
+will
+use
+the
+expanded
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+as
+the
+property
+instead
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">when
+</ins><a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm"><ins class="diff-chg">
+converting
+from
+RDF
+</ins></a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<p>
+The
+following
+data
+structures
+are
+used
+for
+representing
+data
+about
+RDF
+quads.
+They
+are
+used
+for
+normalization,
+<del class="diff-old">fromRDF
+,
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">from
+toRDF
+interfaces.
+</del>
+<a href="#rdf-conversion">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF
+conversion
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<section id="quad">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.3
+</span>
+Quad
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+interface
+represents
+an
+RDF
+Quad.
+See
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+definition
+for
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+</cite>,
+which
+most
+closely
+aligns
+to
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Quad">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Quad</span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-subject">subject</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-property">property</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-object">object</a></span>;</span>
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-graph">graph</a></span>;</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.3.1
+</del>
+<h5 id="attributes">
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Quad-graph">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">graphName
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">graph
+</ins>
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+present,
+the
+name
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+identifying
+it
+as
+a
+member
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="named_graph" href="#dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</a>.
+If
+it
+is
+missing,
+the
+quad
+is
+a
+member
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</a>.
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/125">
+<span>
+Issue
+<del class="diff-old">4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">125
+</ins>
+</span>
+</a>
+</div>
+<div class="">
+This
+element
+is
+at
+risk,
+and
+may
+be
+removed.
+</div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-object">
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-property">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">predicate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+</ins>
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">predicate
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+</ins></a>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+Within
+JSON-LD,
+an
+<dfn title="rdf_predicate" id="dfn-rdf_predicate">
+RDF
+predicate
+</dfn>
+is
+refered
+to
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-subject">
+<code>
+subject
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="node">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.4
+</span>
+Node
+</h4>
+<p>
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Node" href="#idl-def-Node">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+the
+base
+class
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</code>
+</a>,
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="BlankNode" href="#idl-def-BlankNode">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Literal" href="#idl-def-Literal">
+<code>
+Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+It
+is
+the
+IDL
+representation
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Node">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Node</span> {
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+</section>
+<section id="iri-1">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</h4>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+that
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-IRI-1">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">IRI</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-IRI-value">value</a></span>;</span>
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.5.1
+</del>
+<h5 id="attributes-1">
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-IRI-value">
+<code>
+value
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+identifier
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+as
+a
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+string.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="blank-node">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.6
+</span>
+Blank
+Node
+</h4>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+that
+does
+not
+contain
+a
+de-reference-able
+identifier
+because
+it
+is
+either
+ephemeral
+in
+nature
+or
+does
+not
+contain
+information
+that
+needs
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+outside
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+A
+blank
+node
+is
+assigned
+an
+identifier
+starting
+with
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+_:
+</code>
+and
+an
+implementation
+dependent,
+auto-generated
+suffix
+that
+is
+unique
+to
+all
+information
+associated
+with
+the
+particular
+blank
+node.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-BlankNode">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">BlankNode</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-BlankNode-identifier">identifier</a></span>;</span>
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.6.1
+</del>
+<h5 id="attributes-2">
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-BlankNode-identifier">
+<code>
+identifier
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+temporary
+identifier
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+identifier
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+relied
+upon
+in
+any
+way
+between
+two
+separate
+processing
+runs
+of
+the
+same
+document
+or
+with
+a
+different
+document.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Developers
+and
+authors
+must
+not
+assume
+that
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+will
+remain
+the
+same
+between
+two
+processing
+runs.
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+values
+are
+only
+valid
+for
+the
+most
+recent
+processing
+run
+on
+the
+document.
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+values
+will
+often
+be
+generated
+differently
+by
+different
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Implementers
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+ensure
+that
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+values
+are
+unique
+within
+the
+current
+environment,
+two
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="BlankNode" href="#idl-def-BlankNode">
+<code>
+BlankNodes
+</code>
+</a>
+are
+considered
+equal
+if,
+and
+only
+if,
+their
+values
+are
+strictly
+equal.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="literal">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.7
+</span>
+Literal
+</h4>
+<p>
+Literals
+represent
+values
+such
+as
+numbers,
+dates
+and
+strings
+in
+RDF
+data.
+A
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Literal" href="#idl-def-Literal">
+<code>
+Literal
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+comprised
+of
+three
+attributes:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+<code>
+value
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+an
+optional
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+tag
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+specified
+by
+an
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</code>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Literals
+representing
+plain
+text
+in
+a
+natural
+language
+may
+have
+a
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+tag
+specified
+by
+a
+string
+token,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+normalized
+to
+lowercase
+(e.g.,
+<code>
+'en'
+</code>,
+<code>
+'fr'
+</code>,
+<code>
+'en-gb'
+</code>
+).
+They
+also
+have
+a
+datatype
+attribute
+such
+as
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>.
+If
+unspecified,
+the
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+defaults
+to
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Literals
+representing
+values
+with
+a
+specific
+datatype,
+such
+as
+the
+integer
+72,
+may
+have
+a
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+attribute
+specified
+in
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+IRI
+</code>
+</a>
+(e.g.,
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+).
+</p>
+<p>
+See[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+definition
+for
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</cite>.
+</p>
+      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Literal">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Literal</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-value">value</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-language">language</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType"><code>IRI</code></a>?</span>       <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-datatype">datatype</a></span>;</span>
+<del class="diff-old">};
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+<section>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4.7.1
+</del>
+<h5 id="attributes-3">
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Literal-datatype">
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+IRI
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+optional
+datatype
+identified
+by
+a
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Literal-language">
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+optional
+language
+tag
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+normalized
+to
+lowercase.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Literal-value">
+<code>
+value
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+Literal's
+value.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="algorithms">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</h2>
+<p>
+All
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section
+are
+intended
+to
+operate
+on
+language-native
+data
+structures.
+That
+is,
+the
+serialization
+to
+a
+text-based
+JSON
+document
+isn't
+required
+as
+input
+or
+output
+to
+any
+of
+these
+algorithms
+and
+language-native
+data
+structures
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+used
+where
+applicable.
+</p>
+<section id="algorithm-terms">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">initial
+context
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+The
+contents
+of
+the
+initial
+context
+is
+defined
+in
+Appendix
+A
+.
+</del>
+<dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+The
+active
+property
+is
+represented
+in
+the
+original
+lexical
+form,
+which
+is
+used
+for
+finding
+coercion
+mappings
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+the
+context
+contained
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+has
+the
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+and
+is
+used
+as
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+without
+needing
+to
+define
+separate
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+definitions
+for
+each
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+contained
+within
+a
+common
+vocabulary
+identified
+by
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+specified
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>,
+which
+includes
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+is
+managed
+as
+a
+stack
+with
+elements
+from
+the
+previous
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+copied
+into
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+provided
+as
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+produced
+as
+output
+by
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+term
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+defined
+in
+a
+context
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+expands
+to
+a
+vocabulary
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+It
+is
+typically
+used
+along
+with
+a
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+to
+form
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+create
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+within
+a
+vocabulary.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="language-tagged_string" id="dfn-language-tagged_string">
+language-tagged
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language-tagged_string" href="#dfn-language-tagged_string">
+language-tagged
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+without
+a
+datatype,
+including
+a
+language.
+See
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tagged-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">languaged-tagged
+string
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+with
+an
+associated
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+literal's
+datatype.
+See
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">language-tagged
+string
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="context-processing">
+<h3 id="context">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Context
+Processing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Processing
+of
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+is
+managed
+recursively.
+During
+processing,
+each
+rule
+is
+applied
+using
+information
+provided
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Processing
+begins
+by
+pushing
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">stack
+and
+initializing
+the
+active
+context
+with
+the
+initial
+context
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">stack.
+</ins>
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+encountered,
+information
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+merged
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+used
+for
+expanding
+properties
+and
+values
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+(or
+elements
+of
+an
+array)
+using
+a
+<dfn title="term_mapping" id="dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</dfn>.
+It
+is
+also
+used
+to
+maintain
+<dfn title="coercion_mapping" id="dfn-coercion_mapping">
+coercion
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+from
+terms
+to
+datatypes,
+<dfn title="language_mapping" id="dfn-language_mapping">
+language
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+from
+terms
+to
+language
+codes,
+and
+<dfn title="list_mapping" id="dfn-list_mapping">
+list
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+and
+<dfn title="set_mapping" id="dfn-set_mapping">
+set
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+for
+terms.
+Processors
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+use
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+property
+when
+creating
+a
+mapping,
+as
+lookup
+is
+performed
+on
+lexical
+forms,
+not
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+representations.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+identified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+having
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+value.
+When
+processing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+special
+processing
+rules
+apply:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+a
+new,
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Let
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+be
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="process-context">
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+equals
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">reset
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">clear
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+<del class="diff-old">to
+the
+initial
+context
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+element
+as
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+in
+order
+by
+starting
+at
+<a href="#process-context">
+Step
+2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+<del class="diff-old">absolute
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">Expand
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+Expansion
+</ins></a>.</li><li>
+Dereference
+<em>
+context
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+resulting
+document
+is
+a
+JSON
+document,
+extract
+the
+top-level
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+element
+using
+the
+JSON
+Pointer
+&quot;/@context&quot;
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER">
+JSON-POINTER
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Set
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+to
+the
+extracted
+content
+and
+process
+it
+by
+starting
+at
+<a href="#process-context">
+Step
+2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">with
+the
+lexical
+form
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47"><ins class="diff-new">
+BCP47
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+],
+</ins>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+Add
+the
+language
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">If
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+has
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+key,
+it
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+Add
+the
+vocabulary
+mapping
+to
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+local
+context
+</ins></a>.</li>
+<li id="object-context">
+Otherwise,
+for
+each
+property
+in
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+property's
+value
+is
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+value
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+property
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>,
+unless
+the
+property
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>,
+in
+which
+case
+<del class="diff-old">throw
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">return
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">exception.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">error.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+property's
+value
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+remove
+mapping,
+coercion,
+container
+and
+language
+information
+associated
+with
+property
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+'s
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+properties,
+<del class="diff-old">throw
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">return
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">exception.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">error.
+</ins>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+<del class="diff-old">5
+</del>
+</span>
+</div>
+<div class="">
+Undecided
+if
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+can
+take
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</div>
+</div>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+has
+the
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+its
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+string
+value
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+has
+the
+form
+of
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+have
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+string
+value
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+absolute
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+its
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+merge
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion_mapping" href="#dfn-coercion_mapping">
+coercion
+mapping
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+its
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_mapping" href="#dfn-list_mapping">
+list
+mapping
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="set_mapping" href="#dfn-set_mapping">
+set
+mapping
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+but
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language_mapping" href="#dfn-language_mapping">
+language
+mapping
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Repeat
+<a href="#object-context">
+Step
+2.4.2
+</a>
+until
+no
+entries
+are
+added
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+It
+can
+be
+difficult
+to
+distinguish
+between
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+and
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+may
+seem
+to
+be
+a
+valid
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>.
+When
+performing
+repeated
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion,
+a
+term
+used
+as
+a
+prefix
+may
+not
+have
+a
+valid
+mapping
+due
+to
+dependencies
+in
+resolving
+term
+definitions.
+By
+continuing
+<a href="#object-context">
+Step
+2.3.2
+</a>
+until
+no
+changes
+are
+made,
+mappings
+to
+IRIs
+created
+using
+an
+undefined
+term
+prefix
+will
+eventually
+<del class="diff-old">resolve
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expand
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">an
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">Issue
+6
+Issue
+43
+concerns
+performing
+IRI
+expansion
+in
+the
+key
+position
+of
+a
+context
+definition.
+</del>
+</section>
+<section id="iri-expansion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Keys
+and
+some
+values
+are
+evaluated
+to
+produce
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+a
+value
+representing
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+into
+an
+actual
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+<del class="diff-old">or
+</del>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">or
+as
+a
+value
+relative
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+fragment
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+;
+in
+the
+case
+of
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+the
+base
+location
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+for
+the
+value
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison,
+use
+the
+mapped
+value
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+split
+the
+value
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+from
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+':'.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+a
+'_'
+(underscore),
+the
+value
+represents
+a
+named
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison,
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+does
+not
+does
+not
+begin
+with
+'//'
+(i.e.,
+it
+does
+not
+match
+a
+<em>
+hier-part
+</em>
+including
+<em>
+authority
+</em>
+(as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+generate
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+prefix
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+Note
+that
+an
+empty
+suffix
+and
+no
+suffix
+(meaning
+the
+value
+contains
+no
+':'
+string
+at
+all)
+are
+treated
+equivalently.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+<del class="diff-old">use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">if
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+directly
+as
+an
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">.
+Note
+Previous
+versions
+</del>
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-chg">being
+processed
+does
+not
+contain
+a
+colon
+and
+is
+a
+property,
+i.e.,
+a
+key
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+the
+value
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">this
+specification
+used
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">define
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">prefixes
+used
+to
+resolve
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">being
+processed
+does
+not
+contain
+a
+colon
+and
+is
+not
+a
+property,
+i.e.,
+not
+a
+key
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+treat
+it
+as
+a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+.
+It
+was
+determined
+that
+this
+added
+too
+much
+complexity,
+but
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+resolve
+it
+against
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">issue
+can
+be
+re-examined
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+as
+per
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3986
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+using
+only
+the
+basic
+algorithm
+in
+section
+5.2.
+Neither
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+Syntax-Based
+Normalization
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+nor
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+Scheme-Based
+Normalization
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+(described
+in
+sections
+6.2.2
+and
+6.2.3
+of
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3986
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+])
+are
+performed.
+Characters
+additionally
+allowed
+in
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+references
+are
+treated
+</ins>
+in
+the
+<del class="diff-old">future
+based
+on
+community
+input.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">same
+way
+that
+unreserved
+characters
+are
+treated
+in
+URI
+references,
+per
+section
+6.5
+of
+[
+</ins><cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Otherwise,
+use
+the
+value
+directly
+as
+an
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>.</li></ol><p></p></section><section id="iri-compaction">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+keys
+and
+values
+are
+expressed
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+)
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+specified
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+using
+an
+optional
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+</p>
+<section id="iri-compaction-algorithm">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.1
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+an
+empty
+list
+of
+terms
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+that
+will
+be
+populated
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+ranked
+according
+to
+how
+closely
+they
+match
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+Initialize
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+0
+</code>,
+and
+set
+a
+flag
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+false
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+each
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+not
+a
+complete
+match
+against
+<em>
+iri
+</em>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+is
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+does
+not
+have
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></a>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Set
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+of
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+by
+passing
+passing
+<em>
+term
+</em>,
+<em>
+value
+</em>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a href="#term-rank-algorithm">
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+<code>
+0
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+then
+add
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+is
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+then
+set
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+clear
+<em>
+terms
+</em>,
+set
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>,
+and
+add
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+or
+equal
+to
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>,
+clear
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+and
+set
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Add
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+is
+empty,
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+has
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+which
+is
+a
+prefix
+of
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+iri
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+where
+the
+resulting
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+not
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+resulting
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+the
+unmatched
+part
+of
<