Update diffs and exported ED versions of syntax and API specs.
authorGregg Kellogg <gregg@kellogg-assoc.com>
Sun, 23 Oct 2011 17:51:53 -0700
changeset 241 491cd3e4772f
parent 240 5c35c065d935
child 242 b68d1dc7dbef
Update diffs and exported ED versions of syntax and API specs.
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20111023/diff-20111016.html
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20111023/index.html
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20111023/spec.css
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20111023/diff-20111016.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20111023/index.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20111023/spec.css
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-api/20111023/diff-20111016.html	Sun Oct 23 17:51:53 2011 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,18933 @@
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+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body style="display: inherit; ">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+An
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</h2>
+<h2 id="unofficial-draft-24-october-2011">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">16
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">24
+</ins>
+October
+2011
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+</ins><a href="diff-20111016.html"><ins class="diff-new">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</ins></a>.</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr>
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+harmonizes
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON
+by
+outlining
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+This
+document
+outlines
+an
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+and
+a
+set
+of
+algorithms
+for
+programmatically
+transforming
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Linked
+Data
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#contributing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+1.3
+</ins></span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-application-programming-interface" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldprocessor" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldtriplecallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+JsonLdTripleCallback
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Context
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.1
+Coerce
+3.3.2
+Initial
+Context
+3.4
+IRI
+Expansion
+3.5
+IRI
+Compaction
+3.6
+Value
+Expansion
+</del>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-state" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+State
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Relabeling
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#deterministic-labeling-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Deterministic
+Labeling
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#shallow-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Shallow
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#object-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Object
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Deep
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#serialization-label-generation-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Serialization
+Label
+Generation
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#combinatorial-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Combinatorial
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#serialization-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.12
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.12
+</ins>
+</span>
+Serialization
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.13
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.13
+</ins>
+</span>
+Mapping
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#label-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.14
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.14
+</ins>
+</span>
+Label
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.12
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.13
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.13.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Overview
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.13.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.13.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.13.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+Linked
+Data
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+graph
+of
+interlinked
+data
+across
+different
+documents
+or
+Web
+sites.
+Data
+entities
+are
+described
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+s,
+which
+are
+typically
+dereferencable
+and
+thus
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information
+about
+an
+entity,
+creating
+a
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Web
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Web
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">Knowledge&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Knowledge".
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+not
+only
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+but
+also
+for
+adding
+semantics
+to
+existing
+JSON.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+light-weight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+interoperable
+Web
+services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today.
+It
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+key-value
+pairs,
+RDF
+data,
+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+data,
+Microformats
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">
+MICROFORMATS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+data,
+and
+Microdata
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">
+MICRODATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+That
+is,
+it
+supports
+every
+major
+Web-based
+structured
+data
+model
+in
+use
+today.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+does
+not
+necessarily
+require
+applications
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+allows
+to
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+adding
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+either
+in-band
+or
+out-of-band.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON
+with
+added
+semantics.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+easy
+to
+parse,
+efficient
+to
+generate,
+convertible
+to
+RDF
+in
+one
+pass,
+and
+require
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Authors
+that
+want
+a
+very
+detailed
+view
+of
+how
+JSON-LD
+processors
+operate.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+You
+must
+also
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+is
+the
+base
+syntax
+used
+by
+all
+of
+the
+algorithms
+in
+this
+document.
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262">
+ECMA-262
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL">
+WEBIDL
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+how
+JSON-LD
+maps
+to
+RDF,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+be
+familiar
+with
+the
+basic
+RDF
+concepts
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+Examples
+may
+contain
+references
+to
+existing
+vocabularies
+and
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+to
+refer
+to
+Web
+Vocabularies.
+The
+following
+is
+a
+list
+of
+all
+vocabularies
+and
+their
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+abbreviations,
+as
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
+Dublin
+Core
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+dc
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+dc:title
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">
+Friend
+of
+a
+Friend
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+foaf:knows
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
+RDF
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+rdf
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">
+XSD
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+defines
+several
+terms
+which
+are
+used
+throughout
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+Object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name/value
+pairs
+(or
+members).
+A
+name
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+is
+an
+ordered
+collection
+of
+values.
+An
+array
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+(or
+elements).
+Elements
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+Within
+JSON-LD,
+array
+order
+is
+not
+preserved
+by
+default,
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+<a href="#lists">
+Lists
+</a>
+).
+This
+is
+because
+the
+basic
+data
+model
+of
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">directed
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+<ins class="diff-chg">linked
+data
+</ins>
+graph
+</a>,
+which
+is
+inherently
+unordered.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes.
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Boolean
+values.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+use
+of
+the
+<em>
+null
+</em>
+value
+is
+undefined
+within
+JSON-LD.
+<div class="issue">
+Supporting
+<em>
+null
+</em>
+in
+JSON-LD
+might
+have
+a
+number
+of
+advantages
+and
+should
+be
+evaluated.
+This
+is
+currently
+an
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/11">
+open
+issue
+</a>.
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="linked-data" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Linked
+Data
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+following
+definition
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+the
+one
+that
+will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+</ins></p><ol><li><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+an
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+any
+node
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(an
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]).
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><dfn title="object" id="dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+object
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+at
+the
+same
+time.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="property" id="dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
+property
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+an
+edge
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
+property
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+that
+is
+a
+label
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+dereferencable
+to
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+document
+describing
+the
+labeled
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
+property
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+literal
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a></li></ol><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Note
+that
+the
+definition
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+above
+is
+silent
+on
+the
+topic
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes.
+Unlabeled
+nodes
+are
+not
+considered
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+However,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+of
+unlabled
+nodes,
+as
+most
+graph-based
+data
+sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+associated
+nodes
+that
+are
+not
+named
+and
+thus
+are
+not
+directly
+de-referenceable.
+</ins></p></div><div id="contributing" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+1.3
+</ins></span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Technical
+discussion
+typically
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+on
+the
+second
+and
+fourth
+week
+of
+each
+month.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="the-application-programming-interface" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+API
+provides
+a
+clean
+mechanism
+that
+enables
+developers
+to
+convert
+JSON-LD
+data
+into
+a
+a
+variety
+of
+output
+formats
+that
+are
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+various
+programming
+languages.
+If
+a
+JSON-LD
+API
+is
+provided
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+the
+entirety
+of
+the
+following
+API
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+implemented.
+</p>
+<div id="jsonldprocessor" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+interface  {
+};
+</del>
+<pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdProcessor">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+<ins class="diff-chg">interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdProcessor</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-object-object-input-object-context">expand</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-object-object-input-object-context">compact</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>, <span class="idlRaises"><a>ProcessingError</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-frame-object-object-input-object-frame-object-options">frame</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">frame</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidFrame</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-normalize-object-object-input-object-context">normalize</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-triples-object-object-input-JsonLdTripleCallback-tripleCallback-object-context">triples</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdTripleCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdTripleCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">tripleCallback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>);</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+};</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h4>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-object-object-input-object-context">
+<code>
+compact
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#compaction">
+Compacts
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+compacted
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+an
+appropirate
+exception
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+perform
+compaction
+on.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+base
+context
+to
+use
+when
+compacting
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<table class="exceptions">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Exception
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excName">
+<a>
+InvalidContext
+</a>
+</td>
+<td class="excDesc">
+<table class="exceptionCodes">
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+a
+string
+or
+an
+array
+of
+strings,
+this
+exception
+would
+be
+raised.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+MULTIPLE_DATATYPES
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+There
+is
+more
+than
+one
+target
+datatype
+specified
+for
+a
+single
+property
+in
+the
+list
+of
+coercion
+rules.
+This
+means
+that
+the
+processor
+does
+not
+know
+what
+the
+developer
+intended
+for
+the
+target
+datatype
+for
+a
+property.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excName">
+<a>
+ProcessingError
+</a>
+</td>
+<td class="excDesc">
+<table class="exceptionCodes">
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+LOSSY_COMPACTION
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+The
+compaction
+would
+lead
+to
+a
+loss
+of
+information,
+such
+as
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+CONFLICTING_DATATYPES
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+The
+target
+datatype
+specified
+in
+the
+coercion
+rule
+and
+the
+datatype
+for
+the
+typed
+literal
+do
+not
+match.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-object-object-input-object-context">
+<code>
+expand
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#expansion">
+Expands
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+expanded
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+expansion
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+exception
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+copy
+and
+perform
+the
+expansion
+upon.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+An
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+when
+expanding
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<table class="exceptions">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Exception
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excName">
+<a>
+InvalidContext
+</a>
+</td>
+<td class="excDesc">
+<table class="exceptionCodes">
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+a
+string
+or
+an
+array
+of
+strings,
+this
+exception
+would
+be
+raised.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+MULTIPLE_DATATYPES
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+There
+is
+more
+than
+one
+target
+datatype
+specified
+for
+a
+single
+property
+in
+the
+list
+of
+coercion
+rules.
+This
+means
+that
+the
+processor
+does
+not
+know
+what
+the
+developer
+intended
+for
+the
+target
+datatype
+for
+a
+property.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-frame-object-object-input-object-frame-object-options">
+<code>
+frame
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#framing">
+Frames
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+using
+the
+<code>
+frame
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#framing-algorithm">
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+is
+used
+to
+build
+the
+framed
+output
+and
+is
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+there
+are
+no
+matches
+for
+the
+frame,
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+returned.
+Exceptions
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown
+if
+there
+are
+errors.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+perform
+framing
+on.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+frame
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+frame
+to
+use
+when
+re-arranging
+the
+data.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+will
+affect
+the
+framing
+algorithm.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<table class="exceptions">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Exception
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excName">
+<a>
+InvalidFrame
+</a>
+</td>
+<td class="excDesc">
+<table class="exceptionCodes">
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+A
+frame
+must
+be
+either
+an
+object
+or
+an
+array
+of
+objects,
+if
+the
+frame
+is
+neither
+of
+these
+types,
+this
+exception
+is
+thrown.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+MULTIPLE_EMBEDS
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+A
+subject
+IRI
+was
+specified
+in
+more
+than
+one
+place
+in
+the
+input
+frame.
+More
+than
+one
+embed
+of
+a
+given
+subject
+IRI
+is
+not
+allowed,
+and
+if
+requested,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+result
+in
+this
+exception.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-normalize-object-object-input-object-context">
+<code>
+normalize
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#normalization">
+Normalizes
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm">
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+normalized
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+returned.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+perform
+normalization
+upon.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+An
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+when
+expanding
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<table class="exceptions">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Exception
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excName">
+<a>
+InvalidContext
+</a>
+</td>
+<td class="excDesc">
+<table class="exceptionCodes">
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+a
+string
+or
+an
+array
+of
+strings,
+this
+exception
+would
+be
+raised.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+MULTIPLE_DATATYPES
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+There
+is
+more
+than
+one
+target
+datatype
+specified
+for
+a
+single
+property
+in
+the
+list
+of
+coercion
+rules.
+This
+means
+that
+the
+processor
+does
+not
+know
+what
+the
+developer
+intended
+for
+the
+target
+datatype
+for
+a
+property.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-triples-object-object-input-JsonLdTripleCallback-tripleCallback-object-context">
+<code>
+triples
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Processes
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm">
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+</a>,
+calling
+the
+provided
+<code>
+tripleCallback
+</code>
+for
+each
+triple
+generated.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+process
+when
+outputting
+triples.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+tripleCallback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdTripleCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdTripleCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+<div class="issue">
+This
+callback
+should
+be
+aligned
+with
+the
+RDF
+API.
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+An
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+when
+expanding
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<table class="exceptions">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Exception
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excName">
+<a>
+InvalidContext
+</a>
+</td>
+<td class="excDesc">
+<table class="exceptionCodes">
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+INVALID_SYNTAX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+A
+general
+syntax
+error
+was
+detected
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+maps
+to
+anything
+other
+than
+a
+string
+or
+an
+array
+of
+strings,
+this
+exception
+would
+be
+raised.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="excCodeName">
+<code>
+MULTIPLE_DATATYPES
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="excCodeDesc">
+There
+is
+more
+than
+one
+target
+datatype
+specified
+for
+a
+single
+property
+in
+the
+list
+of
+coercion
+rules.
+This
+means
+that
+the
+processor
+does
+not
+know
+what
+the
+developer
+intended
+for
+the
+target
+datatype
+for
+a
+property.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="jsonldtriplecallback" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+JsonLdTripleCallback
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+JsonLdTripleCallback
+is
+called
+whenever
+the
+processor
+generates
+a
+triple
+during
+the
+<code>
+triple()
+</code>
+call.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+interface  {
+};
+</del>
+<pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdTripleCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+<ins class="diff-chg">interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdTripleCallback</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdTripleCallback-triple-void-DOMString-subject-DOMString-property-DOMString-objectType-DOMString-object-DOMString-datatype-DOMString-language">triple</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">subject</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">property</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">objectType</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">object</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">datatype</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">language</span></span>);</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+};</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods-1" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h4>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdTripleCallback-triple-void-DOMString-subject-DOMString-property-DOMString-objectType-DOMString-object-DOMString-datatype-DOMString-language">
+<code>
+triple
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+whenever
+a
+triple
+is
+generated
+by
+the
+processor.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+subject
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+subject
+IRI
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+triple.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+property
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+property
+IRI
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+triple.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+objectType
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+type
+of
+object
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+triple.
+Valid
+values
+are
+<code>
+IRI
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+literal
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+object
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+object
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+subject
+and
+the
+property.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+datatype
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+datatype
+associated
+with
+the
+object.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+language
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+<del class="diff-old">✔
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10004;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+<del class="diff-old">✘
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&#10008;
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+language
+associated
+with
+the
+object
+in
+BCP47
+format.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+No
+exceptions.
+</em>
+</div>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithms" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</h2>
+<p>
+All
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section
+are
+intended
+to
+operate
+on
+language-native
+data
+structures.
+That
+is,
+the
+serialization
+to
+a
+text-based
+JSON
+document
+isn't
+required
+as
+input
+or
+output
+to
+any
+of
+these
+algorithms
+and
+language-native
+data
+structures
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+used
+where
+applicable.
+</p>
+<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+keywords
+that
+are
+using
+in
+all
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+object
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+property
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+type
+coercion
+rules.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+a
+literal
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+an
+IRI
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+language
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+datatype
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+mechanism.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Sets
+the
+active
+subject.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+type
+of
+the
+active
+subject.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="initial_context" id="dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+es
+and
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+the
+context
+contained
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+specified
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>,
+which
+includes
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">current
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+<ins class="diff-chg">active
+</ins>
+subject
+</a>,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">current
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+<ins class="diff-chg">active
+</ins>
+property
+</a>.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+is
+managed
+as
+a
+stack
+with
+elements
+from
+the
+previous
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+copied
+into
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+provided
+as
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+produced
+as
+output
+by
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-new">term
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+short
+word
+defined
+with
+a
+</ins><a href="#context"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+that
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a></dd><dt><dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+that
+expands
+to
+a
+Web
+Vocabulary
+base
+IRI.
+It
+is
+typically
+used
+along
+with
+a
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+suffix
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+to
+create
+an
+IRI
+within
+a
+Web
+Vocabulary.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+plain
+literal
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+plain
+literal
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+literal
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+without
+a
+datatype,
+possibly
+including
+a
+language.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+typed
+literal
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+typed
+literal
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+literal
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+with
+an
+associated
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+which
+indicates
+the
+literal's
+datatype.
+</ins></dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="context-1" class="section">
+<h3 id="context">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+Processing
+of
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+is
+managed
+recursively.
+During
+processing,
+each
+rule
+is
+applied
+using
+information
+provided
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Processing
+begins
+by
+pushing
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+stack
+and
+initializing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+encountered,
+information
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+merged
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+used
+for
+expanding
+keys
+and
+values
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+(or
+elements
+of
+a
+list
+(see
+<span a="#list-processing">
+List
+Processing
+</span>
+)).
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+identified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+having
+a
+key
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-new">array
+</ins>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+value.
+When
+processing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+special
+processing
+rules
+apply:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+a
+new,
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">If
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Let
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+</ins>
+the
+value
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code></li><ol id="process-context" class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-new">
+array
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+process
+each
+element
+as
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></em>,<ins class="diff-new">
+in
+order
+using
+</ins><a href="#process-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+Step
+2
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></em>
+is
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+and
+used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI.
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Set
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">initialize
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+result
+of
+performing
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+on
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+does
+is
+not
+an
+absolute
+IRI,
+abort
+this
+processing
+step.
+Otherwise,
+Dereference
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+resulting
+document
+is
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">new
+</del>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">document
+which
+replaces
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document,
+extract
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">top-level
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+element
+using
+the
+JSON
+Pointer
+"/@context"
+as
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-POINTER
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+].
+Set
+</ins><em>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">for
+subsequent
+processing.
+</del>
+</em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+the
+extracted
+content,
+or
+an
+empty
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+Object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+if
+no
+value
+exists.
+</ins></li></ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<del class="diff-old">the
+JSON
+object
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins></em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+absolute
+IRI.
+Add
+the
+base
+mapping
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+<p class="issue">
+Turtle
+allows
[email protected]
+to
+be
+relative.
+If
+we
+did
+this,
+we
+would
+have
+to
+add
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<del class="diff-old">the
+JSON
+object
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins></em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+absolute
+IRI.
+Add
+the
+vocabulary
+mapping
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+after
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<del class="diff-old">the
+JSON
+object
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins></em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+Add
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value(s).
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Otherwise,
+the
+key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+has
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key,
+it
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+<ins class="diff-new">a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-new">
+Add
+the
+language
+to
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+local
+context
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Otherwise,
+for
+each
+key
+in
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+having
+</ins>
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName">
+NCName
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+</del>
+</cite>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">it's
+value
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+<del class="diff-old">the
+value
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+</ins>
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+IRI.
+Merge
+the
+key-value
+pair
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+the
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+as
+described
+<a href="#coerce">
+below
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+all
+entries
+other
+than
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.1
+</del>
+<div class="section">
+<h4 id="coerce">
+Coerce
+</h4>
+<p>
+Map
+each
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+has
+either
+a
+single
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">prefix:term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefix:suffix
+</ins>
+</code>
+value,
+a
+single
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+value
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">prefix:term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefix:suffix
+</ins>
+</code>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+values.
+When
+merging
+with
+an
+existing
+mapping
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+map
+all
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+and
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+form
+and
+replace
+with
+the
+union
+of
+the
+value
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+If
+the
+result
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+with
+a
+single
+value,
+the
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+represent
+this
+as
+a
+string
+value.
+</p>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">3.3.2
+</del>
+<div class="section">
+<h4 id="initial-context">
+Initial
+Context
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>
+is
+initialized
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+using
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">
+section
+5.1
+Establishing
+a
+Base
+URI
+</a>
+<a>
+</a>
+</cite>
+<a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Processors
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+provide
+a
+means
+of
+setting
+the
+base
+IRI
+programatically.
+</a>
+</li>
+<a>
+<li>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+with
+a
+single
+mapping
+from
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</a>
+</ul>
+<del class="diff-old">    {
+    &quot;@base&quot;: ,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;: {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;@type&quot;
+    }
+</del>
+<a>
+    <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@base": <span class="diff">document-location</span>,
+    "@coerce": {
+      "@iri": "@type"
+    }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</a>
+</div>
+<a>
+</a>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">3.4
+</del>
+<a>
+<div class="section">
+<h3 id="iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Keys
+and
+some
+values
+are
+evaluated
+to
+produce
+an
+IRI.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+a
+value
+representing
+an
+IRI
+into
+an
+actual
+IRI.
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+absolute
+IRI,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+<del class="diff-old">:
+term
+</del>
+</a>:suffix
+construct,
+or
+as
+a
+value
+relative
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+an
+IRI
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Split
+the
+value
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+from
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+':'.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+a
+'_'
+(underscore),
+the
+IRI
+is
+unchanged.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">term
+</ins>
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+generate
+an
+IRI
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+prefix
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+Note
+that
+an
+empty
+suffix
+and
+no
+suffix
+(meaning
+the
+value
+contains
+no
+':'
+string
+at
+all)
+are
+treated
+equivalently.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+IRI
+being
+processed
+is
+for
+a
+property
+(i.e.,
+a
+key's
+value
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+or
+a
+value
+in
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping)
+and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+to
+the
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+IRI
+being
+processed
+is
+for
+a
+subject
+or
+object
+(i.e.,
+not
+a
+property)
+and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+to
+the
+suffix
+using
+the
+method
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+use
+the
+value
+directly
+as
+an
+IRI.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+</del>
+<div class="section">
+<h3 id="iri-compaction">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+keys
+and
+values
+are
+expressed
+using
+IRIs.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+an
+IRI
+to
+a
+compact
+IRI
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<del class="diff-old">and
+prefix
+es
+</del>
+specified
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+a
+compacted
+IRI
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Search
+every
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+for
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+is
+a
+complete
+match
+against
+the
+IRI.
+If
+a
+complete
+match
+is
+found,
+the
+resulting
+compacted
+IRI
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+IRI
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+a
+complete
+match
+is
+not
+found,
+search
+for
+a
+partial
+match
+from
+the
+beginning
+of
+the
+IRI.
+For
+all
+matches
+that
+are
+found,
+the
+resulting
+compacted
+IRI
+is
+the
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins>
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+partially
+matched
+IRI
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+concatenated
+with
+a
+colon
+(:)
+character
+and
+the
+unmatched
+part
+of
+the
+string.
+If
+there
+is
+more
+than
+one
+compacted
+IRI
+produced,
+the
+final
+value
+is
+the
+shortest
+and
+lexicographically
+least
+value
+of
+the
+entire
+set
+of
+compacted
+IRIs.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<div class="section">
+<a>
+<h2 id="value-expansion">
+Value
+Expansion
+</h2>
+<p>
+Some
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+compact
+form.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+expanded
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+expanding
+a
+value
+is:
+</p>
+</a>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<a>
+</a>
+<li>
+<a>
+If
+the
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+value
+has
+an
+associated
+coercion
+entry
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+the
+resulting
+expansion
+is
+an
+object
+populated
+according
+to
+the
+following
+steps:
+</a>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<a>
+</a>
+<li>
+<a>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+adding
+a
+new
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+expanded
+IRI
+according
+to
+the
+</a>
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+typed
+literal,
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+adding
+two
+new
+key-value
+pairs.
+The
+first
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+unexpanded
+value.
+The
+second
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+associated
+coercion
+datatype
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="value-compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values,
+such
+as
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals,
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+an
+expanded
+form
+in
+JSON-LD.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+compacted
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compacting
+a
+value
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+coercion
+target
+for
+the
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+value,
+compact
+the
+value
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+typed
+literal,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+value
+is
+not
+modified.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">As
+stated
+previously,
+expansion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">input
+and
+expanding
+all
+IRIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">typed
+literals
+to
+their
+fully-expanded
+form.
+The
+output
+will
+not
+contain
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">applying
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">single
+</del>
+context
+<del class="diff-old">declaration
+and
+will
+have
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">such
+that
+</ins>
+all
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI,
+datatypes,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">typed
+literals
+fully
+expanded.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal
+values
+are
+expanded
+so
+that
+the
+context
+is
+no
+longer
+necessary.
+JSON-LD
+document
+expansion
+is
+typically
+used
+as
+a
+part
+of
+</ins><a href="#normalization"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Framing
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a href="#normalization"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "@context":
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@coerce":
+      {
+         "@iri": "homepage"
+      }
+   },
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Expansion
+algorithm
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage":
+   {
+      "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre>
+<div id="expansion-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</ins></p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+is
+an
+object,
+update
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+the
+<a href="#context">
+context
+</a>
+section.
+Process
+each
+key,
+expanding
+the
+key
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Process
+each
+value
+associated
+with
+each
+key:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+object,
+process
+the
+object
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+check
+to
+see
+the
+associated
+key
+has
+an
+associated
+coercion
+rule.
+If
+the
+value
+should
+be
+coerced,
+expand
+the
+value
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#value-expansion">
+Value
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+If
+the
+value
+does
+not
+need
+to
+be
+coerced,
+leave
+the
+value
+as-is.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Remove
+the
+context
+from
+the
+object.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">What
+are
+the
+implications
+for
+expanding
+lists?
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div id="compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">As
+stated
+previously,
+compaction
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compaction
+</ins>
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">input
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">compacting
+all
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+the
+most
+compact
+form
+of
+the
+document
+is
+generated.
+JSON
+is
+typically
+expressed
+in
+a
+very
+compact,
+key-value
+format.
+That
+is,
+full
+</ins>
+IRIs
+<del class="diff-old">using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+rarely
+used
+as
+keys.
+At
+times,
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+may
+be
+received
+that
+is
+not
+in
+its
+most
+compact
+form.
+JSON-LD,
+via
+the
+API,
+provides
+a
+way
+to
+compact
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage":
+   {
+      "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Additionally,
+assume
+the
+following
+developer-supplied
+JSON-LD
+context:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+   "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+   "@coerce":
+   {
+      "@iri": "homepage"
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Compaction
+algorithm
+</ins>
+given
+<del class="diff-old">context.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+context
+supplied
+above
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+   "@context":
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@coerce":
+      {
+         "@iri": "homepage"
+      }
+   },
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">output
+will
+contain
+a
+single
+top-level
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">compaction
+algorithm
+also
+enables
+the
+developer
+to
+map
+any
+expanded
+format
+into
+an
+application-specific
+compacted
+format.
+While
+the
+</ins>
+context
+<del class="diff-old">declaration
+and
+will
+only
+use
+term
+s
+and
+prefix
+es
+and
+will
+ensure
+that
+all
+typed
+literals
+are
+fully
+compacted.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">provided
+above
+mapped
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+name
+</ins></strong>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+it
+could
+have
+also
+mapped
+it
+to
+any
+arbitrary
+string
+provided
+by
+the
+developer.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<div id="compaction-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</ins></p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Perform
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+on
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>.
+This
+removes
+any
+existing
+context
+to
+allow
+the
+given
+context
+to
+be
+cleanly
+applied.
+</li>
+<li>
+Set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+given
+context.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+recursively,
+starting
+at
+this
+step.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+is
+an
+object,
+compress
+each
+key
+using
+the
+steps
+defined
+in
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</a>
+and
+compress
+each
+value
+using
+the
+steps
+defined
+in
+<a href="#value-compaction">
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">What
+are
+the
+implications
+for
+compacting
+lists?
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div id="framing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+algorithm
+is
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+Framing
+allows
+developers
+to
+query
+by
+example
+and
+force
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specific
+tree
+layout
+to
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+directed
+graph.
+A
+single
+directed
+graph
+can
+have
+many
+different
+serializations,
+each
+expressing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information.
+Developers
+typically
+<del class="diff-old">don't
+</del>
+work
+<del class="diff-old">directly
+with
+graphs,
+but
+rather,
+prefer
+trees
+when
+dealing
+</del>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">JSON.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">trees,
+represented
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+While
+mapping
+a
+graph
+to
+a
+tree
+can
+be
+done,
+the
+layout
+of
+the
+end
+result
+must
+be
+specified
+in
+advance.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><dfn title="frame" id="dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Frame
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+be
+used
+by
+a
+developer
+on
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+specify
+a
+deterministic
+layout
+</ins>
+for
+<del class="diff-old">mapping
+</del>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Framing
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+which
+expresses
+a
+graph
+of
+information,
+and
+applying
+a
+specific
+</ins>
+graph
+<ins class="diff-new">layout
+(called
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-new">
+Frame
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+).
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+document
+below
+expresses
+a
+library,
+a
+book
+and
+a
+chapter:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title",
+    "@coerce":
+    {
+      "@iri": "contains"
+    },
+  },
+  "@subject":
+  [{
+    "@subject": "http://example.com/library",
+    "@type": "Library",
+    "contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic"
+  },
+  {
+    "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+    "@type": "Book",
+    "creator": "Plato",
+    "title": "The Republic",
+    "contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction"
+  },
+  {
+    "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+    "@type": "Chapter",
+    "description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+    "title": "The Introduction"
+  }]
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Developers
+typically
+like
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">operate
+on
+items
+in
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">tree
+given
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">hierarchical,
+tree-based
+fashion.
+Ideally,
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+would
+want
+the
+data
+above
+sorted
+into
+top-level
+libraries,
+then
+the
+books
+that
+are
+contained
+in
+each
+library,
+and
+then
+the
+chapters
+contained
+in
+each
+book.
+To
+achieve
+that
+layout,
+the
+developer
+can
+define
+the
+following
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+frame
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@type": "Library",
+  "contains": {
+    "@type": "Book",
+    "contains": {
+      "@type": "Chapter"
+    }
+  }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+When
+the
+framing
+algorithm
+is
+run
+against
+the
+previously
+defined
+JSON-LD
+document,
+paired
+with
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+frame
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+above,
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+the
+end
+result:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+  "@type": "Library",
+  "contains": {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">
+    "@type": "Book",
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"creator": "Plato",</span>
+    <span class="diff">"title": "The Republic",</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">
+    "contains": {
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">
+      "@type": "Chapter",
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",</span>
+      <span class="diff">"title": "The Introduction"</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">
+    },
+  },
+}
+</ins></pre>
+<div id="framing-algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h4>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</ins></p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="input_frame" id="dfn-input_frame">
+input
+frame
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+initial
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+frame
+</a>
+provided
+to
+the
+framing
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="framing_context" id="dfn-framing_context">
+framing
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+containing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_default_flag" href="#dfn-omit_default_flag">
+omit
+default
+flag
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="object_embed_flag" id="dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+flag
+specifying
+that
+objects
+should
+be
+directly
+embedded
+in
+the
+output,
+instead
+of
+being
+referred
+to
+by
+their
+IRI.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="explicit_inclusion_flag" id="dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+flag
+specifying
+that
+for
+properties
+to
+be
+included
+in
+the
+output,
+they
+must
+be
+explicitly
+declared
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">
+framing
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="omit_missing_properties_flag" id="dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+flag
+specifying
+that
+properties
+that
+are
+missing
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+should
+be
+omitted
+from
+the
+output.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="omit_default_flag" id="dfn-omit_default_flag">
+<ins class="diff-new">omit
+default
+flag
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+Referenced
+from
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+framing
+context
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+but
+not
+defined
+</ins></dd><dt>
+<dfn title="match_limit" id="dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+value
+specifying
+the
+maximum
+number
+of
+matches
+to
+accept
+when
+building
+arrays
+of
+values
+during
+the
+framing
+algorithm.
+A
+value
+of
+-1
+specifies
+that
+there
+is
+no
+match
+limit.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="map_of_embedded_subjects" id="dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">
+map
+of
+embedded
+subjects
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+map
+that
+tracks
+if
+a
+subject
+has
+been
+embedded
+in
+the
+output
+of
+the
+<a href="#framing-algorithm">
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="framing-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+framing
+algorithm
+takes
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+that
+has
+been
+normalized
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm">
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+(
+<strong>
+normalized
+input
+</strong>
+),
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="input_frame" href="#dfn-input_frame">
+input
+frame
+</a>
+that
+has
+been
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+(
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+),
+and
+a
+number
+of
+options
+and
+produces
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>.
+The
+following
+series
+of
+steps
+is
+the
+recursive
+portion
+of
+the
+framing
+algorithm:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Initialize
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">
+framing
+context
+</a>
+by
+setting
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>,
+clearing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>,
+and
+clearing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</a>.
+Override
+these
+values
+based
+on
+input
+options
+provided
+to
+the
+algorithm
+by
+the
+application.
+</li>
+<li>
+Generate
+a
+<dfn title="list_of_frames" id="dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</dfn>
+by
+processing
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+is
+not
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+set
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</a>
+to
+1,
+place
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</a>,
+and
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+is
+an
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+place
+an
+empty
+object
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</a>,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+and
+set
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</a>
+to
+-1.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+is
+a
+non-empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+add
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</a>,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+and
+set
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</a>
+to
+-1.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Create
+a
+<dfn title="match_array" id="dfn-match_array">
+match
+array
+</dfn>
+for
+each
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</a>
+halting
+when
+either
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</a>
+is
+zero
+or
+the
+end
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</a>
+is
+reached.
+If
+an
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+is
+not
+an
+object,
+the
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+throw
+a
+<code>
+Invalid
+Frame
+Format
+</code>
+exception.
+Add
+each
+matching
+item
+from
+the
+<strong>
+normalized
+input
+</strong>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="matches_array" href="#dfn-matches_array">
+matches
+array
+</a>
+and
+decrement
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</a>
+by
+1
+if:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+The
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+has
+an
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+that
+exists
+in
+the
+item's
+list
+of
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+s.
+Note:
+the
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+can
+be
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+but
+only
+one
+value
+needs
+to
+be
+in
+common
+between
+the
+item
+and
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+for
+a
+match.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+does
+not
+have
+an
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+property,
+but
+every
+property
+in
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+exists
+in
+the
+item.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p class="issue">
+<dfn title="matches_array" id="dfn-matches_array">
+<ins class="diff-new">matches
+array
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+not
+defined
+anywhere.
+</ins></p>
+</li>
+<li>
+Process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_array" href="#dfn-match_array">
+match
+array
+</a>
+with
+its
+associated
+<dfn title="match_frame" id="dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</dfn>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>
+to
+its
+value.
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>
+to
+its
+value.
+Note:
+if
+the
+keyword
+exists,
+but
+the
+value
+is
+neither
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+false
+</code>,
+set
+the
+associated
+flag
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>
+is
+cleared
+and
+the
+item
+has
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+replace
+the
+item
+with
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>
+is
+set
+and
+the
+item
+has
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+and
+its
+IRI
+is
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_embedded_subjects" href="#dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">
+map
+of
+embedded
+subjects
+</a>,
+throw
+a
+<code>
+Duplicate
+Embed
+</code>
+exception.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>
+is
+set
+and
+the
+item
+has
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+and
+its
+IRI
+is
+not
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_embedded_subjects" href="#dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">
+map
+of
+embedded
+subjects
+</a>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>
+is
+set,
+then
+delete
+any
+key
+from
+the
+item
+that
+does
+not
+exist
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>,
+except
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+each
+key
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>,
+except
+for
+keywords
+and
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+key
+is
+in
+the
+item,
+then
+build
+a
+new
+<dfn title="recursion_input_list" id="dfn-recursion_input_list">
+recursion
+input
+list
+</dfn>
+using
+the
+object
+or
+objects
+associated
+with
+the
+key.
+If
+any
+object
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+that
+exists
+in
+the
+<strong>
+normalized
+input
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</strong>,
+replace
+the
+object
+in
+the
+<del class="diff-old">recusion
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_input_list" href="#dfn-recursion_input_list">
+<ins class="diff-chg">recursion
+</ins>
+input
+list
+</a>
+with
+a
+new
+object
+containing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+where
+the
+value
+is
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+and
+all
+of
+the
+other
+key-value
+pairs
+for
+that
+subject.
+Set
+the
+<dfn title="recursion_match_frame" id="dfn-recursion_match_frame">
+recursion
+match
+frame
+</dfn>
+to
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>
+'s
+key.
+Replace
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+key
+by
+recursively
+calling
+this
+algorithm
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_input_list" href="#dfn-recursion_input_list">
+recursion
+input
+list
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_match_frame" href="#dfn-recursion_match_frame">
+recursion
+match
+frame
+</a>
+as
+input.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+key
+is
+not
+in
+the
+item,
+add
+the
+key
+to
+the
+item
+and
+set
+the
+associated
+value
+to
+an
+empty
+array
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>
+key's
+value
+is
+an
+array
+or
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+otherwise.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+item's
+key
+is
+<code>
+null
+</code>,
+process
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</a>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+key
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">
+match
+frame
+</a>
+is
+an
+array,
+use
+the
+first
+frame
+from
+the
+array
+as
+the
+<dfn title="property_frame" id="dfn-property_frame">
+property
+frame
+</dfn>,
+otherwise
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property_frame" href="#dfn-property_frame">
+property
+frame
+</a>
+to
+an
+empty
+object.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property_frame" href="#dfn-property_frame">
+property
+frame
+</a>
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</a>
+to
+its
+value.
+Note:
+if
+the
+keyword
+exists,
+but
+the
+value
+is
+neither
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+false
+</code>,
+set
+the
+associated
+flag
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</a>
+is
+set,
+delete
+the
+key
+in
+the
+item.
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+set
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property_frame" href="#dfn-property_frame">
+property
+frame
+</a>
+set
+the
+item's
+value
+to
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+set
+it
+to
+the
+item,
+otherwise,
+append
+the
+item
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Return
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+The
+final,
+non-recursive
+step
+of
+the
+framing
+algorithm
+requires
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>
+to
+be
+compacted
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+by
+using
+the
+context
+provided
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="input_frame" href="#dfn-input_frame">
+input
+frame
+</a>.
+The
+resulting
+value
+is
+the
+final
+output
+of
+the
+compaction
+algorithm
+and
+is
+what
+should
+be
+returned
+to
+the
+application.
+</div>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">What
+are
+the
+implications
+for
+framing
+lists?
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div id="normalization" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+</h3>
+<p class="issue">
+This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</p>
+<p>
+Normalization
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+and
+performing
+a
+deterministic
+transformation
+on
+that
+input
+that
+results
+in
+all
+aspects
+of
+the
+graph
+being
+fully
+expanded
+and
+named
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>.
+The
+normalized
+output
+is
+generated
+in
+such
+a
+way
+that
+any
+conforming
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+generate
+identical
+output
+given
+the
+same
+input.
+The
+problem
+is
+a
+fairly
+difficult
+technical
+problem
+to
+solve
+because
+it
+requires
+a
+directed
+graph
+to
+be
+ordered
+into
+a
+set
+of
+nodes
+and
+edges
+in
+a
+deterministic
+way.
+This
+is
+easy
+to
+do
+when
+all
+of
+the
+nodes
+have
+unique
+names,
+but
+very
+difficult
+to
+do
+when
+some
+of
+the
+nodes
+are
+not
+labeled.
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Normalization
+is
+useful
+when
+comparing
+two
+graphs
+against
+one
+another,
+when
+generating
+a
+detailed
+list
+of
+differences
+between
+two
+graphs,
+and
+when
+generating
+a
+cryptographic
+digital
+signature
+for
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph
+or
+when
+generating
+a
+hash
+of
+the
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+below
+is
+an
+un-normalized
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "@context":
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+      "@coerce":
+      {
+         "@iri": ["homepage"]
+      }
+   },
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+below
+is
+the
+normalized
+form
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+above:
+</ins></p><p class="note"><ins class="diff-new">
+Whitespace
+is
+used
+below
+to
+aid
+readability.
+The
+normalization
+algorithm
+for
+JSON-LD
+removes
+all
+unnecessary
+whitespace
+in
+the
+fully
+normalized
+form.
+</ins></p><pre class="example">[{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+    "@subject":
+    {
+        "@iri": "_:c14n0"
+    },
+    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage":
+    {
+        "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+    },
+    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
+}]
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Notice
+how
+all
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s
+have
+been
+expanded
+and
+sorted
+in
+alphabetical
+order.
+Also,
+notice
+how
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+has
+been
+labeled
+with
+a
+</ins><dfn title="blank_node_identifier" id="dfn-blank_node_identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</ins></dfn>.<ins class="diff-new">
+Normalization
+ensures
+that
+any
+arbitrary
+graph
+containing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+would
+be
+normalized
+to
+exactly
+the
+same
+form
+shown
+above.
+</ins></p><p>
+In
+time,
+there
+may
+be
+more
+than
+one
+normalization
+algorithm
+that
+will
+need
+to
+be
+identified.
+For
+identification
+purposes,
+this
+algorithm
+is
+named
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Universal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Universal
+</ins>
+Graph
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+<del class="diff-old">2011&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2011"
+</ins>
+(
+<abbr title="Universal Graph Normalization Algorithm 2011">
+UGNA2011
+</abbr>
+).
+</p>
+<div id="normalization-algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h4>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="label" id="dfn-label">
+label
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+subject
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+associated
+with
+a
+graph
+node.
+The
+subject
+IRI
+is
+expressed
+using
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+a
+string
+that
+is
+an
+IRI
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+the
+key
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+a
+value
+that
+is
+a
+string
+that
+is
+an
+IRI.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="list_of_expanded_nodes" id="dfn-list_of_expanded_nodes">
+list
+of
+expanded
+nodes
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+list
+of
+all
+nodes
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+graph
+containing
+no
+embedded
+objects
+and
+having
+all
+keys
+and
+values
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="alpha" id="dfn-alpha">
+alpha
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="beta" id="dfn-beta">
+beta
+</dfn>
+values
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+words
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">
+alpha
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">
+beta
+</a>
+refer
+to
+the
+first
+and
+second
+nodes
+or
+values
+being
+examined
+in
+an
+algorithm.
+The
+names
+are
+merely
+used
+to
+refer
+to
+each
+input
+value
+to
+a
+comparison
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="renaming_counter" id="dfn-renaming_counter">
+renaming
+counter
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+counter
+that
+is
+used
+during
+the
+<a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm">
+Node
+Relabeling
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+counter
+typically
+starts
+at
+one
+(1)
+and
+counts
+up
+for
+every
+node
+that
+is
+relabeled.
+There
+will
+be
+two
+such
+renaming
+counters
+in
+an
+implementation
+of
+the
+normalization
+algorithm.
+The
+first
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>
+and
+the
+second
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="deterministic_labeling_counter" href="#dfn-deterministic_labeling_counter">
+deterministic
+labeling
+counter
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="serialization_label" id="dfn-serialization_label">
+serialization
+label
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+identifier
+that
+is
+created
+to
+aid
+in
+the
+normalization
+process
+in
+the
+<a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm">
+Deep
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+value
+typically
+takes
+the
+form
+of
+<code>
+s&lt;NUMBER&gt;
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+c&lt;NUMBER&gt;
+</code>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="normalization-state" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+State
+</h4>
+<p>
+When
+performing
+the
+steps
+required
+by
+the
+normalization
+algorithm,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+track
+the
+many
+pieces
+of
+information
+in
+a
+data
+structure
+called
+the
+<dfn title="normalization_state" id="dfn-normalization_state">
+normalization
+state
+</dfn>.
+Many
+of
+these
+pieces
+simply
+provide
+indexes
+into
+the
+graph.
+The
+information
+contained
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">
+normalization
+state
+</a>
+is
+described
+below.
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="node_state" id="dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Each
+node
+in
+the
+graph
+will
+be
+assigned
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>.
+This
+state
+contains
+the
+information
+necessary
+to
+deterministically
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+all
+nodes
+in
+the
+graph.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+includes:
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="node_reference" id="dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+is
+a
+reference
+to
+a
+node
+in
+the
+graph.
+For
+a
+given
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>,
+its
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+refers
+to
+the
+node
+that
+the
+state
+is
+for.
+When
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+is
+created,
+its
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+should
+be
+to
+the
+node
+it
+is
+created
+for.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="outgoing_list" id="dfn-outgoing_list">
+outgoing
+list
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Lists
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+s
+for
+all
+nodes
+that
+are
+properties
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>.
+This
+list
+should
+be
+initialized
+by
+iterating
+over
+every
+object
+associated
+with
+a
+property
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+adding
+its
+label
+if
+it
+is
+another
+node.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="incoming_list" id="dfn-incoming_list">
+incoming
+list
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Lists
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+s
+for
+all
+nodes
+in
+the
+graph
+for
+which
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+is
+a
+property.
+This
+list
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
+list.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="outgoing_serialization_map" id="dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">
+outgoing
+serialization
+map
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Maps
+node
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+s
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">
+serialization
+label
+</a>
+s.
+This
+map
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
+map.
+When
+this
+map
+is
+populated,
+it
+will
+be
+filled
+with
+keys
+that
+are
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+s
+of
+every
+node
+in
+the
+graph
+with
+a
+label
+that
+begins
+with
+<code>
+_:
+</code>
+and
+that
+has
+a
+path,
+via
+properties,
+that
+starts
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="outgoing_serialization" id="dfn-outgoing_serialization">
+outgoing
+serialization
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+that
+can
+be
+lexicographically
+compared
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">
+outgoing
+serialization
+</a>
+s
+of
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+s.
+It
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">
+outgoing
+serialization
+map
+</a>
+and
+other
+related
+information.
+This
+string
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="incoming_serialization_map" id="dfn-incoming_serialization_map">
+incoming
+serialization
+map
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Maps
+node
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+s
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">
+serialization
+label
+</a>
+s.
+This
+map
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
+map.
+When
+this
+map
+is
+populated,
+it
+will
+be
+filled
+with
+keys
+that
+are
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+s
+of
+every
+node
+in
+the
+graph
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+that
+begins
+with
+<code>
+_:
+</code>
+and
+that
+has
+a
+path,
+via
+properties,
+that
+ends
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="incoming_serialization" id="dfn-incoming_serialization">
+incoming
+serialization
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+that
+can
+be
+lexicographically
+compared
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">
+outgoing
+serialization
+</a>
+s
+of
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+s.
+It
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">
+incoming
+serialization
+map
+</a>
+and
+other
+related
+information.
+This
+string
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
+string.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="node_state_map" id="dfn-node_state_map">
+node
+state
+map
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+mapping
+from
+a
+node's
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>.
+It
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
+map.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="labeling_prefix" id="dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+labeling
+prefix
+is
+a
+string
+that
+is
+used
+as
+the
+beginning
+of
+a
+node
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>.
+It
+should
+be
+initialized
+to
+a
+random
+base
+string
+that
+starts
+with
+the
+characters
+<code>
+_:
+</code>,
+is
+not
+used
+by
+any
+other
+node's
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>,
+and
+does
+not
+start
+with
+the
+characters
+<code>
+_:c14n
+</code>.
+The
+prefix
+has
+two
+uses.
+First
+it
+is
+used
+to
+temporarily
+name
+nodes
+during
+the
+normalization
+algorithm
+in
+a
+way
+that
+doesn't
+collide
+with
+the
+names
+that
+already
+exist
+as
+well
+as
+the
+names
+that
+will
+be
+generated
+by
+the
+normalization
+algorithm.
+Second,
+it
+will
+eventually
+be
+set
+to
+<code>
+_:c14n
+</code>
+to
+generate
+the
+final,
+deterministic
+labels
+for
+nodes
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+prefix
+will
+be
+concatenated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>
+to
+produce
+a
+node
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+_:j8r3k
+</code>
+is
+a
+proper
+initial
+value
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="labeling_counter" id="dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+counter
+that
+is
+used
+to
+label
+nodes.
+It
+is
+appended
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</a>
+to
+create
+a
+node
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>.
+It
+is
+initialized
+to
+<code>
+1
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="deterministic_labeling_counter" id="dfn-deterministic_labeling_counter">
+<ins class="diff-new">deterministic
+labeling
+counter
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+Not
+defined.
+</ins></dd><dt>
+<dfn title="map_of_flattened_nodes" id="dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+map
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+all
+nodes
+in
+the
+graph
+where
+the
+key
+is
+a
+node
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+a
+single
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+that
+has
+no
+nested
+sub-objects
+and
+has
+had
+all
+properties
+for
+the
+same
+node
+merged
+into
+a
+single
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="normalization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+normalization
+algorithm
+expands
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>,
+flattens
+the
+data
+structure,
+and
+creates
+an
+initial
+set
+of
+names
+for
+all
+nodes
+in
+the
+graph.
+The
+flattened
+data
+structure
+is
+then
+processed
+by
+a
+node
+labeling
+algorithm
+in
+order
+to
+get
+a
+fully
+expanded
+and
+named
+list
+of
+nodes
+which
+is
+then
+sorted.
+The
+result
+is
+a
+deterministically
+named
+and
+ordered
+list
+of
+graph
+nodes.
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Expand
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+and
+store
+the
+result
+as
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+input
+</strong>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Create
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">
+normalization
+state
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Initialize
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>
+by
+recursively
+processing
+every
+<dfn title="expanded_node" id="dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</dfn>
+in
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+input
+</strong>
+in
+depth-first
+order:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+is
+an
+unlabeled
+node,
+add
+a
+new
+key-value
+pair
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+concatenation
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</a>
+and
+the
+string
+value
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>.
+Increment
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Add
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+is
+already
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>
+merge
+all
+properties
+from
+the
+entry
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Go
+through
+every
+property
+associated
+with
+an
+array
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+and
+remove
+any
+duplicate
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+entries
+from
+the
+array.
+If
+the
+resulting
+array
+only
+has
+one
+IRI
+entry,
+change
+it
+from
+an
+array
+to
+an
+object.
+</li>
+<li>
+Set
+the
+entry
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+After
+exiting
+the
+recursive
+step,
+replace
+the
+reference
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">
+expanded
+node
+</a>
+with
+an
+object
+containing
+a
+single
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+in
+the
+node.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+every
+entry
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>,
+insert
+a
+key-value
+pair
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">
+node
+state
+map
+</a>
+where
+the
+key
+is
+the
+key
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+where
+its
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+refers
+to
+the
+value
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Populate
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">
+incoming
+list
+</a>
+for
+each
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+by
+iterating
+over
+every
+node
+in
+the
+graph
+and
+adding
+its
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">
+incoming
+list
+</a>
+associated
+with
+each
+node
+found
+in
+its
+properties.
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+every
+entry
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">
+node
+state
+map
+</a>
+that
+has
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+that
+begins
+with
+<code>
+_:c14n
+</code>,
+relabel
+the
+node
+using
+the
+<a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm">
+Node
+Relabeling
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Label
+all
+of
+the
+nodes
+that
+contain
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+associated
+with
+a
+value
+starting
+with
+<code>
+_:
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#deterministic-labeling-algorithm">
+Deterministic
+Labeling
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="node-relabeling-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Relabeling
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+This
+algorithm
+renames
+a
+node
+by
+generating
+a
+unique
+<dfn title="new_label" id="dfn-new_label">
+new
+label
+</dfn>
+and
+updating
+all
+references
+to
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">
+node
+state
+map
+</a>.
+The
+<dfn title="old_label" id="dfn-old_label">
+old
+label
+</dfn>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">
+normalization
+state
+</a>
+must
+be
+given
+as
+an
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">
+old
+label
+</a>
+is
+the
+current
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+of
+the
+node
+that
+is
+to
+be
+relabeled.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+node
+relabeling
+algorithm
+is
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+_:c14n
+</code>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">
+old
+label
+</a>
+begins
+with
+<code>
+_:c14n
+</code>
+then
+return
+as
+the
+node
+has
+already
+been
+renamed.
+</li>
+<li>
+Generate
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">
+new
+label
+</a>
+by
+concatenating
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</a>
+with
+the
+string
+value
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>.
+Increment
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">
+node
+state
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">
+old
+label
+</a>,
+update
+every
+node
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">
+incoming
+list
+</a>
+by
+changing
+all
+the
+properties
+that
+reference
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">
+old
+label
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">
+new
+label
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Change
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">
+old
+label
+</a>
+key
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">
+node
+state
+map
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">
+new
+label
+</a>
+and
+set
+the
+associated
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">
+label
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">
+new
+label
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="deterministic-labeling-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.11.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Deterministic
+Labeling
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+deterministic
+labeling
+algorithm
+takes
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">
+normalization
+state
+</a>
+and
+produces
+a
+<dfn title="list_of_finished_nodes" id="dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">
+list
+of
+finished
+nodes
+</dfn>
+that
+is
+sorted
+and
+contains
+deterministically
+named
+and
+expanded
+nodes
+from
+the
+graph.
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">
+labeling
+prefix
+</a>
+to
+<code>
+_:c14n
+</code>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">
+labeling
+counter
+</a>
+to
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_finished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">
+list