Add time-stamped ED for use cases.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Wed, 15 Jul 2015 02:10:36 -0400
changeset 310 c41ac0b1e8b6
parent 309 800a8f9a7dd5
child 311 81c0fb2641e2
child 312 954e8b63f8cf
Add time-stamped ED for use cases.
ED/use-cases/2015-07-15/diff-20150416.html
ED/use-cases/2015-07-15/index.html
latest/use-cases/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ED/use-cases/2015-07-15/diff-20150416.html	Wed Jul 15 02:10:36 2015 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,17452 @@
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+    <title>Web Payments Use Cases 1.0</title>
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+</head>
+
+<body class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument">
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C">
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">
+Web
+Payments
+Use
+Cases
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-15-july-2015">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">First
+Public
+Working
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Editor's
+</ins>
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">16
+April
+</del>
+<time property="dcterms:issued" class="dt-published" datetime="2015-07-15">
+<ins class="diff-chg">15
+July
+</ins>
+2015
+</time>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2015/WD-web-payments-use-cases-20150416/
+</del>
+<a class="u-url" href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/webpayments/raw-file/default/latest/use-cases/index.html">
+<ins class="diff-chg">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/webpayments/raw-file/default/latest/use-cases/index.html
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/web-payments-use-cases/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/web-payments-use-cases/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/webpayments/raw-file/default/latest/use-cases/index.html">
+https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/webpayments/raw-file/default/latest/use-cases/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" property="bibo:editor" resource="_:editor0">
+<span property="rdf:first" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<meta property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" property="foaf:homepage" href="https://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+<span property="rdf:rest" resource="_:editor1">
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" resource="_:editor1">
+<span property="rdf:first" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<meta property="foaf:name" content="Ian Jacobs">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" property="foaf:homepage" href="http://www.w3.org/People/Jacobs/">
+Ian
+Jacobs
+</a>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</span>
+<span property="rdf:rest" resource="rdf:nil">
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span property="dc:contributor" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<meta property="foaf:name" content="Ian Jacobs">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" property="foaf:homepage" href="http://www.w3.org/People/Jacobs/">
+Ian
+Jacobs
+</a>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span property="dc:contributor" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<meta property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" property="foaf:homepage" href="https://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span property="dc:contributor" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<meta property="foaf:name" content="David Ezell">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" property="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.org/">
+David
+Ezell
+</a>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.nacsonline.com/">
+NACS
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span property="dc:contributor" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<span property="foaf:name" class="p-name fn">
+Qian
+Sun
+</span>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.alibabagroup.com/">
+Alibaba
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span property="dc:contributor" typeof="foaf:Person">
+<meta property="foaf:name" content="David Jackson">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" property="foaf:homepage" href="https://www.linkedin.com/in/davidjjackson">
+David
+Jackson
+</a>,
+<a property="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.oracle.com/">
+Oracle
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Version
+control:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="https://github.com/w3c/webpayments-ig">
+Github
+Repository
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Payments/IG/track/products/2">
+Issues
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2015
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+Beihang
+</a>
+).
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr>
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dc:abstract">
+<h2 id="h-abstract" resource="#h-abstract">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+Abstract
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+prioritized
+list
+of
+Web
+payments
+use
+cases.
+Guided
+by
+these
+use
+cases,
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Web
+Payments
+Interest
+Group
+plans
+to
+derive
+architecture
+and
+associated
+technology
+requirements
+to
+integrate
+payments
+into
+the
+Open
+Web
+Platform.
+That
+work
+will
+form
+the
+basis
+of
+conversations
+with
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+groups
+and
+the
+broader
+payments
+industry
+about
+what
+standards
+(from
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+or
+other
+organizations)
+will
+be
+necessary
+to
+fulfill
+the
+use
+cases
+and
+make
+payments
+over
+the
+Web
+easier
+and
+more
+secure.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory">
+<h2 id="h-sotd" resource="#h-sotd">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress
+and
+is
+being
+released
+early
+and
+often
+using
+an
+agile
+process;
+it
+is
+incomplete.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+Web
+Payments
+IG
+has
+only
+had
+the
+opportunity
+to
+review
+a
+handful
+of
+the
+40+
+use
+cases,
+120+
+requirements,
+hundreds
+of
+pages
+of
+payments
+research
+submitted
+to
+the
+group
+via
+various
+other
+standards
+group
+output
+such
+as
+ISO20022,
+research
+documents
+from
+X9
+and
+the
+US
+Federal
+Reserve,
+documents
+from
+the
+Web
+Payments
+Community
+Group,
+and
+input
+from
+the
+general
+public.
+Our
+desire
+is
+to
+align
+with
+the
+larger
+payments
+industry
+when
+it's
+possible
+to
+do
+so.
+Expect
+this
+document
+to
+be
+rapidly
+iterated
+upon
+with
+that
+desire
+in
+mind.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/blog/wpig/">
+Web
+Payments
+Interest
+Group
+</a>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">a
+First
+Public
+Working
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+Editor's
+</ins>
+Draft.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+W3C
+Recommendation.
+</del>
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
+<a href="mailto:public-webpayments-comments@w3.org">
+public-webpayments-comments@w3.org
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:public-webpayments-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-webpayments-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+).
+All
+comments
+are
+welcome.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+<del class="diff-old">a
+First
+Public
+Working
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+Editor's
+</ins>
+Draft
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a id="sotd_patent" property="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/73816/status" rel="disclosure">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+governed
+by
+the
+<a id="w3c_process_revision" href="http://www.w3.org/2014/Process-20140801/">
+1
+August
+2014
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Process
+Document
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory" id="h-toc" resource="#h-toc">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</span>
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#why-this-work-is-important" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Why
+This
+Work
+is
+Important
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-this-document-is-organized" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+How
+this
+Document
+is
+Organized
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Terminology
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#an-overview-of-the-payment-phases" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+An
+Overview
+of
+the
+Payment
+Phases
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#negotiation-of-payment-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#negotiation-of-payment-instruments" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#payment-processing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Payment
+Processing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Product/Receipt
+and
+Refunds
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#a-simple-example-of-the-payment-phases" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+A
+Simple
+Example
+of
+the
+Payment
+Phases
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#negotiation-of-purchase-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Purchase
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#negotiation-of-payment-instruments-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#payment-processing-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+Payment
+Processing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Product/Receipt
+and
+Refunds
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#assumptions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Assumptions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#use-cases-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Use
+Cases
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#negotiation-of-payment-terms-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Terms
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#discovery-of-offer" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1.1
+</span>
+Discovery
+of
+Offer
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#agreement-on-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1.2
+</span>
+Agreement
+on
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#application-of-marketing-elements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1.3
+</span>
+Application
+of
+Marketing
+Elements
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#negotiation-of-payment-instruments-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#discovery-of-accepted-schemes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2.1
+</span>
+Discovery
+of
+Accepted
+Schemes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#selection-of-payment-instruments" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2.2
+</span>
+Selection
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#authentication-to-access-instruments" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2.3
+</span>
+Authentication
+to
+Access
+Instruments
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#payment-processing-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+Payment
+Processing
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#initiation-of-processing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3.1
+</span>
+Initiation
+of
+Processing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#verification-of-available-funds" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3.2
+</span>
+Verification
+of
+Available
+Funds
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#authorization-of-transfer" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3.3
+</span>
+Authorization
+of
+Transfer
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#completion-of-transfer" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3.4
+</span>
+Completion
+of
+Transfer
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Product/Receipt
+and
+Refunds
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#delivery-of-product" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4.1
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Product
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#delivery-of-receipt" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4.2
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Receipt
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#refunds" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4.3
+</span>
+Refunds
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#additional-examples-of-the-payment-phases" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.
+</span>
+Additional
+Examples
+of
+the
+Payment
+Phases
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#credit-card-payment-visa-mastercard" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.1
+</span>
+Credit
+Card
+Payment
+(Visa,
+MasterCard)
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#tokenized-payments-applepay-venmo-cybersource" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.2
+</span>
+Tokenized
+Payments
+(ApplePay
+/
+Venmo
+/
+CyberSource)
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#three-corner-model-payments-paypal-alipay-google-wallet" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.3
+</span>
+Three
+Corner
+Model
+Payments
+(PayPal
+/
+Alipay
+/
+Google
+Wallet)
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#cryptocurrency-payment-bitcoin-ripple" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.4
+</span>
+Cryptocurrency
+Payment
+(Bitcoin,
+Ripple)
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#electronic-check-payment" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.5
+</span>
+Electronic
+<del class="diff-old">Cheque
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Check
+</ins>
+Payment
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#direct-debit" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.6
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Credit
+Transfer
+/
+</del>
+Direct
+Debit
+<ins class="diff-new">(SEPA
+Direct
+Debit)
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#credit-transfer" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">7.7
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Credit
+Transfer
+(SEPAmail)
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"></ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#future-work" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Future
+Work
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.1
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#introduction" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h2 id="h-introduction" resource="#h-introduction">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+ECommerce
+is
+thriving
+and
+continues
+to
+expand.
+However,
+fragmentation
+of
+payment
+systems
+is
+limiting
+the
+growth
+potential
+as
+are
+problems
+—
+both
+real
+and
+perceived
+—
+such
+as
+fraud
+and
+usability.
+</p>
+<p>
+Because
+the
+Web
+is
+ubiquitous,
+strengthening
+support
+for
+Web
+payments
+has
+the
+potential
+to
+create
+new
+opportunities
+for
+businesses
+and
+customers.
+Mobile
+devices
+are
+already
+transforming
+the
+industry
+by
+supplanting
+physical
+payment
+cards
+in
+proximity
+payments,
+voucher
+distribution,
+and
+identification
+when
+people
+authenticate
+to
+a
+scanner,
+point
+of
+sale,
+or
+access
+gate.
+Although
+we
+are
+seeing
+innovation
+in
+mobile
+payment
+systems,
+the
+lack
+of
+standards
+makes
+it
+more
+difficult
+to
+adapt
+to
+new
+payment
+approaches
+or
+integrate
+new
+payment
+providers.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Web
+Payments
+Interest
+Group
+is
+developing
+a
+roadmap
+for
+standards
+to
+improve
+the
+interoperability
+of
+payments
+using
+Web
+technologies
+for
+both
+online
+and
+brick-and-mortar
+(offline)
+scenarios.
+This
+will
+help
+achieve
+greater
+interoperability
+among
+merchants
+and
+their
+customers,
+payment
+providers,
+software
+vendors,
+mobile
+operators,
+native
+mobile
+apps,
+and
+payment
+networks.
+The
+roadmap
+will
+include
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>
+in
+use
+today
+(such
+as
+electronic
+<del class="diff-old">cheques,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">checks,
+</ins>
+credit
+cards,
+direct
+debit,
+and
+cryptocurrencies)
+and
+those
+of
+the
+future.
+The
+roadmap
+will
+be
+derived
+from
+the
+use
+cases
+listed
+below.
+</p>
+<section id="why-this-work-is-important" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#why-this-work-is-important" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-why-this-work-is-important" resource="#h-why-this-work-is-important">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Why
+This
+Work
+is
+Important
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+Web
+Payments
+work
+is
+not
+just
+about
+making
+payments
+easier,
+faster,
+more
+secure,
+and
+more
+innovative.
+There
+are
+many
+people
+around
+the
+world
+that
+today's
+financial
+system
+does
+not
+reach.
+These
+people
+are
+called
+the
+world's
+unbanked
+(or
+underbanked).
+The
+unbanked
+often
+live
+<del class="diff-old">pay
+cheque
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">paycheck
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">pay
+cheque,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">paycheck,
+</ins>
+do
+not
+have
+access
+to
+savings
+accounts
+or
+low-fee
+<del class="diff-old">cheque
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">check
+</ins>
+cashing
+services,
+lines
+of
+credit,
+or
+a
+way
+of
+saving
+for
+their
+future.
+Being
+unable
+to
+plan
+for
+one's
+financial
+future
+often
+results
+in
+a
+focus
+on
+the
+short-term,
+which
+creates
+a
+vicious
+cycle
+of
+not
+being
+able
+to
+escape
+one's
+situation.
+Not
+being
+able
+to
+participate
+in
+the
+financial
+system
+creates
+unintended
+inequities
+that
+create
+waste
+and
+result
+in
+a
+net
+loss
+for
+society.
+</p>
+<p>
+However,
+some
+of
+the
+shortcomings
+of
+today's
+financial
+system
+could
+be
+addressed
+via
+technological
+improvements.
+For
+example,
+there
+is
+a
+considerable
+overlap
+between
+the
+unbanked
+and
+underbanked
+population
+and
+access
+to
+advanced
+mobile
+phones
+and
+the
+Web.
+By
+providing
+financial
+services
+to
+people
+with
+mobile
+phones
+in
+a
+standardized
+way
+via
+the
+Web,
+we
+could
+see
+an
+improvement
+in
+the
+financial
+health
+of
+these
+individuals
+and
+their
+families.
+</p>
+<p>
+Extending
+the
+current
+financial
+system
+to
+reach
+further
+helps
+an
+ever
+increasing
+number
+of
+people
+plan
+for
+their
+future,
+focus
+on
+the
+long-term,
+and
+thus
+contributes
+to
+a
+greater
+net
+gain
+for
+society.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="how-this-document-is-organized" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#how-this-document-is-organized" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-how-this-document-is-organized" resource="#h-how-this-document-is-organized">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+How
+this
+Document
+is
+Organized
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+organized
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<a href="#terminology">
+Section
+2
+</a>
+defines
+basic
+payment
+terms.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#an-overview-of-the-payment-phases">
+Section
+3
+</a>
+describes
+a
+common
+payment
+flow
+at
+a
+high
+level.
+The
+group
+expects
+to
+work
+on
+additional
+payment
+flows
+in
+future
+work.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#a-simple-example-of-the-payment-phases">
+Section
+4
+</a>
+is
+a
+specific
+narrative,
+labeled
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+of
+section
+3.
+<a href="#additional-examples-of-the-payment-phases">
+Section
+7
+</a>
+describes
+additional
+familiar
+narratives
+to
+give
+a
+more
+complete
+picture
+of
+how
+the
+payment
+phases
+apply.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#assumptions">
+<ins class="diff-new">Section
+5
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+highlights
+general
+assumptions
+that
+have
+been
+made
+about
+the
+use
+cases.
+</ins></li><li><a href="#use-cases-1">
+Section
+6
+</a>
+lists
+the
+use
+cases
+-
+short
+scenarios
+that
+cover
+diverse
+aspects
+of
+each
+payment
+step.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Each
+use
+case
+has:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+A
+title
+and
+short
+description.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals.
+How
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+specifies
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">use
+case
+advances
+one
+or
+more
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">intended
+version
+</ins>
+of
+the
+<del class="diff-old">goals
+for
+an
+interoperable
+</del>
+Web
+<del class="diff-old">payments
+framework
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Payments
+Architecture
+that
+will
+enable
+the
+use
+case.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Motivation.
+This
+is
+commentary
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+short
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+statement
+</ins>
+to
+help
+explain
+why
+the
+use
+case
+has
+been
+included,
+including
+how
+it
+relates
+to
+similar
+use
+cases.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Each
+use
+case
+may
+also
+have
+notes
+on:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Security/Privacy.
+Security
+or
+privacy
+issues
+that
+may
+arise
+through
+this
+use
+case.
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">Accessibility.
+Accessibility
+considerations
+(e.g.,
+in
+multi-factor
+authentication,
+management
+of
+biometrics
+in
+the
+case
+of
+users
+with
+some
+disabilities).
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Regulatory.
+Regulatory
+considerations
+(e.g.,
+anti-money
+laundering
+clearing,
+suspicious
+activity
+reporting,
+tax
+collection,
+trade
+compliance).
+</ins></li><li>
+Exceptions.
+Considerations
+in
+the
+case
+of
+specific
+exceptions
+(e.g.,
+if
+a
+user
+pays
+with
+a
+voucher
+and
+the
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+fails,
+the
+user's
+voucher
+should
+be
+restored).
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">Accessibility.
+Accessibility
+considerations
+(e.g.,
+in
+multi-factor
+authentication,
+management
+of
+biometrics
+in
+the
+case
+of
+users
+with
+some
+disabilities).
+</del>
+</ul>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title" aria-level="4" role="heading" id="h-issue1">
+<span>
+Issue
+1
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+group
+seeks
+input
+from
+security,
+privacy,
+and
+accessibility
+experts.
+Examples
+of
+desired
+groups
+to
+perform
+these
+reviews
+are,
+but
+are
+not
+limited
+to:
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Privacy
+Interest
+Group,
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Security
+Interest
+Group,
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Web
+Accessibility
+Initiative
+and
+Protocols
+and
+Formats
+Working
+Group,
+US
+Federal
+Reserve
+Security
+Panels,
+X9
+Security
+subgroups,
+and
+ISO
+security
+subgroups.
+</p>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Interest
+Group
+(currently)
+regards
+some
+of
+the
+use
+cases
+as
+"essential"
+to
+addressing
+their
+goals
+and
+others
+as
+"non-essential."
+</del>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="4" role="heading" id="h-note1">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+All
+character
+names
+appearing
+in
+this
+document
+are
+fictitious.
+Any
+resemblance
+to
+real
+persons,
+living
+or
+dead,
+is
+purely
+coincidental.
+Some
+organizations,
+products,
+and
+services
+appearing
+in
+this
+document
+are
+real
+and
+are
+included
+purely
+for
+pedagogic
+purposes
+and
+don't
+imply
+endorsement
+or
+approval
+of
+the
+Web
+Payments
+work
+in
+any
+way,
+shape,
+or
+form.
+For
+all
+other
+organizations,
+products,
+or
+services
+appearing
+in
+this
+document,
+any
+resemblance
+to
+real
+entities
+is
+purely
+coincidental.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="terminology" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#terminology" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h2 id="h-terminology" resource="#h-terminology">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Terminology
+</span>
+</h2>
+<div>
+<p>
+This
+document
+attempts
+to
+communicate
+the
+concepts
+outlined
+in
+the
+Web
+Payments
+space
+by
+using
+specific
+terms
+to
+discuss
+particular
+concepts.
+This
+terminology
+is
+included
+below
+and
+linked
+to
+throughout
+the
+document
+to
+aid
+the
+reader:
+</p>
+<dl class="termlist">
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-entity">
+entity
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+person,
+organization,
+or
+software
+agent
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+interacting
+with
+the
+world.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-four-corner-model">
+<ins class="diff-new">four
+corner
+model
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payment
+scheme
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+which
+includes
+the
+following
+stakeholders:
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(also
+known
+as
+the
+Cardholder),
+the
+Issuer
+(who
+has
+a
+relationship
+with
+the
+Cardholder),
+the
+Acceptor
+and
+the
+Acquirer
+(which
+has
+a
+relationship
+with
+the
+Acceptor).
+The
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payment
+scheme
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+defines
+the
+rules
+which
+apply
+to
+all
+parties;
+there
+are
+no
+limitations
+as
+to
+who
+may
+join
+the
+scheme,
+as
+long
+as
+the
+requirements
+of
+the
+scheme
+are
+met.
+</ins></dd><dt></dt><dt></dt><dt></dt><dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-payee">
+payee
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+entity
+that
+receives
+funds
+as
+required
+by
+a
+<del class="diff-old">transaction
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transaction.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-payer">
+payer
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+entity
+that
+provides
+a
+source
+of
+funds
+as
+required
+by
+a
+<del class="diff-old">transaction
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transaction.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-payment-instrument">
+payment
+instrument
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+mechanism
+used
+to
+transfer
+value
+from
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+to
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+Examples:
+Corporate
+Visa
+card,
+personal
+Visa
+card,
+a
+bitcoin
+account,
+a
+PayPal
+account,
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+</ins>
+an
+Alipay
+<del class="diff-old">account,
+etc.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">account.
+[PSD2]
+any
+personalized
+device(s)
+and/or
+set
+of
+procedures
+agreed
+between
+the
+payment
+service
+user
+and
+the
+payment
+service
+provider
+and
+used
+in
+order
+to
+initiate
+a
+payment
+order.
+[ECB]
+a
+tool
+or
+a
+set
+of
+procedures
+enabling
+the
+transfer
+of
+funds
+from
+a
+payer
+to
+a
+payee.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-payment-processor">
+payment
+processor
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">
+entity
+</a>
+that
+submits
+and
+processes
+payments
+using
+a
+particular
+<a href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instrument
+</a>
+to
+a
+payment
+network.
+Examples:
+Stripe,
+PayPal,
+Authorize.net,
+Atos,
+FedACH.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-payment-scheme">
+payment
+scheme
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Sets
+of
+rules
+and
+technical
+standards
+for
+the
+execution
+of
+payment
+<a title="transaction" href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transactions
+</a>
+that
+have
+to
+be
+followed
+by
+adhering
+entities
+(
+<a title="payment processor" href="#dfn-payment-processor" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+processors
+</a>,
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payers
+</a>
+and
+<a title="payee" href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payees
+</a>
+).
+Examples:
+Visa,
+MasterCard,
+Bitcoin,
+Ripple,
+PayPal,
+Google
+Pay,
+Alipay,
+Yandex
+money,
+ACH,
+SEPA.
+<ins class="diff-new">[ECB]
+a
+set
+of
+interbank
+rules,
+practices
+and
+standards
+necessary
+for
+the
+functioning
+of
+payment
+services.
+</ins></dd><dt></dt><dt><dfn id="dfn-pull-payment"><ins class="diff-new">
+pull
+payment
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><dfn id="dfn-payee-initiated-payment"><ins class="diff-new">
+payee-initiated
+payment
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+type
+of
+</ins><a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+transaction
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+where
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payee
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+initiates
+the
+funds
+transfer
+from
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payee
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+A
+credit
+card
+payment
+is
+an
+example
+of
+a
+pull
+payment.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-purchase">
+purchase
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Activities
+surrounding
+and
+including
+a
+transaction
+(e.g.,
+discovery
+of
+an
+offer,
+negotiation
+of
+terms,
+selection
+of
+payment
+<del class="diff-old">instrument
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">instrument,
+</ins>
+delivery,
+etc.).
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">transaction
+</del>
+<dfn id="dfn-push-payment">
+<ins class="diff-chg">push
+payment
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><dfn id="dfn-payer-initiated-payment"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer-initiated
+payment
+</ins>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+exchange
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+type
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">value
+(e.g.,
+buying
+or
+selling
+something)
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">transaction
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+where
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+initiates
+the
+funds
+transfer
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payee
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+PayPal
+is
+an
+example
+of
+a
+push
+payment.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+</dt>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">There
+are
+</del>
+<dfn id="dfn-transaction">
+<ins class="diff-chg">transaction
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+economic
+exchange
+between
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">number
+of
+financial
+industry
+standards
+(such
+as
+ISO20022,
+ISO12812,
+various
+X9
+standards,
+PCI
+DSS,
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">payer
+</ins></a>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">others)
+that
+define
+payment
+terms.
+The
+Web
+Payments
+Interest
+Group
+has
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">one
+or
+more
+</ins><a title="payee" href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payees
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+agreement,
+communication,
+or
+movement
+carried
+out
+between
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">goal
+to
+make
+use
+of
+industry-defined
+terms
+in
+its
+deliverables.
+At
+the
+same
+time,
+the
+group
+has
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">buyer
+and
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">goal
+that
+these
+use
+cases
+may
+be
+understood
+by
+both
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">seller
+to
+exchange
+an
+asset
+for
+</ins>
+payment
+<del class="diff-old">industry
+professionals
+and
+</del>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-transfer-order">
+<ins class="diff-chg">transfer
+order
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+[ECB]
+an
+order
+or
+message
+requesting
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">broader
+Web
+community.
+Thus,
+our
+definitions
+are
+simplified
+and
+few
+in
+number
+here,
+but
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transfer
+of
+assets
+(e.g.
+funds,
+securities,
+other
+financial
+instruments
+or
+commodities)
+from
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">group
+is
+also
+developing
+a
+more
+complete
+glossary
+with
+detailed
+definitions
+and
+mappings
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">debtor
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">industry-defined
+terms.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+creditor
+</ins></dd><dt></dt></dl>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="an-overview-of-the-payment-phases" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#an-overview-of-the-payment-phases" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h2 id="h-an-overview-of-the-payment-phases" resource="#h-an-overview-of-the-payment-phases">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+An
+Overview
+of
+the
+Payment
+Phases
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+There
+are
+many
+types
+of
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+s
+in
+the
+world
+of
+payments,
+including
+person-to-business,
+business-to-business,
+business-to-person,
+government-to-person,
+person-to-government,
+and
+person-to-person.
+In
+this
+document
+we
+focus
+on
+the
+interactions
+between
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>,
+either
+of
+which
+could
+be
+a
+person,
+business,
+government,
+or
+software
+agent),
+which
+we
+organize
+into
+four
+phases:
+</p>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h-issue2">
+<span>
+Issue
+2
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+group
+would
+like
+feedback
+related
+to
+the
+general
+structure
+of
+the
+payment
+phases
+from
+individuals
+that
+worked
+on
+ISO20022,
+ISO12812,
+the
+European
+Payment
+Commission,
+and
+various
+X9
+documents
+to
+ensure
+that
+the
+phases
+reflect
+business
+processes
+outlined
+in
+financial
+standardization
+initiatives.
+Feedback
+from
+the
+general
+public
+is
+also
+requested
+to
+see
+if
+non-payment
+professionals
+can
+navigate
+and
+understand
+the
+document
+without
+prior
+payment
+industry
+knowledge.
+</p>
+</div>
+<ol>
+<li>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Terms
+</li>
+<li>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</li>
+<li>
+Payment
+Processing
+</li>
+<li>
+Delivery
+of
+Product/Receipt
+and
+Refunds
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+descriptions
+below
+only
+discuss
+the
+interactions
+between
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+We
+do
+not
+expose
+the
+low-level
+exchanges
+between
+banks,
+card
+associations,
+or
+other
+back-end
+"payment
+clearing"
+parties
+in
+a
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>.
+Those
+details
+will
+be
+discussed
+in
+the
+Interest
+Group's
+work
+on
+architecture
+and
+requirements.
+</p>
+<p>
+Each
+phase
+below
+consists
+of
+a
+series
+of
+steps.
+The
+details
+of
+each
+step
+vary
+by
+<a href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+scheme
+</a>.
+Some
+steps
+may
+not
+be
+relevant
+at
+certain
+times
+(e.g.,
+depending
+on
+<a href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+scheme
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+specifics).
+For
+example,
+some
+<a title="purchase" href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchases
+</a>
+do
+not
+involve
+a
+proof
+of
+funds
+or
+proof
+of
+hold.
+ACH
+and
+SEPA
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>
+generally
+do
+not
+support
+the
+verification
+of
+available
+funds,
+thus
+in
+these
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>
+the
+particular
+proof
+of
+funds
+step
+is
+skipped.
+In
+some
+cases,
+steps
+may
+happen
+in
+a
+slightly
+different
+order
+than
+described
+below.
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+also
+important
+to
+note
+that
+these
+phases
+and
+steps
+may
+be
+interrupted
+at
+various
+times
+(e.g.,
+one
+party
+drops
+out,
+or
+exceptions
+occur
+like
+insufficient
+funds
+or
+a
+regulatory
+block).
+While
+these
+phases
+are
+an
+approximation
+of
+the
+general
+flow
+of
+all
+payments,
+they
+are
+helpful
+in
+structuring
+the
+use
+cases
+such
+that
+it
+is
+easy
+to
+figure
+out
+to
+which
+part
+of
+the
+payment
+process
+a
+particular
+use
+case
+belongs.
+</p>
+<p>
+While
+these
+four
+phases
+may
+apply
+more
+or
+less
+well
+to
+a
+variety
+of
+other
+payment
+scenarios
+such
+as
+person-to-person
+payments,
+those
+topics
+are
+not
+the
+current
+focus
+of
+the
+group.
+We
+plan
+to
+address
+them
+directly
+in
+<a href="#future-work">
+future
+work
+</a>.
+</p>
+<section id="negotiation-of-payment-terms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#negotiation-of-payment-terms" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-negotiation-of-payment-terms" resource="#h-negotiation-of-payment-terms">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Terms
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+In
+the
+first
+phase
+of
+the
+payment
+process,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+negotiate
+the
+terms
+of
+the
+payment.
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Discovery
+of
+Offer
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+discovers
+the
+<a title="payee" href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee's
+</a>
+offer
+(e.g.,
+by
+browsing
+a
+Web
+page
+or
+from
+a
+native
+application).
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Agreement
+on
+Terms
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+agree
+to
+what
+will
+be
+purchased,
+for
+how
+much,
+in
+what
+currency,
+which
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>
+or
+loyalty
+programs
+are
+acceptable,
+etc.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+may
+require
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+to
+authenticate
+themselves.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+may
+generate
+an
+invoice
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Application
+of
+Marketing
+Elements
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+discovers
+and
+applies
+any
+loyalty
+programs,
+coupons,
+and
+other
+special
+offers
+to
+the
+payment
+terms.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="negotiation-of-payment-instruments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#negotiation-of-payment-instruments" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-negotiation-of-payment-instruments" resource="#h-negotiation-of-payment-instruments">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+In
+the
+second
+phase
+of
+the
+payment
+process,
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+determine
+which
+<a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instruments
+</a>
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+will
+use
+to
+transfer
+funds
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Discovery
+of
+Accepted
+Schemes
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+discovers
+the
+<a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instruments
+</a>
+that
+are
+accepted
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Selection
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</strong>.
+The
+<del class="diff-old">payee
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">payer
+</ins>
+</a>
+selects
+one
+or
+more
+<a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instruments
+</a>
+that
+are
+available
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+and
+are
+accepted
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Authentication
+to
+Access
+Instruments
+</strong>.
+The
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer's
+</a>
+access
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instrument
+</a>
+is
+authenticated.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+consents
+to
+pay.
+Note:
+This
+authentication
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payment-processor" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+processor
+</a>
+is
+distinct
+from
+any
+authentication
+required
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+(such
+as
+when
+a
+merchant
+requires
+a
+customer
+to
+have
+an
+account
+and
+log
+in
+to
+the
+merchant's
+Web
+site).
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="payment-processing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#payment-processing" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-payment-processing" resource="#h-payment-processing">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Payment
+Processing
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+third
+phase
+of
+the
+payment
+process
+is
+used
+to
+initiate
+the
+transfer
+of
+funds.
+Depending
+on
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instrument
+</a>,
+the
+transfer
+of
+funds
+may
+be
+verified
+immediately
+or
+only
+after
+several
+days.
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Initiation
+of
+Processing
+</strong>.
+Depending
+on
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instrument
+</a>,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+(e.g.,
+when
+using
+PayPal
+or
+Yandex
+Money),
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+(e.g.,
+when
+using
+a
+credit
+card),
+or
+other
+party
+(e.g.,
+bank)
+initiates
+processing.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Verification
+of
+Available
+Funds
+</strong>.
+The
+<del class="diff-old">payee
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">payer
+</ins>
+</a>
+may
+need
+to
+provide
+a
+proof
+of
+funds
+or
+a
+proof
+of
+hold
+to
+the
+<del class="diff-old">payer
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">payee
+</ins>
+</a>
+before
+finalizing
+payment
+and
+delivery
+of
+the
+product.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Authorization
+of
+Transfer
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+receives
+proof
+that
+the
+transfer
+of
+funds
+has
+been
+authorized.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Completion
+of
+Transfer
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+scheme
+</a>
+determines
+the
+details
+of
+payment
+clearing
+and
+settlement.
+Transfer
+times
+may
+vary
+from
+near-realtime
+to
+multiple
+days.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>,
+and/or
+third
+parties
+(such
+as
+regulatory
+bodies)
+may
+be
+notified
+as
+each
+stage
+of
+the
+clearing
+and
+settlement
+process
+is
+completed.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds" resource="#h-delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Product/Receipt
+and
+Refunds
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+In
+the
+fourth
+phase
+of
+the
+payment
+process,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+is
+completed
+by
+providing
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+with
+a
+receipt
+and/or
+the
+product
+that
+was
+purchased.
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Delivery
+of
+Product
+</strong>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+receives
+goods
+or
+services
+immediately,
+at
+a
+later
+date,
+automatically
+on
+a
+recurring
+basis,
+etc.
+depending
+on
+the
+terms
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>.
+A
+digital
+proof
+of
+payment
+may
+be
+required
+to
+access
+the
+product.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Delivery
+of
+Receipt
+</strong>.
+Depending
+on
+the
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+scheme(s)
+</a>
+chosen,
+there
+are
+various
+ways
+and
+times
+that
+a
+receipt
+may
+be
+delivered
+(e.g.,
+credit
+card
+receipt,
+digital
+proof
+of
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+</ins>
+encrypted
+line-item
+<del class="diff-old">receipt,
+etc.).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">receipt).
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Refunds
+</strong>.
+At
+<del class="diff-old">time
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">times
+</ins>
+exceptions
+may
+occur
+(e.g.,
+defective
+<del class="diff-old">product,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">product
+or
+</ins>
+application
+of
+store
+return
+<del class="diff-old">policy,
+etc.).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">policy).
+</ins>
+In
+this
+case,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+initiates
+payment
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>.
+The
+refund
+may
+take
+different
+forms,
+including
+a
+refund
+to
+the
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer's
+</a>
+payment
+instrument,
+a
+refund
+using
+a
+different
+payment
+scheme,
+or
+store
+credit.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="a-simple-example-of-the-payment-phases" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#a-simple-example-of-the-payment-phases" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h2 id="phases-overview" resource="#phases-overview">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+A
+Simple
+Example
+of
+the
+Payment
+Phases
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+following
+scenario
+is
+provided
+to
+aid
+the
+reader
+in
+understanding
+how
+the
+phases
+of
+the
+payment
+process
+apply
+to
+a
+real
+world
+situation.
+In
+this
+scenario,
+we
+follow
+Jill,
+who
+seeks
+a
+new
+outfit
+for
+a
+party.
+She
+selects
+items
+from
+PayToParty,
+which
+is
+a
+brick-and-mortar
+store
+with
+an
+online
+presence.
+She
+chooses
+how
+to
+pay
+and
+the
+items
+are
+delivered
+to
+her
+home
+on
+the
+following
+day.
+</p>
+<p>
+See
+the
+appendix
+for
+<a href="#additional-examples">
+additional
+examples
+of
+the
+payment
+phases
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h-issue3">
+<span>
+Issue
+3
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+General
+feedback
+is
+requested
+<del class="diff-old">as
+to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">on
+</ins>
+whether
+<del class="diff-old">or
+not
+</del>
+this
+section
+is
+<del class="diff-old">helpful
+in
+grounding
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">helpful.
+We
+are
+attempting
+to
+ground
+</ins>
+the
+payment
+phases
+and
+steps
+in
+a
+real
+world
+use
+<del class="diff-old">case
+is
+helpful
+this
+early
+in
+the
+document.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">case.
+</ins>
+An
+alternative
+would
+be
+removing
+this
+section
+entirely
+if
+the
+preceding
+section
+suffices,
+or
+moving
+this
+narrative
+to
+section
+7
+with
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins>
+other
+examples.
+</p>
+</div>
+<section id="negotiation-of-purchase-terms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#negotiation-of-purchase-terms" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-negotiation-of-purchase-terms" resource="#h-negotiation-of-purchase-terms">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Purchase
+Terms
+</span>
+</h3>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Discovery
+of
+Offer
+</strong>:
+Jill
+begins
+her
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+at
+home
+on
+her
+laptop,
+where
+she
+browses
+the
+items
+on
+the
+PayToParty
+Web
+site.
+On
+the
+way
+to
+work
+the
+next
+morning,
+she
+explores
+the
+catalog
+further
+from
+a
+native
+app
+on
+her
+smart
+phone.
+Jill
+can't
+decide
+whether
+the
+dress
+displayed
+online
+is
+<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_dress_(viral_phenomenon)">
+blue
+with
+black
+stripes
+or
+white
+with
+gold
+<del class="diff-old">stripes,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">stripes
+</ins></a>,
+so
+during
+her
+lunch
+break,
+she
+drops
+into
+the
+PayToParty
+store
+near
+her
+office.
+She
+spots
+a
+few
+more
+items
+that
+she
+thinks
+she'd
+like
+to
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>,
+but
+decides
+to
+wait
+until
+later
+to
+make
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Agreement
+on
+Terms
+</strong>:
+That
+same
+evening
+at
+home,
+Jill
+logs
+into
+her
+account
+on
+the
+PayToParty
+Web
+site,
+adding
+her
+<del class="diff-old">preferred
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">chosen
+</ins>
+items
+to
+her
+shopping
+cart.
+The
+total
+price
+appears
+on
+the
+page.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Application
+of
+Marketing
+Elements
+</strong>:
+As
+Jill
+prepares
+to
+check
+out,
+PayToParty
+<del class="diff-old">offers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">notifies
+</ins>
+her
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+</ins>
+a
+discount
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">for
+</ins>
+10%
+if
+she
+uses
+the
+store's
+loyalty
+card
+to
+pay.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="negotiation-of-payment-instruments-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#negotiation-of-payment-instruments-1" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-negotiation-of-payment-instruments-1" resource="#h-negotiation-of-payment-instruments-1">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</span>
+</h3>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Discovery
+of
+Accepted
+Schemes
+</strong>:
+Given
+where
+Jill
+lives,
+PayToParty
+<del class="diff-old">offers
+her
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">accepts
+</ins>
+payment
+by
+credit
+card,
+debit
+card,
+the
+PayToParty
+loyalty
+card,
+and
+PayPal,
+but
+not
+Jill's
+favorite
+cryptocurrency
+(which
+she
+uses
+on
+other
+sites).
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Selection
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</strong>:
+Jill
+pushes
+the
+"Pay
+Now
+to
+Party!"
+button
+and
+is
+presented
+with
+a
+number
+of
+options
+to
+pay,
+including
+her
+credit
+card,
+her
+PayToParty
+loyalty
+card
+(which
+is
+highlighted
+to
+remind
+her
+of
+the
+discount),
+and
+a
+PayPal
+account.
+There
+is
+also
+a
+gift
+card
+from
+PayToParty
+that
+she
+received
+for
+her
+birthday,
+but
+she
+chooses
+not
+to
+use
+it
+for
+this
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Authentication
+to
+Access
+Instruments
+</strong>:
+Jill
+selects
+the
+PayToParty
+loyalty
+card,
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+use
+of
+</ins>
+which
+<del class="diff-old">she
+enabled
+with
+theft-protection,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+protected
+by
+two-factor
+authentication,
+</ins>
+and
+is
+asked
+to
+input
+a
+code
+that
+is
+sent
+to
+her
+phone
+before
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+can
+be
+completed.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="payment-processing-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#payment-processing-1" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-payment-processing-1" resource="#h-payment-processing-1">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+Payment
+Processing
+</span>
+</h3>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Initiation
+of
+Processing
+</strong>.
+PayToParty
+receives
+a
+message
+from
+Jill's
+device
+authorizing
+the
+payment.
+PayToParty
+submits
+the
+message
+to
+their
+<a href="#dfn-payment-processor" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+processor
+</a>,
+requesting
+a
+proof
+of
+hold
+for
+the
+funds.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Verification
+of
+Available
+Funds
+</strong>.
+PayToParty
+receives
+a
+proof
+of
+hold
+on
+Jill's
+funds
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+price
+of
+the
+goods.
+The
+PayToParty
+night-shift
+employees
+begin
+packing
+her
+purchased
+items
+for
+delivery
+the
+next
+day.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Authorization
+of
+Transfer
+</strong>.
+Once
+Jill's
+package
+is
+ready
+to
+go,
+PayToParty
+exchanges
+the
+proof
+of
+hold
+for
+a
+proof
+of
+payment
+by
+re-submitting
+the
+request
+to
+the
+payment
+network.
+They
+receive
+a
+proof
+of
+payment
+from
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payment-processor" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+processor
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Completion
+of
+Transfer
+</strong>.
+Since
+Jill's
+PayToParty
+loyalty
+card
+operates
+as
+a
+credit
+card,
+PayToParty
+will
+receive
+the
+funds
+in
+their
+normal
+end
+of
+week
+settlement.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds-1" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds-1" resource="#h-delivery-of-product-receipt-and-refunds-1">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+Delivery
+of
+Product/Receipt
+and
+Refunds
+</span>
+</h3>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Delivery
+of
+Receipt
+</strong>.
+Jill's
+cloud-based
+wallet
+receives
+a
+detailed
+line-item
+digital
+receipt
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Delivery
+of
+Product
+</strong>.
+Jill's
+package
+goes
+out
+by
+courier
+the
+next
+morning
+and
+is
+on
+her
+doorstep
+before
+she
+leaves
+for
+work.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="assumptions" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#assumptions" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h2 id="h-assumptions" resource="#h-assumptions">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Assumptions
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+use
+cases
+below
+rely
+on
+a
+number
+of
+assumptions
+that
+are
+not
+detailed
+in
+the
+use
+cases
+but
+that
+will
+be
+explored
+in
+more
+detail
+in
+the
+architecture
+and
+requirements
+documents.
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Connectivity
+</strong>.
+Connectivity
+requirements
+vary
+according
+to
+use
+case.
+The
+types
+of
+connections
+a
+device
+may
+<del class="diff-old">utilize
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">use
+</ins>
+include
+Internet
+connectivity,
+proxied
+connections
+through
+short-range
+radio
+transmissions,
+and
+proximity
+connections
+over
+a
+technology
+such
+as
+Near-Field
+Communication
+(NFC)
+or
+Bluetooth
+Low
+Energy
+(BTLE).
+Some
+use
+cases
+assume
+no
+connectivity
+(e.g.,
+user
+is
+temporarily
+unable
+to
+connect
+to
+a
+mobile
+phone
+network
+or
+a
+WiFi
+hotspot).
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Registered
+Payment
+Instruments
+</strong>.
+In
+order
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+to
+select
+and
+utilize
+<a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instruments
+</a>,
+they
+must
+be
+registered
+in
+some
+way
+and
+discoverable
+by
+a
+browser,
+native
+application,
+or
+other
+software.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Security
+</strong>.
+Keys,
+encryption,
+and
+other
+security
+technology
+must
+be
+used
+to
+secure
+sensitive
+information.
+It
+is
+important
+that
+sensitive
+information
+is
+not
+transmitted
+to
+parties
+that
+do
+not
+absolutely
+need
+to
+know
+the
+information
+in
+order
+to
+complete
+the
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Identity
+</strong>.
+There
+will
+be
+<del class="diff-old">a
+consistent,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins>
+interoperable
+identifier
+used
+to
+identify
+the
+participants
+and
+accounts
+in
+a
+Web
+Payments
+transaction.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="use-cases-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#use-cases-1" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h2 id="use-cases" resource="#use-cases">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Use
+Cases
+</span>
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+section
+examines
+the
+phases
+of
+payment,
+and
+the
+steps
+involved
+in
+each
+phase,
+through
+a
+variety
+of
+use
+cases.
+The
+purpose
+of
+this
+section
+is
+to
+elaborate
+on
+the
+variety
+of
+scenarios
+present
+in
+each
+step
+of
+the
+payment
+process.
+</p>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h-issue4">
+<span>
+Issue
+4
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+General
+feedback
+is
+requested
+related
+to
+the
+general
+structure
+of
+the
+use
+case
+snippets
+below.
+Are
+they
+focused
+enough
+to
+convey
+each
+topic
+listed?
+Is
+there
+information
+that
+should
+be
+added
+to
+each
+use
+case
+in
+general?
+Would
+more
+elaborate
+use
+cases
+be
+helpful?
+Would
+an
+attempt
+to
+minimize
+each
+existing
+use
+further
+be
+helpful
+in
+scanning
+the
+document
+more
+quickly?
+</p>
+</div>
+<section id="negotiation-of-payment-terms-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#negotiation-of-payment-terms-1" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-negotiation-of-payment-terms-1" resource="#h-negotiation-of-payment-terms-1">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Terms
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+</p>
+<section id="discovery-of-offer" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#discovery-of-offer" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-discovery-of-offer" resource="#h-discovery-of-offer">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1.1
+</span>
+Discovery
+of
+Offer
+</span>
+</h4>
+<dl id="uc-website" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Website
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Penny
+uses
+the
+HobbyCo
+website
+to
+select
+a
+$15
+model
+train
+for
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+human
+being
+seeing
+a
+visual
+offer
+of
+sale
+on
+a
+website
+</ins>
+is
+the
+most
+common
+<del class="diff-old">type
+of
+offer
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">way
+offers
+are
+discovered
+</ins>
+on
+the
+Web
+<del class="diff-old">circa
+2015
+and
+is
+included
+for
+the
+sake
+of
+completeness.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">today
+(2015).
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-pos-kiosk" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Point
+of
+Sale
+Kiosk
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Cory
+shops
+for
+groceries
+at
+his
+local
+ChowMart,
+scans
+<ins class="diff-new">his
+loyalty
+card
+and
+</ins>
+all
+of
+the
+items
+he
+wants
+to
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+at
+the
+automated
+kiosk,
+<ins class="diff-new">requests
+a
+cash
+back
+amount,
+</ins>
+and
+is
+presented
+with
+a
+total
+amount.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Unifying
+<del class="diff-old">POS
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">point
+of
+sale
+</ins>
+interaction
+w/
+the
+Web
+Payments
+architecture
+is
+vital
+for
+the
+success
+of
+this
+work.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Accessibility
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+At
+present
+kiosks
+are
+rarely
+accessible
+to
+blind
+people,
+people
+with
+low
+vision,
+people
+who
+use
+wheelchairs,
+or
+people
+with
+restricted
+mobility
+that
+makes
+touch
+interaction
+difficult
+or
+impossible.
+They
+don’t
+tend
+to
+offer
+speech
+output,
+any
+ability
+to
+zoom
+or
+customise
+colours,
+may
+be
+difficult
+to
+reach
+from
+a
+wheelchair/sitting
+position,
+and
+do
+not
+accept
+voice
+commands.
+Enabling
+as
+much
+of
+the
+payment
+interaction
+to
+move
+to
+a
+customer-held
+device
+with
+accessibility
+features
+would
+help
+alleviate
+a
+number
+of
+barriers
+that
+exist
+today.
+</ins></dd><dt>
+Privacy
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Cory
+should
+exercise
+control
+over
+how
+much
+he
+wants
+the
+merchant
+to
+be
+able
+to
+track
+his
+activities.
+Programs
+like
+loyalty
+cards
+will
+likely
+involve
+agreement
+to
+more
+data
+with
+the
+merchant.
+<br>
+<ins class="diff-new">Making
+kiosks
+that
+are
+used
+for
+financial
+transactions
+accessible
+introduces
+several
+challenges.
+Speech
+output
+may
+be
+overheard
+by
+people
+nearby,
+increased
+text
+size
+and/or
+visibility
+of
+content
+may
+make
+it
+easier
+for
+other
+people
+to
+read,
+and
+voice
+commands
+may
+also
+be
+overheard.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-mobile" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Mobile
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Daniel
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+mobile
+device
+can
+be
+used
+to
+discover
+an
+offer
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+ways:
+</ins><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Hani
+</ins>
+takes
+a
+taxi
+from
+the
+airport
+to
+his
+hotel.
+The
+taxi
+driver
+displays
+the
+total
+with
+his
+mobile
+<del class="diff-old">device
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">device.
+Hani
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">offers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+taxi
+driver
+touch
+their
+mobile
+devices
+to
+each
+other.
+The
+total
+appears
+on
+Hani's
+mobile
+device.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+is
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">tap-to-pay
+option.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quick
+Response
+Code
+(QR
+Code)
+printed
+on
+the
+bottom
+of
+a
+cup
+that
+Donna
+wants
+to
+buy.
+Donna
+uses
+her
+mobile
+phone
+app
+to
+capture
+the
+QR
+Code,
+view
+the
+price
+of
+the
+item,
+and
+add
+it
+to
+the
+list
+of
+items
+that
+she
+is
+buying
+from
+the
+store.
+</ins></li></ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Innovation,
+Automatability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Unifying
+the
+way
+<del class="diff-old">tap-to-pay
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">proximity
+mobile
+</ins>
+offers
+work
+with
+the
+Web
+Payments
+architecture
+would
+help
+ensure
+ubiquity.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Accessibility
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+auditory
+cue
+notifying
+people
+that
+have
+low
+vision
+or
+are
+blind
+that
+a
+payment
+offer/invoice
+is
+awaiting
+their
+response
+as
+well
+as
+providing
+guidance
+on
+how
+close
+their
+payment
+device
+is
+to
+the
+payment
+terminal
+would
+be
+helpful.
+</ins></dd><dt>
+Exceptions
+</dt>
+<dd>
+No
+mobile
+phone
+connectivity
+<del class="diff-old">(visiting
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(e.g.
+visiting
+</ins>
+a
+different
+<del class="diff-old">country,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">country
+or
+</ins>
+trip
+occurs
+outside
+the
+range
+of
+a
+mobile
+<del class="diff-old">network,
+etc.)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">network).
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-freemium" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Freemium
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Ricki
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Chaoxiang
+</ins>
+plays
+his
+favorite
+native
+app
+game
+and
+wants
+to
+upgrade
+his
+avatar
+with
+a
+few
+extra
+<del class="diff-old">"power-ups."
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"power-ups".
+</ins>
+Clicking
+on
+a
+power-up
+displays
+the
+price.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+and
+Transparency.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Many
+of
+the
+very
+successful
+games
+these
+days
+run
+on
+the
+freemium
+model,
+but
+are
+tied
+to
+specific
+app
+stores.
+Providing
+an
+app-store
+agnostic
+mechanism
+to
+pay
+for
+items
+in
+freemium
+games
+would
+give
+players
+and
+developers
+more
+choices.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<del class="diff-old">6.1.1.1
+Non-Essential
+Use
+Cases
+</del>
+<dl id="uc-email" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">E-mail
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Email
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+GroupBuyCo
+customer
+receives
+an
+offer
+by
+email
+to
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+the
+deal
+of
+the
+day.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+and
+Automatability.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Unifying
+how
+people
+initiate
+payments
+from
+email,
+at
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Point
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">point
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">Sale,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">sale,
+</ins>
+and
+via
+a
+Web
+site
+will
+help
+ensure
+the
+ubiquity
+of
+the
+Web
+payment
+technology
+platform.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+</dt>
+<dd>
+It
+is
+important
+to
+recognize
+that
+initiating
+a
+payment
+from
+within
+an
+email
+application
+could
+lead
+to
+a
+wholly
+new
+category
+of
+phishing/fraud.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-hold-funds" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Hold
+Funds
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Renne
+checks
+into
+a
+hotel
+and
+is
+asked
+for
+a
+deposit
+for
+any
+damages
+to
+the
+room.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Increased
+user
+choice,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">By
+design,
+some
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Some
+</ins>
+<a title="transaction" href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transactions
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">such
+as
+a
+hold
+of
+funds,
+</ins>
+do
+not
+<ins class="diff-new">always
+</ins>
+reach
+<del class="diff-old">completion.
+Some
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">completion
+and
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">merely
+there
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">primarily
+used
+</ins>
+to
+protect
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">(e.g.,
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">from
+negligence
+on
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">event
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">part
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">questionable
+judgment
+by
+</del>
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(e.g.,
+such
+as
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+damaging
+a
+hotel
+room).
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Exceptions
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Software
+acting
+on
+the
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer's
+</a>
+behalf
+may
+keep
+track
+of
+exactly
+how
+much
+money
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+has
+<ins class="diff-new">available
+</ins>
+and
+not
+allow
+them
+to
+process
+the
+offer.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-preauth" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Pre-authorization
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">George
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Krishna
+</ins>
+pulls
+up
+to
+a
+pump
+at
+a
+petrol
+station.
+His
+in-vehicle
+application
+recognizes
+the
+station
+location
+and
+the
+pump.
+The
+pump
+communicates
+which
+fuels
+it
+has
+and
+their
+price
+in
+an
+offer.
+<del class="diff-old">George's
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Krishna's
+</ins>
+car
+asks
+if
+he
+wants
+to
+approve
+a
+fill
+up
+for
+up
+to
+€35.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Innovation,
+Transparency,
+Automatability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Some
+offers
+are
+not
+aware
+of
+the
+final
+price
+but
+would
+rather
+set
+limits
+on
+the
+amount
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+before
+a
+particular
+metered
+good
+or
+service
+is
+delivered.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Due
+to
+the
+sensitivity
+of
+location
+data,
+individuals
+should
+be
+able
+to
+make
+small
+fuel
+<a title="purchase" href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchases
+</a>
+in
+a
+way
+that
+respects
+their
+privacy.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Security
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Automated
+<a title="purchase" href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchases
+</a>
+(e.g,.
+by
+a
+vehicle)
+<del class="diff-old">should
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+</ins>
+involve
+increased
+<ins class="diff-new">logging
+and
+</ins>
+security
+(e.g.,
+a
+second
+factor
+of
+authentication).
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+a
+pre-authorization
+is
+initiated
+by
+a
+software
+agent
+(such
+as
+a
+vehicle)
+due
+to
+a
+</ins><a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payer's
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+negligence,
+the
+regulatory
+environment
+may
+assert
+that
+the
+software
+manufacturer
+is
+liable
+if
+the
+proper
+consent
+notifications
+were
+not
+displayed
+when
+the
+pre-authorization
+rule
+was
+activated.
+</ins></dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-machine-readability" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Machine
+Readability
+</dt>
+<dd>
+BigBoxCo
+expresses
+their
+entire
+product
+catalog
+online
+as
+machine-readable
+information
+so
+that
+SearchCo
+may
+index
+their
+content
+more
+easily
+and
+direct
+more
+customer
+traffic
+to
+BigBoxCo's
+website.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+Lower
+Costs,
+Transparency,
+Automatability,
+Portability,
+Monetization,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Machine-readable
+offers
+will
+have
+a
+direct
+positive
+impact
+on
+store
+sales
+if
+they
+are
+indexed
+by
+search
+engines.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-live-prices" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Live
+Market
+Prices
+</dt>
+<dd>
+EnergyCo
+lists
+barrels
+of
+refined
+oil
+for
+sale
+on
+their
+website
+based
+on
+an
+algorithm
+that
+uses
+the
+cost
+of
+coal
+and
+crude
+oil
+as
+inputs.
+EnergyCo
+guarantees
+their
+prices
+for
+up
+to
+24
+hours
+from
+the
+posting
+date.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+Transparency,
+and
+Automatability
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+ability
+to
+express
+a
+non-repudiable
+offer
+as
+the
+basis
+of
+a
+legally
+enforceable
+contract
+will
+reduce
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+friction.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Listing
+inaccurate
+prices
+or
+not
+honoring
+prices
+could
+be
+prosecuted
+under
+certain
+regulatory
+regimes.
+</ins></dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-trialware" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Trial-ware
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Trialware
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Amantha
+downloads
+the
+latest
+version
+of
+her
+favorite
+game
+and
+beats
+the
+first
+level.
+The
+game
+asks
+her
+if
+she'd
+like
+to
+buy
+the
+full
+game
+to
+play
+further
+levels.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Monetization,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+There
+is
+a
+fairly
+large
+<del class="diff-old">trial-ware
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">trialware
+</ins>
+industry
+that
+could
+benefit
+from
+a
+simple
+way
+of
+executing
+a
+payment
+without
+requiring
+redirection
+to
+another
+site
+to
+enter
+account
+and
+payment
+details.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-vehicle" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+In-vehicle
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Jeff
+listens
+to
+a
+lot
+of
+music
+on
+the
+way
+to
+work.
+The
+music
+station
+serves
+a
+digital
+offer
+along
+with
+the
+music
+stream.
+This
+enables
+Jeff
+to
+easily
+buy
+music
+that
+he
+really
+likes.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+Monetization,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Car
+manufacturers
+and
+the
+entertainment
+industry
+may
+be
+interested
+in
+extending
+their
+sales
+channels
+into
+vehicles.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Accessibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+For
+safety
+reasons,
+the
+interface
+used
+to
+interact
+with
+the
+digital
+offer
+must
+not
+<del class="diff-old">distract
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">lead
+to
+an
+increase
+in
+vehicle
+accidents.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+It
+may
+be
+illegal
+to
+provide
+services
+such
+as
+this
+if
+the
+vehicle
+is
+in
+motion
+or
+if
+it
+requires
+</ins>
+the
+driver
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+look
+away
+from
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">vehicle.
+Voice
+controls
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">road.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-memorable-ids" class="dl-horizontal"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Memorable
+Ids
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Vern
+sends
+money
+to
+his
+friend
+Milena
+by
+typing
+in
+Milena's
+mobile
+phone
+number
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">other
+techniques
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+amount
+he
+wants
+to
+send.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Uncategorized
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Some
+countries,
+like
+the
+United
+Kingdom,
+maintain
+registries
+that
+map
+memorable
+identifiers
+like
+mobile
+phone
+numbers
+to
+bank
+accounts.
+These
+memorable
+payment
+identifiers
+</ins>
+can
+be
+used
+to
+<del class="diff-old">reduce
+driver
+distraction.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transmit
+money
+from
+person
+to
+person
+using
+direct
+bank
+to
+bank
+transfers.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="agreement-on-terms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#agreement-on-terms" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-agreement-on-terms" resource="#h-agreement-on-terms">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1.2
+</span>
+Agreement
+on
+Terms
+</span>
+</h4>
+<p>
+</p>
+<dl id="uc-one-time-payment" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-chg">One-time
+Payment
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Jamie
+wishes
+to
+pay
+for
+a
+single
+article
+from
+a
+market
+analyst.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+1.0
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+It
+should
+be
+clear
+to
+a
+</ins><a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+whether
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+purchase
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+one-time
+or
+recurring,
+prior
+to
+initiation
+of
+the
+payment.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-registrationless" class="dl-horizontal"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Registration-less
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Some
+</ins><a title="payee" href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payees
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+would
+rather
+not
+require
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+register
+at
+their
+site
+before
+initiating
+a
+purchase:
+</ins><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Sven
+wants
+to
+view
+a
+pay
+to
+read
+article
+and
+does
+so
+without
+needing
+to
+pre-register
+with
+the
+website.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Reiko
+finds
+a
+blowtorch
+for
+sale
+at
+a
+local
+digital
+resale
+website
+and
+places
+money
+into
+escrow
+without
+needing
+to
+register
+with
+the
+website.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Olaseni
+is
+listening
+to
+music
+in
+a
+local
+coffee
+shop
+and
+likes
+a
+song
+he
+hears.
+He
+initiates
+a
+purchase
+of
+the
+song
+from
+the
+local
+"music
+beacon"
+without
+needing
+to
+register
+with
+the
+coffee
+shop
+or
+the
+music
+service.
+</ins></li></ul></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+1.0
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+are
+a
+large
+number
+of
+"paywall"
+websites
+on
+the
+Web
+that
+require
+a
+customer
+to
+register
+before
+they
+may
+use
+the
+website.
+In
+many
+cases,
+if
+the
+site
+isn't
+regularly
+visited
+by
+the
+customer,
+they
+abandon
+the
+transaction
+when
+they
+see
+the
+paywall
+requirement.
+Providing
+a
+mechanism
+to
+sell
+an
+inexpensive
+item
+to
+a
+customer
+without
+requiring
+registration
+would
+be
+of
+great
+benefit
+to
+not
+only
+the
+merchants
+selling
+goods
+and
+services,
+but
+customers
+that
+would
+like
+to
+avoid
+lengthy
+registration
+processes.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Accessibility
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+People
+who
+are
+on
+the
+Autistic
+spectrum
+may
+require
+trust
+with
+the
+merchant
+to
+be
+established
+through
+a
+more
+formal
+means
+to
+prevent
+distress
+and
+abandonment
+of
+the
+transaction.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-subscription" class="dl-horizontal"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Subscription
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Larissa
+subscribes
+to
+a
+site
+that
+provides
+a
+monthly
+analysis
+of
+the
+world
+of
+finance.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+1.0
+(if
+time
+permits)
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Payers
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+be
+able
+to
+understand
+if
+a
+particular
+</ins><a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+purchase
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+recurring
+payment
+prior
+to
+initiating
+the
+payment.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Some
+regulations
+may
+require
+that
+subscriptions
+should
+be
+automatically
+canceled
+after
+the
+subscription
+time
+span
+unless
+explicitly
+renewed
+by
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a>.</dd></dl><dl id="uc-credentials" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Credentials
+</dt>
+<dd>
+At
+times
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+transmit
+personally
+identifiable
+information
+(e.g.,
+about
+a
+qualification,
+achievement,
+personal
+quality,
+aspect
+of
+an
+<a href="#dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">
+entity
+</a>
+'s
+background,
+or
+verifiable
+statement
+by
+an
+entity
+about
+another
+entity)
+in
+order
+to
+be
+cleared
+to
+make
+a
+purchase:
+<ul>
+<li>
+PharmCo
+will
+only
+sell
+regulated
+drugs
+to
+someone
+with
+proof
+of
+an
+active
+pharmacist's
+license.
+</li>
+<li>
+WineCo
+will
+only
+sell
+wine
+to
+someone
+with
+proof
+of
+being
+over
+the
+age
+of
+21.
+</li>
+<li>
+BoomCo
+will
+only
+ship
+industrial
+explosives
+to
+a
+business
+that
+can
+provide
+evidence
+of
+construction
+permits,
+a
+contractor's
+license,
+and
+an
+explosives
+handling
+license.
+</li>
+<li>
+HomeLoanCo
+will
+not
+finalize
+a
+quote
+for
+a
+home
+mortgage
+without
+a
+credit
+score
+report
+and
+an
+audited
+finances
+report.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Regulatory
+acceptance,
+Innovation,
+Transparency,
+Automatability,
+and
+Portability.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+There
+are
+certain
+types
+of
+<a title="purchase" href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchases
+</a>
+that
+cannot
+be
+initiated
+without
+a
+proper
+set
+of
+credentials.
+While
+this
+isn't
+fundamental
+to
+the
+payment
+process,
+it
+is
+an
+integral
+part
+of
+some
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+processes.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+</dt>
+<dd>
+It
+is
+important
+that
+people
+retain
+control
+over
+when
+and
+how
+their
+credentials
+are
+shared.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+There
+are
+a
+large
+number
+of
+regulations
+covering
+the
+collection,
+storage,
+and
+usage
+of
+personally
+identifiable
+information.
+Any
+system
+designed
+to
+transmit
+or
+collect
+credentials
+must
+conform
+to
+all
+local
+and
+federal
+regulations
+related
+to
+identity
+and
+privacy.
+</ins></dd><dt>
+Exceptions
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+may
+fail
+if
+a
+required
+credential
+is
+not
+available.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-privacy" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Privacy
+Protection
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Tibor
+orders
+<del class="diff-old">assorted
+</del>
+chocolates
+from
+CandyCo.
+CandyCo
+<del class="diff-old">only
+needs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">requests
+</ins>
+Tibor's
+<del class="diff-old">verified
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">tokenized
+</ins>
+shipping
+address
+to
+send
+him
+the
+<del class="diff-old">chocolates.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">candy.
+</ins>
+With
+Tibor's
+authorization,
+his
+payment
+software
+transmits
+<del class="diff-old">only
+his
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+tokenized
+</ins>
+shipping
+address
+to
+<del class="diff-old">CandyCo.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">BoomCo
+that
+the
+shipper
+can
+decipher.
+</ins>
+Tibor's
+privacy
+is
+protected
+from
+the
+candy
+store,
+which
+did
+not
+require
+<del class="diff-old">Tibor's
+name,
+email
+address,
+or
+</del>
+any
+<del class="diff-old">other
+</del>
+personally
+identifying
+information
+to
+complete
+the
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+and
+Greater
+security.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Certain
+low-value
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+s
+shouldn't
+require
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+to
+divulge
+personal
+information
+that
+is
+not
+necessary
+to
+complete
+the
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Non-essential,
+personally
+identifiable
+data
+should
+be
+anonymized
+and
+protected
+throughout
+the
+process.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-need-to-know" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Need
+to
+Know
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">PayCo
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">PayCo,
+a
+payment
+processor,
+</ins>
+is
+required
+to
+keep
+a
+certain
+amount
+of
+information
+on
+their
+customers
+for
+anti-money
+laundering
+/
+know
+your
+customer
+regulatory
+purposes.
+When
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+performs
+a
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+with
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>,
+PayCo
+would
+like
+to
+reduce
+the
+amount
+of
+information
+that's
+transmitted
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+while
+ensuring
+that
+PayCo
+complies
+with
+regulations.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Greater
+security,
+and
+Regulatory
+acceptance.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+There
+are
+types
+of
+information,
+such
+as
+personally
+identifiable
+information,
+that
+<a title="payee" href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payees
+</a>
+do
+not
+need
+to
+know
+for
+some
+transactions.
+Limiting
+sensitive
+information
+to
+be
+transmitted
+to
+entities
+involved
+in
+a
+payment
+on
+a
+purely
+need-to-know
+basis
+increases
+security
+while
+ensuring
+regulatory
+compliance.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<del class="diff-old">One-time
+Payment
+Jamie
+wishes
+to
+pay
+for
+a
+single
+article
+from
+a
+market
+analyst.
+Goals
+Improved
+user
+experience
+</del>
+<dl id="uc-invoices" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Motivation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Invoices
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">It
+should
+be
+clear
+to
+a
+payer
+whether
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">There
+are
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">purchase
+is
+one-time
+or
+recurring,
+prior
+to
+initiation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">large
+variety
+</ins>
+of
+<ins class="diff-new">invoices
+that
+are
+used
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">payment.
+Invoices
+Will
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">world:
+</ins><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Sunan
+</ins>
+goes
+to
+SuperVoices
+to
+download
+a
+voiceover
+that
+he
+commissioned
+for
+his
+new
+pet
+sitting
+service.
+SuperVoices
+generates
+a
+detailed
+invoice
+for
+the
+service
+and
+provides
+it
+to
+<del class="diff-old">Will.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Sunan.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+João
+is
+given
+an
+electronic
+</ins><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boleto"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Boleto
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+by
+a
+technology
+website
+to
+pay
+for
+a
+new
+laptop.
+</ins></li></ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Transparency,
+Automatability,
+Portability,
+and
+Monetization.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+For
+certain
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+will
+have
+to
+provide
+the
+payment
+service
+with
+a
+detailed
+digital
+invoice
+from
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+in
+order
+to
+initiate
+payment
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<del class="diff-old">6.1.2.1
+Non-essential
+Use
+Cases
+Subscription
+Jeff
+subscribes
+to
+a
+site
+that
+provides
+a
+monthly
+analysis
+of
+the
+world
+of
+finance.
+Goals
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Transparency,
+and
+Automatability.
+Motivation
+Payers
+should
+be
+able
+to
+understand
+if
+a
+particular
+purchase
+is
+a
+recurring
+payment
+prior
+to
+initiating
+the
+payment.
+Registration-less
+Some
+payees
+would
+rather
+not
+require
+a
+payer
+to
+register
+at
+their
+site
+before
+initiating
+a
+purchase:
+Sven
+wants
+to
+view
+a
+pay
+to
+read
+article
+and
+does
+so
+without
+needing
+to
+pre-register
+with
+the
+website.
+Reiko
+finds
+a
+blowtorch
+for
+sale
+at
+a
+local
+digital
+resale
+website
+and
+places
+money
+into
+escrow
+without
+needing
+to
+register
+with
+the
+website.
+Benny
+is
+listening
+to
+music
+in
+a
+local
+coffee
+shop
+and
+likes
+a
+song
+he
+hears.
+He
+initiates
+a
+purchase
+of
+the
+song
+from
+the
+local
+"music
+beacon"
+without
+needing
+to
+register
+with
+the
+coffee
+shop
+or
+the
+music
+service.
+Goals
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Innovation,
+and
+Automatability
+Motivation
+There
+are
+a
+large
+number
+of
+"paywall"
+websites
+on
+the
+Web
+that
+require
+a
+customer
+to
+register
+before
+they
+may
+use
+the
+website.
+In
+many
+cases,
+if
+the
+site
+isn't
+regularly
+visited
+by
+the
+customer,
+they
+abandon
+the
+transaction
+when
+they
+see
+the
+paywall
+requirement.
+Providing
+a
+mechanism
+to
+sell
+an
+inexpensive
+item
+to
+a
+customer
+without
+requiring
+registration
+would
+be
+of
+great
+benefit
+to
+not
+only
+the
+merchants
+selling
+goods
+and
+services,
+but
+customers
+that
+would
+like
+to
+avoid
+lengthy
+registration
+processes.
+</del>
+<dl id="uc-full-disclosure" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Full
+Disclosure
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Marge
+wishes
+to
+renew
+her
+passport
+online
+which
+requires
+transmission
+of
+a
+fee
+and
+a
+great
+deal
+of
+information
+about
+her
+real-world
+identity.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Some
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+s
+will
+require
+very
+sensitive
+personally
+identifiable
+information
+to
+be
+transmitted
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+</dt>
+<dd>
+We
+must
+ensure
+adequate
+security
+for
+these
+highly
+sensitive
+transactions
+to
+reduce
+the
+likelihood
+of
+phishing
+attacks.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="application-of-marketing-elements" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#application-of-marketing-elements" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-application-of-marketing-elements" resource="#h-application-of-marketing-elements">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1.3
+</span>
+Application
+of
+Marketing
+Elements
+</span>
+</h4>
+<p>
+</p>
+<dl id="uc-coupons" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Coupons
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JustPopcorn
+sends
+Marco
+a
+special
+discount
+offer
+given
+Marco's
+past
+<a title="purchase" href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchases
+</a>.
+The
+offer
+takes
+the
+form
+of
+a
+coupon
+that
+may
+be
+applied
+during
+payment.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Automatability
+and
+Portability.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Providing
+a
+mechanism
+to
+apply
+digital
+coupons
+before
+a
+payment
+is
+initiated
+helps
+price-conscious
+customers
+as
+well
+as
+merchants
+attempting
+to
+research
+price
+sensitivity.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-loyalty" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Loyalty
+Cards
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Terry
+uses
+his
+FoodCo
+loyalty
+card
+when
+purchasing
+his
+weekly
+groceries,
+which
+gives
+him
+a
+discount
+on
+gas
+<a title="purchase" href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchases
+</a>
+performed
+at
+the
+FoodCo
+gas
+station.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience
+and
+Portability.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Loyalty
+cards
+may
+be
+used
+at
+multiple
+locations
+to
+effect
+the
+price
+of
+a
+particular
+good.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-store-credit" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Store
+Credit
+</dt>
+<dd>
+When
+<del class="diff-old">Rick
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Fjörleif
+</ins>
+arrives
+as
+the
+self-checkout
+kiosk,
+<del class="diff-old">he
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">she
+</ins>
+scans
+five
+dress
+shirts
+and
+two
+new
+pairs
+of
+<del class="diff-old">slacks.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dress
+pants.
+</ins>
+The
+kiosk
+mentions
+that
+<del class="diff-old">Rick
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Fjörleif
+</ins>
+could
+save
+15%
+off
+of
+<del class="diff-old">his
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">her
+</ins>
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+if
+<del class="diff-old">he
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">she
+</ins>
+makes
+the
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+using
+store
+credit.
+<del class="diff-old">He
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">She
+</ins>
+accepts
+the
+offer
+and
+a
+new
+store
+credit
+card
+is
+placed
+in
+<del class="diff-old">his
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">her
+</ins>
+payment
+application
+on
+<del class="diff-old">his
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">her
+</ins>
+mobile
+phone.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Automatability,
+Portability,
+Monetization,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Merchants
+often
+provide
+discounts
+to
+customers
+if
+they
+sign
+up
+for
+a
+store-specific
+line
+of
+credit.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="negotiation-of-payment-instruments-2" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#negotiation-of-payment-instruments-2" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-negotiation-of-payment-instruments-2" resource="#h-negotiation-of-payment-instruments-2">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Negotiation
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+</p>
+<section id="discovery-of-accepted-schemes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#discovery-of-accepted-schemes" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-discovery-of-accepted-schemes" resource="#h-discovery-of-accepted-schemes">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2.1
+</span>
+Discovery
+of
+Accepted
+Schemes
+</span>
+</h4>
+<p>
+</p>
+<dl id="uc-ubiquitous" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Ubiquitous
+Schemes
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+game
+store
+Web
+site
+accepts
+payment
+via
+credit
+card,
+<del class="diff-old">e-cheque,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">e-check,
+</ins>
+and
+operator
+billing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Minimal
+standardization,
+Lower
+Costs,
+Automatability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">We
+have
+a
+goal
+for
+the
+Web
+payment
+architecture
+to
+support
+existing
+ubiquitous
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Ubiquitous
+</ins>
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">should
+be
+supported
+</ins>
+without
+changes
+to
+how
+<del class="diff-old">they
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+schemes
+or
+payment
+instruments
+</ins>
+operate.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Often
+payment
+schemes
+have
+their
+own
+internal
+regulations
+as
+well
+as
+regulations
+at
+the
+local
+and
+federal
+level
+that
+cover
+the
+usage
+of
+the
+scheme.
+</ins></dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-emerging" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Emerging
+Schemes
+</dt>
+<dd>
+CrowdFundCo
+supports
+Bitcoin,
+Ripple,
+Google
+Wallet,
+and
+PayPal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Minimal
+standardization,
+Lower
+Costs,
+Automatability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+same
+mechanism
+used
+to
+support
+existing
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>
+should
+also
+support
+emerging
+<a title="payment scheme" href="#dfn-payment-scheme" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+schemes
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="selection-of-payment-instruments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#selection-of-payment-instruments" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-selection-of-payment-instruments" resource="#h-selection-of-payment-instruments">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2.2
+</span>
+Selection
+of
+Payment
+Instruments
+</span>
+</h4>
+<p>
+</p>
+<dl id="uc-discovery" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Discovery
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Yanos
+has
+a
+multiple
+digital
+wallets:
+one
+on
+his
+mobile
+phone,
+two
+in
+the
+cloud
+(but
+on
+different
+websites),
+and
+one
+on
+his
+smart
+watch.
+Each
+one
+has
+a
+credit
+card
+that
+he
+may
+want
+to
+use
+for
+a
+credit
+card-based
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Automatability,
+Portability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+will
+most
+likely
+use
+multiple
+digital
+wallets
+over
+time.
+It
+is
+important
+to
+ensure
+that
+the
+wallets
+that
+they
+use
+are
+presented
+to
+them
+in
+a
+consistent
+manner
+across
+devices.
+<span class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+amount
+of
+wallet/payment
+instrument
+discovery
+flexibility
+that
+version
+1.0
+should
+support
+is
+currently
+unknown.
+</ins></span></dd><dt><ins class="diff-new">
+Accessibility
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+consistent
+presentation
+of
+digital
+wallet
+interfaces
+also
+includes
+consistent
+accessibility
+hints
+that
+are
+exposed
+in
+an
+interoperable
+fashion
+so
+that
+devices
+that
+are
+accessability-aware
+can
+easily
+integrate
+with
+the
+transaction
+process.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Discovery
+of
+digital
+wallets
+must
+be
+done
+in
+such
+a
+way
+as
+to
+ensure
+privacy
+protection.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-payer-privacy" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Payer
+Privacy
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+We
+anticipate
+a
+range
+of
+privacy
+scenarios:
+</ins><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Lucio
+sends
+information
+about
+instruments
+he
+is
+willing
+to
+use
+to
+TrustedMerchant,
+who
+provides
+a
+discount
+for
+access
+to
+his
+information.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Carla
+does
+not
+want
+to
+share
+information
+about
+the
+</ins><a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payment
+instruments
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+she
+uses
+with
+any
+merchants,
+so
+that
+information
+is
+not
+shared
+with
+any
+online
+merchants.
+</ins></li></ul></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+1.0
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Sharing
+or
+protecting
+data
+on
+the
+sorts
+of
+</ins><a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payment
+instruments
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+available
+to
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+be
+a
+decision
+made
+by
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+types
+of
+</ins><a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payment
+instruments
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+available
+to
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+could
+be
+used
+to
+digitally
+fingerprint
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+even
+if
+they
+were
+using
+an
+pseudo-anonymous
+payment
+mechanism.
+Merchants
+and
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payee
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+may
+be
+legally
+obligated
+to
+protect
+this
+kind
+of
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+payment
+information.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-manual-selection" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Manual
+Selection
+</dt>
+<dd>
+In
+many
+cases,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+will
+select
+a
+payment
+instrument
+manually:
+<ul>
+<li>
+Marie
+has
+credit
+cards
+from
+three
+different
+institutions:
+one
+for
+work
+(from
+BankA),
+one
+personal
+card
+(from
+BankB),
+and
+one
+retail
+card
+(from
+PayCo).
+She
+wants
+to
+choose
+the
+right
+one
+depending
+on
+the
+context
+of
+her
+purchase.
+</li>
+<li>
+Claire
+has
+one
+debit
+card
+and
+multiple
+credit
+cards
+from
+the
+same
+bank.
+</li>
+<li>
+Veronique
+wants
+to
+use
+a
+cryptocurrency
+in
+some
+cases
+(e.g.,
+peer-to-peer
+payments).
+</li>
+<li>
+Seth
+participates
+in
+a
+loyalty
+program
+with
+his
+local
+grocery
+store
+and
+can
+apply
+a
+variety
+of
+digital
+coupons
+when
+he
+visits
+the
+store.
+<span class="issue">
+Is
+a
+loyalty
+card
+a
+payment
+instrument,
+or
+a
+credential?
+</span>
+</li>
+<li>
+David
+wants
+to
+be
+able
+to
+manually
+arrange
+available
+<a title="payment instrument" href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+instruments
+</a>
+when
+they
+are
+presented
+to
+him.
+<span class="issue">
+Why
+does
+this
+need
+to
+be
+standardized?
+Isn't
+this
+just
+a
+part
+of
+the
+wallet
+UI?
+</span>
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">Fergus
+wants
+to
+pay
+for
+a
+meal
+using
+two
+different
+payment
+instruments:
+cash
+and
+a
+company
+credit
+card.
+He'd
+like
+to
+pay
+$20.24
+with
+the
+company
+credit
+card
+and
+provide
+a
+$5
+tip
+with
+digital
+cash.
+</ins></li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+Transparency,
+Portability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+There
+are
+scenarios,
+such
+as
+the
+first
+interaction/use
+of
+a
+payment
+instrument,
+where
+selection
+of
+the
+payment
+instrument
+won't
+be
+able
+to
+be
+performed
+automatically.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-automatic-selection" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Automatic
+Selection
+</dt>
+<dd>
+When
+a
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer's
+</a>
+personal
+preferences
+are
+known,
+it
+becomes
+possible
+to
+make
+selections
+for
+them
+automatically.
+<ul>
+<li>
+Jonny's
+payment
+software
+on
+his
+smart
+watch
+chooses
+the
+payment
+instrument
+that
+will
+provide
+him
+with
+the
+biggest
+cost
+savings
+for
+each
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+he
+makes
+throughout
+the
+week.
+</li>
+<li>
+PayCo
+wants
+Elizabeth
+to
+know
+that
+if
+she
+pays
+with
+the
+debit
+card
+preferred
+by
+PayCo
+(because
+of
+a
+lower
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+fee
+for
+PayCo),
+she
+will
+benefit
+from
+a
+discount.
+</li>
+<li>
+Whenever
+Mary
+shops
+at
+BigFreshGrocery
+she
+uses
+the
+same
+credit
+card.
+She
+wants
+payment
+to
+happen
+automatically
+with
+that
+card
+when
+she
+puts
+her
+phone
+near
+the
+checkout
+terminal
+as
+well
+as
+when
+purchasing
+groceries
+online
+from
+BigFreshGrocery.
+</li>
+<li>
+Lalana
+does
+not
+like
+to
+scroll.
+She
+wants
+the
+instruments
+she
+uses
+most
+often
+to
+appear
+at
+top
+of
+the
+displayed
+list
+of
+available
+payment
+instruments.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+Lower
+Costs,
+Transparency,
+Automatability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Payment
+solutions
+providers
+can
+make
+payments
+easier
+and
+faster
+through
+automation.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="authentication-to-access-instruments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#authentication-to-access-instruments" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-authentication-to-access-instruments" resource="#h-authentication-to-access-instruments">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Authentication
+to
+Access
+Instruments
+</ins></span></h4><p></p><dl id="uc-password" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Payer
+Privacy
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Password
+Auth
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">We
+anticipate
+a
+range
+of
+privacy
+scenarios:
+Lucio
+sends
+information
+about
+instruments
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">When
+Suresh
+attempts
+to
+pay
+online,
+</ins>
+he
+is
+<del class="diff-old">willing
+to
+use
+to
+TrustedMerchant,
+who
+provides
+a
+discount
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">asked
+</ins>
+for
+<del class="diff-old">access
+to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+username
+and
+password
+by
+</ins>
+his
+<del class="diff-old">information.
+Carla
+does
+not
+want
+to
+share
+information
+about
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">payment
+service
+provider
+before
+</ins>
+the
+payment
+<del class="diff-old">instruments
+she
+uses
+with
+any
+merchants,
+so
+that
+information
+</del>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+shared
+with
+any
+online
+merchants.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">approved.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Innovation,
+and
+Monetization.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Sharing
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+most
+common
+mechanism
+for
+</ins>
+protecting
+<del class="diff-old">data
+on
+the
+sorts
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">access
+to
+</ins>
+payment
+instruments
+<del class="diff-old">available
+to
+a
+payer
+should
+be
+a
+decision
+made
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">on
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">payer
+.
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+The
+types
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Web
+in
+2015
+is
+the
+use
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">payment
+instruments
+available
+to
+a
+payer
+could
+be
+used
+to
+digitally
+fingerprint
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">payer
+even
+if
+they
+were
+using
+an
+pseudo-anonymous
+payment
+mechanism.
+Merchants
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">username
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">payee
+s
+may
+be
+legally
+obligated
+to
+protect
+this
+kind
+of
+payer
+payment
+information.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">password.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<del class="diff-old">6.2.3
+Authentication
+to
+Access
+Instruments
+</del>
+<dl id="uc-multifactor" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Multi-Factor
+</dt>
+<dd>
+We
+anticipate
+a
+range
+of
+authentication
+scenarios,
+leveraging
+a
+wide
+variety
+of
+approaches
+and
+device
+capabilities:
+<ul>
+<li>
+When
+Ian
+selects
+his
+debit
+card,
+he
+is
+prompted
+for
+a
+PIN.
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">Horace
+presses
+the
+biometric
+fingerprint
+reader
+on
+his
+phone
+to
+authorize
+a
+purchase.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+authentication
+code
+is
+sent
+to
+Tony's
+mobile
+phone
+as
+a
+text
+message
+to
+ensure
+that
+he
+is
+the
+one
+that
+initiated
+the
+payment.
+Once
+he
+enters
+the
+authentication
+code,
+the
+payment
+proceeds.
+</ins></li><li>
+Wes
+has
+configured
+his
+debit
+card
+to
+require
+a
+fingerprint
+scan
+from
+his
+mobile
+device
+and
+a
+Universal
+Two
+Factor
+(U2F)
+device
+to
+be
+used
+when
+performing
+a
+<a href="#dfn-purchase" class="internalDFN">
+purchase
+</a>
+over
+$1,000.
+</li>
+<li>
+Frederic
+taps
+his
+phone
+at
+the
+grocery
+store
+to
+pay,
+and
+BankA
+sends
+him
+a
+one-time
+password
+(OTP)
+on
+his
+mobile
+phone
+that
+he
+enters
+using
+a
+keypad
+at
+the
+checkout
+counter.
+</li>
+<li>
+Nadia's
+bank
+asks
+her
+to
+use
+her
+two-factor
+authentication
+device
+and
+at
+least
+one
+of
+their
+in-branch
+retinal
+scanners
+or
+palm-vein
+readers
+before
+she
+is
+allowed
+to
+withdraw
+$25,000.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Minimal
+standardization,
+Regulatory
+acceptance,
+Innovation,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+payments
+architecture
+should
+support
+the
+authentication
+devices
+available
+today
+for
+multi-factor
+authentication,
+as
+well
+as
+those
+of
+the
+future.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Accessibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Not
+everyone
+can
+provide
+fingerprints
+or
+detailed
+iris
+scans.
+Therefore,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+offer
+multiple
+forms
+of
+biometric
+verification
+to
+improve
+<del class="diff-old">accessibility.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">accessibility
+in
+addition
+to
+providing
+alternatives
+to
+biometric
+verification,
+such
+as
+strong
+two-factor
+verification.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-kyc" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Regulatory
+Blocks
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">KYC
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">PayCo
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+number
+of
+Know
+Your
+Customer
+(KYC)
+requirements
+</ins>
+must
+<ins class="diff-new">be
+met
+when
+a
+financial
+service
+provider
+authorizes
+access
+to
+a
+particular
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payment-instrument" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+payment
+instrument
+</ins></a>:<ul><li><ins class="diff-new">
+BigBank
+performs
+KYC
+clearing
+on
+a
+continuous
+basis
+to
+</ins>
+ensure
+that
+their
+customers
+<del class="diff-old">do
+not
+appear
+on
+any
+regulatory
+blacklists
+when
+performing
+transaction
+s
+above
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+properly
+vetted
+before
+participating
+in
+financial
+transactions.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Multigen,
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">wealth
+management
+company,
+must
+ensure
+that
+their
+customer's
+are
+accredited
+investors
+before
+allowing
+them
+to
+directly
+manage
+</ins>
+certain
+<del class="diff-old">monetary
+amount.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">investments
+in
+their
+account.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Central
+Bank
+of
+Pakistan
+enables
+independent
+mobile
+resellers
+to
+perform
+minimal
+thumbprint-based
+KYC
+clearing
+in
+remote
+regions
+of
+the
+country.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Pharmaxis,
+a
+medical
+drug
+reseller,
+requires
+that
+a
+customer
+is
+licensed
+to
+practice
+medicine
+and
+write
+prescriptions
+for
+Class
+2
+medications
+(highly
+addictive
+drugs
+with
+a
+known
+medical
+use)
+before
+a
+purchase
+is
+allowed
+to
+proceed.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Dr.
+Kubo
+provides
+a
+set
+of
+explosives
+expert
+KYC
+credentials
+at
+the
+time
+of
+transaction
+to
+meet
+transaction
+requirements
+managed
+by
+the
+financial
+institution
+and
+merchant.
+</ins></li></ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Regulatory
+acceptance,
+and
+Automatability.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Easing
+compliance
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Authorization
+to
+access
+an
+instrument
+depends
+on
+more
+than
+just
+authenticating
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">Know
+Your
+Customer
+(KYC)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+payment
+service
+provider,
+it
+may
+also
+require
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payee
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+have
+other
+provable
+qualities
+before
+the
+transaction
+can
+proceed.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Regulation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+In
+many
+countries,
+a
+variety
+of
+regulations
+exist
+that
+require
+merchants
+and
+financial
+service
+providers
+to
+prove
+that
+they
+have
+vetted
+their
+customers
+before
+allowing
+a
+transaction
+to
+proceed.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-" class="dl-horizontal"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+AML
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Financial
+service
+providers,
+</ins>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">some
+merchants,
+are
+required
+to
+adhere
+to
+</ins>
+Anti-Money
+Laundering
+(AML)
+regulations
+<del class="diff-old">will
+ensure
+safer
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">by
+blocking
+transactions
+involving
+known
+bad
+actors
+or
+by
+reporting
+suspicious
+activity
+related
+to
+financial
+transactions:
+</ins><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Corresponda
+Bank's
+AML
+system
+notices
+an
+outgoing
+payment
+to
+an
+account
+listed
+as
+frozen
+by
+FinCEN
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">faster
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">prevents
+the
+</ins>
+payment
+<del class="diff-old">schemes
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">from
+proceeding.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+FasterPay,
+a
+payment
+service
+provider,
+notices
+tens
+of
+thousands
+of
+small
+transactions
+flowing
+from
+high-risk
+foreign
+accounts
+into
+a
+previously
+dormant
+domestic
+account
+and
+automatically
+files
+a
+Suspicious
+Activity
+Report.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Eastern
+Group,
+an
+international
+remittance
+system,
+verifies
+that
+both
+the
+sender
+and
+a
+recipient
+of
+an
+international
+remittance
+are
+not
+on
+a
+watch
+list
+and
+have
+known
+accounts
+at
+the
+source
+and
+destination
+of
+funds
+before
+authorizing
+the
+transaction.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Flamingo,
+a
+casino,
+automatically
+files
+a
+Currency
+Transaction
+Report
+when
+one
+of
+its
+systems
+detects
+a
+customer
+withdrawing
+over
+$10,000
+USD
+in
+winnings
+over
+the
+course
+of
+a
+day.
+</ins></li></ul></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Uncategorized
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Financial
+service
+providers,
+and
+some
+merchants,
+are
+required
+to
+adhere
+to
+Anti-Money
+Laundering
+(AML)
+regulations
+by
+reporting
+suspicious
+activity
+related
+to
+financial
+transactions
+or
+by
+blocking
+transactions
+involving
+known
+bad
+actors.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Exceptions
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+detects
+that
+a
+<a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer
+</a>
+is
+on
+an
+applicable
+blacklist,
+the
+transaction
+must
+not
+proceed.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<del class="diff-old">6.2.3.1
+Non-essential
+Use
+Cases
+</del>
+<dl id="uc-biometric" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Biometric
+</dt>
+<dd>
+In
+current
+online
+and
+offline
+payment
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+s,
+biometric
+authentication
+can
+be
+used
+instead
+of
+password-based
+authentication:
+<ul>
+<li>
+John
+registers
+his
+fingerprint
+with
+his
+payment
+provider
+so
+that
+he
+can
+just
+use
+a
+fingerprint
+to
+pay
+for
+low-value
+items.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Sarah
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Ruba
+</ins>
+registers
+her
+voiceprint
+and
+face
+with
+her
+payment
+provider
+for
+use
+in
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+s
+greater
+than
+$1,000.
+</li>
+<li>
+Rico
+buys
+a
+$5,000
+car
+for
+his
+daughter
+through
+an
+online
+dealership.
+His
+<a href="#dfn-payment-processor" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+processor
+</a>
+requires
+a
+password
+plus
+two
+forms
+of
+biometric
+identification.
+Rico
+doesn't
+have
+hands,
+so
+he
+uses
+a
+face
+and
+iris
+scan
+to
+perform
+the
+authentication.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Increased
+user
+choice,
+Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Minimal
+standardization,
+Regulatory
+acceptance,
+Innovation,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Uncategorized
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Biometrics
+can
+be
+utilized
+on
+<del class="diff-old">Point
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">point
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">Sale
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">sale
+</ins>
+terminals,
+mobile,
+and
+wearable
+devices.
+Web
+payment
+systems
+based
+on
+biometrics
+could
+achieve
+more
+reliable
+information
+security
+and
+convenience.
+Some
+forms
+of
+biometric
+authentication,
+like
+facial
+recognition,
+can
+also
+be
+used
+to
+augment
+password-based
+authentication
+mechanisms.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Security
+/
+Privacy
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<ul>
+<li>
+An
+individual's
+privacy
+should
+be
+protected
+when
+performing
+any
+sort
+of
+biometric
+authentication.
+</li>
+<li>
+Important
+data,
+such
+as
+the
+fingerprint
+template
+and
+private
+key,
+and
+sensitive
+code
+should
+be
+stored
+and
+executed
+in
+a
+Trusted
+Execution
+Environment
+(TEE).
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+fingerprint
+authentication
+protocol,
+which
+is
+capable
+of
+transmitting
+a
+proof
+of
+fingerprint
+authentication
+credential,
+should
+not
+contain
+any
+personal
+fingerprint
+data.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Accessibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Not
+everyone
+can
+provide
+fingerprints
+or
+detailed
+iris
+scans.
+Therefore,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+offer
+multiple
+forms
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+</ins>
+biometric
+verification
+to
+<del class="diff-old">improev
+accessibility.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">improve
+accessibility
+in
+addition
+to
+providing
+alternatives
+to
+biometric
+verification,
+such
+as
+strong
+two-factor
+verification.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-risk-monitoring" class="dl-horizontal"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Risk
+Monitoring
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Gao's
+payment
+processor
+service
+continuously
+monitor's
+his
+daily
+spending
+limit,
+daily
+withdrawal
+limit,
+and
+typical
+spending
+behavior
+and
+alerts
+him
+when
+a
+suspicious
+payment
+has
+been
+requested.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Uncategorized
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+As
+financial
+services
+have
+moved
+online,
+the
+number
+of
+Internet-based
+attacks
+on
+</ins><a href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+payer
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+financial
+accounts
+have
+increased.
+One
+way
+to
+protect
+against
+these
+sorts
+of
+attacks
+is
+to
+perform
+continous
+risk
+monitoring.
+</ins></dd></dl><dl id="uc-joint" class="dl-horizontal"><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Joint
+Accounts
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+ArcheryCorp's
+manufacturing
+division
+has
+a
+joint
+expense
+account
+that
+is
+shared
+among
+multiple
+employees
+to
+make
+purchases.
+The
+account
+is
+protected
+by
+an
+access
+control
+list
+as
+well
+as
+limits
+on
+the
+amount
+that
+each
+employee
+can
+spend
+without
+authorization
+by
+management.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Target
+version
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Uncategorized
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Motivation
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+are
+many
+types
+of
+accounts
+that
+are
+accessed
+via
+different
+payment
+instruments
+that
+can
+be
+shared
+in
+an
+organization.
+Access
+to
+the
+accounts
+are
+typically
+protected
+by
+one
+or
+more
+sets
+of
+authorization
+rules.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="payment-processing-2" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#payment-processing-2" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h3 id="h-payment-processing-2" resource="#h-payment-processing-2">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+Payment
+Processing
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p>
+</p>
+<section id="initiation-of-processing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#initiation-of-processing" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-initiation-of-processing" resource="#h-initiation-of-processing">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3.1
+</span>
+Initiation
+of
+Processing
+</span>
+</h4>
+<p>
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="5" role="heading" id="h-note2">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Before
+subjecting
+a
+person
+or
+organization
+to
+any
+financial
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+commitment
+(such
+as
+a
+web
+payment),
+they
+should
+be
+presented
+with
+the
+option
+of
+reversing,
+checking,
+or
+confirming
+their
+choice
+or
+submission.
+It
+should
+also
+be
+noted
+that
+this
+does
+not
+preclude
+certain
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+operations
+from
+being
+automated
+once
+they
+have
+been
+authorized
+by
+an
+<a href="#dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">
+entity
+</a>.
+For
+more
+details,
+see
+the
+section
+on
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/#minimize-error-reversible">
+Error
+Prevention
+(Legal,
+Financial,
+Data)
+</a>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WCAG20">
+WCAG20
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</div>
+<dl id="uc-payee-initiated" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Payee-initiated
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Some
+payments
+are
+initiated
+by
+the
+payee:
+<ul>
+<li>
+Richard
+choses
+to
+pay
+using
+a
+credit
+card
+at
+FlowerFriends.
+FlowerFriends
+initiates
+payment
+processing
+using
+their
+<a href="#dfn-payment-processor" class="internalDFN">
+payment
+processor
+</a>
+to
+contact
+the
+acquiring
+bank
+that
+handles
+credit
+card
+payments
+for
+FlowerFriends.
+</li>
+<li>
+Pitir
+has
+authorized
+RentSeekers
+to
+pull
+money
+out
+of
+his
+bank
+account
+on
+a
+monthly
+basis
+in
+order
+to
+pay
+his
+rent.
+RentSeekers
+initiates
+a
+payment
+using
+the
+ACH
+network
+to
+pull
+money
+from
+Pitir's
+bank
+account.
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">Fiona
+shows
+a
+QR
+Code,
+which
+contains
+her
+payment
+details,
+to
+a
+cashier
+when
+she
+is
+checking
+out.
+The
+cashier
+scans
+the
+QR
+Code
+and
+initiates
+a
+payment
+using
+the
+details
+in
+the
+QR
+Code.
+</ins></li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Automatability,
+and
+rapid,
+widespread
+adoption.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Payee-initiated
+payments,
+also
+known
+as
+"pull
+payments"
+or
+"four
+corner
+model
+payments",
+are
+widely
+deployed
+and
+utilized
+today.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Privacy
+/
+Security
+</dt>
+<dd>
+One
+of
+the
+biggest
+security
+flaws
+of
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+-initiated
+payments
+is
+that
+all
+the
+information
+necessary
+to
+initiate
+a
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+from
+the
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer's
+</a>
+financial
+account
+is
+typically
+transmitted
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>.
+For
+example,
+credit
+card
+information
+along
+with
+expiration
+date,
+name,
+and
+CVV2
+code
+are
+transmitted
+and
+could
+be
+intercepted
+by
+rogue
+software
+running
+on
+the
+<a title="payer" href="#dfn-payer" class="internalDFN">
+payer's
+</a>
+servers.
+Special
+attention
+should
+be
+paid
+to
+ensuring
+that
+this
+risky
+security
+model
+isn't
+supported
+by
+a
+Web
+Payments
+solution.
+For
+example,
+at
+a
+minimum,
+credit
+card
+tokenization
+such
+as
+EMVCo's
+solution
+should
+be
+supported
+alongside
+other
+tokenization
+solutions.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<dl id="uc-payer-initiated" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Payer-initiated
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Some
+payments
+are
+initiated
+by
+the
+payer:
+<ul>
+<li>
+Once
+Sally
+has
+signed
+into
+PayPal
+to
+pay,
+PayPal
+initiates
+payment
+processing.
+</li>
+<li>
+Joakim
+uses
+his
+Bitcoin
+wallet
+to
+send
+money
+to
+his
+friend.
+</li>
+<li>
+Carson
+(in
+New
+York
+City)
+sends
+money
+to
+<del class="diff-old">Vladamir
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Vladimir
+</ins>
+(in
+Moscow)
+using
+his
+Ripple
+client,
+which
+converts
+the
+currency
+from
+US
+Dollars
+to
+Rubels
+in
+transit.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+Greater
+security,
+Innovation,
+and
+Automatability.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Motivation
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Payer-initiated
+payments,
+also
+known
+as
+"push
+payments",
+<del class="diff-old">"three-corner
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"three
+corner
+</ins>
+model
+payments",
+or
+"peer-to-peer
+payments",
+are
+fundamentally
+more
+secure
+as
+no
+information
+is
+given
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+that
+would
+allow
+them
+or
+an
+attacker
+to
+replay
+the
+<a href="#dfn-transaction" class="internalDFN">
+transaction
+</a>
+for
+a
+different
+amount
+or
+to
+a
+different
+<a href="#dfn-payee" class="internalDFN">
+payee
+</a>
+at
+a
+later
+date.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Regulatory
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+regulations
+that
+cover
+the
+protection
+of
+confidential
+customer
+data
+both
+from
+a
+payment
+scheme
+perspective
+as
+well
+as
+a
+federal
+level.
+</ins></dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="verification-of-available-funds" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#verification-of-available-funds" property="bibo:hasPart">
+<h4 id="h-verification-of-available-funds" resource="#h-verification-of-available-funds">
+<span property="xhv:role" resource="xhv:heading">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3.2
+</span>
+Verification
+of
+Available
+Funds
+</span>
+</h4>
+<p>
+</p>
+<dl id="uc-hold-verification" class="dl-horizontal">
+<dt>
+Hold
+Verification
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Renne
+checks
+into
+a
+hotel
+and
+is
+asked
+for
+a
+deposit
+for
+any
+damages
+to
+the
+room.
+She
+uses
+her
+phone
+to
+provide
+a
+proof-of-hold
+until
+she
+checks
+out
+of
+the
+hotel,
+at
+which
+time
+the
+hold
+on
+her
+funds
+will
+be
+released.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Target
+version
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Improved
+user
+experience,
+and