Initial proposal for key discovery draft
authorMark Watson <watsonm@netflix.com>
Mon, 10 Dec 2012 09:51:48 -0800
changeset 0 455031811b64
child 1 22968c3a1b74
Initial proposal for key discovery draft
keydiscovery-source.html
keydiscovery.html
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+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html>
+  <head>
+    <title>WebCrypto Key Discovery</title>
+    <meta http-equiv='Content-Type' content='text/html;charset=utf-8'/>
+    <style>
+      table {
+        border-collapse: collapse;
+        border-spacing: 0px;
+        margin-top: +1em;
+        margin-bottom: +1em;
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+        font-family: "Courier New", Inconsolata, "Bitstream Charter";
+        font-size: 90%;
+      }
+      th {
+        background-color:DimGray;
+        color:white;
+        font-weight: normal;
+      }
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+    </style>
+    
+    <!-- 
+      === NOTA BENE ===
+      For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+      out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+     -->
+    <script src='http://www.w3.org/Tools/respec/respec-w3c-common' class='remove' async></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" class='remove'>
+      var respecConfig = {  specStatus: "ED",
+                            shortName: "WebCryptoKey",
+                            editors: [{ name: "Mark Watson", 
+                                        mailto: "watsonm@netflix.com", 
+                                        company: "Netflix", 
+                                        companyURL: "http://www.netflix.com/"} ],
+                            // previousPublishDate:  "2012-05-02",
+                            // edEnd:  "",
+                            // previousMaturity: "ED",
+                            edDraftURI:   "http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoKey-20121207/",
+                            wg:           "Web Cryptography WG",
+                            //wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoKey",
+                            wgPublicList: "public-webcrypto",
+                            wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/2012/webcrypto/WebCryptoKey",
+                            localBiblio : { "WEBCRYPTO" : "Ryan Sleevi, David Dahl. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoAPI-20120913/\"><cite>Web Cryptography API.</cite></a> 13 September 2012. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoAPI-20120913/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoAPI-20120913/</a> "}
+                        };
+    </script>
+  </head>
+  <body>
+    <section id='abstract'>
+      <p>This specification describes a JavaScript API for discovering named, origin-specific pre-provisioned
+      cryptographic keys for use with the Web Cryptograpy API. Pre-provisioned keys are keys which have been made
+      available to the UA by means other than the generation, derivation, imporation functions of the
+      Web Cryptography API. Origin-specific keys are keys that are available only to a specified origin. Named keys
+      are identified by a name assumed to be known to the origin in question and provisioned with the key itself.
+      </p>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section class="informative">
+      <h2>Introduction</h2>
+      <p>
+        The Web Cryptography API [[!WEBCRYPTO]] describes a JavaScript API for performing basic cryptographic
+        operations in web applications. Cryptographic keys in are represented in this API using
+        <a href='http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoAPI/#key-interface'"><code>Key</code></a> objects. The API provides methods to generate, derive or import cryptographic 
+        keying material, so creating <a href='http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoAPI/#key-interface'><code>Key</code></a> objects.
+      </p>
+      <p>This document concerns the discovery of cryptographic keys which are made available to the UA by other means.
+        Specifically, this document provides an API for the discovery of cryptographic keys which have been pre-provisioned
+         into a UA or device for use by a specific origin. Such keys are identified by names which are assumed to be known to 
+         the origin in question and thus they are referred to as <dfn title="named origin-specific pre-provisioned key">named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dfn>.</p>
+      <p>This enables web applications to establish secure proof that the UA has access to a particular
+        pre-provisioned key. Depending on the nature of the key and its associated storage - for example within
+        a Hardware Security Module or available only within a Trusted Execution Environment - further properties of the
+        device on which the UA is running may be inferred.</p>
+      <p>The use of pre-provisioned keys requires the informed consent of the user, because such keys may be used for tracking
+      and may reveal information about the users device. The privacy and security implications of origin-specific pre-provisioned
+      keys are discussed further in <a href="#security-and-privacy-considerations">Security and Privacy Considerations</a>.
+      </p>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section>
+        <h2>Use cases</h2>
+        <p></p>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section id="conformance">
+      
+      <p>
+          The following conformance classes are defined by this specification:
+        </p>
+        <dl>
+          <dt><dfn>conforming user agent</dfn></dt>
+          <dd>
+            <p>
+              A user agent is considered to be a conforming user agent
+              if it satisfies all of the MUST-, REQUIRED- and SHALL-level
+              criteria in this specification that apply to implementation. This specification
+              uses both the terms "conforming user agent" and "user agent" to refer to this
+              product class.
+            </p>
+            <p>
+              User agents MAY implement algorithms in this
+              specification in any way desired, so long as the end result is indistinguishable
+              from the result that would be obtained from the specification's algorithms.
+            </p>
+          </dd>         
+        </dl>
+        <p>
+          User agents that use ECMAScript to implement the APIs defined in this specification
+          MUST implement them in a manner consistent with the
+          ECMAScript Bindings defined in the Web IDL specification [[!WEBIDL]]
+          as this specification uses that specification and terminology.
+        </p>
+      
+    </section>
+    
+    <section id="scope" class="informative">
+      <h2>Scope</h2>
+      <p>The considerations in the Scope section of [[!WEBCRYPTO]] apply to this specification as well. In particular, although this specification directly addresses the discovery of <a>named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</a>, it does not address the processes used to provision those keys or the type and properties of the hardware or software components in which they are stored.</p>
+    </section>
+    <section class="informative">
+      <h2>Privacy considerations</h2>
+      <p>The Privacy considerations of [[!WEBCRYPTO]] apply to this specification.</p>
+      <section>
+        <h3>Named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</h3>
+        <section><h3>Comparison to cookies and persistent storage</h3>
+        <p>The privacy considerations associated with origin-specific pre-provisioned keys are similar to those that apply to cookies [[COOKIES]] and persistent storage, such as [[INDEXEDDB]]. The principle difference is that pre-provisioned keys are pre-existing, whereas cookies and persistent store are not. Thus sites can be relied upon to work (in an 'out-of-the-box' fashion) when cookies have been deleted and persistent store cleared. By contrast, sites that rely on pre-provisioned keys may not operate or may operate in a different fashion if the expected pre-provisioned keys are not available. Such sites may require users to choose whether to trade a certain amount of privacy for whatever service the site offers, or not access the service at all.</p></section>
+        
+        <section>
+          <h4>User tracking</h4>
+  
+          <p>A third-party host (or any object capable of getting content distributed to multiple sites) could use a named origin-specific pre-provisioned key to track a user across multiple sessions, building a profile of the user's activities. In conjunction with a site that is aware of the user's real identity (for example an e-commerce site that requires authenticated credentials), this could allow oppressive groups to target individuals with greater accuracy than in a world with purely anonymous Web usage.</p>
+          
+          <p>There are a number of techniques that can be used to mitigate this risk of tracking without user consent:
+            <dl>
+              <dt>Site-specific white-listing of access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dt>
+              <dd><p>User agents should require the user to explicitly authorize access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys before a site can use the keys.</p>
+              <p>User agents should enable users to revoke this authorization either temporarily or permanently.</p></dd>
+              <dt>Blocking access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dt>
+                <dd><p>User agents may restrict access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys to scripts originating at the domain of the top-level document of the browsing context, for instance returning empty key search results for pages from other domains running in iframes.</p></dd>
+                
+              <dt>Treating named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys as cookies</dt>
+              <dd>
+                <p>User agents should present the named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys feature to the user in a way that associates it strongly with HTTP session cookies. [[COOKIES]]</p>
+              
+                <p>This might encourage users to view such keys with healthy suspicion.</p>
+              </dd>
+              <dt>Origin-tracking of named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dt>
+              <dd>
+                <p>User agents may record the origins of sites that contained content from third-party origins that used pre-provisioned keys.</p>
+              
+                <p>If this information is then used to present a view of pre-provisioned keys to the user, it would allow the user to make informed decisions about authorizing sites to make use of keys. Combined with a blacklist ("delete this key" or "prevent this domain from ever accessing this key again"), the user can restrict the use of pre-provisioned keys to sites that he trusts.</p></dd>
+              <dt>Shared blacklists</dt>
+              <dd>
+                <p>User agents may allow users to share their pre-provisioned key domain blacklists.</p>
+              
+                <p>This would allow communities to act together to protect their privacy.</p>
+              </dd>
+            </dl>
+          </p>
+          <p>While these suggestions prevent trivial use of this feature for user tracking, they do not block it altogether. Where a browser supports a mode of operation intended to preserve user anonymity, access to pre-provisioned keys should be disabled in this mode. Even so, within a single domain, a site can continue to track the user during a session, and can then pass all this information to the third party along with any identifying information (names, credit card numbers, addresses) obtained by the site. If a third party cooperates with multiple sites to obtain such information, a profile can still be created.</p>
+  
+          <p>However, user tracking is to some extent possible even with no cooperation from the user agent whatsoever, for instance by using session identifiers in URLs, a technique already commonly used for innocuous purposes but easily repurposed for user tracking (even retroactively). This information can then be shared with other sites, using visitors' IP addresses and other user-specific data (e.g. user-agent headers and configuration settings) to combine separate sessions into coherent user profiles.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section>
+          <h4>Cookie resurrection</h4>
+  
+          <p>If the user interface for the origin-specific pre-provisioned keys feature described in this specification presents data separately from data in HTTP session cookies or persistent storage, then users are likely to modify site authorization or delete data in one and not the others. This would allow sites to use the various features as redundant backup for each other, defeating a user's attempts to protect his privacy.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section>
+          <h4>Sensitivity of data</h4>
+  
+          <p>User agents should treat pre-provisioned keys and material generated using such keys as potentially sensitive; it is quite possible for the user privacy to be compromised by the release of this information.</p>
+  
+          <p>To this end, user agents should ensure that when deleting data, it is promptly deleted from the underlying storage.</p>
+        </section>
+      </section>
+    </section>
+    <section>
+      <h2>Dependencies</h2>
+      <p>This specification relies on underlying specifications.</p>
+      <p>
+        <dl>
+          <dt>Web Cryptography API</dt>
+          <dd><p>A <a>conforming user agent</a> MUST support the Web Cryptography API [[WEBCRYPTO]].</p></dd>
+        </dl>
+      </p>
+    </section>
+    <section>
+      <h2>Terminology</h2>
+      <p>The terms <dfn>origin</dfn> and <dfn>same origin</dfn> are defined by the HTML specification [[!HTML5]].</p>
+      
+    </section>
+    <section>
+      <h2>API definition</h2>
+      <section class="informative"><h3>Overview</h3>
+      <p>This specification defines a new <a><code>cryptokeys</code></a> attribute on the <code>Window</code> object. This attribute is an object supporting a method, <a><code>getkeysByName</code></a> which may be used to get an array of all keys matching a <code>DOMString</code> name specifier. The array of keys is returned through a callback function, in the form of a <a>KeyArray</a> object.</p></section>
+      <section><h3>KeyArray interface</h3>
+        <dl title="interface KeyArray" class="idl">
+          <dt>readonly attribute unsigned long length</dt><dd>The number of key objects in the array.</dd>
+          <dt>Key? get(unsigned long index)</dt><dd>Get a Key object by index.</dd>
+        </dl>
+      </section>
+      
+      <section><h3>GetKeysByNameCallback interface</h3>
+        <dl title="[Callback] interface GetKeysByNameCallback" class="idl">
+          <dt>void complete( KeyArray keys )</dt><dd>Called when the key search is complete</dd>
+        </dl>
+      </section>
+      
+      <section><h3>GetKeysByNameParams dictionary</h3>
+        <dl title="dictionary GetKeysByNameParams" class="idl">
+          <dt>DOMString name</dt><dd>The name specifier for the requested keys.</dd>
+          <dt>GetKeysByNameCallback oncompletion;</dt><dd>Called on completion of the key search.</dd>
+        </dl>
+      </section>
+      
+      <section><h3>CryptoKeys interface</h3>
+        <dl title="[NoInterfaceObject] interface CryptoKeys" class="idl">
+          <dt>void getKeysByName( GetKeysByNameParams params )</dt>
+          <dd>Gets all keys matching the name specifier in the parameters. A name specifier matches the name of a key if they are identical when expressed as a string of unicode characters.</dd>
+        </dl>
+      </section>
+      <section><h3>WindowCryptoKeys interface</h3>
+      <p>The <a>WindowCryptoKeys</a> interface is exposed on the <code>Window</code> object.</p>
+      <div class="idl" title="Window implements WindowCryptoKeys"></div>
+      <dl title="[NoInterfaceObject] interface WindowCryptoKeys" class="idl">
+        <dt>readonly attribute CryptoKeys cryptokeys</dt>
+        <dd>The object that exposes the key discovery methods</dd>
+      </dl></section>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section><h2>Examples</h2></section>
+    <!--
+    <section class='appendix'>
+      <h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
+      <p>
+        Many thanks to ...
+      </p>
+    </section>
+    -->
+  </body>
+</html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
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+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
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+    <title>WebCrypto Key Discovery</title>
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+
+table.exceptions table {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    width:  100%;
+}
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--></head>
+  <body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">WebCrypto Key Discovery</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-08-december-2012"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Editor's Draft 08 December 2012</h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoKey-20121207/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoKey-20121207/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoKey/">http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoKey/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoKey-20121207/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoKey-20121207/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      
+    
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editor:</dt>
+    <dd><span>Mark Watson</span>, <a href="http://www.netflix.com/">Netflix</a>, <span class="ed_mailto"><a href="mailto:watsonm@netflix.com">watsonm@netflix.com</a></span></dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a>  
+        2012
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup></sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div>
+    <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+      <p>This specification describes a JavaScript API for discovering named, origin-specific pre-provisioned
+      cryptographic keys for use with the Web Cryptograpy API. Pre-provisioned keys are keys which have been made
+      available to the UA by means other than the generation, derivation, imporation functions of the
+      Web Cryptography API. Origin-specific keys are keys that are available only to a specified origin. Named keys
+      are identified by a name assumed to be known to the origin in question and provisioned with the key itself.
+      </p>
+    </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="undefined">Web Cryptography WG</a> as an Editor's Draft.
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:public-webcrypto@w3.org">public-webcrypto@w3.org</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:public-webcrypto-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-webcrypto/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          All feedback is welcome.
+        </p>
+        
+          <p>
+            Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2012/webcrypto/WebCryptoKey" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#use-cases" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Use cases</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conformance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Conformance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#scope" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Scope</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#privacy-considerations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Privacy considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#named-origin-specific-pre-provisioned-keys" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#comparison-to-cookies-and-persistent-storage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Comparison to cookies and persistent storage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#user-tracking" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>User tracking</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cookie-resurrection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Cookie resurrection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sensitivity-of-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Sensitivity of data</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dependencies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Dependencies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#terminology" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Terminology</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#api-definition" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8. </span>API definition</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.1 </span>Overview</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyarray-interface" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.2 </span>KeyArray interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#attributes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.2.1 </span>Attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.2.2 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#getkeysbynamecallback-interface" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.3 </span>GetKeysByNameCallback interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.3.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#getkeysbynameparams-dictionary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.4 </span>GetKeysByNameParams dictionary</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#dictionary-getkeysbynameparams-members" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.4.1 </span>Dictionary <span class="formerLink"><code>GetKeysByNameParams</code></span> Members</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cryptokeys-interface" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.5 </span>CryptoKeys interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods-2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.5.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#windowcryptokeys-interface" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.6 </span>WindowCryptoKeys interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#attributes-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8.6.1 </span>Attributes</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#examples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">9. </span>Examples</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+    
+    <section class="informative" id="introduction">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>
+        The Web Cryptography API [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBCRYPTO">WEBCRYPTO</a></cite>] describes a JavaScript API for performing basic cryptographic
+        operations in web applications. Cryptographic keys in are represented in this API using
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoAPI/#key-interface" "=""><code>Key</code></a> objects. The API provides methods to generate, derive or import cryptographic 
+        keying material, so creating <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoAPI/#key-interface"><code>Key</code></a> objects.
+      </p>
+      <p>This document concerns the discovery of cryptographic keys which are made available to the UA by other means.
+        Specifically, this document provides an API for the discovery of cryptographic keys which have been pre-provisioned
+         into a UA or device for use by a specific origin. Such keys are identified by names which are assumed to be known to 
+         the origin in question and thus they are referred to as <dfn title="named origin-specific pre-provisioned key" id="dfn-named-origin-specific-pre-provisioned-key">named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dfn>.</p>
+      <p>This enables web applications to establish secure proof that the UA has access to a particular
+        pre-provisioned key. Depending on the nature of the key and its associated storage - for example within
+        a Hardware Security Module or available only within a Trusted Execution Environment - further properties of the
+        device on which the UA is running may be inferred.</p>
+      <p>The use of pre-provisioned keys requires the informed consent of the user, because such keys may be used for tracking
+      and may reveal information about the users device. The privacy and security implications of origin-specific pre-provisioned
+      keys are discussed further in <a href="#security-and-privacy-considerations">Security and Privacy Considerations</a>.
+      </p>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section id="use-cases">
+        <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Use cases</h2>
+        <p></p>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section id="conformance"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Conformance</h2>
+<p>
+  As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples,
+  and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is
+  normative.
+</p>
+<p>
+  The key words <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>,
+  and <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].
+</p>
+
+      
+      <p>
+          The following conformance classes are defined by this specification:
+        </p>
+        <dl>
+          <dt><dfn id="dfn-conforming-user-agent">conforming user agent</dfn></dt>
+          <dd>
+            <p>
+              A user agent is considered to be a conforming user agent
+              if it satisfies all of the <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>-, <em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>- and <em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>-level
+              criteria in this specification that apply to implementation. This specification
+              uses both the terms "conforming user agent" and "user agent" to refer to this
+              product class.
+            </p>
+            <p>
+              User agents <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> implement algorithms in this
+              specification in any way desired, so long as the end result is indistinguishable
+              from the result that would be obtained from the specification's algorithms.
+            </p>
+          </dd>         
+        </dl>
+        <p>
+          User agents that use ECMAScript to implement the APIs defined in this specification
+          <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> implement them in a manner consistent with the
+          ECMAScript Bindings defined in the Web IDL specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBIDL">WEBIDL</a></cite>]
+          as this specification uses that specification and terminology.
+        </p>
+      
+    </section>
+    
+    <section id="scope" class="informative">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Scope</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>The considerations in the Scope section of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBCRYPTO">WEBCRYPTO</a></cite>] apply to this specification as well. In particular, although this specification directly addresses the discovery of <a>named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</a>, it does not address the processes used to provision those keys or the type and properties of the hardware or software components in which they are stored.</p>
+    </section>
+    <section class="informative" id="privacy-considerations">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Privacy considerations</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>The Privacy considerations of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBCRYPTO">WEBCRYPTO</a></cite>] apply to this specification.</p>
+      <section id="named-origin-specific-pre-provisioned-keys">
+        <h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <section id="comparison-to-cookies-and-persistent-storage"><h4><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Comparison to cookies and persistent storage</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <p>The privacy considerations associated with origin-specific pre-provisioned keys are similar to those that apply to cookies [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-COOKIES">COOKIES</a></cite>] and persistent storage, such as [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-INDEXEDDB">INDEXEDDB</a></cite>]. The principle difference is that pre-provisioned keys are pre-existing, whereas cookies and persistent store are not. Thus sites can be relied upon to work (in an 'out-of-the-box' fashion) when cookies have been deleted and persistent store cleared. By contrast, sites that rely on pre-provisioned keys may not operate or may operate in a different fashion if the expected pre-provisioned keys are not available. Such sites may require users to choose whether to trade a certain amount of privacy for whatever service the site offers, or not access the service at all.</p></section>
+        
+        <section id="user-tracking">
+          <h4><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>User tracking</h4>
+  
+          <p>A third-party host (or any object capable of getting content distributed to multiple sites) could use a named origin-specific pre-provisioned key to track a user across multiple sessions, building a profile of the user's activities. In conjunction with a site that is aware of the user's real identity (for example an e-commerce site that requires authenticated credentials), this could allow oppressive groups to target individuals with greater accuracy than in a world with purely anonymous Web usage.</p>
+          
+          <p>There are a number of techniques that can be used to mitigate this risk of tracking without user consent:
+            </p><dl>
+              <dt>Site-specific white-listing of access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dt>
+              <dd><p>User agents should require the user to explicitly authorize access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys before a site can use the keys.</p>
+              <p>User agents should enable users to revoke this authorization either temporarily or permanently.</p></dd>
+              <dt>Blocking access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dt>
+                <dd><p>User agents may restrict access to named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys to scripts originating at the domain of the top-level document of the browsing context, for instance returning empty key search results for pages from other domains running in iframes.</p></dd>
+                
+              <dt>Treating named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys as cookies</dt>
+              <dd>
+                <p>User agents should present the named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys feature to the user in a way that associates it strongly with HTTP session cookies. [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-COOKIES">COOKIES</a></cite>]</p>
+              
+                <p>This might encourage users to view such keys with healthy suspicion.</p>
+              </dd>
+              <dt>Origin-tracking of named origin-specific pre-provisioned keys</dt>
+              <dd>
+                <p>User agents may record the origins of sites that contained content from third-party origins that used pre-provisioned keys.</p>
+              
+                <p>If this information is then used to present a view of pre-provisioned keys to the user, it would allow the user to make informed decisions about authorizing sites to make use of keys. Combined with a blacklist ("delete this key" or "prevent this domain from ever accessing this key again"), the user can restrict the use of pre-provisioned keys to sites that he trusts.</p></dd>
+              <dt>Shared blacklists</dt>
+              <dd>
+                <p>User agents may allow users to share their pre-provisioned key domain blacklists.</p>
+              
+                <p>This would allow communities to act together to protect their privacy.</p>
+              </dd>
+            </dl>
+          <p></p>
+          <p>While these suggestions prevent trivial use of this feature for user tracking, they do not block it altogether. Where a browser supports a mode of operation intended to preserve user anonymity, access to pre-provisioned keys should be disabled in this mode. Even so, within a single domain, a site can continue to track the user during a session, and can then pass all this information to the third party along with any identifying information (names, credit card numbers, addresses) obtained by the site. If a third party cooperates with multiple sites to obtain such information, a profile can still be created.</p>
+  
+          <p>However, user tracking is to some extent possible even with no cooperation from the user agent whatsoever, for instance by using session identifiers in URLs, a technique already commonly used for innocuous purposes but easily repurposed for user tracking (even retroactively). This information can then be shared with other sites, using visitors' IP addresses and other user-specific data (e.g. user-agent headers and configuration settings) to combine separate sessions into coherent user profiles.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="cookie-resurrection">
+          <h4><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Cookie resurrection</h4>
+  
+          <p>If the user interface for the origin-specific pre-provisioned keys feature described in this specification presents data separately from data in HTTP session cookies or persistent storage, then users are likely to modify site authorization or delete data in one and not the others. This would allow sites to use the various features as redundant backup for each other, defeating a user's attempts to protect his privacy.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="sensitivity-of-data">
+          <h4><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Sensitivity of data</h4>
+  
+          <p>User agents should treat pre-provisioned keys and material generated using such keys as potentially sensitive; it is quite possible for the user privacy to be compromised by the release of this information.</p>
+  
+          <p>To this end, user agents should ensure that when deleting data, it is promptly deleted from the underlying storage.</p>
+        </section>
+      </section>
+    </section>
+    <section id="dependencies">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">6. </span>Dependencies</h2>
+      <p>This specification relies on underlying specifications.</p>
+      <p>
+        </p><dl>
+          <dt>Web Cryptography API</dt>
+          <dd><p>A <a href="#dfn-conforming-user-agent" class="internalDFN">conforming user agent</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> support the Web Cryptography API [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBCRYPTO">WEBCRYPTO</a></cite>].</p></dd>
+        </dl>
+      <p></p>
+    </section>
+    <section id="terminology">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Terminology</h2>
+      <p>The terms <dfn id="dfn-origin">origin</dfn> and <dfn id="dfn-same-origin">same origin</dfn> are defined by the HTML specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML5">HTML5</a></cite>].</p>
+      
+    </section>
+    <section id="api-definition">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">8. </span>API definition</h2>
+      <section class="informative" id="overview"><h3><span class="secno">8.1 </span>Overview</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>This specification defines a new <a><code>cryptokeys</code></a> attribute on the <code>Window</code> object. This attribute is an object supporting a method, <a><code>getkeysByName</code></a> which may be used to get an array of all keys matching a <code>DOMString</code> name specifier. The array of keys is returned through a callback function, in the form of a <a href="#idl-def-KeyArray" class="idlType"><code>KeyArray</code></a> object.</p></section>
+      <section id="keyarray-interface"><h3><span class="secno">8.2 </span>KeyArray interface</h3>
+        <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-KeyArray">interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">KeyArray</span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>unsigned long</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-KeyArray-length">length</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>Key</a>?</span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-KeyArray-get-Key-unsigned-long-index">get</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>unsigned long</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">index</span></span>);</span>
+};</span></pre><section id="attributes"><h4><span class="secno">8.2.1 </span>Attributes</h4><dl class="attributes"><dt id="widl-KeyArray-length"><code>length</code> of type <span class="idlAttrType"><a>unsigned long</a></span>, readonly</dt><dd>The number of key objects in the array.</dd></dl></section><section id="methods"><h4><span class="secno">8.2.2 </span>Methods</h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-KeyArray-get-Key-unsigned-long-index"><code>get</code></dt><dd>Get a Key object by index.<table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">index</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>unsigned long</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">?</td><td class="prmOptFalse">?</td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>Key</a></code>, nullable</div></dd></dl></section>
+      </section>
+      
+      <section id="getkeysbynamecallback-interface"><h3><span class="secno">8.3 </span>GetKeysByNameCallback interface</h3>
+        <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-GetKeysByNameCallback">[<span class="extAttr">Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">GetKeysByNameCallback</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-GetKeysByNameCallback-complete-void-KeyArray-keys">complete</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-KeyArray" class="idlType"><code>KeyArray</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">keys</span></span>);</span>
+};</span></pre><section id="methods-1"><h4><span class="secno">8.3.1 </span>Methods</h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-GetKeysByNameCallback-complete-void-KeyArray-keys"><code>complete</code></dt><dd>Called when the key search is complete<table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">keys</td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-KeyArray" class="idlType"><code>KeyArray</code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">?</td><td class="prmOptFalse">?</td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>void</a></code></div></dd></dl></section>
+      </section>
+      
+      <section id="getkeysbynameparams-dictionary"><h3><span class="secno">8.4 </span>GetKeysByNameParams dictionary</h3>
+        <pre class="idl"><span class="idlDictionary" id="idl-def-GetKeysByNameParams">dictionary <span class="idlDictionaryID">GetKeysByNameParams</span> {
+<span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a>DOMString</a></span>             <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-GetKeysByNameParams-name">name</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlMember">    <span class="idlMemberType"><a href="#idl-def-GetKeysByNameCallback" class="idlType"><code>GetKeysByNameCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-GetKeysByNameParams-oncompletion">oncompletion;</a></span>;</span>
+};</span></pre><section id="dictionary-getkeysbynameparams-members"><h4><span class="secno">8.4.1 </span>Dictionary <a class="idlType" href="#idl-def-GetKeysByNameParams"><code>GetKeysByNameParams</code></a> Members</h4><dl class="dictionary-members"><dt id="widl-GetKeysByNameParams-name"><code>name</code> of type <span class="idlMemberType"><a>DOMString</a></span></dt><dd>The name specifier for the requested keys.</dd><dt id="widl-GetKeysByNameParams-oncompletion"><code>oncompletion;</code> of type <span class="idlMemberType"><a href="#idl-def-GetKeysByNameCallback" class="idlType"><code>GetKeysByNameCallback</code></a></span></dt><dd>Called on completion of the key search.</dd></dl></section>
+      </section>
+      
+      <section id="cryptokeys-interface"><h3><span class="secno">8.5 </span>CryptoKeys interface</h3>
+        <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-CryptoKeys">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">CryptoKeys</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-CryptoKeys-getKeysByName-void-GetKeysByNameParams-params">getKeysByName</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-GetKeysByNameParams" class="idlType"><code>GetKeysByNameParams</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">params</span></span>);</span>
+};</span></pre><section id="methods-2"><h4><span class="secno">8.5.1 </span>Methods</h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-CryptoKeys-getKeysByName-void-GetKeysByNameParams-params"><code>getKeysByName</code></dt><dd>Gets all keys matching the name specifier in the parameters. A name specifier matches the name of a key if they are identical when expressed as a string of unicode characters.<table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">params</td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-GetKeysByNameParams" class="idlType"><code>GetKeysByNameParams</code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">?</td><td class="prmOptFalse">?</td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>void</a></code></div></dd></dl></section>
+      </section>
+      <section id="windowcryptokeys-interface"><h3><span class="secno">8.6 </span>WindowCryptoKeys interface</h3>
+      <p>The <a href="#idl-def-WindowCryptoKeys" class="idlType"><code>WindowCryptoKeys</code></a> interface is exposed on the <code>Window</code> object.</p>
+      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlImplements"><a>Window</a> implements <a href="#idl-def-WindowCryptoKeys" class="idlType"><code>WindowCryptoKeys</code></a>;</span></pre><div class="idlImplementsDesc"><p>All instances of the <code><a>Window</a></code> type are defined to also implement the <a href="#idl-def-WindowCryptoKeys" class="idlType"><code>WindowCryptoKeys</code></a> interface.</p></div>
+      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-WindowCryptoKeys">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">WindowCryptoKeys</span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-CryptoKeys" class="idlType"><code>CryptoKeys</code></a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-WindowCryptoKeys-cryptokeys">cryptokeys</a></span>;</span>
+};</span></pre><section id="attributes-1"><h4><span class="secno">8.6.1 </span>Attributes</h4><dl class="attributes"><dt id="widl-WindowCryptoKeys-cryptokeys"><code>cryptokeys</code> of type <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-CryptoKeys" class="idlType"><code>CryptoKeys</code></a></span>, readonly</dt><dd>The object that exposes the key discovery methods</dd></dl></section></section>
+    </section>
+    
+    <section id="examples"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">9. </span>Examples</h2></section>
+    <!--
+    <section class='appendix'>
+      <h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
+      <p>
+        Many thanks to ...
+      </p>
+    </section>
+    -->
+  
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-HTML5">[HTML5]</dt><dd>Ian Hickson; David Hyatt. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5"><cite>HTML5.</cite></a> 29 March 2012. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5">http://www.w3.org/TR/html5</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-WEBCRYPTO">[WEBCRYPTO]</dt><dd>Ryan Sleevi, David Dahl. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoAPI-20120913/"><cite>Web Cryptography API.</cite></a> 13 September 2012. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoAPI-20120913/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-WebCryptoAPI-20120913/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-WEBIDL">[WEBIDL]</dt><dd>Cameron McCormack. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-WebIDL-20110927/"><cite>Web IDL.</cite></a> 27 September 2011. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-WebIDL-20110927/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-WebIDL-20110927/</a> 
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">A.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-COOKIES">[COOKIES]</dt><dd>Adam Barth. <cite><a href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6265.txt">HTTP State Management Mechanism</a>.</cite> April 2011. Internet Proposed Standard RFC 6265. URL: <a href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6265.txt">http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6265.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-INDEXEDDB">[INDEXEDDB]</dt><dd>Nikunj Mehta, Jonas Sicking, Eliot Graff, Andrei Popescu, Jeremy Orlow. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/">Indexed Database API</a>. April 2011. Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/">http://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/</a>
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
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