[ttml1] change short name and file names from ttaf1-dfxp to ttml1; change title accordingly
authorGlenn Adams <glenn@skynav.com>
Thu, 22 Aug 2013 10:57:09 -0600
changeset 467 4479e335dadd
parent 466 8b182dd280fb
child 468 ae6c49b420d0
[ttml1] change short name and file names from ttaf1-dfxp to ttml1; change title accordingly
ttml10/spec/build.xml
ttml10/spec/entities.dtd
ttml10/spec/entitiesedcopy.dtd
ttml10/spec/rnc/schema.zip
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-animation.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-classes.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-content.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-core-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-datatypes.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-document.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-head.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-layout.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-items.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-items.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-parameters.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-styling-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-styling.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-timing-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-animation.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-classes.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-content.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-core-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-datatypes.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-document.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-head.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-layout.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-metadata-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-metadata-items.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-metadata.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-parameter-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-parameter-items.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-parameters.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-styling-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-styling.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-timing-attribs.rnc
ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1.rnc
ttml10/spec/ttaf1
ttml10/spec/ttaf1-dfxp.html
ttml10/spec/ttaf1-dfxp.xml
ttml10/spec/ttml-changes.html
ttml10/spec/ttml-issues.html
ttml10/spec/ttml1
ttml10/spec/ttml1-changes.html
ttml10/spec/ttml1-issues.html
ttml10/spec/ttml1.html
ttml10/spec/ttml1.xml
ttml10/spec/xmlspec-ttaf1-dfxp.dtd
ttml10/spec/xmlspec-ttaf1-dfxp.xsl
ttml10/spec/xmlspec-ttml1.dtd
ttml10/spec/xmlspec-ttml1.xsl
ttml10/spec/xsd/schema.zip
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-animation.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-bindings.xjb
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-content.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-core-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-datatypes.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-document.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-head.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-layout.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-items.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-items.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-parameters.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-profile.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-styling-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-styling.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp-timing-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttaf1-dfxp.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-animation.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-bindings.xjb
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-content.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-core-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-datatypes.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-document.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-head.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-layout.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-metadata-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-metadata-items.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-metadata.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-parameter-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-parameter-items.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-parameters.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-profile.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-styling-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-styling.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1-timing-attribs.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/ttml1.xsd
ttml10/spec/xsd/xml.xsd
--- a/ttml10/spec/build.xml	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ b/ttml10/spec/build.xml	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -7,8 +7,8 @@
         <pathelement location="saxon8/saxon8.jar"/>
     </path>
     <property name="html.dir" value="${basedir}"/>
-    <property name="html.name" value="ttaf1-dfxp.html"/>
-    <property name="stylesheet" value="xmlspec-ttaf1-dfxp.xsl"/>
+    <property name="html.name" value="ttml1.html"/>
+    <property name="stylesheet" value="xmlspec-ttml1.xsl"/>
     <property name="glossary" value="extract-glist.xsl"/>
     <property name="generateBPlist" value="generateBPlist.xsl"/>
     <property name="diffformat" value="diffspec.xsl"/>
@@ -16,9 +16,9 @@
     
     <property name="jing.jar" value="${basedir}/jing/jing.jar"/>
     <property name="rnc.dir" value="${basedir}/rnc"/>
-    <property name="rnc.schema" value="${rnc.dir}/ttaf1-dfxp.rnc"/>
+    <property name="rnc.schema" value="${rnc.dir}/ttml1.rnc"/>
     <property name="xsd.dir" value="${basedir}/xsd"/>
-    <property name="xsd.schema" value="${xsd.dir}/ttaf1-dfxp.xsd"/>
+    <property name="xsd.schema" value="${xsd.dir}/ttml1.xsd"/>
     <property name="profiles.dir" value="${basedir}/profiles"/>
     <property name="examples.dir" value="${basedir}/examples"/>
 
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
     <target name="validate-schema-rnc" description="Validates DFXP's RNC Schema.">
         <java fork="true" jar="${jing.jar}" dir="${rnc.dir}">
             <arg value="-c"/>
-            <arg value="ttaf1-dfxp.rnc"/>
+            <arg value="ttml1.rnc"/>
         </java>
     </target>
 
@@ -63,8 +63,8 @@
         <exec executable="xjc" dir="xsd">
           <arg value="-quiet"/>
           <arg value="-b"/>
-          <arg value="ttaf1-dfxp-bindings.xjb"/>
-          <arg value="ttaf1-dfxp.xsd"/>
+          <arg value="ttml1-bindings.xjb"/>
+          <arg value="ttml1.xsd"/>
         </exec>
     </target>
 
@@ -185,11 +185,11 @@
 
     <target name="validate-tt-specs" description="Validates all Timed Text spec files."
         depends="build-escapes">
-        <xmlvalidate lenient="false" warn="yes" file="ttaf1-dfxp.xml"/>
+        <xmlvalidate lenient="false" warn="yes" file="ttml1.xml"/>
     </target>
 
     <target name="validate-tt-specs-dont-build-escapes" description="Validates all Timed Text spec files.">
-        <xmlvalidate lenient="false" warn="yes" file="ttaf1-dfxp.xml"/>
+        <xmlvalidate lenient="false" warn="yes" file="ttml1.xml"/>
     </target>
 
     <target name="validate" depends="validate-schemas,validate-examples,validate-xsl,validate-svg,validate-tt-specs,validate-schema-rnc,validate-profiles"/>
@@ -219,12 +219,12 @@
     </target>
 
     <target name="html" description="Transforms xml into html.">
-        <echo>Generating ttaf1-dfxp.html</echo>
+        <echo>Generating ttml1.html</echo>
         <java fork="true" classname="net.sf.saxon.Transform">
             <classpath refid="saxon8.classpath"/>
             <arg value="-o"/>
             <arg value="${html.dir}/${html.name}"/>
-            <arg value="ttaf1-dfxp.xml"/>
+            <arg value="ttml1.xml"/>
             <arg value="${stylesheet}"/>
             <arg value="showAssertions=true"/>
         </java>    
@@ -242,7 +242,7 @@
             <arg value="both"/>
             <arg value="-words"/>
             <arg value="tt-tr${last-public-draft}.xml"/>
-            <arg value="ttaf1-dfxp.xml"/>
+            <arg value="ttml1.xml"/>
             <arg value="tt-diff${last-public-draft}.xml"/>
             <classpath path="diffmk.jar:DiffMk.properties"> </classpath>
         </java>
@@ -273,7 +273,7 @@
 
     <target name="changelog" description="Update the CVS change log to be added into the specification">
       <!--        <cvschangelog destfile="changelog.xml"/> -->
-      <get src="http://www.w3.org/2000/06/webdata/xslt?xslfile=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2008%2F05%2Fcvswebrss.xsl&amp;xmlfile=http%3A%2F%2Fcgi.w3.org%2Fcgi-bin%2Ftidy%3FdocAddr%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdev.w3.org%252Fcvsweb%252F2008%252Fws%252Ftt%252Fttaf1-dfxp.xml%26forceXML%3Don" dest="changelog.xml"/>
+      <get src="http://www.w3.org/2000/06/webdata/xslt?xslfile=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2008%2F05%2Fcvswebrss.xsl&amp;xmlfile=http%3A%2F%2Fcgi.w3.org%2Fcgi-bin%2Ftidy%3FdocAddr%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdev.w3.org%252Fcvsweb%252F2008%252Fws%252Ftt%252Fttml1.xml%26forceXML%3Don" dest="changelog.xml"/>
     </target>
 
     <target name="generate" description="Generate the specification without updating changelog and acknowledgments sections"
--- a/ttml10/spec/entities.dtd	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ b/ttml10/spec/entities.dtd	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
 %sub.entities;
 
 <!-- Titles -->
-<!ENTITY title "Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) 1.0 (Second Edition)" >
+<!ENTITY title "Timed Text Markup Language 1 (TTML1) (Second Edition)" >
 
 <!-- XML Namespaces used in the drafts -->
 <!ENTITY nsuri "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml" >
--- a/ttml10/spec/entitiesedcopy.dtd	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ b/ttml10/spec/entitiesedcopy.dtd	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -15,11 +15,11 @@
 
 <!ENTITY draft.date "&draft.year;&draft.mm;&draft.dd;">
 
-<!ENTITY prefix "ttaf1-dfxp">
+<!ENTITY prefix "ttml1">
 
 <!ENTITY w3c-designation "&prefix;.html">
 
-<!ENTITY w3c.tr.latest  "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ttml/raw-file/tip/ttml10/spec">
+<!ENTITY w3c.tr.latest  "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ttml/raw-file/tip/ttml1/spec">
 
 <!-- Latest version links. don't touch -->
 <!ENTITY latest "&w3c.tr.latest;/&w3c-designation;?content-type=text/html;charset=utf-8">
Binary file ttml10/spec/rnc/schema.zip has changed
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-animation.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,30 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Animation Module .......................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# set - discrete animation
-TTAF.set =
-  element set {
-    TTAF.set.attlist,
-    TTAF.set.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.set.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Timed.attrib.class,
-  (TTAF.Styling.attrib.class |
-   TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib+ )
-
-TTAF.set.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.set.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.set.content.extra*)
-
-TTAF.Animation.extra = empty
-TTAF.Animation.class |=
-  TTAF.set |
-  TTAF.Animation.extra
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-classes.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,29 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Class Declarations Module ..............................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# attribute group classes
-TTAF.Core.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.Parameter.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.StyleBinding.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.Styled.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.Styling.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.Timed.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class = empty
-TTAF.TimingInterval.attrib.class = empty
-
-# element group classes
-TTAF.Animation.class = empty
-TTAF.Block.class = empty
-TTAF.BlockNoDiv.class = empty
-TTAF.Inline.class = empty
-TTAF.InlineNoSpan.class = empty
-TTAF.MetadataNoAgent.class = empty
-TTAF.Metadata.class = empty
-TTAF.MetadataItems.class = empty
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-content.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,121 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Content Module .........................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# body - content body
-TTAF.body =
-  element body {
-    TTAF.body.attlist,
-    TTAF.body.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.body.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.body.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.body.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Animation.class*,
-   (TTAF.Block.class | TTAF.body.content.extra)*)
-
-# div - division
-TTAF.div =
-  element div {
-    TTAF.div.attlist,
-    TTAF.div.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.div.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.div.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.div.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Animation.class*,
-   (TTAF.Block.class | TTAF.div.content.extra)*)
-
-# p - paragraph
-TTAF.p =
-  element p {
-    TTAF.p.attlist,
-    TTAF.p.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.p.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.p.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.p.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Animation.class*,
-   (TTAF.Inline.class |
-    TTAF.p.content.extra)*)
-
-# span - intra-paragraph inline span
-TTAF.span =
-  element span {
-    TTAF.span.attlist,
-    TTAF.span.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.span.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.span.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.span.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Animation.class*,
-   (TTAF.Inline.class |
-    TTAF.span.content.extra)*)
-
-# br - manual line break
-TTAF.br =
-  element br {
-    TTAF.br.attlist,
-    TTAF.br.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.br.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.br.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.br.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Animation.class*,
-   TTAF.br.content.extra*)
-
-# Block.class
-TTAF.Block.extra = empty
-TTAF.BlockNoDiv.class |=
-  TTAF.p | TTAF.Block.extra
-TTAF.Block.class |=
-  TTAF.div | TTAF.BlockNoDiv.class
-
-# Inline.class
-TTAF.Inline.extra = empty
-TTAF.InlineNoSpan.class |=
-  text | TTAF.br | TTAF.Inline.extra
-TTAF.Inline.class |=
-  TTAF.span | TTAF.InlineNoSpan.class
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-core-attribs.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,34 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Core Attributes Module .................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-TTAF.id.attrib
-  = attribute xml:id { xsd:ID }?
-
-TTAF.lang.attrib
-  = attribute xml:lang { TTAF.LanguageCode.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.lang.required.attrib
-  = attribute xml:lang { TTAF.LanguageCode.datatype }
-
-TTAF.space.attrib
-  = attribute xml:space { TTAF.XMLSpace.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.Core.extra.attrib
-  = empty
-
-TTAF.Core.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  TTAF.lang.attrib,
-  TTAF.space.attrib,
-  TTAF.Core.extra.attrib
-
-TTAF.Core.required.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  TTAF.lang.required.attrib,
-  TTAF.space.attrib,
-  TTAF.Core.extra.attrib
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-datatypes.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,293 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Datatypes Module .......................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-TTAF.Alpha.datatype =
-  xsd:float
-
-TTAF.Agent.datatype =
-  xsd:IDREFS
-
-TTAF.CellResolution.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.ClockMode.datatype =
-  "local" |
-  "gps" |
-  "utc"
-
-TTAF.Color.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.Direction.datatype =
-  "ltr" |
-  "rtl"
-
-TTAF.Display.datatype =
-  "auto" |
-  "none"
-
-TTAF.DisplayAlign.datatype =
-  "before" |
-  "center" |
-  "after"
-
-TTAF.DropMode.datatype =
-  "dropNTSC" |
-  "dropPAL" |
-  "nonDrop"
-
-TTAF.ExtensionDesignator.datatype =
-  TTAF.URI.datatype
-
-TTAF.ExtensionValue.datatype =
- "optional" |
- "required" |
- "use"
-
-TTAF.Extent.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.FeatureDesignator.datatype =
-  TTAF.URI.datatype
-
-TTAF.FeatureValue.datatype =
- "optional" |
- "required" |
- "use"
-
-TTAF.FontFamily.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.FontSize.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.FontStyle.datatype =
-  "normal" |
-  "italic" |
-  "oblique"
-
-TTAF.FontWeight.datatype =
-  "normal" |
-  "bold"
-
-TTAF.FrameRate.datatype =
-  xsd:positiveInteger
-
-TTAF.FrameRateMultiplier.datatype =
-  xsd:string { pattern = "\p{Nd}+\s+\p{Nd}+" }
-
-TTAF.LanguageCode.datatype =
-  "" |
-  xsd:language
-
-TTAF.LineHeight.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.MarkerMode.datatype =
-  "continuous" |
-  "discontinuous"
-
-TTAF.MetadataAgentType.datatype =
-  "person" |
-  "character" |
-  "group" |
-  "organization" |
-  "other"
-
-TTAF.MetadataNameType.datatype =
-  "full" |
-  "family" |
-  "given" |
-  "alias" |
-  "other"
-
-TTAF.MetadataRoleBaseType.datatype =
-  "action" |
-  "caption" |
-  "description" |
-  "dialog" |
-  "expletive" |
-  "kinesic" |
-  "lyrics" |
-  "music" |
-  "narration" |
-  "quality" |
-  "sound" |
-  "source" |
-  "suppressed" |
-  "reproduction" |
-  "thought" |
-  "title" |
-  "transcription"
-
-TTAF.Opacity.datatype =
-  TTAF.Alpha.datatype
-
-TTAF.Origin.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.Overflow.datatype =
-  "visible" |
-  "hidden" 
-
-TTAF.Padding.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.PixelAspectRatio.datatype =
-  xsd:string { pattern = "\p{Nd}+\s+\p{Nd}+" }
-
-TTAF.Profile.datatype =
-  TTAF.URI.datatype
-
-TTAF.Role.datatype =
-  list { TTAF.RoleItem.datatype+ }
-
-TTAF.RoleItem.datatype =
-  TTAF.MetadataRoleBaseType.datatype |
-  xsd:NMTOKEN { pattern = "x-\c+" }
-
-TTAF.ShowBackground.datatype =
-  "always" |
-  "whenActive"
-
-TTAF.SubFrameRate.datatype =
-  xsd:positiveInteger
-
-TTAF.TextAlign.datatype =
-  "left" |
-  "center" |
-  "right" |
-  "start" |
-  "end"
-
-TTAF.TextDecoration.datatype =
-  "none" |
-  "underline" |
-  "noUnderline" |
-  "lineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough" |
-  "overline" |
-  "noOverline" |
-  "noUnderline noLineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough noUnderline" |
-  "noUnderline lineThrough" |
-  "lineThrough noUnderline" |
-  "underline noLineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough underline" |
-  "underline lineThrough" |
-  "lineThrough underline" |
-  "noUnderline noOverline" |
-  "noOverline noUnderline" |
-  "noUnderline overline" |
-  "overline noUnderline" |
-  "underline noOverline" |
-  "noOverline underline" |
-  "underline overline" |
-  "overline underline" |
-  "noUnderline noLineThrough noOverline" |
-  "noUnderline noOverline noLineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough noUnderline noOverline" |
-  "noLineThrough noOverline noUnderline" |
-  "noOverline noUnderline noLineThrough" |
-  "noOverline noLineThrough noUnderline" |
-  "noUnderline noLineThrough overline" |
-  "noUnderline overline noLineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough noUnderline overline" |
-  "noLineThrough overline noUnderline" |
-  "overline noUnderline noLineThrough" |
-  "overline noLineThrough noUnderline" |
-  "noUnderline lineThrough noOverline" |
-  "noUnderline noOverline lineThrough" |
-  "lineThrough noUnderline noOverline" |
-  "lineThrough noOverline noUnderline" |
-  "noOverline noUnderline lineThrough" |
-  "noOverline lineThrough noUnderline" |
-  "noUnderline lineThrough overline" |
-  "noUnderline overline lineThrough" |
-  "lineThrough noUnderline overline" |
-  "lineThrough overline noUnderline" |
-  "overline noUnderline lineThrough" |
-  "overline lineThrough noUnderline" |
-  "underline noLineThrough noOverline" |
-  "underline noOverline noLineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough underline noOverline" |
-  "noLineThrough noOverline underline" |
-  "noOverline underline noLineThrough" |
-  "noOverline noLineThrough underline" |
-  "underline noLineThrough overline" |
-  "underline overline noLineThrough" |
-  "noLineThrough underline overline" |
-  "noLineThrough overline underline" |
-  "overline underline noLineThrough" |
-  "overline noLineThrough underline" |
-  "underline lineThrough noOverline" |
-  "underline noOverline lineThrough" |
-  "lineThrough underline noOverline" |
-  "lineThrough noOverline underline" |
-  "noOverline underline lineThrough" |
-  "noOverline lineThrough underline" |
-  "underline lineThrough overline" |
-  "underline overline lineThrough" |
-  "lineThrough underline overline" |
-  "lineThrough overline underline" |
-  "overline underline lineThrough" |
-  "overline lineThrough underline"
-
-TTAF.TextOutline.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.TickRate.datatype =
-  xsd:positiveInteger
-
-TTAF.TimeBase.datatype =
-  "media" |
-  "smpte" |
-  "clock"
-
-TTAF.TimeContainer.datatype =
-  "par" |
-  "seq"
-
-TTAF.TimeCoordinate.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.TimeDuration.datatype =
-  string
-
-TTAF.URI.datatype =
-  xsd:anyURI
-
-TTAF.UnicodeBidi.datatype =
-  "normal" |
-  "embed" |
-  "bidiOverride"
-
-TTAF.Visibility.datatype =
-  "hidden" |
-  "visible"
-
-TTAF.WrapOption.datatype =
-  "wrap" |
-  "noWrap"
-
-TTAF.WritingMode.datatype =
-  "lrtb" |
-  "rltb" |
-  "tbrl" |
-  "tblr" |
-  "lr" |
-  "rl" |
-  "tb"
-
-TTAF.XMLSpace.datatype =
-  "default" |
-  "preserve"
-
-TTAF.ZIndex.datatype =
-  string
-  
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-document.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,22 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Document Module ........................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-## tt - generic top-level document element type
-TTAF.tt =
-  element tt {
-    TTAF.tt.attlist,
-    TTAF.tt.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.tt.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.required.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Parameter.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.extent.attrib
-
-TTAF.tt.content =
-  (TTAF.head?, TTAF.body?)
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-head.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,25 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Header Module ..........................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# head - generic header
-TTAF.head =
-  element head {
-    TTAF.head.attlist,
-    TTAF.head.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.head.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.head.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.head.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Parameters.class*,
-   TTAF.styling?,
-   TTAF.layout?,
-   TTAF.head.content.extra*)
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-layout.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,52 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Layout Module ..........................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# region reference attribute; must reference /head/layout/region
-TTAF.region.attrib
-  = attribute region { xsd:IDREF }?
-
-# region binding attribute class
-TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.region.attrib
-
-# layout - generic layout container
-TTAF.layout =
-  element layout {
-    TTAF.layout.attlist,
-    TTAF.layout.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.layout.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.layout.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.layout.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.layout.region*,
-   TTAF.layout.content.extra*)
-
-# region - region declaration
-TTAF.layout.region =
-  element region {
-    TTAF.layout.region.attlist,
-    TTAF.layout.region.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.layout.region.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.style.attrib,
-  (TTAF.Styling.attrib.class |
-   TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib+ )
-
-TTAF.layout.region.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.layout.region.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.Animation.class*,
-   TTAF.styling.style*,
-   TTAF.layout.region.content.extra*)
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-attribs.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,24 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Metadata Attributes Module ..............................
-# .......................................................................
-
-namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
-namespace ttm = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"
-namespace local = ""
-
-# Standard Metadata Attributes
-
-TTAF.agent.attrib
-  = attribute ttm:agent { TTAF.Agent.datatype }?
-TTAF.role.attrib
-  = attribute ttm:role { TTAF.Role.datatype }?
-
-# Metadata Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.agent.attrib,
-  TTAF.role.attrib
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-items.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,102 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Metadata Items Module ......................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-namespace ttm = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"
-
-## actor - specifies actor
-TTAF.meta.actor =
-  element ttm:actor {
-    TTAF.meta.actor.attlist,
-    TTAF.meta.actor.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.meta.actor.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  attribute agent { xsd:IDREF }
-
-TTAF.meta.actor.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.meta.actor.content = empty
-
-## agent - specifies agent
-TTAF.meta.agent =
-  element ttm:agent {
-    TTAF.meta.agent.attlist,
-    TTAF.meta.agent.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.meta.agent.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  attribute type { TTAF.MetadataAgentType.datatype }
-
-TTAF.meta.agent.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.meta.agent.content =
-  (TTAF.meta.name*,
-   TTAF.meta.actor?,
-   TTAF.meta.agent.content.extra*)
-
-## copyright - specifies copyright statement
-TTAF.meta.copyright =
-  element ttm:copyright {
-    TTAF.meta.copyright.attlist,
-    TTAF.meta.copyright.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.meta.copyright.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.meta.copyright.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.meta.copyright.content = text
-
-## desc - specifies description
-TTAF.meta.desc =
-  element ttm:desc {
-    TTAF.meta.desc.attlist,
-    TTAF.meta.desc.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.meta.desc.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.meta.desc.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.meta.desc.content = text
-
-## name - specifies name
-TTAF.meta.name =
-  element ttm:name {
-    TTAF.meta.name.attlist,
-    TTAF.meta.name.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.meta.name.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  attribute type { TTAF.MetadataNameType.datatype }
-
-TTAF.meta.name.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.meta.name.content = text
-
-## title - describes title
-TTAF.meta.title =
-  element ttm:title {
-    TTAF.meta.title.attlist,
-    TTAF.meta.title.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.meta.title.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.meta.title.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.meta.title.content = text
-
-## MetadataItems.class
-TTAF.MetadataItems.extra = empty
-TTAF.MetadataItems.class |=
-  TTAF.meta.agent |
-  TTAF.meta.copyright |
-  TTAF.meta.desc |
-  TTAF.meta.title |
-  TTAF.MetadataItems.extra
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-metadata.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,39 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Metadata Module ........................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# namespace prefix bindings
-namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
-namespace ttm = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"
-namespace local = ""
-
-# meta - generic metadata
-TTAF.metadata =
-  element metadata {
-    TTAF.metadata.attlist,
-    TTAF.metadata.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.metadata.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.External.class =
-  element * - ( tt:* | ttm:* ) {
-    ( attribute * - ( xml:id ) { text }
-      | TTAF.External.class
-    )*
-  }
-
-TTAF.metadata.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.metadata.content =
-  (TTAF.MetadataItems.class |
-   TTAF.External.class |
-   TTAF.metadata.content.extra)*
-
-TTAF.Metadata.class |=
-  TTAF.MetadataItems.class |
-  TTAF.metadata
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-attribs.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,49 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Parameter Attributes Module ............................
-# .......................................................................
-
-namespace ttp = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter"
-
-# Standard Metadata Attributes
-
-TTAF.cellResolution.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:cellResolution { TTAF.CellResolution.datatype }?
-TTAF.clockMode.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:clockMode { TTAF.ClockMode.datatype }?
-TTAF.dropMode.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:dropMode { TTAF.DropMode.datatype }?
-TTAF.frameRate.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:frameRate { TTAF.FrameRate.datatype }?
-TTAF.frameRateMultiplier.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:frameRateMultiplier { TTAF.FrameRateMultiplier.datatype }?
-TTAF.markerMode.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:markerMode { TTAF.MarkerMode.datatype }?
-TTAF.profile.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:profile { TTAF.Profile.datatype }?
-TTAF.pixelAspectRatio.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:pixelAspectRatio { TTAF.PixelAspectRatio.datatype }?
-TTAF.subFrameRate.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:subFrameRate { TTAF.SubFrameRate.datatype }?
-TTAF.tickRate.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:tickRate { TTAF.TickRate.datatype }?
-TTAF.timeBase.attrib
-  = attribute ttp:timeBase { TTAF.TimeBase.datatype }?
-
-# Parameter Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.Parameter.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.cellResolution.attrib,
-  TTAF.clockMode.attrib,
-  TTAF.dropMode.attrib,
-  TTAF.frameRate.attrib,
-  TTAF.frameRateMultiplier.attrib,
-  TTAF.markerMode.attrib,
-  TTAF.pixelAspectRatio.attrib,
-  TTAF.profile.attrib,
-  TTAF.subFrameRate.attrib,
-  TTAF.tickRate.attrib,
-  TTAF.timeBase.attrib
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-items.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,95 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Parameter Items Module .................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-namespace ttp = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter"
-
-# profile - profile definition or use declaration
-TTAF.parameters.profile =
-  element ttp:profile {
-    TTAF.parameters.profile.attlist,
-    TTAF.parameters.profile.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.parameters.profile.attlist &=
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  attribute use { TTAF.Profile.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.parameters.profile.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.parameters.profile.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.parameters.features*,
-   TTAF.parameters.extensions*,
-   TTAF.parameters.profile.content.extra*)
-
-# features - container for feature elements
-TTAF.parameters.features =
-  element ttp:features {
-    TTAF.parameters.features.attlist,
-    TTAF.parameters.features.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.parameters.features.attlist &=
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  attribute xml:base { TTAF.URI.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.parameters.features.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.parameters.features.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.parameters.feature*,
-   TTAF.parameters.features.content.extra*)
-
-# feature - feature requirements declaration
-TTAF.parameters.feature =
-  element ttp:feature {
-    TTAF.parameters.feature.attlist,
-    TTAF.parameters.feature.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.parameters.feature.attlist =
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  attribute value { TTAF.FeatureValue.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.parameters.feature.content =
-  TTAF.FeatureDesignator.datatype
-
-# extensions - container for extension elements
-TTAF.parameters.extensions =
-  element ttp:extensions {
-    TTAF.parameters.extensions.attlist,
-    TTAF.parameters.extensions.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.parameters.extensions.attlist &=
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  attribute xml:base { TTAF.URI.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.parameters.extensions.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.parameters.extensions.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.parameters.extension*,
-   TTAF.parameters.extensions.content.extra*)
-
-# extension - extension requirements declaration
-TTAF.parameters.extension =
-  element ttp:extension {
-    TTAF.parameters.extension.attlist,
-    TTAF.parameters.extension.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.parameters.extension.attlist =
-  TTAF.id.attrib,
-  attribute value { TTAF.ExtensionValue.datatype }?
-
-TTAF.parameters.extension.content =
-  TTAF.ExtensionDesignator.datatype
-
-## ParameterItems.class
-TTAF.ParameterItems.extra = empty
-TTAF.ParameterItems.class |=
-  TTAF.parameters.profile |
-  TTAF.ParameterItems.extra
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-parameters.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,10 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Parameters Module ......................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-TTAF.Parameters.class |=
-  TTAF.ParameterItems.class
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-styling-attribs.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,108 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Styling Attributes Module ..............................
-# .......................................................................
-
-namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
-namespace tts = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling"
-namespace local = ""
-
-# Standard Style Attributes
-
-TTAF.backgroundColor.attrib
-  = attribute tts:backgroundColor { TTAF.Color.datatype }?
-TTAF.color.attrib
-  = attribute tts:color { TTAF.Color.datatype }?
-TTAF.direction.attrib
-  = attribute tts:direction { TTAF.Direction.datatype }?
-TTAF.display.attrib
-  = attribute tts:display { TTAF.Display.datatype }?
-TTAF.displayAlign.attrib
-  = attribute tts:displayAlign { TTAF.DisplayAlign.datatype }?
-TTAF.extent.attrib
-  = attribute tts:extent { TTAF.Extent.datatype }?
-TTAF.fontFamily.attrib
-  = attribute tts:fontFamily { TTAF.FontFamily.datatype }?
-TTAF.fontSize.attrib
-  = attribute tts:fontSize { TTAF.FontSize.datatype }?
-TTAF.fontStyle.attrib
-  = attribute tts:fontStyle { TTAF.FontStyle.datatype }?
-TTAF.fontWeight.attrib
-  = attribute tts:fontWeight { TTAF.FontWeight.datatype }?
-TTAF.lineHeight.attrib
-  = attribute tts:lineHeight { TTAF.LineHeight.datatype }?
-TTAF.opacity.attrib
-  = attribute tts:opacity { TTAF.Opacity.datatype }?
-TTAF.origin.attrib
-  = attribute tts:origin { TTAF.Origin.datatype }?
-TTAF.overflow.attrib
-  = attribute tts:overflow { TTAF.Overflow.datatype }?
-TTAF.padding.attrib
-  = attribute tts:padding { TTAF.Padding.datatype }?
-TTAF.showBackground.attrib
-  = attribute tts:showBackground { TTAF.ShowBackground.datatype }?
-TTAF.textAlign.attrib
-  = attribute tts:textAlign { TTAF.TextAlign.datatype }?
-TTAF.textDecoration.attrib
-  = attribute tts:textDecoration { TTAF.TextDecoration.datatype }?
-TTAF.textOutline.attrib
-  = attribute tts:textOutline { TTAF.TextOutline.datatype }?
-TTAF.unicodeBidi.attrib
-  = attribute tts:unicodeBidi { TTAF.UnicodeBidi.datatype }?
-TTAF.visibility.attrib
-  = attribute tts:visibility { TTAF.Visibility.datatype }?
-TTAF.wrapOption.attrib
-  = attribute tts:wrapOption { TTAF.WrapOption.datatype }?
-TTAF.writingMode.attrib
-  = attribute tts:writingMode { TTAF.WritingMode.datatype }?
-TTAF.zIndex.attrib
-  = attribute tts:zIndex { TTAF.ZIndex.datatype }?
-
-# Extension Style Attributes
-
-TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib =
-  attribute * - ( tt:* | tts:* | xml:* | local:* ) { text }
-
-# Styling Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.Styling.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.backgroundColor.attrib,
-  TTAF.color.attrib,
-  TTAF.direction.attrib,
-  TTAF.display.attrib,
-  TTAF.displayAlign.attrib,
-  TTAF.extent.attrib,
-  TTAF.fontFamily.attrib,
-  TTAF.fontSize.attrib,
-  TTAF.fontStyle.attrib,
-  TTAF.fontWeight.attrib,
-  TTAF.lineHeight.attrib,
-  TTAF.opacity.attrib,
-  TTAF.origin.attrib,
-  TTAF.overflow.attrib,
-  TTAF.padding.attrib,
-  TTAF.showBackground.attrib,
-  TTAF.textAlign.attrib,
-  TTAF.textDecoration.attrib,
-  TTAF.textOutline.attrib,
-  TTAF.unicodeBidi.attrib,
-  TTAF.visibility.attrib,
-  TTAF.wrapOption.attrib,
-  TTAF.writingMode.attrib,
-  TTAF.zIndex.attrib
-
-# Style Binding Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.StyleBinding.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.style.attrib
-
-# Styled Content Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.Styled.extra.attrib = empty
-TTAF.Styled.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.Styling.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.StyleBinding.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Styled.extra.attrib
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-styling.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,50 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Styling Module .........................................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# style reference attribute; must reference /tt/head/styling/style
-TTAF.style.attrib
-  = attribute style { xsd:IDREFS }?
-
-# styling - generic styling container
-TTAF.styling =
-  element styling {
-    TTAF.styling.attlist,
-    TTAF.styling.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.styling.attlist &=
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
-
-TTAF.styling.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.styling.content =
-  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
-   TTAF.styling.defs.class*,
-   TTAF.styling.content.extra*)
-
-# style - style declaration
-TTAF.styling.style =
-  element style {
-    TTAF.styling.style.attlist,
-    TTAF.styling.style.content
-  }
-
-TTAF.styling.style.attlist =
-  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.style.attrib,
-  (TTAF.Styling.attrib.class |
-   TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib+ )
-
-TTAF.styling.style.content.extra = empty
-TTAF.styling.style.content =
-  (TTAF.styling.style.content.extra)*
-
-# style definitions class
-TTAF.styling.defs.extra = empty
-TTAF.styling.defs.class = 
-  TTAF.styling.style
-  | TTAF.styling.defs.extra
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
\ No newline at end of file
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp-timing-attribs.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,49 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Timing Attributes Module ...............................
-# .......................................................................
-
-# Timing Attributes
-
-TTAF.timing.begin.attrib
-  = attribute begin { TTAF.TimeCoordinate.datatype }?
-TTAF.timing.dur.attrib
-  = attribute dur { TTAF.TimeDuration.datatype }?
-TTAF.timing.end.attrib
-  = attribute end { TTAF.TimeCoordinate.datatype }?
-TTAF.timing.timeContainer.attrib
-  = attribute timeContainer { TTAF.TimeContainer.datatype }?
-
-# Timing Interval Attribute class
-
-TTAF.TimingInterval.extra.attrib = empty
-TTAF.TimingInterval.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.timing.begin.attrib,
-  TTAF.timing.dur.attrib,
-  TTAF.timing.end.attrib,
-  TTAF.TimingInterval.extra.attrib
-
-# Timing Container Attribute class
-
-TTAF.TimingContainer.extra.attrib = empty
-TTAF.TimingContainer.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.timing.timeContainer.attrib,
-  TTAF.TimingContainer.extra.attrib
-
-# Timed Content Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.Timed.extra.attrib = empty
-TTAF.Timed.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.TimingInterval.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.Timed.extra.attrib
-
-# Timed Content Container Attribute Class
-
-TTAF.TimedContainer.extra.attrib = empty
-TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class &=
-  TTAF.Timed.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimingContainer.attrib.class,
-  TTAF.TimedContainer.extra.attrib
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttaf1-dfxp.rnc	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,31 +0,0 @@
-# .......................................................................
-# TT-AF 1.0 Distribution Format Exchange Profile (DFXP) Schema ..........
-# .......................................................................
-
-# default namespace
-default namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
-
-# generic tt modules
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-datatypes.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-classes.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-core-attribs.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-attribs.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-attribs.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-styling-attribs.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-timing-attribs.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-parameter-items.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-parameters.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-metadata-items.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-metadata.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-styling.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-animation.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-layout.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-content.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-head.rnc"
-include "ttaf1-dfxp-document.rnc"
-
-start = TTAF.tt | TTAF.parameters.profile
-
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
-# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-animation.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Animation Module .......................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# set - discrete animation
+TTAF.set =
+  element set {
+    TTAF.set.attlist,
+    TTAF.set.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.set.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Timed.attrib.class,
+  (TTAF.Styling.attrib.class |
+   TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib+ )
+
+TTAF.set.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.set.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.set.content.extra*)
+
+TTAF.Animation.extra = empty
+TTAF.Animation.class |=
+  TTAF.set |
+  TTAF.Animation.extra
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-classes.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Class Declarations Module ..............................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# attribute group classes
+TTAF.Core.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.Parameter.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.StyleBinding.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.Styled.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.Styling.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.Timed.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class = empty
+TTAF.TimingInterval.attrib.class = empty
+
+# element group classes
+TTAF.Animation.class = empty
+TTAF.Block.class = empty
+TTAF.BlockNoDiv.class = empty
+TTAF.Inline.class = empty
+TTAF.InlineNoSpan.class = empty
+TTAF.MetadataNoAgent.class = empty
+TTAF.Metadata.class = empty
+TTAF.MetadataItems.class = empty
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-content.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,121 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Content Module .........................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# body - content body
+TTAF.body =
+  element body {
+    TTAF.body.attlist,
+    TTAF.body.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.body.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.body.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.body.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Animation.class*,
+   (TTAF.Block.class | TTAF.body.content.extra)*)
+
+# div - division
+TTAF.div =
+  element div {
+    TTAF.div.attlist,
+    TTAF.div.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.div.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.div.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.div.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Animation.class*,
+   (TTAF.Block.class | TTAF.div.content.extra)*)
+
+# p - paragraph
+TTAF.p =
+  element p {
+    TTAF.p.attlist,
+    TTAF.p.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.p.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.p.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.p.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Animation.class*,
+   (TTAF.Inline.class |
+    TTAF.p.content.extra)*)
+
+# span - intra-paragraph inline span
+TTAF.span =
+  element span {
+    TTAF.span.attlist,
+    TTAF.span.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.span.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.span.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.span.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Animation.class*,
+   (TTAF.Inline.class |
+    TTAF.span.content.extra)*)
+
+# br - manual line break
+TTAF.br =
+  element br {
+    TTAF.br.attlist,
+    TTAF.br.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.br.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Styled.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.br.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.br.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Animation.class*,
+   TTAF.br.content.extra*)
+
+# Block.class
+TTAF.Block.extra = empty
+TTAF.BlockNoDiv.class |=
+  TTAF.p | TTAF.Block.extra
+TTAF.Block.class |=
+  TTAF.div | TTAF.BlockNoDiv.class
+
+# Inline.class
+TTAF.Inline.extra = empty
+TTAF.InlineNoSpan.class |=
+  text | TTAF.br | TTAF.Inline.extra
+TTAF.Inline.class |=
+  TTAF.span | TTAF.InlineNoSpan.class
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-core-attribs.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Core Attributes Module .................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+TTAF.id.attrib
+  = attribute xml:id { xsd:ID }?
+
+TTAF.lang.attrib
+  = attribute xml:lang { TTAF.LanguageCode.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.lang.required.attrib
+  = attribute xml:lang { TTAF.LanguageCode.datatype }
+
+TTAF.space.attrib
+  = attribute xml:space { TTAF.XMLSpace.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.Core.extra.attrib
+  = empty
+
+TTAF.Core.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  TTAF.lang.attrib,
+  TTAF.space.attrib,
+  TTAF.Core.extra.attrib
+
+TTAF.Core.required.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  TTAF.lang.required.attrib,
+  TTAF.space.attrib,
+  TTAF.Core.extra.attrib
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-datatypes.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,293 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Datatypes Module .......................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+TTAF.Alpha.datatype =
+  xsd:float
+
+TTAF.Agent.datatype =
+  xsd:IDREFS
+
+TTAF.CellResolution.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.ClockMode.datatype =
+  "local" |
+  "gps" |
+  "utc"
+
+TTAF.Color.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.Direction.datatype =
+  "ltr" |
+  "rtl"
+
+TTAF.Display.datatype =
+  "auto" |
+  "none"
+
+TTAF.DisplayAlign.datatype =
+  "before" |
+  "center" |
+  "after"
+
+TTAF.DropMode.datatype =
+  "dropNTSC" |
+  "dropPAL" |
+  "nonDrop"
+
+TTAF.ExtensionDesignator.datatype =
+  TTAF.URI.datatype
+
+TTAF.ExtensionValue.datatype =
+ "optional" |
+ "required" |
+ "use"
+
+TTAF.Extent.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.FeatureDesignator.datatype =
+  TTAF.URI.datatype
+
+TTAF.FeatureValue.datatype =
+ "optional" |
+ "required" |
+ "use"
+
+TTAF.FontFamily.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.FontSize.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.FontStyle.datatype =
+  "normal" |
+  "italic" |
+  "oblique"
+
+TTAF.FontWeight.datatype =
+  "normal" |
+  "bold"
+
+TTAF.FrameRate.datatype =
+  xsd:positiveInteger
+
+TTAF.FrameRateMultiplier.datatype =
+  xsd:string { pattern = "\p{Nd}+\s+\p{Nd}+" }
+
+TTAF.LanguageCode.datatype =
+  "" |
+  xsd:language
+
+TTAF.LineHeight.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.MarkerMode.datatype =
+  "continuous" |
+  "discontinuous"
+
+TTAF.MetadataAgentType.datatype =
+  "person" |
+  "character" |
+  "group" |
+  "organization" |
+  "other"
+
+TTAF.MetadataNameType.datatype =
+  "full" |
+  "family" |
+  "given" |
+  "alias" |
+  "other"
+
+TTAF.MetadataRoleBaseType.datatype =
+  "action" |
+  "caption" |
+  "description" |
+  "dialog" |
+  "expletive" |
+  "kinesic" |
+  "lyrics" |
+  "music" |
+  "narration" |
+  "quality" |
+  "sound" |
+  "source" |
+  "suppressed" |
+  "reproduction" |
+  "thought" |
+  "title" |
+  "transcription"
+
+TTAF.Opacity.datatype =
+  TTAF.Alpha.datatype
+
+TTAF.Origin.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.Overflow.datatype =
+  "visible" |
+  "hidden" 
+
+TTAF.Padding.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.PixelAspectRatio.datatype =
+  xsd:string { pattern = "\p{Nd}+\s+\p{Nd}+" }
+
+TTAF.Profile.datatype =
+  TTAF.URI.datatype
+
+TTAF.Role.datatype =
+  list { TTAF.RoleItem.datatype+ }
+
+TTAF.RoleItem.datatype =
+  TTAF.MetadataRoleBaseType.datatype |
+  xsd:NMTOKEN { pattern = "x-\c+" }
+
+TTAF.ShowBackground.datatype =
+  "always" |
+  "whenActive"
+
+TTAF.SubFrameRate.datatype =
+  xsd:positiveInteger
+
+TTAF.TextAlign.datatype =
+  "left" |
+  "center" |
+  "right" |
+  "start" |
+  "end"
+
+TTAF.TextDecoration.datatype =
+  "none" |
+  "underline" |
+  "noUnderline" |
+  "lineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough" |
+  "overline" |
+  "noOverline" |
+  "noUnderline noLineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough noUnderline" |
+  "noUnderline lineThrough" |
+  "lineThrough noUnderline" |
+  "underline noLineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough underline" |
+  "underline lineThrough" |
+  "lineThrough underline" |
+  "noUnderline noOverline" |
+  "noOverline noUnderline" |
+  "noUnderline overline" |
+  "overline noUnderline" |
+  "underline noOverline" |
+  "noOverline underline" |
+  "underline overline" |
+  "overline underline" |
+  "noUnderline noLineThrough noOverline" |
+  "noUnderline noOverline noLineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough noUnderline noOverline" |
+  "noLineThrough noOverline noUnderline" |
+  "noOverline noUnderline noLineThrough" |
+  "noOverline noLineThrough noUnderline" |
+  "noUnderline noLineThrough overline" |
+  "noUnderline overline noLineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough noUnderline overline" |
+  "noLineThrough overline noUnderline" |
+  "overline noUnderline noLineThrough" |
+  "overline noLineThrough noUnderline" |
+  "noUnderline lineThrough noOverline" |
+  "noUnderline noOverline lineThrough" |
+  "lineThrough noUnderline noOverline" |
+  "lineThrough noOverline noUnderline" |
+  "noOverline noUnderline lineThrough" |
+  "noOverline lineThrough noUnderline" |
+  "noUnderline lineThrough overline" |
+  "noUnderline overline lineThrough" |
+  "lineThrough noUnderline overline" |
+  "lineThrough overline noUnderline" |
+  "overline noUnderline lineThrough" |
+  "overline lineThrough noUnderline" |
+  "underline noLineThrough noOverline" |
+  "underline noOverline noLineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough underline noOverline" |
+  "noLineThrough noOverline underline" |
+  "noOverline underline noLineThrough" |
+  "noOverline noLineThrough underline" |
+  "underline noLineThrough overline" |
+  "underline overline noLineThrough" |
+  "noLineThrough underline overline" |
+  "noLineThrough overline underline" |
+  "overline underline noLineThrough" |
+  "overline noLineThrough underline" |
+  "underline lineThrough noOverline" |
+  "underline noOverline lineThrough" |
+  "lineThrough underline noOverline" |
+  "lineThrough noOverline underline" |
+  "noOverline underline lineThrough" |
+  "noOverline lineThrough underline" |
+  "underline lineThrough overline" |
+  "underline overline lineThrough" |
+  "lineThrough underline overline" |
+  "lineThrough overline underline" |
+  "overline underline lineThrough" |
+  "overline lineThrough underline"
+
+TTAF.TextOutline.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.TickRate.datatype =
+  xsd:positiveInteger
+
+TTAF.TimeBase.datatype =
+  "media" |
+  "smpte" |
+  "clock"
+
+TTAF.TimeContainer.datatype =
+  "par" |
+  "seq"
+
+TTAF.TimeCoordinate.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.TimeDuration.datatype =
+  string
+
+TTAF.URI.datatype =
+  xsd:anyURI
+
+TTAF.UnicodeBidi.datatype =
+  "normal" |
+  "embed" |
+  "bidiOverride"
+
+TTAF.Visibility.datatype =
+  "hidden" |
+  "visible"
+
+TTAF.WrapOption.datatype =
+  "wrap" |
+  "noWrap"
+
+TTAF.WritingMode.datatype =
+  "lrtb" |
+  "rltb" |
+  "tbrl" |
+  "tblr" |
+  "lr" |
+  "rl" |
+  "tb"
+
+TTAF.XMLSpace.datatype =
+  "default" |
+  "preserve"
+
+TTAF.ZIndex.datatype =
+  string
+  
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-document.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,22 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Document Module ........................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+## tt - generic top-level document element type
+TTAF.tt =
+  element tt {
+    TTAF.tt.attlist,
+    TTAF.tt.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.tt.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.required.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Parameter.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.extent.attrib
+
+TTAF.tt.content =
+  (TTAF.head?, TTAF.body?)
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-head.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Header Module ..........................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# head - generic header
+TTAF.head =
+  element head {
+    TTAF.head.attlist,
+    TTAF.head.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.head.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.head.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.head.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Parameters.class*,
+   TTAF.styling?,
+   TTAF.layout?,
+   TTAF.head.content.extra*)
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-layout.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Layout Module ..........................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# region reference attribute; must reference /head/layout/region
+TTAF.region.attrib
+  = attribute region { xsd:IDREF }?
+
+# region binding attribute class
+TTAF.RegionBinding.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.region.attrib
+
+# layout - generic layout container
+TTAF.layout =
+  element layout {
+    TTAF.layout.attlist,
+    TTAF.layout.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.layout.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.layout.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.layout.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.layout.region*,
+   TTAF.layout.content.extra*)
+
+# region - region declaration
+TTAF.layout.region =
+  element region {
+    TTAF.layout.region.attlist,
+    TTAF.layout.region.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.layout.region.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.style.attrib,
+  (TTAF.Styling.attrib.class |
+   TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib+ )
+
+TTAF.layout.region.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.layout.region.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.Animation.class*,
+   TTAF.styling.style*,
+   TTAF.layout.region.content.extra*)
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-metadata-attribs.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,24 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Metadata Attributes Module ..............................
+# .......................................................................
+
+namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
+namespace ttm = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"
+namespace local = ""
+
+# Standard Metadata Attributes
+
+TTAF.agent.attrib
+  = attribute ttm:agent { TTAF.Agent.datatype }?
+TTAF.role.attrib
+  = attribute ttm:role { TTAF.Role.datatype }?
+
+# Metadata Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.Metadata.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.agent.attrib,
+  TTAF.role.attrib
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-metadata-items.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Metadata Items Module ......................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+namespace ttm = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"
+
+## actor - specifies actor
+TTAF.meta.actor =
+  element ttm:actor {
+    TTAF.meta.actor.attlist,
+    TTAF.meta.actor.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.meta.actor.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  attribute agent { xsd:IDREF }
+
+TTAF.meta.actor.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.meta.actor.content = empty
+
+## agent - specifies agent
+TTAF.meta.agent =
+  element ttm:agent {
+    TTAF.meta.agent.attlist,
+    TTAF.meta.agent.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.meta.agent.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  attribute type { TTAF.MetadataAgentType.datatype }
+
+TTAF.meta.agent.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.meta.agent.content =
+  (TTAF.meta.name*,
+   TTAF.meta.actor?,
+   TTAF.meta.agent.content.extra*)
+
+## copyright - specifies copyright statement
+TTAF.meta.copyright =
+  element ttm:copyright {
+    TTAF.meta.copyright.attlist,
+    TTAF.meta.copyright.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.meta.copyright.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.meta.copyright.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.meta.copyright.content = text
+
+## desc - specifies description
+TTAF.meta.desc =
+  element ttm:desc {
+    TTAF.meta.desc.attlist,
+    TTAF.meta.desc.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.meta.desc.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.meta.desc.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.meta.desc.content = text
+
+## name - specifies name
+TTAF.meta.name =
+  element ttm:name {
+    TTAF.meta.name.attlist,
+    TTAF.meta.name.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.meta.name.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  attribute type { TTAF.MetadataNameType.datatype }
+
+TTAF.meta.name.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.meta.name.content = text
+
+## title - describes title
+TTAF.meta.title =
+  element ttm:title {
+    TTAF.meta.title.attlist,
+    TTAF.meta.title.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.meta.title.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.meta.title.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.meta.title.content = text
+
+## MetadataItems.class
+TTAF.MetadataItems.extra = empty
+TTAF.MetadataItems.class |=
+  TTAF.meta.agent |
+  TTAF.meta.copyright |
+  TTAF.meta.desc |
+  TTAF.meta.title |
+  TTAF.MetadataItems.extra
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-metadata.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Metadata Module ........................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# namespace prefix bindings
+namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
+namespace ttm = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"
+namespace local = ""
+
+# meta - generic metadata
+TTAF.metadata =
+  element metadata {
+    TTAF.metadata.attlist,
+    TTAF.metadata.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.metadata.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.External.class =
+  element * - ( tt:* | ttm:* ) {
+    ( attribute * - ( xml:id ) { text }
+      | TTAF.External.class
+    )*
+  }
+
+TTAF.metadata.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.metadata.content =
+  (TTAF.MetadataItems.class |
+   TTAF.External.class |
+   TTAF.metadata.content.extra)*
+
+TTAF.Metadata.class |=
+  TTAF.MetadataItems.class |
+  TTAF.metadata
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-parameter-attribs.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Parameter Attributes Module ............................
+# .......................................................................
+
+namespace ttp = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter"
+
+# Standard Metadata Attributes
+
+TTAF.cellResolution.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:cellResolution { TTAF.CellResolution.datatype }?
+TTAF.clockMode.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:clockMode { TTAF.ClockMode.datatype }?
+TTAF.dropMode.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:dropMode { TTAF.DropMode.datatype }?
+TTAF.frameRate.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:frameRate { TTAF.FrameRate.datatype }?
+TTAF.frameRateMultiplier.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:frameRateMultiplier { TTAF.FrameRateMultiplier.datatype }?
+TTAF.markerMode.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:markerMode { TTAF.MarkerMode.datatype }?
+TTAF.profile.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:profile { TTAF.Profile.datatype }?
+TTAF.pixelAspectRatio.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:pixelAspectRatio { TTAF.PixelAspectRatio.datatype }?
+TTAF.subFrameRate.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:subFrameRate { TTAF.SubFrameRate.datatype }?
+TTAF.tickRate.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:tickRate { TTAF.TickRate.datatype }?
+TTAF.timeBase.attrib
+  = attribute ttp:timeBase { TTAF.TimeBase.datatype }?
+
+# Parameter Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.Parameter.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.cellResolution.attrib,
+  TTAF.clockMode.attrib,
+  TTAF.dropMode.attrib,
+  TTAF.frameRate.attrib,
+  TTAF.frameRateMultiplier.attrib,
+  TTAF.markerMode.attrib,
+  TTAF.pixelAspectRatio.attrib,
+  TTAF.profile.attrib,
+  TTAF.subFrameRate.attrib,
+  TTAF.tickRate.attrib,
+  TTAF.timeBase.attrib
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-parameter-items.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,95 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Parameter Items Module .................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+namespace ttp = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter"
+
+# profile - profile definition or use declaration
+TTAF.parameters.profile =
+  element ttp:profile {
+    TTAF.parameters.profile.attlist,
+    TTAF.parameters.profile.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.parameters.profile.attlist &=
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  attribute use { TTAF.Profile.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.parameters.profile.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.parameters.profile.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.parameters.features*,
+   TTAF.parameters.extensions*,
+   TTAF.parameters.profile.content.extra*)
+
+# features - container for feature elements
+TTAF.parameters.features =
+  element ttp:features {
+    TTAF.parameters.features.attlist,
+    TTAF.parameters.features.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.parameters.features.attlist &=
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  attribute xml:base { TTAF.URI.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.parameters.features.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.parameters.features.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.parameters.feature*,
+   TTAF.parameters.features.content.extra*)
+
+# feature - feature requirements declaration
+TTAF.parameters.feature =
+  element ttp:feature {
+    TTAF.parameters.feature.attlist,
+    TTAF.parameters.feature.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.parameters.feature.attlist =
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  attribute value { TTAF.FeatureValue.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.parameters.feature.content =
+  TTAF.FeatureDesignator.datatype
+
+# extensions - container for extension elements
+TTAF.parameters.extensions =
+  element ttp:extensions {
+    TTAF.parameters.extensions.attlist,
+    TTAF.parameters.extensions.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.parameters.extensions.attlist &=
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  attribute xml:base { TTAF.URI.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.parameters.extensions.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.parameters.extensions.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.parameters.extension*,
+   TTAF.parameters.extensions.content.extra*)
+
+# extension - extension requirements declaration
+TTAF.parameters.extension =
+  element ttp:extension {
+    TTAF.parameters.extension.attlist,
+    TTAF.parameters.extension.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.parameters.extension.attlist =
+  TTAF.id.attrib,
+  attribute value { TTAF.ExtensionValue.datatype }?
+
+TTAF.parameters.extension.content =
+  TTAF.ExtensionDesignator.datatype
+
+## ParameterItems.class
+TTAF.ParameterItems.extra = empty
+TTAF.ParameterItems.class |=
+  TTAF.parameters.profile |
+  TTAF.ParameterItems.extra
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-parameters.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Parameters Module ......................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+TTAF.Parameters.class |=
+  TTAF.ParameterItems.class
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-styling-attribs.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,108 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Styling Attributes Module ..............................
+# .......................................................................
+
+namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
+namespace tts = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling"
+namespace local = ""
+
+# Standard Style Attributes
+
+TTAF.backgroundColor.attrib
+  = attribute tts:backgroundColor { TTAF.Color.datatype }?
+TTAF.color.attrib
+  = attribute tts:color { TTAF.Color.datatype }?
+TTAF.direction.attrib
+  = attribute tts:direction { TTAF.Direction.datatype }?
+TTAF.display.attrib
+  = attribute tts:display { TTAF.Display.datatype }?
+TTAF.displayAlign.attrib
+  = attribute tts:displayAlign { TTAF.DisplayAlign.datatype }?
+TTAF.extent.attrib
+  = attribute tts:extent { TTAF.Extent.datatype }?
+TTAF.fontFamily.attrib
+  = attribute tts:fontFamily { TTAF.FontFamily.datatype }?
+TTAF.fontSize.attrib
+  = attribute tts:fontSize { TTAF.FontSize.datatype }?
+TTAF.fontStyle.attrib
+  = attribute tts:fontStyle { TTAF.FontStyle.datatype }?
+TTAF.fontWeight.attrib
+  = attribute tts:fontWeight { TTAF.FontWeight.datatype }?
+TTAF.lineHeight.attrib
+  = attribute tts:lineHeight { TTAF.LineHeight.datatype }?
+TTAF.opacity.attrib
+  = attribute tts:opacity { TTAF.Opacity.datatype }?
+TTAF.origin.attrib
+  = attribute tts:origin { TTAF.Origin.datatype }?
+TTAF.overflow.attrib
+  = attribute tts:overflow { TTAF.Overflow.datatype }?
+TTAF.padding.attrib
+  = attribute tts:padding { TTAF.Padding.datatype }?
+TTAF.showBackground.attrib
+  = attribute tts:showBackground { TTAF.ShowBackground.datatype }?
+TTAF.textAlign.attrib
+  = attribute tts:textAlign { TTAF.TextAlign.datatype }?
+TTAF.textDecoration.attrib
+  = attribute tts:textDecoration { TTAF.TextDecoration.datatype }?
+TTAF.textOutline.attrib
+  = attribute tts:textOutline { TTAF.TextOutline.datatype }?
+TTAF.unicodeBidi.attrib
+  = attribute tts:unicodeBidi { TTAF.UnicodeBidi.datatype }?
+TTAF.visibility.attrib
+  = attribute tts:visibility { TTAF.Visibility.datatype }?
+TTAF.wrapOption.attrib
+  = attribute tts:wrapOption { TTAF.WrapOption.datatype }?
+TTAF.writingMode.attrib
+  = attribute tts:writingMode { TTAF.WritingMode.datatype }?
+TTAF.zIndex.attrib
+  = attribute tts:zIndex { TTAF.ZIndex.datatype }?
+
+# Extension Style Attributes
+
+TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib =
+  attribute * - ( tt:* | tts:* | xml:* | local:* ) { text }
+
+# Styling Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.Styling.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.backgroundColor.attrib,
+  TTAF.color.attrib,
+  TTAF.direction.attrib,
+  TTAF.display.attrib,
+  TTAF.displayAlign.attrib,
+  TTAF.extent.attrib,
+  TTAF.fontFamily.attrib,
+  TTAF.fontSize.attrib,
+  TTAF.fontStyle.attrib,
+  TTAF.fontWeight.attrib,
+  TTAF.lineHeight.attrib,
+  TTAF.opacity.attrib,
+  TTAF.origin.attrib,
+  TTAF.overflow.attrib,
+  TTAF.padding.attrib,
+  TTAF.showBackground.attrib,
+  TTAF.textAlign.attrib,
+  TTAF.textDecoration.attrib,
+  TTAF.textOutline.attrib,
+  TTAF.unicodeBidi.attrib,
+  TTAF.visibility.attrib,
+  TTAF.wrapOption.attrib,
+  TTAF.writingMode.attrib,
+  TTAF.zIndex.attrib
+
+# Style Binding Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.StyleBinding.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.style.attrib
+
+# Styled Content Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.Styled.extra.attrib = empty
+TTAF.Styled.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.Styling.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.StyleBinding.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Styled.extra.attrib
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-styling.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Styling Module .........................................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# style reference attribute; must reference /tt/head/styling/style
+TTAF.style.attrib
+  = attribute style { xsd:IDREFS }?
+
+# styling - generic styling container
+TTAF.styling =
+  element styling {
+    TTAF.styling.attlist,
+    TTAF.styling.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.styling.attlist &=
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class
+
+TTAF.styling.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.styling.content =
+  (TTAF.Metadata.class*,
+   TTAF.styling.defs.class*,
+   TTAF.styling.content.extra*)
+
+# style - style declaration
+TTAF.styling.style =
+  element style {
+    TTAF.styling.style.attlist,
+    TTAF.styling.style.content
+  }
+
+TTAF.styling.style.attlist =
+  TTAF.Core.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.style.attrib,
+  (TTAF.Styling.attrib.class |
+   TTAF.Styling.ForeignExtension.attrib+ )
+
+TTAF.styling.style.content.extra = empty
+TTAF.styling.style.content =
+  (TTAF.styling.style.content.extra)*
+
+# style definitions class
+TTAF.styling.defs.extra = empty
+TTAF.styling.defs.class = 
+  TTAF.styling.style
+  | TTAF.styling.defs.extra
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1-timing-attribs.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 DFXP Timing Attributes Module ...............................
+# .......................................................................
+
+# Timing Attributes
+
+TTAF.timing.begin.attrib
+  = attribute begin { TTAF.TimeCoordinate.datatype }?
+TTAF.timing.dur.attrib
+  = attribute dur { TTAF.TimeDuration.datatype }?
+TTAF.timing.end.attrib
+  = attribute end { TTAF.TimeCoordinate.datatype }?
+TTAF.timing.timeContainer.attrib
+  = attribute timeContainer { TTAF.TimeContainer.datatype }?
+
+# Timing Interval Attribute class
+
+TTAF.TimingInterval.extra.attrib = empty
+TTAF.TimingInterval.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.timing.begin.attrib,
+  TTAF.timing.dur.attrib,
+  TTAF.timing.end.attrib,
+  TTAF.TimingInterval.extra.attrib
+
+# Timing Container Attribute class
+
+TTAF.TimingContainer.extra.attrib = empty
+TTAF.TimingContainer.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.timing.timeContainer.attrib,
+  TTAF.TimingContainer.extra.attrib
+
+# Timed Content Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.Timed.extra.attrib = empty
+TTAF.Timed.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.TimingInterval.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.Timed.extra.attrib
+
+# Timed Content Container Attribute Class
+
+TTAF.TimedContainer.extra.attrib = empty
+TTAF.TimedContainer.attrib.class &=
+  TTAF.Timed.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimingContainer.attrib.class,
+  TTAF.TimedContainer.extra.attrib
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/ttml10/spec/rnc/ttml1.rnc	Thu Aug 22 10:57:09 2013 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+# .......................................................................
+# TT-AF 1.0 Distribution Format Exchange Profile (DFXP) Schema ..........
+# .......................................................................
+
+# default namespace
+default namespace tt = "http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"
+
+# generic tt modules
+include "ttml1-datatypes.rnc"
+include "ttml1-classes.rnc"
+include "ttml1-core-attribs.rnc"
+include "ttml1-parameter-attribs.rnc"
+include "ttml1-metadata-attribs.rnc"
+include "ttml1-styling-attribs.rnc"
+include "ttml1-timing-attribs.rnc"
+include "ttml1-parameter-items.rnc"
+include "ttml1-parameters.rnc"
+include "ttml1-metadata-items.rnc"
+include "ttml1-metadata.rnc"
+include "ttml1-styling.rnc"
+include "ttml1-animation.rnc"
+include "ttml1-layout.rnc"
+include "ttml1-content.rnc"
+include "ttml1-head.rnc"
+include "ttml1-document.rnc"
+
+start = TTAF.tt | TTAF.parameters.profile
+
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
+# .......................................................................
--- a/ttml10/spec/ttaf1	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,14 +0,0 @@
-This is a placeholder for a namespace document that permits
-dereferencing the Timed Text (TT) Authoring Format V1.0
-Distribution Format Exchange Profile namespace URIs:
-
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling-extension
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata-extension
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter
-http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter-extension
-
-This namespace document is expected to be replaced by a
-W3C XML Schema document.
--- a/ttml10/spec/ttaf1-dfxp.html	Wed Aug 21 11:13:48 2013 -0600
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,6968 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html
-  PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
-<html lang="en-us"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"><title>Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) 1.0 (Second Edition) -- (Editor's copy)</title><style type="text/css">
-code           { font-family: monospace; }
-
-div.constraint,
-div.issue,
-div.note,
-div.notice     { margin-left: 2em; }
-
-ol.enumar      { list-style-type: decimal; }
-ol.enumla      { list-style-type: lower-alpha; }
-ol.enumlr      { list-style-type: lower-roman; }
-ol.enumua      { list-style-type: upper-alpha; }
-ol.enumur      { list-style-type: upper-roman; }
-
-
-div.exampleInner pre { margin-left: 1em;
-                       margin-top: 0em; margin-bottom: 0em}
-div.exampleOuter {border: 4px double gray;
-                  margin: 0em; padding: 0em}
-div.exampleInner { background-color: #d5dee3;
-                   border-top-width: 4px;
-                   border-top-style: double;
-                   border-top-color: #d3d3d3;
-                   border-bottom-width: 4px;
-                   border-bottom-style: double;
-                   border-bottom-color: #d3d3d3;
-                   padding: 4px; margin: 0em }
-div.exampleWrapper { margin: 4px }
-div.exampleHeader { font-weight: bold;
-                    margin: 4px}
-
-li p { margin-top: 0.3em; margin-bottom: 0.3em; }
-div.issue { border: 2px solid black; background-color: #ffff66; padding: 0em 1em; margin: 0em 0em }
-table.ednote { border-collapse: collapse; border: 2px solid black; width: 85% }
-table.ednote td { background-color: #ddaa66; border: 2px solid black }
-table.acronyms td.label { width: 15% }
-table.acronyms td.def { width: 65% }
-table.graphic { border: 0px none black; width: 100%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.graphic caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: center; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.graphic td { border: 0px none black; text-align: center }
-table.common { border: 2px solid black; width: 85%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.common caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: left; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.common th { padding: 0em 0.5em; border: 2px solid black; text-align: left }
-table.common td { padding: 0em 0.5em; border: 2px solid black }
-table.syntax { border: 0px solid black; width: 85%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.syntax caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: left; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.syntax th { border: 0px solid black; text-align: left }
-table.syntax td { border: 0px solid black }
-table.syntax div { background-color: #ffffc8 }
-table.semantics { border: 0px solid black; width: 85%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.semantics caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: left; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.semantics th { border: 0px solid black; text-align: left }
-table.semantics td {
-  border-left: 0px solid black;
-  border-right: 0px solid black;
-  border-top: 4px double #d3d3d3;
-  border-bottom: 4px double #d3d3d3;
-  background-color: #ccffcc
-}
-table.semantics code.formulae {
-  padding: 1em;
-  border: 1px dashed #005a9c;
-  line-height: 1.1em;
-  background-color: #fdfdfd;
-}
-table.example { border: 0px solid black; width: 85%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.example caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: left; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.example th { border: 0px solid black; text-align: left }
-table.example td { border: 0px solid black;  }
-table.example div { background-color: #c8ffff }
-table.example-images { text-align: center; border: 0px solid black; width: 85%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.example-images caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: center; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.example-images td { border: 0px solid black; text-align: center }
-table.example-images-bordered { text-align: center; border: 0px solid black; width: 85%; border-collapse: collapse }
-table.example-images-bordered caption { font-weight: bold; text-align: center; padding-bottom: 0.5em }
-table.example-images-bordered td { border: 1px solid red; text-align: left }
-.tbd { background-color: #ffff33; border: 2px solid black; width: 85% }
-.strong { font-weight: bold }
-.reqattr { font-weight: bold }
-.optattr { font-style: italic }
-</style><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED.css"></head><body>Last Modified: $Date: 2013/08/21 17:11:33 $<div id="revisions"></div><div class="head">
-<h1><a id="title"></a>Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) 1.0 (Second Edition)</h1>
-<h2><a id="w3c-doctype"></a>Editors' copy $Date: 2013/08/21 17:11:33 $ @@ @@@@ @@@@</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd>
-<a href="ttaf1-dfxp.html">ttaf1-dfxp.html</a>
-</dd><dt>Latest version:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ttml/raw-file/tip/ttml10/spec/ttaf1-dfxp.html?content-type=text/html;charset=utf-8">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ttml/raw-file/tip/ttml10/spec/ttaf1-dfxp.html?content-type=text/html;charset=utf-8</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd>
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/REC-ttaf1-dfxp-20101118/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/REC-ttaf1-dfxp-20101118/</a>
-</dd><dt>Editor:</dt><dd>Glenn Adams, Cox Communications, Inc.</dd><dt>Contributing Authors:</dt><dd>Mike Dolan, Invited Expert</dd><dd>Geoff Freed, WGBH National Center for Accessible Media</dd><dd>Sean Hayes, Microsoft</dd><dd>Erik Hodge, RealNetworks</dd><dd>David Kirby, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)</dd><dd>Thierry Michel, W3C</dd><dd>Dave Singer, Apple Computer</dd></dl><p>Please refer to the <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/ttml/raw-file/default/ttml10/spec/ttml-issues.html">errata</a> for this document, which may
-      include normative corrections.</p><p>See also <a href="http://www.w3.org/2003/03/Translations/byTechnology?technology=ttaf1-dfxp"><strong>translations</strong></a>.</p><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a>&nbsp;©&nbsp;@@@@&nbsp;<a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), All Rights Reserved. W3C <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p></div><hr><div>
-<h2><a id="abstract"></a>Abstract</h2><p>This document specifies the Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) in terms of a
-vocabulary and semantics thereof.</p><p>The Timed Text Markup Language is a content type that represents
-timed text media for the purpose of interchange among authoring
-systems. Timed text is textual information that is intrinsically or
-extrinsically associated with timing information.</p><p>It is intended to be used
-for the purpose of transcoding or exchanging timed text information
-among legacy distribution content formats presently in use for
-subtitling and captioning functions.</p><p>In addition to being used for interchange among legacy distribution content
-formats, TTML Content may be used directly as a distribution format,
-for example, providing a standard content format to reference from a <code>&lt;track&gt;</code>
-element in an HTML5 document, or a <code>&lt;text&gt;</code> or 
-<code>&lt;textstream&gt;</code> media element in a <a href="#smil21">[SMIL 2.1]</a> document.</p></div><div>
-<h2><a id="status"></a>Status of this Document</h2><p><strong>This document is an editor's copy that has
-        no official standing.</strong></p><p></p></div><div class="toc">
-<h2><a id="contents"></a>Table of Contents</h2><p class="toc">1 <a href="#intro">Introduction</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1.1 <a href="#model">System Model</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1.2 <a href="#example">Document Example</a><br>
-2 <a href="#definitions">Definitions</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2.1 <a href="#acronyms">Acronyms</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2.2 <a href="#terms">Terminology</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2.3 <a href="#conventions">Documentation Conventions</a><br>
-3 <a href="#conformance">Conformance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3.1 <a href="#conformance-content">Content Conformance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3.2 <a href="#conformance-processor">Processor Conformance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3.2.1 <a href="#conformance-generic-processor">Generic Processor Conformance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3.2.2 <a href="#conformance-transformation-processor">Transformation Processor Conformance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3.2.3 <a href="#conformance-presentation-processor">Presentation Processor Conformance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3.3 <a href="#claims">Claims</a><br>
-4 <a href="#doctypes">Document Types</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4.1 <a href="#ttml-content-doctype">TTML Content</a><br>
-5 <a href="#vocabulary">Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5.1 <a href="#vocabulary-namespaces">Namespaces</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5.2 <a href="#vocabulary-profiles">Profiles</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5.3 <a href="#vocabulary-overview">Catalog</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5.3.1 <a href="#core-vocabulary-overview">Core Catalog</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5.3.2 <a href="#extension-vocabulary-overview">Extension Catalog</a><br>
-6 <a href="#parameters">Parameters</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.1 <a href="#parameter-element-vocabulary">Parameter Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.1.1 <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile">ttp:profile</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.1.2 <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-features">ttp:features</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.1.3 <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-feature">ttp:feature</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.1.4 <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extensions">ttp:extensions</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.1.5 <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extension">ttp:extension</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2 <a href="#parameter-attribute-vocabulary">Parameter Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.1 <a href="#parameter-attribute-cellResolution">ttp:cellResolution</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.2 <a href="#parameter-attribute-clockMode">ttp:clockMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.3 <a href="#parameter-attribute-dropMode">ttp:dropMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.4 <a href="#parameter-attribute-frameRate">ttp:frameRate</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.5 <a href="#parameter-attribute-frameRateMultiplier">ttp:frameRateMultiplier</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.6 <a href="#parameter-attribute-markerMode">ttp:markerMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.7 <a href="#parameter-attribute-pixelAspectRatio">ttp:pixelAspectRatio</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.8 <a href="#parameter-attribute-profile">ttp:profile</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.9 <a href="#parameter-attribute-subFrameRate">ttp:subFrameRate</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.10 <a href="#parameter-attribute-tickRate">ttp:tickRate</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6.2.11 <a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase">ttp:timeBase</a><br>
-7 <a href="#content">Content</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1 <a href="#content-element-vocabulary">Content Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.1 <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-tt">tt</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.2 <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-head">head</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.3 <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body">body</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.4 <a href="#content-vocabulary-div">div</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.5 <a href="#content-vocabulary-p">p</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.6 <a href="#content-vocabulary-span">span</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.1.7 <a href="#content-vocabulary-br">br</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.2 <a href="#content-attribute-vocabulary">Content Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.2.1 <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.2.2 <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7.2.3 <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a><br>
-8 <a href="#styling">Styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.1 <a href="#styling-element-vocabulary">Styling Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.1.1 <a href="#styling-vocabulary-styling">styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.1.2 <a href="#styling-vocabulary-style">style</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2 <a href="#styling-attribute-vocabulary">Styling Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.1 <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.2 <a href="#style-attribute-backgroundColor">tts:backgroundColor</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.3 <a href="#style-attribute-color">tts:color</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.4 <a href="#style-attribute-direction">tts:direction</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.5 <a href="#style-attribute-display">tts:display</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.6 <a href="#style-attribute-displayAlign">tts:displayAlign</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.7 <a href="#style-attribute-extent">tts:extent</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.8 <a href="#style-attribute-fontFamily">tts:fontFamily</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.9 <a href="#style-attribute-fontSize">tts:fontSize</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.10 <a href="#style-attribute-fontStyle">tts:fontStyle</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.11 <a href="#style-attribute-fontWeight">tts:fontWeight</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.12 <a href="#style-attribute-lineHeight">tts:lineHeight</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.13 <a href="#style-attribute-opacity">tts:opacity</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.14 <a href="#style-attribute-origin">tts:origin</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.15 <a href="#style-attribute-overflow">tts:overflow</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.16 <a href="#style-attribute-padding">tts:padding</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.17 <a href="#style-attribute-showBackground">tts:showBackground</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.18 <a href="#style-attribute-textAlign">tts:textAlign</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.19 <a href="#style-attribute-textDecoration">tts:textDecoration</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.20 <a href="#style-attribute-textOutline">tts:textOutline</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.21 <a href="#style-attribute-unicodeBidi">tts:unicodeBidi</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.22 <a href="#style-attribute-visibility">tts:visibility</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.23 <a href="#style-attribute-wrapOption">tts:wrapOption</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.24 <a href="#style-attribute-writingMode">tts:writingMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.2.25 <a href="#style-attribute-zIndex">tts:zIndex</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3 <a href="#styling-style-value-expressions">Style Value Expressions</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.1 <a href="#style-value-alpha">&lt;alpha&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.2 <a href="#style-value-color">&lt;color&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.3 <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.4 <a href="#style-value-duration">&lt;duration&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.5 <a href="#style-value-familyName">&lt;familyName&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.6 <a href="#style-value-genericFamilyName">&lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.7 <a href="#style-value-hexDigit">&lt;hexDigit&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.8 <a href="#style-value-integer">&lt;integer&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.9 <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.10 <a href="#style-value-namedColor">&lt;namedColor&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.11 <a href="#style-value-quotedString">&lt;quotedString&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.3.12 <a href="#style-value-string">&lt;string&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution">Style Resolution</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.1 <a href="#semantics-style-association">Style Association</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.1.1 <a href="#semantics-style-association-inline">Inline Styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.1.2 <a href="#semantics-style-association-referential">Referential Styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.1.3 <a href="#semantics-style-association-chained-referential">Chained Referential Styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.1.4 <a href="#semantics-style-association-nested">Nested Styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.2 <a href="#semantics-style-inheritance">Style Inheritance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.2.1 <a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-content">Content Style Inheritance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.2.2 <a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-region">Region Style Inheritance</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.3 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-value-categories">Style Resolution Value Categories</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.3.1 <a href="#semantics-style-resolved-value-category-specified">Specified Values</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.3.2 <a href="#semantics-style-resolved-value-category-computed">Computed Values</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.3.3 <a href="#semantics-style-resolved-value-category-actual">Actual Values</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.4 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing">Style Resolution Processing</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.4.1 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-definitions">Conceptual Definitions</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.4.2 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-sss">Specified Style Set Processing</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.4.3 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-css">Computed Style Set Processing</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8.4.4.4 <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-process-overall">Style Resolution Process</a><br>
-9 <a href="#layout">Layout</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.1 <a href="#layout-element-vocabulary">Layout Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.1.1 <a href="#layout-vocabulary-layout">layout</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.1.2 <a href="#layout-vocabulary-region">region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.2 <a href="#layout-attribute-vocabulary">Layout Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.2.1 <a href="#layout-attribute-region">region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.3 <a href="#semantics-region-layout">Region Layout and Presentation</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.3.1 <a href="#semantics-default-region">Default Region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.3.2 <a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-1">Intermediate Synchronic Document Construction</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.3.3 <a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-2">Synchronic Flow Processing</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.3.4 <a href="#semantics-region-layout-example">Elaborated Example (Informative)</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.4 <a href="#semantics-line-layout">Line Layout</a><br>
-10 <a href="#timing">Timing</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.1 <a href="#timing-element-vocabulary">Timing Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.2 <a href="#timing-attribute-vocabulary">Timing Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.2.1 <a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.2.2 <a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.2.3 <a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.2.4 <a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.3 <a href="#timing-time-value-expressions">Time Value Expressions</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.3.1 <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;10.4 <a href="#timing-time-intervals">Time Intervals</a><br>
-11 <a href="#animation">Animation</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;11.1 <a href="#animation-element-vocabulary">Animation Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;11.1.1 <a href="#animation-vocabulary-set">set</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;11.2 <a href="#animation-attribute-vocabulary">Animation Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-12 <a href="#metadata">Metadata</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1 <a href="#metadata-element-vocabulary">Metadata Element Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.1 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-metadata">metadata</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.2 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-title">ttm:title</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.3 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-desc">ttm:desc</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.4 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-copyright">ttm:copyright</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.5 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-agent">ttm:agent</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.6 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-name">ttm:name</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.1.7 <a href="#metadata-vocabulary-actor">ttm:actor</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.2 <a href="#metadata-attribute-vocabulary">Metadata Attribute Vocabulary</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.2.1 <a href="#metadata-attribute-agent">ttm:agent</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;12.2.2 <a href="#metadata-attribute-role">ttm:role</a><br>
-</p>
-<h3><a id="appendices"></a>Appendices</h3><p class="toc">A <a href="#reduced-infoset">Reduced XML Infoset</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;A.1 <a href="#reduced-infoset-document">Document Information Item</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;A.2 <a href="#reduced-infoset-element">Element Information Item</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;A.3 <a href="#reduced-infoset-attribute">Attribute Information Item</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;A.4 <a href="#reduced-infoset-character">Character Information Item</a><br>
-B <a href="#schemas">Schemas</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B.1 <a href="#ttml-schema-rnc">Relax NG Compact (RNC) Schema</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B.2 <a href="#ttml-schema-xsd">XML Schema Definition (XSD) Schema</a><br>
-C <a href="#media-types-registration">Media Type Registration</a><br>
-D <a href="#features">Features</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1 <a href="#feature-designations">Feature Designations</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.1 <a href="#feature-animation">#animation</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.2 <a href="#feature-backgroundColor">#backgroundColor</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.3 <a href="#feature-backgroundColor-block">#backgroundColor-block</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.4 <a href="#feature-backgroundColor-inline">#backgroundColor-inline</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.5 <a href="#feature-backgroundColor-region">#backgroundColor-region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.6 <a href="#feature-bidi">#bidi</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.7 <a href="#feature-cellResolution">#cellResolution</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.8 <a href="#feature-clockMode">#clockMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.9 <a href="#feature-clockMode-gps">#clockMode-gps</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.10 <a href="#feature-clockMode-local">#clockMode-local</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.11 <a href="#feature-clockMode-utc">#clockMode-utc</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.12 <a href="#feature-color">#color</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.13 <a href="#feature-content">#content</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.14 <a href="#feature-core">#core</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.15 <a href="#feature-direction">#direction</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.16 <a href="#feature-display">#display</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.17 <a href="#feature-display-block">#display-block</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.18 <a href="#feature-display-inline">#display-inline</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.19 <a href="#feature-display-region">#display-region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.20 <a href="#feature-displayAlign">#displayAlign</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.21 <a href="#feature-dropMode">#dropMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.22 <a href="#feature-dropMode-dropNTSC">#dropMode-dropNTSC</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.23 <a href="#feature-dropMode-dropPAL">#dropMode-dropPAL</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.24 <a href="#feature-dropMode-nonDrop">#dropMode-nonDrop</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.25 <a href="#feature-extent">#extent</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.26 <a href="#feature-extent-region">#extent-region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.27 <a href="#feature-extent-root">#extent-root</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.28 <a href="#feature-fontFamily">#fontFamily</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.29 <a href="#feature-fontFamily-generic">#fontFamily-generic</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.30 <a href="#feature-fontFamily-non-generic">#fontFamily-non-generic</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.31 <a href="#feature-fontSize">#fontSize</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.32 <a href="#feature-fontSize-anamorphic">#fontSize-anamorphic</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.33 <a href="#feature-fontSize-isomorphic">#fontSize-isomorphic</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.34 <a href="#feature-fontStyle">#fontStyle</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.35 <a href="#feature-fontStyle-italic">#fontStyle-italic</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.36 <a href="#feature-fontStyle-oblique">#fontStyle-oblique</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.37 <a href="#feature-fontWeight">#fontWeight</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.38 <a href="#feature-fontWeight-bold">#fontWeight-bold</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.39 <a href="#feature-frameRate">#frameRate</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.40 <a href="#feature-frameRateMultiplier">#frameRateMultiplier</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.41 <a href="#feature-layout">#layout</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.42 <a href="#feature-length">#length</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.43 <a href="#feature-length-cell">#length-cell</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.44 <a href="#feature-length-em">#length-em</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.45 <a href="#feature-length-integer">#length-integer</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.46 <a href="#feature-length-negative">#length-negative</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.47 <a href="#feature-length-percentage">#length-percentage</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.48 <a href="#feature-length-pixel">#length-pixel</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.49 <a href="#feature-length-positive">#length-positive</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.50 <a href="#feature-length-real">#length-real</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.51 <a href="#feature-lineBreak-uax14">#lineBreak-uax14</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.52 <a href="#feature-lineHeight">#lineHeight</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.53 <a href="#feature-markerMode">#markerMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.54 <a href="#feature-markerMode-continuous">#markerMode-continuous</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.55 <a href="#feature-markerMode-discontinuous">#markerMode-discontinuous</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.56 <a href="#feature-metadata">#metadata</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.57 <a href="#feature-nested-div">#nested-div</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.58 <a href="#feature-nested-span">#nested-span</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.59 <a href="#feature-opacity">#opacity</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.60 <a href="#feature-origin">#origin</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.61 <a href="#feature-overflow">#overflow</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.62 <a href="#feature-overflow-visible">#overflow-visible</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.63 <a href="#feature-padding">#padding</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.64 <a href="#feature-padding-1">#padding-1</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.65 <a href="#feature-padding-2">#padding-2</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.66 <a href="#feature-padding-3">#padding-3</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.67 <a href="#feature-padding-4">#padding-4</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.68 <a href="#feature-pixelAspectRatio">#pixelAspectRatio</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.69 <a href="#feature-presentation">#presentation</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.70 <a href="#feature-profile">#profile</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.71 <a href="#feature-showBackground">#showBackground</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.72 <a href="#feature-structure">#structure</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.73 <a href="#feature-styling">#styling</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.74 <a href="#feature-styling-chained">#styling-chained</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.75 <a href="#feature-styling-inheritance-content">#styling-inheritance-content</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.76 <a href="#feature-styling-inheritance-region">#styling-inheritance-region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.77 <a href="#feature-styling-inline">#styling-inline</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.78 <a href="#feature-styling-nested">#styling-nested</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.79 <a href="#feature-styling-referential">#styling-referential</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.80 <a href="#feature-subFrameRate">#subFrameRate</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.81 <a href="#feature-textAlign">#textAlign</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.82 <a href="#feature-textAlign-absolute">#textAlign-absolute</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.83 <a href="#feature-textAlign-relative">#textAlign-relative</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.84 <a href="#feature-textDecoration">#textDecoration</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.85 <a href="#feature-textDecoration-over">#textDecoration-over</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.86 <a href="#feature-textDecoration-through">#textDecoration-through</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.87 <a href="#feature-textDecoration-under">#textDecoration-under</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.88 <a href="#feature-textOutline">#textOutline</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.89 <a href="#feature-textOutline-blurred">#textOutline-blurred</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.90 <a href="#feature-textOutline-unblurred">#textOutline-unblurred</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.91 <a href="#feature-tickRate">#tickRate</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.92 <a href="#feature-timeBase-clock">#timeBase-clock</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.93 <a href="#feature-timeBase-media">#timeBase-media</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.94 <a href="#feature-timeBase-smpte">#timeBase-smpte</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.95 <a href="#feature-timeContainer">#timeContainer</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.96 <a href="#feature-time-clock">#time-clock</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.97 <a href="#feature-time-clock-with-frames">#time-clock-with-frames</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.98 <a href="#feature-time-offset">#time-offset</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.99 <a href="#feature-time-offset-with-frames">#time-offset-with-frames</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.100 <a href="#feature-time-offset-with-ticks">#time-offset-with-ticks</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.101 <a href="#feature-timing">#timing</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.102 <a href="#feature-transformation">#transformation</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.103 <a href="#feature-unicodeBidi">#unicodeBidi</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.104 <a href="#feature-visibility">#visibility</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.105 <a href="#feature-visibility-block">#visibility-block</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.106 <a href="#feature-visibility-inline">#visibility-inline</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.107 <a href="#feature-visibility-region">#visibility-region</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.108 <a href="#feature-wrapOption">#wrapOption</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.109 <a href="#feature-writingMode">#writingMode</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.110 <a href="#feature-writingMode-vertical">#writingMode-vertical</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.111 <a href="#feature-writingMode-horizontal">#writingMode-horizontal</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.112 <a href="#feature-writingMode-horizontal-lr">#writingMode-horizontal-lr</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.113 <a href="#feature-writingMode-horizontal-rl">#writingMode-horizontal-rl</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.1.114 <a href="#feature-zIndex">#zIndex</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;D.2 <a href="#feature-support">Feature Support</a><br>
-E <a href="#extensions">Extensions</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;E.1 <a href="#extension-designations">Extension Designations</a><br>
-F <a href="#profiles">Profiles</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;F.1 <a href="#profile-dfxp-transformation">DFXP Transformation Profile</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;F.2 <a href="#profile-dfxp-presentation">DFXP Presentation Profile</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;F.3 <a href="#profile-dfxp-full">DFXP Full Profile</a><br>
-G <a href="#references">References</a><br>
-H <a href="#other-references">Other References</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-I <a href="#requirements">Requirements</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-J <a href="#derivation">Vocabulary Derivation</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;J.1 <a href="#d3e18739">Element Derivation</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;J.2 <a href="#d3e19221">Attribute Derivation</a><br>
-K <a href="#qa">QA Framework Compliance</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;K.1 <a href="#d3e20107">Requirements</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;K.2 <a href="#d3e20271">Guidelines</a><br>
-L <a href="#streaming">Streaming TTML Content</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-M <a href="#concrete-encoding">Concrete Encoding</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-N <a href="#time-expression-semantics">Time Expression Semantics</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;N.1 <a href="#time-expression-semantics-clock">Clock Time Base</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;N.2 <a href="#time-expression-semantics-media">Media Time Base</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;N.3 <a href="#time-expression-semantics-smpte">SMPTE Time Base</a><br>
-O <a href="#common-styling">Common Caption Style Examples</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;O.1 <a href="#pop-on-example">Pop-On Caption Example</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;O.2 <a href="#roll-up-example">Roll-Up Caption Example</a><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;O.3 <a href="#paint-on-example">Paint-On Caption Example</a><br>
-P <a href="#acknowledgments">Acknowledgments</a> (Non-Normative)<br>
-</p></div><hr><div class="body"><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="intro"></a>1 Introduction</h2><p><em>Unless specified otherwise, this section and its sub-sections are non-normative.</em></p><p>The Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) 1.0
-provides a standardized representation of a particular subset of
-textual information with which stylistic, layout, and timing semantics are associated by
-an author or an authoring system for the purpose of interchange and processing.</p><p>TTML is expressly designed to meet only a limited set of requirements
-established by <a href="#ttaf1-req">[TTAF1-REQ]</a>, and summarized in <a href="#requirements"><b>I Requirements</b></a>. In particular, only those requirements which service the
-need of performing interchange with existing, legacy distribution systems are
-satisfied.</p><p>In addition to being used for interchange among legacy distribution content
-formats, TTML Content may be used directly as a distribution format (as implied by
-the acronym DFXP), providing, for
-example, a standard content format to reference from a <code>&lt;track&gt;</code>
-element in an HTML5 document, or a <code>&lt;text&gt;</code> or 
-<code>&lt;textstream&gt;</code> media element in a <a href="#smil21">[SMIL 2.1]</a> document. Certain properties of TTML support
-streamability of content, as described in <a href="#streaming"><b>L Streaming TTML Content</b></a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>While TTML was not expressly designed for direct (embedded) integration into an
-HTML or a SMIL document instance, such integration is not precluded.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In some contexts of use, it may be appropriate to employ
-animated content to depict sign language representations of the same content
-as expressed by a Timed Text <em>Document Instance</em>. This use case is not
-explicitly addressed by TTML mechanisms, but may be addressed by some
-external multimedia integration technology, such as SMIL.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In previous drafts of this specification, TTML was referred to as DFXP (Distribution
-Format Exchange Profile). This latter term is retained for historical reasons in
-certain contexts, such as profile names and designators, and the short name
-<code>ttaf1-dfxp</code> used in URLs to refer to this specification.</p></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="model"></a>1.1 System Model</h3><p>Use of TTML is intended to function in a wider context of Timed Text
-Authoring and Distribution mechanisms that are based upon the system
-model depicted in <a href="#model-graphic"><b>Figure 1 – System Model</b></a>, wherein the Timed Text Markup Language
-serves as a bidirectional interchange format among a heterogeneous collection of
-authoring systems, and as a unidirectional interchange format to a
-heterogeneous collection of distribution formats after undergoing transcoding
-or compilation to the target distribution formats as required, and where one
-particular distribution format is TTML (labeled as "DFXP" in the figure).</p><a id="model-graphic"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Figure 1 – System Model</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/model.png" alt="System Model"></td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="example"></a>1.2 Document Example</h3><p>A TTML <em>Document Instance</em> consists of a <code>tt</code> document element that contains
-a header and a body, where the header specifies document level metadata, styling
-definitions and layout definitions, and the body specifies text content intermixed
-with references to style and layout information and inline styling and timing information.</p><a id="ttml-example-document-structure"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – TTML Document Structure</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;tt xml:lang="" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"&gt;
-  &lt;head&gt;
-    &lt;metadata/&gt;
-    &lt;styling/&gt;
-    &lt;layout/&gt;
-  &lt;/head&gt;
-  &lt;body/&gt;
-&lt;/tt&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>Document level metadata may specify a document title, description,
-and copyright information. In addition, arbitrary metadata drawn from
-other namespaces may be specified.</p><a id="ttml-example-metadata"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – TTML Metadata</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;metadata xmlns:ttm="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata"&gt;
-  &lt;ttm:title&gt;Timed Text TTML Example&lt;/ttm:title&gt;
-  &lt;ttm:copyright&gt;The Authors (c) 2006&lt;/ttm:copyright&gt;
-&lt;/metadata&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>Styling information may be specified in the form of style specification
-definitions that are referenced by layout and content information,
-specified inline with content information, or both.</p><p>In <a href="#ttml-example-styling"><b>Example Fragment – TTML Styling</b></a>, four style sets of specifications
-are defined, with one set serving as a collection of default styles.</p><a id="ttml-example-styling"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – TTML Styling</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;styling xmlns:tts="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling"&gt;
-  &lt;!-- s1 specifies default color, font, and text alignment --&gt;
-  &lt;style xml:id="s1"
-    tts:color="white"
-    tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"
-    tts:fontSize="22px"
-    tts:textAlign="center"
-  /&gt;
-  &lt;!-- alternative using yellow text but otherwise the same as style s1 --&gt;
-  &lt;style xml:id="s2" style="s1" tts:color="yellow"/&gt;
-  &lt;!-- a style based on s1 but justified to the right --&gt;
-  &lt;style xml:id="s1Right" style="s1" tts:textAlign="end" /&gt;     
-  &lt;!-- a style based on s2 but justified to the left --&gt;
-  &lt;style xml:id="s2Left" style="s2" tts:textAlign="start" /&gt;
-&lt;/styling&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>Layout information defines one or more regions into which content
-is intended to be presented. A region definition may reference one or
-more sets of style specifications in order to permit content flowed in the
-region to inherit from these styles.
-In <a href="#ttml-example-layout"><b>Example Fragment – TTML Layout</b></a>, the region definition makes
-reference to style specification <code>s1</code> augmented by specific inline
-styles which, together, allow content flowed into the region to inherit
-from the region's styles (in the case
-that a style is not already explicitly specified on content or inherited
-via the content hierarchy.)</p><a id="ttml-example-layout"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – TTML Layout</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;layout xmlns:tts="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling"&gt;
-  &lt;region xml:id="subtitleArea"
-    style="s1"
-    tts:extent="560px 62px"
-    tts:padding="5px 3px"
-    tts:backgroundColor="black"
-    tts:displayAlign="after"
-  /&gt;
-&lt;/layout&gt;  
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The content of a <em>Document Instance</em> is expressed in its
-body, which is organized in terms of block and inline text elements.
-The hierarchical organization of content elements serves a primary role in
-determining both spatial and temporal relationships. For example, in
-<a href="#ttml-example-body"><b>Example Fragment – TTML Body</b></a>, each paragraph (<code>p</code> element)
-is flowed into its target region in the specified lexical order; furthermore,
-the active time interval of each paragraph is timed in accordance to its
-parent or sibling according to the applicable time containment semantics —
-in this case, the division parent is interpreted (by default) as a parallel time
-container.</p><a id="ttml-example-body"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – TTML Body</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;body region="subtitleArea"&gt;
-  &lt;div&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle1" begin="0.76s" end="3.45s"&gt;
-      It seems a paradox, does it not,
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle2" begin="5.0s" end="10.0s"&gt;
-      that the image formed on&lt;br/&gt;
-      the Retina should be inverted?
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle3" begin="10.0s" end="16.0s" style="s2"&gt;
-      It is puzzling, why is it&lt;br/&gt;
-      we do not see things upside-down?
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle4" begin="17.2s" end="23.0s"&gt;
-      You have never heard the Theory,&lt;br/&gt;
-      then, that the Brain also is inverted?
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle5" begin="23.0s" end="27.0s" style="s2"&gt;
-      No indeed! What a beautiful fact!
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle6a" begin="28.0s" end="34.6s" style="s2Left"&gt;
-      But how is it proved?
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle6b" begin="28.0s" end="34.6s" style="s1Right"&gt;
-      Thus: what we call
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle7" begin="34.6s" end="45.0s" style="s1Right"&gt;
-      the vertex of the Brain&lt;br/&gt;
-      is really its base
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle8" begin="45.0s" end="52.0s" style="s1Right"&gt;
-      and what we call its base&lt;br/&gt;
-      is really its vertex,
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle9a" begin="53.5s" end="58.7s"&gt;
-      it is simply a question of nomenclature.
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-    &lt;p xml:id="subtitle9b" begin="53.5s" end="58.7s" style="s2"&gt;
-      How truly delightful!
-    &lt;/p&gt;
-  &lt;/div&gt;    
-&lt;/body&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The first subtitle <a href="#ttml-example-subtitle-1"><b>Subtitle 1 – Time Interval [0.76, 3.45)</b></a> is
-presented during the time interval 0.76 to 3.45 seconds.
-This
-subtitle inherits its font family, font size,
-foreground color, and text alignment from the region into which it is
-presented. Since no region is explicitly specified on the paragraph,
-the nearest ancestor that specifies a region determines the
-targeted region. Note also that content is presented
-at the bottom (after edge) of the containing region due to the <code>tts:displayAlign="after"</code>
-being specified on the region definition.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The notation "[<em>X</em>,<em>Y</em>]" denotes a closed
-interval from <em>X</em> to <em>Y</em>, including
-<em>X</em> and <em>Y</em>;
-"[<em>X</em>,<em>Y</em>)" denotes a right half-open
-interval from <em>X</em> to <em>Y</em>, including
-<em>X</em> but not including <em>Y</em>;
-"(<em>X</em>,<em>Y</em>]" denotes a left half-open
-interval from <em>X</em> to <em>Y</em>, not including
-<em>X</em> but including <em>Y</em>;
-"(<em>X</em>,<em>Y</em>)" denotes an open
-interval from <em>X</em> to <em>Y</em>, not including
-<em>X</em> or <em>Y</em>.
-</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In this example, the <code>p</code> element is used as a presentational
-element rather than as a semantic element, i.e., as a linguistic paragraph.
-It is up to an author to determine which TTML elements are used to convey
-the intended meaning. For instance, this example could be written to use
-timing on <code>span</code> elements in order to preserve the integrity of
-semantic paragraphs.</p></div><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-1"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 1 – Time Interval [0.76, 3.45)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle1.png" alt="Subtitle 1"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The second subtitle continues with the default style, except that it contains
-two lines of text with an intervening author-specified line break. Note the effects of
-the use of <code>tts:textAlign="center"</code> to specify the paragraph's alignment
-in the inline progression direction.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-2"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 2 – Time Interval [5.0, 10.0)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle2.png" alt="Subtitle 2"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The third subtitle continues, using a variant style which overrides the default style's
-foreground color with a different color.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-3"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 3 – Time Interval [10.0, 16.0)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle3.png" alt="Subtitle 3"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The fourth subtitle reverts to the default style.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-4"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 4 – Time Interval [17.2, 23.0)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle4.png" alt="Subtitle 4"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The fifth subtitle continues, again using a variant style which
-overrides the default style's foreground color with a different color.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-5"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 5 – Time Interval [23.0, 27.0)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle5.png" alt="Subtitle 5"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>During the next active time interval, two distinct subtitles are simultaneously active, with
-the paragraphs expressing each subtitle using different styles that override color and paragraph
-text alignment of the default style. Note that the flow order is determined by the lexical
-order of elements as they appear in the content hierarchy.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-6"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitles 6a and 6b – Time Interval [28.0, 34.6)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle6.png" alt="Subtitles 6a and 6b"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The next subtitle is specified in a similar manner using
-a style override to give the paragraph right (end) justification in the
-inline progression direction.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-7"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 7 – Time Interval [34.6, 45.0)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle7.png" alt="Subtitles 7a and 7b"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The eighth subtitle uses the same style override as the previous
-subtitle in order to maintain the right (end) justification of the
-paragraph.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-8"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitle 8 – Time Interval [47.3, 49.0)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle8.png" alt="Subtitle 8"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>During the final (ninth) active time interval, two distinct
-subtitles are again simultaneously active, but with a different
-style applied to the second paragraph to override the default color.
-Note that the flow order is determined by the lexical order of
-elements as they appear in the content hierarchy.</p><a id="ttml-example-subtitle-9"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Subtitles 9a and 9b – Time Interval [53.5, 58.7)</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/subtitle9.png" alt="Subtitles 9a and 9b"></td></tr></tbody></table><p>The examples shown above demonstrate the primary types of information that may
-be authored using TTML: metadata, styling, layout, timing, and content. In typical cases,
-styling and layout information are separately specified in a <em>Document Instance</em>. Content information
-is expressed in a hierarchical fashion that embodies the organization of both spatial (flow) and
-timing information. Content makes direct or indirect references to styling and layout information
-and may specify inline overrides to styling.</p></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="definitions"></a>2 Definitions</h2><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="acronyms"></a>2.1 Acronyms</h3><table class="acronyms" summary="Glossary List"><tr><td class="label"><b>DFXP</b></td><td class="def"><p>Distribution Format Exchange Profile</p></td></tr><tr><td class="label"><b>TT</b></td><td class="def"><p>Timed Text</p></td></tr><tr><td class="label"><b>TTML</b></td><td class="def"><p>Timed Text Markup Language</p></td></tr><tr><td class="label"><b>TTAF</b></td><td class="def"><p>Timed Text Authoring Format</p></td></tr><tr><td class="label"><b>TTWG</b></td><td class="def"><p>Timed Text Working Group</p></td></tr></table></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="terms"></a>2.2 Terminology</h3><dl><dt class="label">Abstract Document Instance</dt><dd><p>An instance of an abstract data set as represented by a
-<em>Reduced XML Infoset</em>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Abstract Document Type</dt><dd><p>A set of constraints that defines a class of <em>XML Information
-Sets</em> <a href="#infoset">[XML InfoSet]</a>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Attribute Information Item</dt><dd><p>Each specified or defaulted attribute  of an XML document corresponds with an attribute information
-item as defined by <a href="#infoset">[XML InfoSet]</a>, §2.3.</p></dd><dt class="label">Character Information Item</dt><dd><p>Each data character appearing in an XML document corresponds with a character information
-item as defined by <a href="#infoset">[XML InfoSet]</a>, §2.6.</p></dd><dt class="label">Computed Cell Size</dt><dd><p>The size (extent) of a cell computed by dividing the width of the <em>Root Container
-Region</em> by the column count, i.e., the number of cells in the horizontal axis, and by dividing
-the height of the <em>Root Container Region</em> by the row count, i.e., the number of cells in the vertical
-axis, where the column and row counts are determined by the <code>ttp:cellResolution</code> parameter attribute.</p></dd><dt class="label">Content Processor</dt><dd><p>A processing system capable of importing (receiving) Timed Text Markup Language
-content for the purpose of transforming, presenting, or otherwise processing the content.</p></dd><dt class="label">Content Profile</dt><dd><p>A collection of features and extensions that are (or may be) employed by
-Timed Text Markup Language content.</p></dd><dt class="label">Content Region</dt><dd><p>A logical region into which rendered content is placed when modeling or
-performing presentation processing.</p></dd><dt class="label">Document Instance</dt><dd><p>A concrete realization of a Timed Text Markup Language document, where the concrete form
-is specific to the context of reference. For example, a sequence of bytes that represents an
-XML serialization of a Timed Text document, an internal, parsed representation of such a
-Timed Text document, etc.</p></dd><dt class="label">Document Interchange Context</dt><dd><p>The implied context or environment external to a <em>Content Processor</em> in
-which document interchange occurs, and in which out-of-band protocols or specifications
-may define certain behavioral defaults, such as an implied <em>Content Profile</em>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Document Processing Context</dt><dd><p>The implied context or environment internal to a <em>Content Processor</em> in
-which document processing occurs, and in which out-of-band protocols or specifications
-may define certain behavioral defaults, such as the establishment or creation of a
-<em>Synthetic Document Syncbase</em>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Element Information Item</dt><dd><p>Each element appearing in an XML document corresponds with an element information
-item as defined by <a href="#infoset">[XML InfoSet]</a>, §2.2.</p></dd><dt class="label">Exchange Profile</dt><dd><p>A content profile that serves a set of needs
-for content interchange.</p></dd><dt class="label">Extension</dt><dd><p>A syntactic or semantic expression or capability that is defined and
-labeled (using a extension designation) in another (public or private)
-specification.</p></dd><dt class="label">Feature</dt><dd><p>A syntactic or semantic expression or capability that is defined and
-labeled (using a feature designation) in this specification (or a
-future revision of this specification).</p></dd><dt class="label">Presentation Processor</dt><dd><p>A <em>Content Processor</em> which purpose is to layout, format, and render,
-i.e., to present, <em>Timed Text Markup Language</em> content by applying the presentation semantics
-defined in this specification.</p></dd><dt class="label">Processor</dt><dd><p>See <em>Content Processor</em>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Processor Profile</dt><dd><p>A collection of features and extensions that must or may be implemented (supported) by
-a content processor.</p></dd><dt class="label">Profile Definition Document</dt><dd><p>A document that defines a specific collection of features and extensions
-for which support is required or optional in a recipient content
-processor.</p></dd><dt class="label">Region</dt><dd><p>A logical construct that models authorial intention regarding
-desired or potential presentation processing, and which is represented as
-a rectangular area of a presentation surface into which content
-is composed and rendered during presentation processing.</p></dd><dt class="label">Reduced XML Infoset</dt><dd><p>An XML Information Set <a href="#infoset">[XML InfoSet]</a> that satisfies the
-constraints specify by <a href="#reduced-infoset"><b>A Reduced XML Infoset</b></a>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Related Media Object</dt><dd><p>A (possibly null) media object associated with or otherwise related
-to a <em>Document Instance</em>. For example, an aggregate audio/video media
-object for which a <em>Document Instance</em> provides caption or subtitle
-information, and with which that <em>Document Instance</em> is associated.</p></dd><dt class="label">Related Media Object Region</dt><dd><p>When a non-null <em>Related Media Object</em> exists, the region of this media object,
-expressed in the coordinate system that applies to the <em>Document Instance</em> that is associated with the
-related media object.</p></dd><dt class="label">Root Container Region</dt><dd><p>A logical region that establishes a coordinate system into which
-<em>Document Instance</em> content regions are placed and optionally clipped.</p></dd><dt class="label">Root Temporal Extent</dt><dd><p>
-The temporal extent (interval) defined by the temporal beginning and ending of a <em>Document Instance</em> in relationship with some external application or presentation context.
-</p></dd><dt class="label">SMPTE Time Code</dt><dd><p>A time code whose format and semantics are established by <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a>,
-which may be embedded into or otherwise associated with media content, such
-as a broadcast audio/video stream.</p></dd><dt class="label">Synthetic Document Syncbase</dt><dd><p>A document level <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-SMIL2-20051213/smil-timing.html#Timing-Syncbases">syncbase</a>
-<a href="#smil21">[SMIL 2.1]</a>, § 10.7.1, synthesized or otherwise established by
-the <em>Document Processing Context</em> in accordance with the
-<em>Related Media Object</em> or other processing criteria.</p></dd><dt class="label">Synthetic SMPTE Document Syncbase</dt><dd><p>A <em>Synthetic Document Syncbase</em> constructed from <em>SMPTE Time
-Code</em> values embedded in or associated with the <em>Related Media Object</em> or
-otherwise determined by the <em>Document Processing Context</em>.</p></dd><dt class="label">Timed Text</dt><dd><p>Textual information that is intrinsically or extrinsically
-associated with timing information.</p></dd><dt class="label">Timed Text Markup Language</dt><dd><p>A content type that represents timed text media for the purpose of
-interchange among authoring systems.</p></dd><dt class="label">Timed Text Authoring System</dt><dd><p>A content authoring system capable of importing and exporting
-Timed Text Markup Language content.</p></dd><dt class="label">Transformation Processor</dt><dd><p>A <em>Content Processor</em> which purpose is to transform or otherwise rewrite
-<em>Timed Text Markup Language</em> content to either <em>Timed Text Markup Language</em>
-or to another (arbitrary) content format. An example of the first is a processor that removes
-or rewrites TTML features so as to conform to a profile of TTML. An example of the latter is
-a processor that translates TTML into a completely different timed text format. Because this
-specification does not otherwise define a target profile or format for transformation processing,
-no further transformation semantics are defined by this specification.</p></dd><dt class="label">Valid Abstract Document Instance</dt><dd><p>An <em>Abstract Document Instance</em> which has been assessed for validity
-and found to be valid as defined by <a href="#doctypes"><b>4 Document Types</b></a>.</p></dd></dl></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="conventions"></a>2.3 Documentation Conventions</h3><p>Within normative prose in this specification, the words
-<em>may</em>, <em>should</em>, and <em>must</em> are
-defined as follows:</p><dl class="conformance-keywords"><dt class="label">may</dt><dd><p>Conforming documents and/or TTML processors are permitted to,
-but need not behave as described. </p></dd><dt class="label">should</dt><dd><p>Conforming documents and/or TTML processors are strongly
-recommended to, but need not behave as described.</p></dd><dt class="label">must</dt><dd><p>Conforming documents and/or TTML processors are required
-to behave as described; otherwise, they are in error. </p></dd></dl><p>If normative specification language takes an imperative form,
-then it is to be treated as if the term <span class="strong">must</span>
-applies. Furthermore, if normative language takes a declarative form,
-and this language is governed by <span class="strong">must</span>,
-then it is also to be treated as if the term <span class="strong">must</span>
-applies.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>For example, the phrases "treat X as an error" and "consider X
-as an error" are to be read as mandatory requirements in the context of use. Similarly, if the specification
-prose is "X must apply", "X applies", or "X is mandatory", and "X" is further defined as "X is Y and Z",
-then, by transitive closure, this last declarative phrase is to be read as "Y is mandatory" and
-"Z is mandatory" in the context of use.</p></div><p>All normative syntactic definitions of XML representations and
-other related terms are depicted with a light yellow-orange background color
-and labeled as "XML Representation" or "Syntax Representation", such
-as in the following:</p><a id="elt-syntax-example"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: example</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;example
-  <span class="reqattr">count</span> = integer
-  size = (<em>large</em>|<em>medium</em>|<em>small</em>) : medium&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> (all | any*)
-&lt;/example&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>In an XML representation, bold-face attribute names (e.g. <span class="strong">count</span> above) indicate a required attribute
-information item, and the rest are optional. Where an attribute
-information item has an enumerated type definition, the values are
-shown separated by vertical bars, as for <code>size</code> above; if
-there is a default value, it is shown following a colon. Where an
-attribute information item has a built-in simple type definition
-defined in <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>, a hyperlink to its definition
-therein is given.</p><p>The allowed content of the information item is shown as a grammar
-fragment, using the Kleene operators <code>?</code>, <code>*</code>
-and <code>+</code>. Each element name therein is a hyperlink to its
-own illustration.</p><p>The term linear white-space (LWSP) is to be interpreted as a non-empty sequence of
-SPACE (U+0020), TAB (U+0009), CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D), or LINE FEED (U+000A),
-which corresponds to production [3] <code>S</code> as defined by <a href="#xml10">[XML 1.0]</a>.</p><p>All content of this specification that is not explicitly marked as
-non-normative is considered to be normative. If a section or appendix
-header contains the expression "Non-Normative", then the entirety
-of the section or appendix is considered non-normative.</p><p>All paragraphs marked as a <span class="strong">Note</span> are considered non-normative.</p><p>Example code fragments are depicted with a light blue-green
-background color and labeled as "Example Fragment", such as in
-the following:</p><a id="example-fragment-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Sample</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;tt xml:lang="" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"&gt;
-  &lt;head&gt;
-    &lt;metadata/&gt;
-    &lt;styling/&gt;
-    &lt;layout/&gt;
-  &lt;/head&gt;
-  &lt;body/&gt;
-&lt;/tt&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="conformance"></a>3 Conformance</h2><p>This section specifies the general conformance requirements for
-TTML Content and processors.</p><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="conformance-content"></a>3.1 Content Conformance</h3><p>A TTML <em>Document Instance</em> conforms to this specification if the following criteria are
-satisfied:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>When transporting a <em>Document Instance</em> in a <em>Document Interchange Context</em> in which a
-Media Type <a href="#media-types">[Media Types]</a> identifies the content type of the interchanged <em>Document Instance</em>, then the specified media type is
-<code>application/ttml+xml</code> in conformance with <a href="#xml-media">[XML Media Types]</a> § 7, with which an optional
-<code>profile</code> parameter may appear, the value of which
-conforms to
-a profile designator as
-defined by
-<a href="#vocabulary-profiles"><b>5.2 Profiles</b></a>.</p></li><li><p>The <em>Document Instance</em> is or can be represented as a Reduced XML
-Infoset as defined by <a href="#reduced-infoset"><b>A Reduced XML Infoset</b></a>.</p></li><li><p>The Reduced XML
-Infoset that corresponds to the <em>Document Instance</em> is or can
-be associated with one of the <em>Abstract Document Types</em> defined by
-<a href="#doctypes"><b>4 Document Types</b></a>.</p></li><li><p>The <em>Reduced XML Infoset</em> that corresponds to the <em>Document Instance</em> is a
-<em>Valid Abstract Document Instance</em> of the associated
-<em>Abstract Document Type</em>.</p></li><li><p>The <em>Reduced XML Infoset</em> satisfies all additional mandatory syntactic and
-semantic constraints defined by this specification. In addition, this Infoset
-should satisfy the web content accessibility guidelines specified by
-<a href="#wcag">[WCAG]</a>.</p></li></ol></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="conformance-processor"></a>3.2 Processor Conformance</h3><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="conformance-generic-processor"></a>3.2.1 Generic Processor Conformance</h4><p>A TTML <em>Content Processor</em> conforms to this specification if the following
-generic processor criteria are
-satisfied:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>The processor provides at least one mechanism for notionally
-instantiating a Reduced XML
-Infoset representation of a conformant <em>Document Instance</em>.</p></li><li><p>If a process does or can perform validation of a candidate 
-<em>Document Instance</em>, then it provides at least one mechanism to
-implicitly or explicitly associate the
-<em>Reduced XML Infoset</em> representation
-of a conformant <em>Document Instance</em> with one of the
-<em>Abstract Document Types</em> defined by
-<a href="#doctypes"><b>4 Document Types</b></a>.</p></li><li><p>The processor does not <em>a priori</em> reject or abort the
-processing of a conformant <em>Document Instance</em>
-unless the processor does not support some required
-(mandatory) feature specified or implied by a TTML profile
-declared to apply to the <em>Document Instance</em>.</p></li><li><p>The processor supports all mandatory processing semantics defined by this specification.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The phrase <em>mandatory semantics</em> refers to all explicit use of the conformance
-key phrases <span class="strong">must</span> and <span class="strong">must not</span> as well as any
-declarative statement that can be reasonably inferred from such key phrases. For example, these
-mandatory semantics include support for all features marked as mandatory in <a href="#feature-support"><b>D.2 Feature Support</b></a>.</p></div></li><li><p>If the processor supports some optional processing semantics defined by this specification,
-then it does so in a manner consistent with the defined semantics.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The phrase <em>optional semantics</em> refers to all explicit use of the conformance
-key phrases <span class="strong">should</span>, <span class="strong">should not</span>,
-<span class="strong">may</span>, and <span class="strong">may not</span>,
-as well as any declarative statement that can be reasonably inferred from such key phrases. For example, these
-optional semantics include support for all features marked as optional in <a href="#feature-support"><b>D.2 Feature Support</b></a>.</p></div></li></ol></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="conformance-transformation-processor"></a>3.2.2 Transformation Processor Conformance</h4><p>A TTML <em>Content Processor</em> is a conformant TTML <em>Transformation Processor</em> if
-the following criteria are satisfied:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>The processor satisfies all requirements specified by
-<a href="#conformance-generic-processor"><b>3.2.1 Generic Processor Conformance</b></a>.</p></li><li><p>The processor supports the DFXP Transformation profile as specified
-by <a href="#profile-dfxp-transformation"><b>F.1 DFXP Transformation Profile</b></a>.</p></li></ol></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="conformance-presentation-processor"></a>3.2.3 Presentation Processor Conformance</h4><p>A TTML <em>Content Processor</em> is a conformant TTML <em>Presentation Processor</em> if
-the following criteria are satisfied:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>The processor satisfies all requirements specified by
-<a href="#conformance-generic-processor"><b>3.2.1 Generic Processor Conformance</b></a>.</p></li><li><p>The processor supports the DFXP Presentation profile as specified
-by <a href="#profile-dfxp-presentation"><b>F.2 DFXP Presentation Profile</b></a>.</p></li></ol></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="claims"></a>3.3 Claims</h3><p>Any claim of compliance with respect to the conformance of a TTML <em>Document Instance</em> or
-<em>Content Processor</em> must make
-reference to an implementation compliance statement (ICS).</p><p>An implementation compliance statement must identify all mandatory
-and optional features of this specification that are satisfied by the
-document instance or the content processor implementation. In particular, the statement must
-identify the utilized or supported TTML vocabulary profile(s) as
-defined by <a href="#vocabulary-profiles"><b>5.2 Profiles</b></a>, and, if a subset or
-superset profile is used or supported, then what features are excluded
-or included in the subset or superset profile.</p><p>A <em>Document Instance</em> for which a compliance claim is made
-must specify
-either (1)
-a <code>ttp:profile</code> attribute on its root
-<code>tt</code>
-element
-as defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-profile"><b>6.2.8 ttp:profile</b></a>
-or (2)
-a <code>ttp:profile</code> element as a child of the
-<code>head</code> element as defined by
-<a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile"><b>6.1.1 ttp:profile</b></a>.</p></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="doctypes"></a>4 Document Types</h2><p>This section defines the following TTML <em>Abstract Document Types</em>:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#ttml-content-doctype"><b>4.1 TTML Content</b></a></p></li></ul><p>Each <em>Abstract Document Type</em> consists of the following constraints:</p><ul><li><p>a non-empty collection of element types, where each element type consists of a name,
-a (possibly empty) collection of attributes, and a content specification</p></li><li><p>a non-empty collection of element types that may appear as the document element</p></li></ul><p>An <em>Abstract Document Instance</em> may be assessed in terms of validity,
-and is considered to be a <em>Valid Abstract Document Instance</em> if it
-satisfies the following condition: if after</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>pruning all element information
-items whose names are not members of the collection of element types defined
-by the associated <em>Abstract Document Type</em>, then</p></li><li><p>pruning character
-information item children from any remaining element in case that all
-character children of the element denote XML whitespace characters and the element's type
-is defined as empty in the associated <em>Abstract Document Type</em>, and then</p></li><li><p>pruning all attribute
-information items having expanded names such that the namespace URI of the
-expanded names are not listed in <a href="#namespace-vocab-table"><b>Table 1 – Namespaces</b></a>,</p></li></ol><p>then the document element is one of the document
-element types permitted by the associated <em>Abstract Document Type</em>,
-the descendants of the document
-element satisfy their respective element type's content
-specifications, all required attributes are present, and the declared
-value of each attribute satisfies the type declared by the
-associated <em>Abstract Document Type</em>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>While a conformant processor may not <em>a priori</em> reject a
-conformant <em>Document Instance</em> that adheres to a
-supported content profile, a given <em>Document Instance</em> may be
-constrained by the author or authoring tool to satisfy a more
-restrictive definition of validity.</p></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="ttml-content-doctype"></a>4.1 TTML Content</h3><p>TTML Content is an <em>Abstract Document Type</em> of a profile of the Timed Text Markup Language intended
-to be used for interchange among distribution systems. This document type
-is defined in terms of the
-element and attribute vocabulary
-specified in <a href="#vocabulary"><b>5 Vocabulary</b></a>.</p><p>This specification references two types of schemas that may be used to validate a superset/subset
-of conformant TTML Content <em>Document Instances</em>:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#ttml-schema-rnc"><b>B.1 Relax NG Compact (RNC) Schema</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#ttml-schema-xsd"><b>B.2 XML Schema Definition (XSD) Schema</b></a></p></li></ul><p>The (root) document element of a TTML Content <em>Document Instance</em> must be a
-<code>tt</code> element, as defined by <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-tt"><b>7.1.1 tt</b></a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The schemas referenced by this specification do not validate all syntactic constraints
-defined by this specification, and, as such, represent a superset of conformant
-TTML Content. In particular, performing validation with one of the above
-referenced schemas may result in a <em>false positive</em> indication of validity.
-For example, both the RNC and XSD schemas specify
-that a <code>tts:fontFamily</code> attribute must
-satisfy the <code>xs:string</code> XSD data type; however, this data type is a superset
-of the values permitted to be used with the <code>tts:fontFamily</code> attribute.</p><p>In addition, the RNC schema may produce a <em>false negative</em>
-indication of validity when using the <code>xml:id</code> attribute with an element in
-a foreign namespace, thus representing a subset of conformant TTML Content. This is
-due to a specific limitation in expressing wildcard patterns involving <code>xsd:ID</code>
-typed attributes in Relax NG schemas. Note that this specification defines the
-formal validity of a <em>Document Instance</em> to be based on an <em>Abstract Document Instance</em> from
-which all foreign namespace elements and attributes have been removed. Therefore, the
-exceptional reporting of this false negative does not impact the formal assessment
-of <em>Document Instance</em> validity.</p></div></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="vocabulary"></a>5 Vocabulary</h2><p>This section defines the
-namespaces, profiles, and vocabulary (as an element and attribute
-catalog) of the Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) as follows:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#vocabulary-namespaces"><b>5.1 Namespaces</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#vocabulary-profiles"><b>5.2 Profiles</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#vocabulary-overview"><b>5.3 Catalog</b></a></p></li></ul><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="vocabulary-namespaces"></a>5.1 Namespaces</h3><p>The Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) employs a number of
-XML Namespaces <a href="#xmlns10">[XML Namespaces 1.0]</a> for elements and certain
-global attributes. The following table specifies this set of namespaces
-and indicates the default prefix used within this specification and the
-normative URI that denotes each namespace.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In a specific <em>Document Instance</em>, it is not required that the default
-prefixes shown below are used. Any prefix or namespace binding that satisfies the constraints
-of XML Namespaces <a href="#xmlns10">[XML Namespaces 1.0]</a>  may be used that is associated with the specified namespace URI.</p></div><a id="namespace-vocab-table"></a><table class="common"><caption>Table 1 – Namespaces</caption><col width="30%" span="1"><col span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><th>Name</th><th>Prefix</th><th>Value</th></tr><tr><td>TT</td><td><code>tt:</code></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml</code></td></tr><tr><td>TT Parameter</td><td><code>ttp:</code></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter</code></td></tr><tr><td>TT Style</td><td><code>tts:</code></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling</code></td></tr><tr><td>TT Metadata</td><td><code>ttm:</code></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#metadata</code></td></tr><tr><td>TT Profile</td><td><em>none</em></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/</code></td></tr><tr><td>TT Feature</td><td><em>none</em></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/feature/</code></td></tr><tr><td>TT Extension</td><td><em>none</em></td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/extension/</code></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>If a reference to an element type is used in this specification and the name
-of the element type is not namespace qualified, then the TT Namespace applies.</p><p>For certain namespaces defined above, the default prefix
-is specified as <em>none</em> if no XML vocabulary is defined in
-the namespace by this specification (nor expected to be defined in a
-future version of this specification). In such cases, the use of the
-namespace URI is for purposes other than defining XML vocabulary,
-e.g., for designating profiles, features, extensions and for
-dereferencing standard profile definitions.</p></div><p>All TTML Namespaces are <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/doc/namespaceState#namespacedef"><em>mutable</em></a>
-<a href="#nsstate">[NSState]</a>; all undefined names in these namespaces are reserved for future
-standardization by the W3C.</p></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="vocabulary-profiles"></a>5.2 Profiles</h3><p>The Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) employs a number of
-standard, predefined profiles of its
-vocabulary and associated semantics.
-The following table specifies this set of
-profiles, indicating
-a normative name
-and designator for each
-predefined profile,
-and where each of these profiles is formally elaborated in
-<a href="#profiles"><b>F Profiles</b></a> or in another TTWG specification.</p><a id="profile-vocab-table"></a><table class="common"><caption>Table 2 – Profiles</caption><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><th>Name</th><th>Designator</th></tr><tr><td>DFXP Transformation</td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/dfxp-transformation</code></td></tr><tr><td>DFXP Presentation</td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/dfxp-presentation</code></td></tr><tr><td>DFXP Full</td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/dfxp-full</code></td></tr><tr><td>SDP US</td><td><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/sdp-us</code></td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><p>A profile designator must adhere to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17. If the profile designator is expressed as a relative URI,
-then it must be absolutized by using the TT Profile Namespace value as
-the base URI.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>For example, if a profile designator is expressed as
-<code>dfxp-presentation</code>, then the absolutized profile designator
-would be
-<code>http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/dfxp-presentation</code>.</p></div><p>All profile designators which have the TT Profile Namespace as a prefix but are otherwise not listed in
-<a href="#profile-vocab-table"><b>Table 2 – Profiles</b></a> are reserved for future standardization, and must not be appear in a conformant
-<em>Document Instance</em>. Nothwithstanding this constraint, a profile designator is not restricted to the set of designators enumerated
-in <a href="#profile-vocab-table"><b>Table 2 – Profiles</b></a>, but may be any URI that feasibly dereferences a TTML <em>Profile Definition Document</em>
-provided it does not use the TT Profile Namespace as a prefix.</p><p>The profile of TTML that must be supported by a
-TTML <em>Content Processor</em> in order to process a <em>Document Instance</em> is determined either (1) by specifying a
-<code>ttp:profile</code> attribute on the root <code>tt</code> element, as
-defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-profile"><b>6.2.8 ttp:profile</b></a>, or (2) by
-including one or more <code>ttp:profile</code>
-elements in the <code>head</code> element, in
-accordance with <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile"><b>6.1.1 ttp:profile</b></a>.</p><p>If a <code>ttp:profile</code> element appears as a
-descendant of the <code>tt</code> element, then the <a href="#parameter-attribute-profile"><code>ttp:profile</code></a>
-attribute should not be specified on the <code>tt</code> element. If both
-a <code>ttp:profile</code> element and a <code>ttp:profile</code>
-attribute are present (in a given <em>Document Instance</em>), then the
-<code>ttp:profile</code> attribute must be ignored for the purpose of
-determining the declared profile requirements.</p><p>If more than one <code>ttp:profile</code> element appears in
-a <em>Document Instance</em>, then all specified profiles apply
-simultaneously.  In such a case, if some feature or some extension is
-specified by one profile to be <code>used</code> (mandatory and enabled) and by
-another profile to be <code>required</code> (mandatory) or <code>optional</code> (voluntary),
-then that feature or extension must be considered to be <code>used</code>
-(mandatory and enabled); if some feature or some extension is
-specified by one profile to be merely <code>required</code> (mandatory) and by
-another profile to be <code>optional</code> (voluntary), then that feature or
-extension must be considered to be <code>required</code> (mandatory).</p><p>If neither
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-profile"><code>ttp:profile</code></a>
-attribute nor
-<a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile"><code>ttp:profile</code></a>
-element is present in a <em>Document Instance</em>, and if the <em>Document
-Interchange Context</em> does not make an implicit or explicit
-reference to a pre-defined Content Profile or does not specify a <em>Profile Definition
-Document</em> or another equivalent set of feature designations,
-then the DFXP Transformation profile applies.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>It is not a requirement on a conformant <em>Document Instance</em> that a <em>Content Profile</em> be internally
-defined by use of a <code>ttp:profile</code> element or internally referenced by a
-<code>ttp:profile</code> attribute. More specifically, it is permitted that the <em>Document
-Interchange Context</em> determines the applicable <em>Content Profile</em> through private
-agreement, out-of-band protocol, or common use (between sender and receiver) of a profile defined
-by an external specification.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>It is intended that the <code>ttp:profile</code> attribute be used when
-the author wishes to reference one of the standard, predefined profiles of
-TTML Content, and does not wish to modify (by supersetting or subsetting)
-that profile. This attribute may also be used by an author to indicate the use
-of a non-standard profile, in which case the specified profile designator expresses
-a URI that denotes an externally defined <em>Profile Definition Document</em>.
-However, it is not required that a conformant TTML Content Processor be able
-to dereference such an externally specified profile definition.</p><p>In contrast, it is intended that the <code>ttp:profile</code> element be
-used when the author wishes to make use of a modified predefined profile or
-wishes to include in the <em>Document Instance</em> a non-standard profile definition
-not based upon one of the predefined profiles.</p><p>A predefined profile is supersetted by specifying some feature or extension to
-be <code>required</code> (mandatory) that was either not specified in the underlying, baseline
-profile or was specified as <code>optional</code> (voluntary) in the baseline profile.
-A predefined profile is subsetted by specifying some feature or extension to
-be <code>optional</code> (voluntary) that was specified as <code>required</code> (mandatory)
-in the underlying, baseline profile.</p><p>When a baseline profile is modified by subsetting, the resulting, derived profile
-is referred to as a <em>subtractive</em> profile; when modified by supersetting, the result
-is referred to as an <em>additive</em> profile.
-It is also possible to define a derived profile that is simultaneously subtractive
-and additive.</p></div><p>If a <em>Document Instance</em> makes use of a feature defined by
-<a href="#feature-designations"><b>D.1 Feature Designations</b></a> and if the intended use of the
-document requires the recognition and processing of that feature, then
-the document must include a <em>required feature</em> or
-a <em>used feature</em>
-specification in one of its declared or
-referenced profiles.  If a <em>Document Instance</em> makes use
-of an extension designatable by <a href="#extension-designations"><b>E.1 Extension Designations</b></a> and if the intended use of the document
-requires the recognition and processing of that extension, then the
-document must include a <em>required extension</em> or
-a <em>used extension</em> specification
-in one of its declared or referenced
-profiles.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A <em>required feature</em> or <em>used feature</em>
-specification is expressed directly (or indirectly by referring to a
-profile) by means of a <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-feature"><code>ttp:feature</code></a>
-element where the value of its <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>required</code> or <code>use</code>,
-respectively.  A <em>required extension</em> or <em>used
-extension</em> specification is expressed directly (or indirectly by
-referring to a profile) by means of a <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extension"><code>ttp:extension</code></a>
-element where the value of its <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>required</code> or <code>use</code>,
-respectively.</p></div><p>An example of an author defined
-additive, derived profile of the DFXP Presentation
-profile is shown
-below in <a href="#ttml-example-sub-profile"><b>Example Fragment – DFXP Additive Profile</b></a>.</p><a id="ttml-example-sub-profile"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – DFXP Additive Profile</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;tt xml:lang="" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"&gt;
- &lt;head&gt;
-   &lt;profile use="dfxp-presentation" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#parameter"&gt;
-     &lt;features xml:base="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/feature/"&gt;
-       &lt;feature value="required"&gt;#fontStyle-italic&lt;/feature&gt;
-     &lt;/features&gt;
-   &lt;/profile&gt;
- &lt;/head&gt;
- &lt;body/&gt;
-&lt;/tt&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the baseline profile is declared to be
-the DFXP Presentation profile, which is then additively modified by making the
-<code>#fontStyle-italic</code> feature required (rather than
-optional as it is defined
-in <a href="#profile-dfxp-presentation"><b>F.2 DFXP Presentation Profile</b></a>). Note also the resetting of the
-default XMLNS binding on the <code>profile</code> element to the TT Parameter Namespace.</p></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="vocabulary-overview"></a>5.3 Catalog</h3><p>The vocabulary of the Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) is
-defined in the following major catalogs (divisions of vocabulary):</p><ul><li><p><a href="#core-vocabulary-overview"><b>5.3.1 Core Catalog</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#extension-vocabulary-overview"><b>5.3.2 Extension Catalog</b></a></p></li></ul><p>The core catalog defines the baseline, core vocabulary of TTML,
-and, in particular, the vocabulary of TTML Content. The extension catalog
-serves as a placeholder for extensions to the core vocabulary defined
-by TTML.</p><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="core-vocabulary-overview"></a>5.3.1 Core Catalog</h4><p>The core vocabulary catalog is intended to satisfy the needs of
-TTML while providing a baseline vocabulary for future profiles. This vocabulary
-is divided into distinct categories, specified in detail
-in the following sections:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#parameters"><b>6 Parameters</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content"><b>7 Content</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#styling"><b>8 Styling</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#layout"><b>9 Layout</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#timing"><b>10 Timing</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#animation"><b>11 Animation</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#metadata"><b>12 Metadata</b></a></p></li></ul><p>The core element vocabulary specified for use with a <em>Document Instance</em> is enumerated in
-<a href="#element-vocab-table"><b>Table 3 – Element Vocabulary</b></a>.</p><a id="element-vocab-table"></a><table class="common"><caption>Table 3 – Element Vocabulary</caption><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><th>Module</th><th>Elements</th></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-animation"><td>
-Animation
-</td><td>
-<a href="#animation-vocabulary-set">set</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-content"><td>
-Content
-</td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body">body</a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-div">div</a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p">p</a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span">span</a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-br">br</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-document"><td>
-Document
-</td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-tt">tt</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-head"><td>
-Head
-</td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-head">head</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-layout"><td>
-Layout
-</td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-layout">layout</a>,
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region">region</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-metadata"><td>
-Metadata
-</td><td>
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-metadata">metadata</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-metadata-items"><td>
-Metadata Items
-</td><td>
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-actor">ttm:actor</a>,
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-agent">ttm:agent</a>,
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-copyright">ttm:copyright</a>,
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-desc">ttm:desc</a>,
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-name">ttm:name</a>,
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-title">ttm:title</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-parameter-items"><td>Parameter Items</td><td><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile">ttp:profile</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-vocabulary-features">ttp:features</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-vocabulary-feature">ttp:feature</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extensions">ttp:extensions</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extension">ttp:extension</a>
-</td></tr><tr id="element-vocab-type-styling"><td>
-Styling
-</td><td>
-<a href="#styling-vocabulary-styling">styling</a>,
-<a href="#styling-vocabulary-style">style</a>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><p>Element vocabulary groups that are used in defining content models
-for TTML element types are enumerated in <a href="#element-vocab-group-table"><b>Table 4 – Element Vocabulary Groups</b></a>.</p><a id="element-vocab-group-table"></a><table class="common"><caption>Table 4 – Element Vocabulary Groups</caption><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><th>Group</th><th>Elements</th></tr><tr><td>
-Animation.class
-</td><td>
-<a href="#animation-vocabulary-set">set</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Block.class
-</td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-div">div</a> |
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p">p</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Inline.class
-</td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span">span</a> |
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span">br</a> |
-<code>#PCDATA</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Metadata.class
-</td><td>
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-metadata">metadata</a> |
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-copyright">ttm:agent</a> |
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-copyright">ttm:copyright</a> |
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-desc">ttm:desc</a> |
-<a href="#metadata-vocabulary-title">ttm:title</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>Parameters.class</td><td><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile">ttp:profile</a></td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><p>The attribute vocabulary specified for use with the core vocabulary
-catalog is enumerated in
-<a href="#attribute-vocab-table"><b>Table 5 – Attribute Vocabulary</b></a>.</p><a id="attribute-vocab-table"></a><table class="common"><caption>Table 5 – Attribute Vocabulary</caption><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><th>Module</th><th>Attributes</th></tr><tr><td>
-Core Attributes
-</td><td>
-<a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a>,
-<a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a>,
-<a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Layout
-</td><td>
-<a href="#layout-attribute-region">region</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Metadata Attributes
-</td><td>
-<a href="#metadata-attribute-agent">ttm:agent</a>,
-<a href="#metadata-attribute-role">ttm:role</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Parameter Attributes
-</td><td>
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-cellResolution">ttp:cellResolution</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-clockMode">ttp:clockMode</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-dropMode">ttp:dropMode</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-frameRate">ttp:frameRate</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-frameRateMultiplier">ttp:frameRateMultipler</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-markerMode">ttp:markerMode</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-pixelAspectRatio">ttp:pixelAspectRatio</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-profile">ttp:profile</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-subFrameRate">ttp:subFrameRate</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-tickRate">ttp:tickRate</a>,
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase">ttp:timeBase</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Styling
-</td><td>
-<a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Styling Attributes
-</td><td>
-<a href="#style-attribute-backgroundColor">tts:backgroundColor</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-color">tts:color</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-direction">tts:direction</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-display">tts:display</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-displayAlign">tts:displayAlign</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-extent">tts:extent</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-fontFamily">tts:fontFamily</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-fontSize">tts:fontSize</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-fontStyle">tts:fontStyle</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-fontWeight">tts:fontWeight</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-lineHeight">tts:lineHeight</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-opacity">tts:opacity</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-origin">tts:origin</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-overflow">tts:overflow</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-padding">tts:padding</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-showBackground">tts:showBackground</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-textAlign">tts:textAlign</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-textDecoration">tts:textDecoration</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-textOutline">tts:textOutline</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-unicodeBidi">tts:unicodeBidi</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-visibility">tts:visibility</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-wrapOption">tts:wrapOption</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-writingMode">tts:writingMode</a>,
-<a href="#style-attribute-zIndex">tts:zIndex</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-Timing Attributes
-</td><td>
-<a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a>,
-<a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a>,
-<a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a>,
-<a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Only those attributes defined as either (1) global, i.e., namespace qualified, or
-(2) shared element-specific, i.e., not namespace qualified but shared across multiple
-element types, are listed in <a href="#attribute-vocab-table"><b>Table 5 – Attribute Vocabulary</b></a> above.
-</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>All vocabulary defined by TTML consistently makes use of
-the so-called <em>lowerCamelCase</em> naming convention. In some cases, this results in the
-change of a name when the name was based upon another specification
-that used a different naming convention.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="extension-vocabulary-overview"></a>5.3.2 Extension Catalog</h4><p>The extension vocabulary catalog is intended for use by future
-profiles of TTML, and is not further defined
-by this version of this specification.</p><p>In addition to standardized extension vocabulary, a conforming 
-<em>Document Instance</em> may contain arbitrary namespace qualified
-elements that reside in any namespace other than those namespaces
-defined for use with this specification. Furthermore, a conforming 
-<em>Document Instance</em> may contain arbitrary namespace qualified
-attributes on TTML defined vocabulary where such attributes reside in
-any namespace other than those defined for use with this
-specification.</p></div></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="parameters"></a>6 Parameters</h2><p>This section specifies the <em>parameters</em> matter of the
-core vocabulary catalog, where
-parameters are to be understood as information that is either (1)
-essential or (2) of significant importance for the purpose of
-interpreting the semantics of other types of information expressed by
-core vocabulary items or for establishing a <em>Document Processing Context</em> by means
-of which TTML Content can be related to an external environment.</p><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="parameter-element-vocabulary"></a>6.1 Parameter Element Vocabulary</h3><p>The following elements, all defined in the TT Parameter
-Namespace, specify parametric information that applies to a <em>Document Instance</em>
-or <em>Content Processor</em>:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-profile"><b>6.1.1 ttp:profile</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-features"><b>6.1.2 ttp:features</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-feature"><b>6.1.3 ttp:feature</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extensions"><b>6.1.4 ttp:extensions</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extension"><b>6.1.5 ttp:extension</b></a></p></li></ul><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-vocabulary-profile"></a>6.1.1 ttp:profile</h4><p>The <code>ttp:profile</code> element is used to specify a collection of
-used (mandatory and enabled), required (mandatory),
-and optional (voluntary) features and extensions that must or
-may be supported by a <em>Content Processor</em> in order to process a
-<em>Document Instance</em> that makes (or may make) use of such features and
-extensions.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The difference between a <em>feature</em> and an
-<em>extension</em> is where it is defined and how it is labeled:
-if defined in this specification (or a future revision thereof) and
-labeled with a feature designation in <a href="#features"><b>D Features</b></a>, then
-it is considered to be a feature; if defined in another specification
-and labeled there with an extension designation, then it is considered
-to be an extension. In general, features are expected to be defined by
-the W3C standards process, while extensions are expected to be defined by
-third parties.</p></div><p>This specification defines two distinct uses of the <code>ttp:profile</code> element:</p><ul><li><p>as a child of the <code>head</code> element within a TTML <em>Document Instance</em>;</p></li><li><p>as the root element of a TTML <em>Profile Definition Document</em>
-instance;</p></li></ul><p>When a <code>tt:profile</code> element appears within a TTML <em>Document Instance</em>,
-its purpose is to express authorial intentions about which
-features and extensions must or may be supported by a recipient
-content processor. In addition, the element indirectly expresses
-information about the set of features or extensions that are (or may
-expected to be) used by the <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>When a <code>tt:profile</code> element is used by a TTML <em>Profile Definition Document</em> instance,
-it serves to publish a machine
-readable specification of a specific TTML profile, of which
-this specification defines three such <em>Profile Definition Documents</em> in
-<a href="#profiles"><b>F Profiles</b></a>.</p><p>The <code>ttp:profile</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group, followed by
-zero or more <code>ttp:features</code> elements, followed by
-zero or more <code>ttp:extensions</code> elements.</p><a id="elt-syntax-parameter-profile"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: ttp:profile</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:profile
-  use = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-features">ttp:features</a>*, <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extensions">ttp:extensions</a>*
-&lt;/ttp:profile&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If specified, the <code>use</code> attribute must adhere to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17, and, furthermore, must denote a profile designator in
-accordance with <a href="#vocabulary-profiles"><b>5.2 Profiles</b></a>. In this case,
-the profile designator must refer to (1) a standard, predefined
-<em>Profile Definition Document</em> as defined by <a href="#profiles"><b>F Profiles</b></a>,
-or (2) a feasibly dereferenceable resource representing a valid <em>Profile Definition
-Document</em> instance. In either case, the referenced profile serves as the
-baseline profile of the specifying <code>ttp:profile</code> element.</p><p>If the <code>use</code> attribute is not specified, then the baseline
-profile of the <code>ttp:profile</code> element must be considered to be
-the empty (null) profile, i.e., a profile definition containing no
-feature or extension specifications.</p><p>The collection of features and extensions of a profile are determined according
-to the following ordered rules:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>initialize the features and extensions of the profile to the empty
-set;</p></li><li><p>if a <code>use</code> attribute is present, then augment the profile
-with the set of features and extensions specified by the referenced
-baseline profile;</p></li><li><p>for each <code>ttp:feature</code> and <code>ttp:extension</code> element
-descendant of the <code>ttp:profile</code> element, using a post-order
-traversal, merge the specified feature or extension with the features
-and extensions of the profile, where merging a feature or extension
-entails replacing an existing feature or extension specification, if
-it already exists, or adding a new feature or extension specification,
-if it does not yet exist in the profile;</p></li></ol><p>A conformant TTML processor is not required to be able to
-dereference a <em>Profile Definition Document</em> that is not one of the
-standard, predefined profiles defined by <a href="#profiles"><b>F Profiles</b></a>.  Furthermore,
-a conformant TTML processor may make use of a built-in, static
-form of each standard, predefined profile so as not to require
-dereferencing a network resource.</p><p>If a TTML processor is unable to dereference a non-standard
-<em>Profile Definition Document</em>, then it must not further process the
-document without the presence of an explicit override from an end-user
-or some implementation specific parameter traceable to an end-user or
-to a user or system configuration setting. If a TTML processor aborts
-processing of a <em>Document Instance</em> due to the inability to
-reference a non-standard <em>Profile Definition Document</em>, then some
-end-user notification should be given unless the end-user or system
-has disabled such a notification, or if the processor does not permit
-or entail the intervention of an end-user.</p><p>The <code>ttp:profile</code> element is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="parameter-vocabulary-profile-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – ttp:profile</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:profile use="dfxp-presentation"&gt;
-  &lt;ttp:features xml:base="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/feature/"&gt;
-    &lt;ttp:feature&gt;#text-outline&lt;/ttp:feature&gt;
-  &lt;/ttp:features&gt;
-&lt;/ttp:profile&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the DFXP presentation profile is used as the
-baseline profile. This baseline profile is then supersetted (thus
-creating an additive derived profile) by requiring support for
-<code>#text-outline</code> feature.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-vocabulary-features"></a>6.1.2 ttp:features</h4><p>The <code>ttp:features</code> element is a container element used to group
-infomation about feature support requirements.</p><p>The <code>ttp:features</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group, followed by
-zero or more <code>ttp:feature</code> elements.</p><a id="elt-syntax-parameter-features"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: ttp:features</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:features
-  xml:base = string : <em>TT Feature Namespace</em>
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-feature">ttp:feature</a>*
-&lt;/ttp:features&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If specified, the <code>xml:base</code>
-attribute must (1) adhere to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17, (2) express an absolute URI that
-adheres to <a href="#xmlbase">[XML Base]</a> and,
-(3) express a feature namespace as defined by
-<a href="#feature-designations"><b>D.1 Feature Designations</b></a>. If not specified, the
-<code>xml:base</code> attribute's default
-value applies, which is the TT Feature Namespace.</p><p>The <code>xml:base</code> attribute is
-used to permit the abbreviation of feature designation URIs expressed
-by child <code>ttp:feature</code> elements.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-vocabulary-feature"></a>6.1.3 ttp:feature</h4><p>The <code>ttp:feature</code> element is used to specify
-infomation about support requirements for a particular feature.</p><p>The children of the <code>ttp:feature</code> element must express a non-empty
-sequence of character information items that adheres to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17.</p><a id="elt-syntax-parameter-feature"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: ttp:feature</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:feature
-  value = (optional|required|use) : required
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> #PCDATA
-&lt;/ttp:feature&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the URI expressed by the content of the <code>ttp:feature</code>
-element is a relative URI, then, when combined with the
-feature namespace value expressed by the
-<code>xml:base</code> attribute of the
-nearest ancestor <code>ttp:features</code> element, it must express an
-absolute URI.  In either case (original absolute URI or resulting
-absolutized URI), the URI expressed by the <code>ttp:feature</code>
-element must further adhere to the syntax of a feature designation as
-defined by <a href="#feature-designations"><b>D.1 Feature Designations</b></a>, and, furthermore,
-the specific designation that appears in this URI, i.e., the portion of the feature designation
-that starts with the fragment identifier separator '#', must
-be defined by this specification or some published version thereof (that
-has achieved REC status).</p><p>If the URI expressed by the content of the <code>ttp:feature</code> element
-is a relative URI, then an <code>xml:base</code> attribute should be
-specified on the nearest ancestor <code>ttp:features</code> element.</p><p>The <code>value</code> attribute specifies whether a conforming TTML
-processor must or may implement the designated feature in order to
-process the document. If the value of the <code>value</code> attribute
-is <code>optional</code>, then the processor need
-not implement or otherwise support the feature in order to process the
-document; if the value is <code>required</code>, then the processor
-must implement or otherwise support the feature, irrespective of
-whether the feature is enabled or disabled, in order to process
-the document; if the value is
-<code>use</code>, then the processor must both (1) implement or
-otherwise support the feature and (2) have enabled (activated) use of the
-feature.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The default value of the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>required</code>, as indicated in the above element information
-item definition. Therefore, if a <code>value</code> attribute is not
-specified on a <code>ttp:feature</code> element, it is equivalent to
-specifying that support for the feature is required.</p></div><p>If the value of the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>required</code> or <code>use</code>
-and the TTML processor implementation does
-not support the feature, or if the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>use</code> and the TTML processor implementation supports but has disabled
-that feature, then it must not further process the document
-without the presence of an explicit override from an end-user or some
-implementation specific parameter traceable to an end-user or to a
-user or system configuration setting.  If a TTML processor aborts
-processing of a <em>Document Instance</em> due to the specification of a
-required, but unsupported feature by this element, then some end-user
-notification should be given unless the end-user or system has
-disabled such a notification, or if the processor does not permit or
-entail the intervention of an end-user.</p><p>If the value of the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>optional</code>, and if the TTML processor implementation does
-not support the feature, then it may further process the document even
-in the case that some use of the feature is present in the document.
-In the case of actual use of a feature designated as optional, the
-default semantics associated with that feature apply; that is, the
-processor may behave as if the feature were not actually used or
-referenced by the document. Notwithstanding the above, the syntactic
-presence or reference to an optional feature by a document must not be
-considered to be a violation of document validity or a barrier to
-further processing if the syntactic expression is well-formed and
-valid.</p><p>If some defined (i.e., standardized) or otherwise well known feature is not specified by
-a <code>ttp:feature</code> element in a given profile, then it must be interpreted as if the feature were specified
-with the <code>value</code> attribute equal to <code>optional</code>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In particular, if some feature is not present in a profile definition, then
-it is not to be interpreted as meaning the use of that feature (in a <em>Document Instance</em>)
-is disallowed or otherwise prohibited.</p></div><p>The <code>ttp:feature</code> element is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="parameter-vocabulary-feature-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – ttp:feature</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:profile use="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/dfxp-presentation"&gt;
-  &lt;ttp:features xml:base="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/feature/"&gt;
-    <span class="strong">&lt;ttp:feature value="required"&gt;#fontStyle-italic&lt;/ttp:feature&gt;</span>
-    <span class="strong">&lt;ttp:feature value="required"&gt;#textDecoration-under&lt;/ttp:feature&gt;</span>
-  &lt;/ttp:features&gt;
-&lt;/ttp:profile&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the DFXP presentation profile is used as the
-baseline profile. This baseline profile is then modified by two
-<code>ttp:feature</code> elements in order to
-superset the baseline profile (since neither
-<code>#fontStyle-italic</code> nor <code>#textDecoration-under</code>
-are required by the DFXP presentation profile).</p><p>The effect of this example is to express authorial intentions that
-italic font style and text underlining must be
-supported.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-vocabulary-extensions"></a>6.1.4 ttp:extensions</h4><p>The <code>ttp:extensions</code> element is a container element used to group
-infomation about extension support requirements.</p><p>The <code>ttp:extensions</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group, followed by
-zero or more <code>ttp:extension</code> elements.</p><a id="elt-syntax-parameter-extensions"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: ttp:extensions</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:extensions
-  xml:base = string : <em>TT Extension Namespace</em>
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#parameter-vocabulary-extension">ttp:extension</a>*
-&lt;/ttp:extensions&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If specified, the <code>xml:base</code>
-attribute must (1) adhere to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17, (2) express an absolute URI that
-adheres to <a href="#xmlbase">[XML Base]</a> and,
-(3) express an extension namespace as defined by
-<a href="#extension-designations"><b>E.1 Extension Designations</b></a>. If not specified, the
-<code>xml:base</code> attribute's default
-value applies, which is the TT Extension Namespace.</p><p>The <code>xml:base</code> attribute is
-used to permit the abbreviation of feature designation URIs expressed
-by child <code>ttp:extension</code> elements.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-vocabulary-extension"></a>6.1.5 ttp:extension</h4><p>The <code>ttp:extension</code> element is used to specify
-infomation about support requirements for a particular extension.</p><p>The children of the <code>ttp:extension</code> element must express a non-empty
-sequence of character information items that adheres to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17.</p><a id="elt-syntax-parameter-extension"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: ttp:extension</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:extension
-  value = (optional|required|use) : required
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> #PCDATA
-&lt;/ttp:extension&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the URI expressed by the content of the <code>ttp:extension</code>
-element is a relative URI, then, when combined with the
-extension namespace value expressed by the
-<code>xml:base</code> attribute of the
-nearest ancestor <code>ttp:extensions</code> element, it must express an
-absolute URI.  In either case (original absolute URI or resulting
-absolutized URI), the URI expressed by the <code>ttp:extension</code>
-element must further adhere to the syntax of an extension designation
-as defined by <a href="#extension-designations"><b>E.1 Extension Designations</b></a>.</p><p>If the URI expressed by the content of the
-<code>ttp:feature</code> element is a relative URI, then an
-<code>xml:base</code> attribute should be specified on the nearest
-ancestor <code>ttp:extensions</code> element.</p><p>The <code>value</code> attribute specifies whether a conforming TTML
-processor must or may implement the designated extension in order to
-process the document. If the value of the <code>value</code> attribute
-is <code>optional</code>, then the processor need
-not implement or otherwise support the extension in order to process the
-document; if the value is <code>required</code>, then the processor
-must implement or otherwise support the extension in order to process
-the document; if the value is
-<code>use</code>, then the processor must both (1) implement or
-otherwise support the extension and (2) enable (activate) use of the
-extension.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The default value of the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>required</code>, as indicated in the above element information
-item definition. Therefore, if a <code>value</code> attribute is not
-specified on a <code>ttp:extension</code> element, it is equivalent to
-specifying that support for the extension is required.</p></div><p>If the value of the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>required</code> or <code>use</code>
-and the TTML processor implementation does
-not support the extension, or if the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>use</code> and the TTML processor implementation supports but has disabled
-that extension, then it must not further process the document without the
-presence of an explicit override from an end-user or some
-implementation specific parameter traceable to an end-user or to a
-user or system configuration setting.  If a TTML processor aborts
-processing of a <em>Document Instance</em> due to the specification of a
-required, but unsupported extension by this element, then some
-end-user notification should be given unless the end-user or system
-has disabled such a notification, or if the processor does not permit
-or entail the intervention of an end-user.</p><p>If the value of the <code>value</code> attribute is
-<code>optional</code>, and if the TTML processor implementation does
-not support the extension, then it may further process the document even
-in the case that some use of the extension is present in the document.
-In the case of actual use of an extension designated as optional, the
-default semantics associated with that extension apply; that is, the
-processor may behave as if the extension were not actually used or
-referenced by the document. Notwithstanding the above, the syntactic
-presence or reference to an optional extension by a document must not be
-considered to be a violation of document validity or a barrier to
-further processing if the syntactic expression is well-formed and
-valid.</p><p>If some well known extension is not specified by
-a <code>ttp:extension</code> element in a given profile, then it must be interpreted as if the extension were specified
-with the <code>value</code> attribute equal to <code>optional</code>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In particular, if some extension is not present in a profile definition, then
-it is not to be interpreted as meaning the use of that extension (in a <em>Document Instance</em>)
-is disallowed or otherwise prohibited.</p></div><p>The <code>ttp:extension</code> element is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="parameter-vocabulary-extension-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – ttp:extension</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;ttp:profile use="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml/profile/dfxp-transformation"&gt;
-  &lt;ttp:extensions xml:base="http://example.org/ttml/extension/"&gt;
-    <span class="strong">&lt;ttp:extension value="use"&gt;#prefilter-by-language&lt;/ttp:extension&gt;</span>
-  &lt;/ttp:extensions&gt;
-&lt;/ttp:profile&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the DFXP transformation profile is used as
-the baseline profile. This baseline profile is then supersetted by
-specifying that support and use is required for a private extension
-defined in a third party namespace.</p><p>The effect of this example is to express authorial intentions that
-a recipient processor must support the DFXP transformation profile and
-must also support and enable an extension defined by a third party.</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="parameter-attribute-vocabulary"></a>6.2 Parameter Attribute Vocabulary</h3><p>The following attributes are defined in the TT Parameter Namespace.</p><ul><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-cellResolution"><b>6.2.1 ttp:cellResolution</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-clockMode"><b>6.2.2 ttp:clockMode</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-dropMode"><b>6.2.3 ttp:dropMode</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-frameRate"><b>6.2.4 ttp:frameRate</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-frameRateMultiplier"><b>6.2.5 ttp:frameRateMultiplier</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-markerMode"><b>6.2.6 ttp:markerMode</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-pixelAspectRatio"><b>6.2.7 ttp:pixelAspectRatio</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-profile"><b>6.2.8 ttp:profile</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-subFrameRate"><b>6.2.9 ttp:subFrameRate</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-tickRate"><b>6.2.10 ttp:tickRate</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a></p></li></ul><p>Unless explicitly stated otherwise, linear white-space (LWSP) must
-appear between adjacent non-terminal components of a TT Parameter value
-unless some other delimiter is permitted and used.</p><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-cellResolution"></a>6.2.1 ttp:cellResolution</h4><p>The <code>ttp:cellResolution</code> attribute may be used by an author
-to express the number of horizontal and vertical cells into which the <em>Root Container Region</em>
-area is divided for the purpose of expressing presentation semantics in terms of
-a uniform grid.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-cellResolution-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:cellResolution</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:cellResolution
-  : columns rows                            // <em>columns</em> != 0; <em>rows</em> != 0
-
-columns | rows
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If not specified, the number of columns and rows must be considered
-to be 32 and 15, respectively. If specified, then columns or rows must not be zero (0).</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The choice of values 32 and 15 are based on this being the
-maximum number of columns and rows defined by <a href="#cea608c">[CEA-608-C]</a>.</p></div><p>A <code>ttp:cellResolution</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The use of a uniform grid is employed only for the purpose of
-measuring lengths and expressing coordinates. In particular, it is not
-assumed that the presentation of text or the alignment of individual
-glyph areas is
-coordinated with this grid. Such alignment is possible, but
-requires the use of a monospaced font and a font size whose EM square exactly
-matches the cell size.</p></div><p>Except where indicated otherwise, when a <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> expressed in
-cells denotes a dimension parallel to the inline or block progression dimension,
-the cell's dimension in the inline or block progression dimension applies, respectively.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>For example, if padding (on all four edges) is specified as 0.1c, the cell resolution
-is 20 by 10, and the extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em> is 640 by 480, then, assuming top to bottom,
-left to right writing mode, the start and end padding will be (640 / 20) * 0.1 pixels and the
-before and after padding will be (480 / 10) * 0.1 pixels.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-clockMode"></a>6.2.2 ttp:clockMode</h4><p>The <code>ttp:clockMode</code> attribute is used to specify the
-interpretation of time expressions as real-time time coordinates when
-operating with time base of <code>clock</code> as defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See <a href="#timing-time-value-expressions"><b>10.3 Time Value Expressions</b></a> for the
-specification of time expression syntax and semantics.</p></div><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-clockMode-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:clockMode</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:clockMode
-  : "local"
-  | "gps"
-  | "utc"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the time base, defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a>, is designated as
-<code>clock</code>, then this parameter applies as follows: if the
-parameter's value is <code>local</code>, then time expressions are
-interpreted as local wall-clock time coordinates;
-if <code>utc</code>, then time expressions are
-interpreted as UTC time coordinates
-<a href="#utc">[UTC]</a>;
-if <code>gps</code>, then time expressions are
-interpreted as GPS time coordinates
-<a href="#gps">[GPS]</a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The primary difference between GPS time and UTC time is that GPS
-time is not adjusted for leap seconds, while UTC time is adjusted as
-follows: UTC = TAI (<em>Temp Atomique International</em>) + <em>leap seconds
-accumulated since 1972</em>. TAI is maintained by the <em>Bureau
-International des Poids et Mesures</em> (BIPM) in Sevres, France.
-The GPS system time is steered to a Master Clock (MC) at the US Naval
-Observatory which is kept within a close but unspecified
-tolerance of TAI.</p></div><p>If not specified, the value of this parameter must be considered
-to be <code>utc</code>.</p><p>A <code>ttp:clockMode</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-dropMode"></a>6.2.3 ttp:dropMode</h4><p>The <code>ttp:dropMode</code> attribute is used to specify
-constraints on the interpretation and use of frame counts
-that correspond with <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a> time coordinates when operating
-with time base of <code>smpte</code> as defined by
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a>.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-dropMode-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:dropMode</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:dropMode
-  : "dropNTSC"
-  | "dropPAL"
-  | "nonDrop"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the time base, defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a>, is designated as
-<code>smpte</code>, then this parameter applies as follows: if the
-parameter's value is <code>nonDrop</code>, then, within any given
-second of a time expression, frames count from 0 to
-<em>N−1</em>, where <em>N</em> is the value specified by
-the <code>ttp:frameRate</code> parameter, but while ignoring any value
-specified by the <code>ttp:frameRateMultiplier</code> parameter.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When operating in <code>nonDrop</code>
-mode, a second of a time expression may or may not be equal to a
-second of real time during normal (1x speed) forward playback. If the
-<code>ttp:frameRateMultiplier</code> parameter is specified and is not
-equal to 1:1, then a second of a time expression will either be
-shorter or longer than a second of elapsed play in real
-time.</p></div><p>If this parameter's value is <code>dropNTSC</code>, then, within any
-given second of a time expression except the second <code>00</code>,
-frames count from 0 to <em>N−1</em>, where <em>N</em> is
-the value specified by the <code>ttp:frameRate</code> parameter, but
-while ignoring any value specified by the
-<code>ttp:frameRateMultiplier</code> parameter. If the second of a time
-expression is <code>00</code> and the minute of the time expression is
-not <code>00</code>, <code>10</code>, <code>20</code>, <code>30</code>,
-<code>40</code>, or <code>50</code>, then frame codes <code>00</code>
-and <code>01</code> are dropped during that second; otherwise, these
-frame codes are not dropped.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>For example, when operating in <code>dropNTSC</code>
-mode with <code>ttp:frameRate</code> of <code>30</code>, a discontinuity
-in frame count occurs between consecutive frames as shown in the
-following sequence of time expressions: <code>01:08:59:28</code>,
-<code>01:08:59:29</code>, <code>01:09:00:02</code>,
-<code>01:09:00:03</code>.</p></div><p>If this parameter's value is <code>dropPAL</code>, then, within any
-given second of a time expression except the second <code>00</code>,
-frames count from 0 to <em>N−1</em>, where <em>N</em> is
-the value specified by the <code>ttp:frameRate</code> parameter, but
-while ignoring any value specified by the
-<code>ttp:frameRateMultiplier</code> parameter. If the second of a time
-expression is <code>00</code> and the minute of the time expression is
-even but not <code>00</code>, <code>20</code>, or <code>40</code>,
-then frame codes <code>00</code> through <code>03</code> are dropped
-during that second; otherwise, these frame codes are not dropped.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>For example, when operating in <code>dropPAL</code>
-mode with <code>ttp:frameRate</code> of <code>30</code>, a discontinuity
-in frame count occurs between consecutive frames as shown in the
-following sequence of time expressions: <code>01:09:59:28</code>,
-<code>01:09:59:29</code>, <code>01:10:00:04</code>,
-<code>01:10:00:05</code>.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The <code>dropPAL</code> mode is also known as the
-<em>M/PAL</em> or <em>PAL (M)</em> drop-frame
-code, which uses PAL modulation with the NTSC frame rate of ~29.97
-frames/second. The M/PAL system is used primarily in Brazil.</p></div><p>If not specified, then <code>nonDrop</code> must be assumed to apply.</p><p>A <code>ttp:dropMode</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-frameRate"></a>6.2.4 ttp:frameRate</h4><p>The <code>ttp:frameRate</code> attribute is used to specify the frame rate of a related
-media object or the intrinsic frame rate of a <em>Document Instance</em> in case it is intended
-to function as an independent media object.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-frameRate-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:frameRate</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:frameRate
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+                                // <em>value</em> &gt; 0
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The frame rate that applies to a <em>Document Instance</em> is used to
-interpret time expressions that are expressed in <em>frames</em>
-as defined by <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression"><b>10.3.1 &lt;timeExpression&gt;</b></a>.</p><p>If the <code>media</code> time base applies and the effective frame rate is
-integral, then a frame is interpreted as a division of a second of media
-time, such that if the frame rate is specified as <em>F</em>, then
-a second of media time is divided into <em>F</em> intervals of
-equal duration, where each interval is labeled as frame <em>f</em>,
-with <em>f</em> ∈ [0…<em>F−1</em>].</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See <a href="#time-expression-semantics-media"><b>N.2 Media Time Base</b></a> for further details
-on the interpretation of time expressions for the <code>media</code> time base.</p></div><p>If not specified, the frame rate must be considered to be equal to some
-application defined frame rate, or if no application defined frame rate applies,
-then thirty (30) frames per second. If specified, then the frame rate must
-be greater than zero (0).</p><p>A <code>ttp:frameRate</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-frameRateMultiplier"></a>6.2.5 ttp:frameRateMultiplier</h4><p>The <code>ttp:frameRateMultiplier</code> attribute is used to
-specify a multiplier to be applied to the frame rate specified by a
-<code>ttp:frameRate</code> attribute in order to compute the effective
-frame rate.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-frameRateMultiplier-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:frameRateMultiplier</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:frameRateMultiplier
-  : numerator denominator                   // <em>numerator</em> != 0; <em>denominator</em> != 0
-
-numerator | denominator
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>A frame rate multiplier is used when the desired frame rate cannot
-be expressed as an integral number of frames per second.</p><p>If not specified, the frame rate multiplier must be considered to be equal to one (1:1).
-Both numerator and denominator must be non-zero.</p><p>A <code>ttp:frameRateMultiplier</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The frame rate multiplier used for synchronizing with NTSC <a href="#smpte170m">[SMPTE 170M]</a>
-formatted video objects at 30 frames per second is nominally
-1000:1001. The nominal frame rate of NTSC video is defined as the chrominance
-sub-carrier frequency of 3,579,545.45…Hz (= 5.0MHz × 63/88) times the ratio 2/455 divided by
-the number of horizontal lines per frame of 525, which yields a frame
-rate of 29.970029970029… (= 30 × 1000/1001) frames per
-second. Other frame rate multipliers apply to different regions of
-usage and video format standards.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Except in the case of PAL/M, the frame rate multiplier used for synchronizing with PAL
-formatted video objects at 25 frames per second is nominally 1:1.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-markerMode"></a>6.2.6 ttp:markerMode</h4><p>The <code>ttp:markerMode</code> attribute is used to specify
-constraints on the interpretation and use of time expressions
-that correspond with <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a> time coordinates when operating
-with time base of <code>smpte</code> as defined by
-<a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a>.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-markerMode-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:markerMode</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:markerMode
-  : "continuous"
-  | "discontinuous"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the time base, defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-timeBase"><b>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</b></a>, is designated as
-<code>smpte</code>, then this parameter applies as follows: if the
-parameter's value is <code>continuous</code>, then <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a> time coordinates
-may be assumed to be linear and either monotonically increasing or
-decreasing; however, if <code>discontinuous</code>, then any assumption
-must not be made regarding linearity or monotonicity of time coordinates.</p><p>If not specified, the value of this parameter must be considered
-to be <code>discontinuous</code>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The default value for this parameter was originally specified
-(in <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/REC-ttaf1-dfxp-20101118/">TTML 1.0 First Edition</a>)
-as <code>continuous</code>; however, further evaluation of the state of the industry indicates this
-choice was incorrect, and that the most common default is <code>discontinuous</code>.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Due to lack of industry consensus on the utility and interpretation of the
-<code>continuous</code> marker mode, authors are advised to avoid its use. Furthermore, the
-<code>ttp:markerMode</code> is being considered for deprecation in the next revision of this
-specification.</p></div><p>A <code>ttp:markerMode</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p><p>If a value of <code>continuous</code> applies, then time
-expressions may be converted to real time
-coordinates by taking into account the computed frame rate
-and drop mode as expressed by the <code>ttp:dropMode</code> parameter.
-In this case, the <em>Content Processor</em> must create and maintain a
-<em>Synthetic SMPTE Document Syncbase</em> within which these time
-expressions are interpreted as further described in
-<a href="#timing-time-intervals"><b>10.4 Time Intervals</b></a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When operating with <code>smpte</code> time base and
-<code>continuous</code> marker mode, there is an implied time coordinate
-space, the <em>Synthetic SMPTE Document Syncbase</em>,
-defined by the monotonically increasing (or decreasing) 
-<a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a> time coordinates, while taking into account
-the computed frame rate and drop mode. All time expressions are interpreted
-in relationship to this time coordinate space based upon
-<em>SMPTE Time Code</em> synchronization events (markers),
-where the <em>Document Processing Context</em>  emits these events with implied constraints
-regarding time coordinate monoticity and resynchronization in
-the presence of dropped frames.</p><p>Use of <code>continuous</code> marker mode with the <code>smpte</code>
-time base is different from using the <code>media</code> time base
-because (1) the semantics of the <code>ttp:dropMode</code> parameter
-apply to the former, but not the latter, and (2) <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a>
-time coordinates may be applied monotonically to media which has been
-subjected to dilation in time, constriction in time, or reversal in
-time.</p></div><p>If a value of <code>discontinuous</code> applies, then time
-expressions must not be converted to real time
-coordinates, arithmetical operators (addition, multiplication) are not
-defined on time expressions, and, consequently, any (well-formed)
-expression of a duration must be considered to be invalid.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When operating with <code>smpte</code> time base and
-<code>discontinuous</code> marker mode, there is no effective time coordinate
-space; rather, all time expressions are interpreted as labeled
-synchronization events (markers), where the <em>Document Processing Context</em>
-emits these events, which, when they correspond with time
-expressions that denote the same label, cause a temporal interval to
-begin or end accordingly.</p><p>An additional side-effect of operating in <code>discontinuous</code>
-mode is that time expressions of children have no necessary
-relationship with time expressions of their temporal container; that
-is, temporal containers and children of these containers are
-temporally activated and inactivated independently based on the
-occurrence of a labeled synchronization (marker) event.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The notion of marker discontinuity as captured by this parameter
-is logically independent from the method used to count frames as
-expressed by the <code>ttp:dropMode</code> parameter. In particular,
-even if the <code>ttp:dropMode</code> parameter is specified as
-<code>dropNTSC</code> or <code>dropPAL</code>, the marker mode may be
-specified as <code>continuous</code>, even in the presence of frame count
-discontinuities induced by the frame counting method, unless there
-were some other non-linearity or discontinuity in marker labeling, for
-example, two consecutive frames labeled as <code>10:00:00:00</code>
-and <code>10:00:01:00</code>.
-</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-pixelAspectRatio"></a>6.2.7 ttp:pixelAspectRatio</h4><p>The <code>ttp:pixelAspectRatio</code> attribute may be used by a content author
-to express the aspect ratio of non-square pixels in the production of content that
-makes use of pixel coordinates.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-pixelAspectRatio-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:pixelAspectRatio</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:pixelAspectRatio
-  : width height                            // <em>width</em> != 0; <em>height</em> != 0
-
-width | height
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If not specified, then square pixels (i.e., aspect ratio 1:1) must be assumed to apply.
-If specified, then both width and height must be non-zero.</p><p>A <code>ttp:pixelAspectRatio</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>This parameter may be used by a content transcoder or translator in
-order to convert pixel measurements between different pixel aspect
-ratios while still maintaining authorial layout intentions.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-profile"></a>6.2.8 ttp:profile</h4><p>The <code>ttp:profile</code> attribute may be used by a content author
-to express the profile of the Timed Text Markup Language (TTML) used
-in a <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the
-<code>xsd:anyURI</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§3.2.17, and, further, must specify a
-profile designator in accordance with
-<a href="#vocabulary-profiles"><b>5.2 Profiles</b></a>.</p><p>A <code>ttp:profile</code>
-attribute is considered to be significant only when specified on the
-<code>tt</code> element.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-subFrameRate"></a>6.2.9 ttp:subFrameRate</h4><p>The <code>ttp:subFrameRate</code> attribute is used to specify the sub-frame rate of a related
-media object or the intrinsic sub-frame rate of a <em>Document Instance</em> in case it is intended
-to function as an independent media object.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-subFrameRate-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:subFrameRate</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:subFrameRate
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+                                // <em>value</em> &gt; 0
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The sub-frame rate that applies to a <em>Document Instance</em> is used to
-interpret time expressions that are expressed in <em>sub-frames</em>
-as defined by <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression"><b>10.3.1 &lt;timeExpression&gt;</b></a>.</p><p>If the <code>media</code> time base applies and the effective frame rate is
-integral, a sub-frame is interpreted as a division of a frame of media
-time, such that if the sub-frame rate is specified as <em>S</em>, then
-a frame of media time is divided into <em>S</em> intervals of
-equal duration, where each interval is labeled as sub-frame <em>s</em>,
-with <em>s</em> ∈ [0…<em>S−1</em>].</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See <a href="#time-expression-semantics-media"><b>N.2 Media Time Base</b></a> for further details
-on the interpretation of time expressions for the <code>media</code> time base.</p></div><p>If not specified, the sub-frame rate must be considered to be
-equal to one (1). If specified, then the sub-frame rate must be greater than zero (0).</p><p>A <code>ttp:subFrameRate</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The sub-frame is sometimes referred to as a <em>field</em> in
-the context of synchronization with an interlaced video media object.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-tickRate"></a>6.2.10 ttp:tickRate</h4><p>The <code>ttp:tickRate</code> attribute is used to specify the tick rate of a related
-media object or the intrinsic tick rate of content of a <em>Document Instance</em> in case it is intended
-to function as an independent media object.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-tickRate-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:tickRate</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:tickRate
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+                                // <em>value</em> &gt; 0
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The tick rate that applies to a <em>Document Instance</em> is used to
-interpret time expressions that are expressed in <em>ticks</em> by
-using the <code>t</code> metric as defined by <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression"><b>10.3.1 &lt;timeExpression&gt;</b></a>.</p><p>If the <code>media</code> time base applies,
-a tick is interpreted as an integral division of a second of media
-time, such that if the tick rate is specified as <em>T</em>, then
-a second of media time is divided into <em>T</em> intervals of
-equal duration, where each interval is labeled as tick <em>t</em>,
-with <em>t</em> ∈ [0…<em>T−1</em>].</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See <a href="#time-expression-semantics-media"><b>N.2 Media Time Base</b></a> for further details
-on the interpretation of time expressions for the <code>media</code> time base.</p></div><p>If not specified, then if a frame rate is specified, the tick rate
-must be considered to be the effective frame rate multiplied by the
-sub-frame rate (i.e., ticks are interpreted as sub-frames); or, if no
-frame rate is specified, the tick rate must be considered to be one (1)
-tick per second of media time. If specified, then the tick rate
-must not be zero (0).</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>There is no predefined relationship between ticks and frames or
-sub-frames. Ticks are an arbitrary division of seconds that permit
-use of fixed point arithmetic rather than fractional (and potentially
-inexact) expressions of seconds.</p></div><p>A <code>ttp:tickRate</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="parameter-attribute-timeBase"></a>6.2.11 ttp:timeBase</h4><p>The <code>ttp:timeBase</code> attribute is used to specify the
-temporal coordinate system by means of which time expressions are
-interpreted in a <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>If specified, the value of this attribute must adhere to the following syntax:</p><a id="parameter-attribute-timeBase-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – ttp:timeBase</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-ttp:timeBase
-  : "media"
-  | "smpte"
-  | "clock"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the time base is designated as <code>media</code>, then a time
-expression denotes a coordinate in some media object's time line,
-where the media object may be an external media object with which the
-content of a <em>Document Instance</em> is to be synchronized, or it may
-be the content of a <em>Document Instance</em> itself in a case where
-the timed text content is intended to establish an independent time
-line.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When using a media time base, if that time base is paused or
-scaled positively or negatively, i.e., the media play rate is
-not unity, then it is expected that the
-presentation of associated Timed Text content will be similarly
-paused, accelerated, or decelerated, respectively. The means for
-controlling an external
-media time base is outside the scope of this specification.</p></div><p>If the time base is designated as <code>smpte</code>,
-then a time expression denotes a <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a> time
-coordinate with which the content of a <em>Document Instance</em> is to
-be synchronized.  In this case, the value of the <code>ttp:markerMode</code> 
-and <code>ttp:dropMode</code> parameters apply, as defined by <a href="#parameter-attribute-markerMode"><b>6.2.6 ttp:markerMode</b></a> and <a href="#parameter-attribute-dropMode"><b>6.2.3 ttp:dropMode</b></a>, respectively.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When the time base is designated as <code>smpte</code>,
-every time expression denotes a media marker value akin to that
-defined by <a href="#smil21">[SMIL 2.1]</a>, § 10.4.1, except instead
-of using an opaque marker name, a structured <a href="#smpte12m">[SMPTE 12M]</a>
-time coordinate serves as the marker name.</p></div><p>If the time base is designated as <code>clock</code>, then the time
-expression denotes a coordinate in some real-world time line as
-established by some real-time clock, such as the local wall-clock time
-or UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) or GPS (Global Positioning System)
-time lines.</p><p>If not specified, the default time base must be considered to be
-<code>media</code>.</p><p>A <code>ttp:timeBase</code> attribute is considered to be significant only
-when specified on the <code>tt</code> element.</p><p>When operating with either <code>media</code> or <code>smpte</code>
-time bases, a diachronic presentation of a <em>Document Instance</em> may
-be subject to transformations of the controlling time line, such as
-temporal reversal, dilation (expansion), or constriction
-(compression); however, when operating with the <code>clock</code>
-time base, no transformations are permitted, and diachronic
-presentation proceeds on a linear, monotonically increasing time line
-based on the passage of real time.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Due to there being only one time base parameter that applies to a
-given <em>Document Instance</em>, the interpretation of time expressions
-is uniform throughout the <em>Document Instance</em>.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See <a href="#time-expression-semantics"><b>N Time Expression Semantics</b></a> for further details
-on the interpretation of time expressions according to the designated time base.</p></div></div></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="content"></a>7 Content</h2><p>This section specifies the <em>content</em> matter of the core
-vocabulary catalog.</p><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="content-element-vocabulary"></a>7.1 Content Element Vocabulary</h3><p>The following elements specify the structure and principal content aspects of a
-<em>Document Instance</em>:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-tt"><b>7.1.1 tt</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-head"><b>7.1.2 head</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><b>7.1.3 body</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-div"><b>7.1.4 div</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><b>7.1.5 p</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><b>7.1.6 span</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-br"><b>7.1.7 br</b></a></p></li></ul><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="document-structure-vocabulary-tt"></a>7.1.1 tt</h4><p>The <code>tt</code> element serves as the root document element of a <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>The <code>tt</code> element accepts as its children zero or one <code>head</code> element followed by
-zero or one <code>body</code> element.</p><a id="elt-syntax-tt"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: tt</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;tt
-  <a href="#style-attribute-extent">tts:extent</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang"><span class="reqattr">xml:lang</span></a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>) : default
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Parameter namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-head">head</a>?, <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body">body</a>?
-&lt;/tt&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>, i.e., the time interval over which a <em>Document Instance</em> is active, has an implicit duration that is equal to the
-implicit duration of the <code>body</code> element of the document, if the <code>body</code> element is present, or zero, if the <code>body</code> element is absent.</p><p>If the <code>tts:extent</code> attribute is specified on the <code>tt</code>
-element, then it must adhere to <a href="#style-attribute-extent"><b>8.2.7 tts:extent</b></a>, in which case it
-specifies the spatial extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em> in
-which content regions are located and presented. If no <code>tts:extent</code>
-attribute is specified, then the spatial extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em> is
-considered to be determined by the <em>Document Processing Context</em>.
-The origin of the <em>Root Container Region</em> is determined by the <em>Document Processing Context</em>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the absence of other requirements, and if a <em>Related Media Object</em> exists, then it is recommended
-that the <em>Document Processing Context</em> determine that:</p><ul><li><p>if no <code>tts:extent</code> is specified on the root <code>tt</code> element, the extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em> be
-established as equal to the extent of the <em>Related Media Object Region</em>; and</p></li><li><p>the origin of the <em>Root Container Region</em> be established so that this region is centered in the
-<em>Related Media Object Region</em>.</p></li></ul></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>If an author desires to signal the (storage or image) aspect ratio of the <em>Root Container Region</em>
-without specifying its resolution, then this may be accomplished by using metadata specified
-in an external namespace, such as <code>m708:aspectRatio</code> as defined in <a href="#smpte2052">[SMPTE 2052-11]</a>, §5.4.4.
-This would permit, for example, the interchange of information that reflects the
-the semantics of <a href="#cea708d">[CEA-708-D]</a> , §4.5 “Caption Service Metadata”, “ASPECT RATIO”.</p></div><p>An <code>xml:lang</code> attribute must be specified on the <code>tt</code> element.
-If the attribute value is empty, it signifies that there is no default language that applies
-to the text contained within the <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>If no <code>xml:space</code> attribute is specified upon the <code>tt</code> element, then it must
-be considered as if the attribute had been specified with a value of <code>default</code>.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="document-structure-vocabulary-head"></a>7.1.2 head</h4><p>The <code>head</code> element is a container element used to group
-header matter, including metadata,
-profile, styling, and layout information.</p><p>The <code>head</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or more elements in the
-<code>Parameters.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or one <code>styling</code> element,
-followed by zero or one <code>layout</code> element.</p><p>Any metadata specified by children in the <code>Metadata.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <em>Document Instance</em> as a
-whole, and not just the <code>head</code> element.</p><p>Any parameters specified by children in the <code>Parameters.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <em>Document Instance</em> as a
-whole, and not just the <code>head</code> element.</p><p>A <code>styling</code> child element is used to specify style constructs
-that are referenced from other style constructs, by layout constructs, and by
-<a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements.</p><p>A <code>layout</code> child element is used to specify layout constructs that
-are referenced by <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements.</p><a id="elt-syntax-head"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: head</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;head
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Parameters.class</a>*, <a href="#styling-vocabulary-styling">styling</a>?, <a href="#layout-vocabulary-layout">layout</a>?
-&lt;/head&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>To the extent that time semantics apply to the content of the
-<code>head</code> element, the implied time interval of this element is
-defined to be coterminous with the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="document-structure-vocabulary-body"></a>7.1.3 body</h4><p>The <code>body</code> element functions as a logical container and a temporal
-structuring element for a sequence of textual content units represented as
-logical divisions.</p><p>The <code>body</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or more
-elements in the <code>Animation.class</code> element group,
-followed by
-zero or more <code>div</code> elements.</p><p>Any metadata specified by children in the <code>Metadata.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <code>body</code> element and its descendants as a whole.</p><p>Any animation elements specified by children in the <code>Animation.class</code>
-element group apply semantically to the <code>body</code> element.</p><a id="elt-syntax-body"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: body</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;body
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#layout-attribute-region">region</a> = IDREF
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a> = (<em>par</em>|<em>seq</em>)
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Metadata namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Animation.class</a>*, <a href="#content-vocabulary-div">div</a>*
-&lt;/body&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>An author may specify a temporal interval for a <code>body</code> element using
-the <code>begin</code>, <code>dur</code>, and <code>end</code> attributes. If the begin point
-of this interval remains unspecified, then the begin point is interpreted as the beginning
-point of the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>. Similarly, if the end point of this interval remains unspecified, then the
-end point is interpreted as the ending point of the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A <em>Document Instance</em> referenced from a SMIL presentation
-is expected to follow the same timing rules as apply to other SMIL media
-objects.</p></div><p>If relative begin or end times are specified on the <code>body</code>
-element, then these times are resolved by reference to the beginning and
-ending time of the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>.</p><p>If the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em> is shorter than the computed duration of the
-<code>body</code> element, then the active time interval of a <code>body</code> element is
-truncated to the active end point of the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>.</p><p>An author may associate a set of style properties with a
-<code>body</code> element by means of either the <code>style</code>
-attribute or inline style attributes or a combination thereof.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Style properties that are associated with a <code>body</code> element
-in a <em>Document Instance</em> are available for style inheritance by
-descendant <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements such as <code>div</code>, <code>p</code>,
-<code>span</code>
-and <code>br</code>.</p></div><p>If no <code>timeContainer</code> attribute is specified on a
-<code>body</code> element, then it must be interpreted as having
-<em>parallel</em>
-time containment semantics.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-vocabulary-div"></a>7.1.4 div</h4><p>The <code>div</code> element functions as a logical container and a temporal
-structuring element for a sequence of textual content units represented as
-logical sub-divisions or paragraphs.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When rendered on a continuous (non-paged) visual presentation medium,
-a <code>div</code> element is expected to generate
-one or more block
-areas
-that contain zero or more child block areas
-generated by the <code>div</code> element's
-descendant
-<code>p</code> elements.
-</p><p>If some
-block area generated by a <code>div</code> element does
-not contain any child areas, then it is not expected to be presented.</p></div><p>The <code>div</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or more
-elements in the <code>Animation.class</code> element group,
-followed by
-zero or more
-<code>div</code> or 
-<code>p</code> elements.</p><p>Any metadata specified by children in the <code>Metadata.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <code>div</code> element and its descendants as a whole.</p><p>Any animation elements specified by children in the <code>Animation.class</code>
-element group apply semantically to the <code>div</code> element.</p><a id="elt-syntax-div"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: div</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;div
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#layout-attribute-region">region</a> = IDREF
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a> = (<em>par</em>|<em>seq</em>)
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Metadata namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Animation.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Block.class</a>*
-&lt;/div&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>An author may associate a set of style properties with a <code>div</code> element by means of either
-the <code>style</code> attribute or inline style attributes or a combination thereof.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Style properties that are associated
-with
-a <code>div</code> element in a <em>Document Instance</em>
-are available for style inheritance by descendant <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements such as
-<code>div</code>, 
-<code>p</code>,
-<code>span</code>, and
-<code>br</code>.</p></div><p>If no <code>timeContainer</code> attribute is specified on
-a <code>div</code> element, then it must be interpreted as having
-<em>parallel</em> time containment semantics.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-vocabulary-p"></a>7.1.5 p</h4><p>A <code>p</code> element represents a logical paragraph, serving as
-a transition between block level and inline level formatting semantics.</p><p>The <code>p</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or more
-elements in the <code>Animation.class</code> element group,
-followed by
-zero or more intermixed
-<code>span</code> elements,
-<code>br</code> elements,
-or text nodes interpreted as an anonymous spans.</p><p>Any metadata specified by children in the <code>Metadata.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <code>p</code> element and its descendants as a whole.</p><p>Any animation elements specified by children in the <code>Animation.class</code>
-element group apply semantically to the <code>p</code> element.</p><a id="elt-syntax-p"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: p</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;p
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#layout-attribute-region">region</a> = IDREF
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a> = (<em>par</em>|<em>seq</em>)
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Metadata namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Animation.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Inline.class</a>*
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>An author may associate a set of style properties with a
-<code>p</code> element by means of either the <code>style</code>
-attribute or inline style attributes or a combination thereof.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Style properties that are associated with a <code>p</code> element
-in a <em>Document Instance</em> are available for style inheritance by
-descendant <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements such as <code>span</code> and
-<code>br</code>.</p></div><p>If no <code>timeContainer</code> attribute is specified on
-a <code>p</code> element, then it must be interpreted as having
-<em>parallel</em> time containment semantics.</p><p>If a sequence of children of a <code>p</code> element
-consists solely of character information items, then that sequence must
-be considered to be an <em>anonymous span</em> for the purpose of
-applying style properties that apply to <code>span</code> elements.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The presentation semantics of TTML effectively
-implies that a <code>p</code> element constitutes a line break. In particular,
-it is associated with a block-stacking constraint both before the first
-generated line area and after the last generated line area. See
-<a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-2"><b>9.3.3 Synchronic Flow Processing</b></a> for further details.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-vocabulary-span"></a>7.1.6 span</h4><p>The <code>span</code> element functions as a logical container and a temporal
-structuring element for a sequence of textual content units having inline
-level formatting semantics.</p><p>When presented on a visual medium, a <code>span</code> element is intended to
-generate a sequence of inline areas, each containing one or more glyph areas.</p><p>The <code>span</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or more
-elements in the <code>Animation.class</code> element group,
-followed by
-zero or more intermixed
-<code>span</code> elements,
-<code>br</code> elements,
-or text nodes interpreted as anonymous spans.</p><p>Any metadata specified by children in the <code>Metadata.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <code>span</code> element and its descendants as a whole.</p><p>Any animation elements specified by children in the <code>Animation.class</code>
-element group apply semantically to the <code>span</code> element.</p><a id="elt-syntax-span"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: span</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;span
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#layout-attribute-region">region</a> = IDREF
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a> = (<em>par</em>|<em>seq</em>)
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Metadata namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Animation.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Inline.class</a>*
-&lt;/span&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>An author may associate a set of style properties with a
-<code>span</code> element by means of either the <code>style</code>
-attribute or inline style attributes or a combination thereof.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Style properties that are associated with a <code>span</code> element
-in a <em>Document Instance</em> are available for style inheritance by
-descendant <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements such as <code>span</code> and
-<code>br</code>.</p></div><p>If no <code>timeContainer</code> attribute is specified on
-a <code>span</code> element, then it must be interpreted as having
-<em>parallel</em> time containment semantics.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-vocabulary-br"></a>7.1.7 br</h4><p>The <code>br</code> element denotes an explicit line break.</p><a id="elt-syntax-br"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: br</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;br
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Metadata namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Animation.class</a>*
-&lt;/br&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>When presented on a visual medium, the presence of a <code>br</code> element must be
-interpreted as a forced line break.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The visual presentation of a <code>br</code> element is
-intended to produce the same effect as the control character
-<code>CR</code> (U+000D)
-followed by the control code <code>LF</code> (U+000A) when presented on a teletype device.
-Therefore, two <code>br</code> elements in sequence will produce a
-different effect than a single <code>br</code> element.</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="content-attribute-vocabulary"></a>7.2 Content Attribute Vocabulary</h3><p>This section defines the following common attributes used with many or all element types
-in the core vocabulary catalog:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#content-attribute-id"><b>7.2.1 xml:id</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-attribute-lang"><b>7.2.2 xml:lang</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-attribute-space"><b>7.2.3 xml:space</b></a></p></li></ul><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-attribute-id"></a>7.2.1 xml:id</h4><p>The <code>xml:id</code> attribute is used as defined by
-<a href="#xmlid">[XML ID]</a>.</p><p>The <code>xml:id</code> attribute may be used with any element in the
-core vocabulary catalog.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-attribute-lang"></a>7.2.2 xml:lang</h4><p>The <code>xml:lang</code> attribute is used as defined by
-<a href="#xml10">[XML 1.0]</a>, §2.12, <em>Language Identification</em>.</p><p>The <code>xml:lang</code> attribute must be specified on the <code>tt</code>
-element and may be specified by an instance of any other element type
-in the core vocabulary catalog except parameter vocabulary.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="content-attribute-space"></a>7.2.3 xml:space</h4><p>The <code>xml:space</code> attribute is used as defined by
-<a href="#xml10">[XML 1.0]</a>, §2.10, <em>White Space Handling</em>.</p><p>The <code>xml:space</code> attribute may be used with any element in
-the core vocabulary catalog except parameter vocabulary.</p><p>The semantics of the value <code>default</code> are fixed to mean that
-when performing presentation processing of a <em>Document Instance</em> as
-described by <a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-2"><b>9.3.3 Synchronic Flow Processing</b></a>,
-processing must occur as
-if the following properties were specified on the affected
-elements of an equivalent intermediate XSL-FO document:</p><ul><li><p><code>suppress-at-line-break="auto"</code></p></li><li><p><code>linefeed-treatment="treat-as-space"</code></p></li><li><p><code>white-space-collapse="true"</code></p></li><li><p><code>white-space-treatment="ignore-if-surrounding-linefeed"</code></p></li></ul><p>Similarly, the semantics of the value <code>preserve</code> are fixed to mean that
-when performing presentation processing, processing must occur as
-if the following properties were specified on the affected
-elements of an equivalent intermediate XSL-FO document:
-</p><ul><li><p><code>suppress-at-line-break="retain"</code></p></li><li><p><code>linefeed-treatment="preserve"</code></p></li><li><p><code>white-space-collapse="false"</code></p></li><li><p><code>white-space-treatment="preserve"</code></p></li></ul><p>When performing other types of processing intended to eventually
-result in a visual presentation by means other than those described
-in this specification, the semantics of space collapsing and
-preservation as described above should be respected. For other types
-of processing, the treatment of the <code>xml:space</code> attribute
-is processor dependent, but should respect the semantics described
-above if possible.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the above four cited XSL-FO properties are defined by
-by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 7.17.3, 7.16.7, 7.16.12, and 7.16.8, respectively.</p></div></div></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="styling"></a>8 Styling</h2><p>This section specifies the <em>styling</em> matter of the core
-vocabulary catalog, where
-styling is to be understood as a separable layer of information that applies to
-content and that denotes authorial intentions about the presentation of
-that content.</p><p>Styling attributes are included in TTML to enable authorial intent of presentation
-to be included within a self-contained document. This section describes
-the semantics of style presentation in terms of a standard processing
-model. TTML Processors are not required to present <em>Document Instances</em> in any particular way; 
-but an implementation of this model by a TTML Presentation Processor
-that provides externally observable results that are consistent with this model is
-likely to lead to a user experience that closely resembles the experience intended by
-the documents' authors.</p><p>The semantics of TTML style presentation are described in terms of the model 
-in <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>. The effects of the attributes in this section 
-are intended to be compatible with the layout and formatting model of XSL; however, Presentation agents
-may use any technology to satisfy the authorial intent of the document. In particular 
-since <a href="#css2">[CSS2]</a> is a subset of this model, a CSS processor may be used 
-for the features that the models have in common.</p><p>No normative use of an
-<code>&lt;?xml-stylesheet ... ?&gt;</code> processing instruction is defined
-by this specification.</p><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="styling-element-vocabulary"></a>8.1 Styling Element Vocabulary</h3><p>The following elements specify the structure and principal styling aspects of a
-<em>Document Instance</em>:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#styling-vocabulary-styling"><b>8.1.1 styling</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#styling-vocabulary-style"><b>8.1.2 style</b></a></p></li></ul><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="styling-vocabulary-styling"></a>8.1.1 styling</h4><p>The <code>styling</code> element is a container element used to group
-styling matter, including metadata that applies to styling matter.</p><p>The <code>styling</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group, followed by
-zero or more <code>style</code> elements.</p><a id="elt-syntax-styling"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: styling</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;styling
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#styling-vocabulary-style">style</a>*
-&lt;/styling&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>To the extent that time semantics apply to the content of the
-<code>styling</code> element, the implied time interval of this element is
-defined to be coterminous with the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="styling-vocabulary-style"></a>8.1.2 style</h4><p>The <code>style</code> element is used to define
-a set of style specifications expressed as a
-specified style set in accordance with
-<a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-sss"><b>8.4.4.2 Specified Style Set Processing</b></a>.</p><a id="elt-syntax-style"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: style</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;style
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
- <em>Content:</em> EMPTY
-&lt;/style&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If a <code>style</code> element appears as a descendant of a
-<code>region</code> element, then the <code>style</code> element must be
-ignored for the purpose of computing referential styles as defined by
-<a href="#semantics-style-association-referential"><b>8.4.1.2 Referential Styling</b></a> and <a href="#semantics-style-association-chained-referential"><b>8.4.1.3 Chained Referential Styling</b></a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>That is to say, when referential styling is used by an element to
-refer to a <code>style</code> element, then the referenced <code>style</code>
-element must appear as a descendant of the <code>styling</code> element, and
-not in any other context.</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="styling-attribute-vocabulary"></a>8.2 Styling Attribute Vocabulary</h3><p>This section defines the <a href="#style-attribute-style"><b>8.2.1 style</b></a> attribute used
-with both style definition elements as well as <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements.</p><p>In addition, this section specifies the following attributes in the TT Style Namespace
-for use with style definition elements, certain layout elements, and <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements
-that support inline style specifications:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-backgroundColor"><b>8.2.2 tts:backgroundColor</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-color"><b>8.2.3 tts:color</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-direction"><b>8.2.4 tts:direction</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-display"><b>8.2.5 tts:display</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-displayAlign"><b>8.2.6 tts:displayAlign</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-extent"><b>8.2.7 tts:extent</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-fontFamily"><b>8.2.8 tts:fontFamily</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-fontSize"><b>8.2.9 tts:fontSize</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-fontStyle"><b>8.2.10 tts:fontStyle</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-fontWeight"><b>8.2.11 tts:fontWeight</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-lineHeight"><b>8.2.12 tts:lineHeight</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-opacity"><b>8.2.13 tts:opacity</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-origin"><b>8.2.14 tts:origin</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-overflow"><b>8.2.15 tts:overflow</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-padding"><b>8.2.16 tts:padding</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-showBackground"><b>8.2.17 tts:showBackground</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-textAlign"><b>8.2.18 tts:textAlign</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-textDecoration"><b>8.2.19 tts:textDecoration</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-textOutline"><b>8.2.20 tts:textOutline</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-unicodeBidi"><b>8.2.21 tts:unicodeBidi</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-visibility"><b>8.2.22 tts:visibility</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-wrapOption"><b>8.2.23 tts:wrapOption</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-writingMode"><b>8.2.24 tts:writingMode</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-attribute-zIndex"><b>8.2.25 tts:zIndex</b></a></p></li></ul><p>Unless explicitly stated otherwise, linear white-space (LWSP) must
-appear between adjacent non-terminal components of a value of a TT
-Style or TT Style Extension
-Property value unless some other delimiter is permitted and used.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>This specification makes use of <em>lowerCamelCased</em> local
-names for style attributes that
-are based upon like-named properties defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>.
-This convention is likewise extended to token values of such
-properties.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A style property may be expressed as a specified attribute on any
-<a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element type
-independently of whether the property applies to that
-element type. This capability permits the expression of an inheritable
-style property on ancestor elements to which the property
-does not apply.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-style"></a>8.2.1 style</h4><p>The <code>style</code> attribute is used by referential style association
-to reference one or more <code>style</code> elements each of which define a style (property) set.</p><p>The <code>style</code> attribute may be specified by an instance of the following
-element types:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-div"><code>div</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#styling-vocabulary-style"><code>style</code></a></p></li></ul><p>If specified, the value of a <code>style</code> attribute must
-adhere to the <code>IDREFS</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§ 3.3.10, and, furthermore, each IDREF must reference a <code>style</code> element
-which has a <code>styling</code> element as an ancestor.</p><p>If the same IDREF, <em>ID<sub>1</sub></em>, appears more than one time in the value of a <code>style</code>
-attribute, then there should be an intervening IDREF, <em>ID<sub>2</sub></em>, where 
-<em>ID<sub>2</sub></em> is not equal to <em>ID<sub>1</sub></em>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>This constraint is intended to discourage the use of redundant referential styling while still
-allowing the same style to be referenced multiple times in order to potentially override prior
-referenced styles, e.g., when an intervening, distinct style is referenced in the IDREFS list.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See the specific element type definitions that permit use of the
-<code>style</code> attribute, as well as <a href="#semantics-style-association-referential"><b>8.4.1.2 Referential Styling</b></a> and <a href="#semantics-style-association-chained-referential"><b>8.4.1.3 Chained Referential Styling</b></a>, for
-further information on its semantics.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-backgroundColor"></a>8.2.2 tts:backgroundColor</h4><p>The <code>tts:backgroundColor</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the background color of a region or an area generated by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-backgroundColor"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#style-value-color">&lt;color&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>transparent</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-div"><code>div</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>,
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>The <code>tts:backgroundColor</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-backgroundColor-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Background Color</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="306px 114px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:backgroundColor="red"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="3px 40px"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1" <span class="strong">tts:backgroundColor="purple"</span> tts:textAlign="center"&gt;
-  Twinkle, twinkle, little bat!&lt;br/&gt;
-  How &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:backgroundColor="green"</span>&gt;I wonder&lt;/span&gt; where you're at!
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-backgroundColor-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Background Color</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/backgroundColor.png" alt="TTML backgroundColor style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property represented by this attribute are based upon 
-that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 7.8.2.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-color"></a>8.2.3 tts:color</h4><p>The <code>tts:color</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the foreground color of marks associated with an area generated by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-color"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#style-value-color">&lt;color&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>see prose</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>The initial value of the <code>tts:color</code> property
-is considered to be implementation dependent. In the absence of
-end-user preference information, a conformant presentation processor
-should use an initial value that is highly contrastive to the
-background color of the <em>Root Container Region</em>.</p><p>The <code>tts:color</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-color-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Color</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:color="white"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  In spring, when woods are &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:color="green"</span>&gt;getting green&lt;/span&gt;,&lt;br/&gt;
-  I'll try and tell you what I mean.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-color-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Color</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/color.png" alt="TTML color style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.18.1.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-direction"></a>8.2.4 tts:direction</h4><p>The <code>tts:direction</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the directionality of an embedding or override according to
-the Unicode bidirectional algorithm.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-direction"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>ltr</code> |
-<code>rtl</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>
-<code>ltr</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must ignore the attribute.</p><p>The <code>tts:direction</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-direction-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Direction</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="265px 84px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  Little birds are playing&lt;br/&gt;
-  Bagpipes on the shore,&lt;br/&gt;
-  &lt;span tts:unicodeBidi="bidiOverride" <span class="strong">tts:direction="rtl"</span>&gt;where the tourists snore.&lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-direction-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Direction</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<img src="images/direction.png" alt="TTML direction style property">
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.29.1.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-display"></a>8.2.5 tts:display</h4><p>The <code>tts:display</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines whether an element is a candidate for layout and composition
-in a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-display"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>auto</code> |
-<code>none</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>
-<code>auto</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-div"><code>div</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>,
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If the value of this attribute is <code>auto</code>,
-then the affected element is a candidate for region layout and
-presentation; however, if the value is <code>none</code>, then the
-affected element and its descendants must be considered ineligible for region
-layout and presentation.</p><p>The <code>tts:display</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-display-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Display</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="369px 119px"
-            tts:backgroundColor="black"
-            tts:color="white"
-            tts:displayAlign="before"
-            tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;div region="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;p dur="5s"&gt;
-    [[[
-    &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:display="none"</span>&gt;
-      &lt;set begin="1s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:display="auto"</span>/&gt;
-      Beautiful soup,
-    &lt;/span&gt;
-    &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:display="none"</span>&gt;
-      &lt;set begin="2s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:display="auto"</span>/&gt;
-      so rich and green,
-    &lt;/span&gt;
-    &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:display="none"</span>&gt;
-      &lt;set begin="3s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:display="auto"</span>/&gt;
-      waiting in a hot tureen!
-    &lt;/span&gt;
-    ]]]
-  &lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;/div&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-display-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Display</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<img src="images/display_0.png" alt="TTML display style property - [0,1)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/display_1.png" alt="TTML display style property - [1,2)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/display_2.png" alt="TTML display style property - [2,3)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/display_3.png" alt="TTML display style property - [3,4)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/display_4.png" alt="TTML display style property - [4,5)">
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#css2">[CSS2]</a>, § 9.2.4.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-displayAlign"></a>8.2.6 tts:displayAlign</h4><p>The <code>tts:displayAlign</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the alignment of block areas in the block progression direction.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-displayAlign"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>before</code> |
-<code>center</code> |
-<code>after</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>
-<code>before</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>before</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:displayAlign</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-displayAlign-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Display Align</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="128px 66px" tts:origin="0px 0px"
-       tts:backgroundColor="black" tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:displayAlign="before"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r2"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="192px 66px" tts:origin="128px 66px"/&gt;
-       tts:backgroundColor="green" tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:displayAlign="after"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r3"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="128px 66px"/&gt; style tts:origin="0px 132px"
-       tts:backgroundColor="black" tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:displayAlign="before"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r4"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="192px 66px" tts:origin="128px 198px"/&gt;
-       tts:backgroundColor="green" tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:displayAlign="after"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;div&gt;
-  &lt;p region="r1"&gt;I sent a message to the fish:&lt;/p&gt;
-  &lt;p region="r2"&gt;I told them&lt;br/&gt; "This is what I wish."&lt;/p&gt;
-  &lt;p region="r3"&gt;The little fishes of the sea,&lt;/p&gt;
-  &lt;p region="r4"&gt;They sent an&lt;br/&gt; answer back to me.&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;/div&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-displayAlign-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Display Align</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/displayAlign.png" alt="TTML displayAlign style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.14.4.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-extent"></a>8.2.7 tts:extent</h4><p>The <code>tts:extent</code> attribute is used to specify the
-<em>width</em> and <em>height</em> of a region area
-(which may be the <em>Root Container Region</em>).</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-extent"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>auto</code> |
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>auto</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-tt"><code>tt</code></a>,
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>relative to width and height of <em>Root Container Region</em></td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the value of this attribute consists of two <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>
-specifications, then they must be interpreted as <em>width</em>
-and <em>height</em>, where the first specification is the
-<em>width</em>, and the second specification is the <em>height</em>.</p><p>The <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> value(s) used to express extent must be non-negative.</p><p>If the value of this attribute is <code>auto</code>, then the computed value
-of the style property must be considered to be the same as the extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em>.</p><p>The extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em> is determined either by a
-<code>tts:extent</code> specified on the <code>tt</code> element, if
-present, or as described by <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-tt"><b>7.1.1 tt</b></a> if not present.
-If <code>tts:extent</code> is specified on the <code>tt</code> element, then
-the width and height must be expressed in terms of two <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> specifications,
-and these specifications must be expressed as non-percentage, definite lengths using pixel units.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>auto</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:extent</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-extent-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Extent</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:extent="330px 122px"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  'Tis the voice of the Lobster:&lt;br/&gt;
-  I heard him declare,&lt;br/&gt;
-  "You have baked me too brown,&lt;br/&gt;
-  I must sugar my hair."
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-extent-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Extent</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/extent.png" alt="TTML extent style property"></td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-fontFamily"></a>8.2.8 tts:fontFamily</h4><p>The <code>tts:fontFamily</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the font family from which glyphs are selected for glyph areas generated
-by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-fontFamily"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-(<a href="#style-value-familyName">&lt;familyName&gt;</a> | <a href="#style-value-genericFamilyName">&lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</a>)
-(<code>","</code>
-&nbsp;(<a href="#style-value-familyName">&lt;familyName&gt;</a> | <a href="#style-value-genericFamilyName">&lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</a>))*
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>default</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The initial value, <code>default</code>, is a generic font family name, and is
-further described in <a href="#style-value-genericFamilyName"><b>8.3.6 &lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</b></a> below.</p></div><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If a specified font family is not available, then a
-presentation processor must attempt to map the specified font family
-to an available font family that has similar typographic
-characteristics, or, in the absence of such a mapping, it must
-interpret the font family as if the value <code>default</code> were
-specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:fontFamily</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-fontFamily-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Font Family</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="474px 146px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;div region="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;p&gt;
-    "The time has come," the Walrus said,&lt;br/&gt;
-    "to talk of many things:
-  &lt;/p&gt;
-  &lt;p tts:textAlign="end" <span class="strong">tts:fontFamily="monospaceSerif"</span>&gt;
-    Of shoes, and ships, and sealing wax,&lt;br/&gt;
-    Of cabbages and kings,
-  &lt;/p&gt;
-  &lt;p&gt;
-    And why the sea is boiling hot,&lt;br/&gt;
-    and whether pigs have wings."
-  &lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;/div&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-fontFamily-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Font Family</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/fontFamily.png" alt="TTML fontFamily style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.9.2.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-fontSize"></a>8.2.9 tts:fontSize</h4><p>The <code>tts:fontSize</code> attribute is used to specify a style property
-that defines the font size for glyphs that are selected for glyph areas
-generated by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-fontSize"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>?
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>1c</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>relative to parent element's font size</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If a single <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> value is specified, then this length applies
-equally to horizontal and vertical scaling of a glyph's EM square; if two
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> values are specified, then the first expresses the horizontal
-scaling and the second expresses vertical scaling.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Use of independent horizontal and vertical font sizes is expected to be used
-with cell based units in order to denote fonts that are two rows in height and
-one column in width.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A glyph's EM square is conventionally defined as the EM square of the font that contains the glyph. That is,
-glyphs do not have an EM square that is distinct from their font's EM square.</p></div><p>If horizontal and vertical sizes are expressed independently, then the
-units of the <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> values must be the same.</p><p>The <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> value(s) used to express font size must be non-negative.</p><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the closest supported value were
-specified.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The expression <code>1c</code> means one cell, where <code>'c'</code> expresses
-the <em>cell</em> length unit as defined by <a href="#style-value-length"><b>8.3.9 &lt;length&gt;</b></a>.
-When a single &lt;length&gt; is expressed using cell units, then it refers to the height of
-the <em>Computed Cell Size</em>.</p></div><p>The <code>tts:fontSize</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-fontSize-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Font Size</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="299px 97px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:fontSize="18px"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  Then fill up the glasses&lt;br/&gt;
-  with treacle and ink,&lt;br/&gt;
-  Or anything else&lt;br/&gt;
-  that is &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:fontSize="24px"</span>&gt;pleasant&lt;/span&gt; to drink.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-fontSize-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Font Size</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/fontSize.png" alt="TTML fontSize style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.9.4. The addition of a second length component to permit specifying font
-width and height independently is an extension introduced by TTML.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-fontStyle"></a>8.2.10 tts:fontStyle</h4><p>The <code>tts:fontStyle</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the font style to apply to glyphs that are selected for glyph areas generated
-by content flowed into a region, where the mapping from font
-style value to specific font face or style parameterization is not determined
-by this specification.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-fontStyle"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>normal</code> |
-<code>italic</code> |
-<code>oblique</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>normal</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>Use of the value <code>oblique</code>
-denotes a shear transformation (at an unspecified
-angle) in the inline progression dimension.</p><p>If a specified font style is not available, then a
-presentation processor must attempt to map the specified font style
-to an available font style that has similar typographic
-characteristics, or, in the absence of such a mapping, it must
-interpret the font style as if the value <code>normal</code> were
-specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:fontStyle</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-fontStyle-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Font Style</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="331px 84px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  In autumn, when the leaves are brown,&lt;br/&gt;
-  Take pen and ink, and &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:fontStyle="italic"</span>&gt;write it down.&lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-fontStyle-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Font Style</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/fontStyle.png" alt="TTML fontStyle style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.9.7.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-fontWeight"></a>8.2.11 tts:fontWeight</h4><p>The <code>tts:fontWeight</code> attribute is used to specify a style property
-that defines the font weight to apply to glyphs that are selected for glyph
-areas generated by content flowed into a region, where the mapping from font
-weight value to specific font face or weight parameterization is not determined
-by this specification.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-fontWeight"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>normal</code> |
-<code>bold</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>normal</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If a specified font weight is not available, then a
-presentation processor must attempt to map the specified font weight
-to an available font weight that has similar typographic
-characteristics, or, in the absence of such a mapping, it must
-interpret the font weight as if the value <code>normal</code> were
-specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:fontWeight</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-fontWeight-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Font Weight</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="376px 95px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  They told me you had been to her,&lt;br/&gt;
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:fontWeight="bold"</span>&gt;and mentioned me to him:&lt;/span&gt;&lt;br/&gt;
-  She gave me a good character&lt;br/&gt;
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:fontWeight="bold"</span>&gt;but said I could not swim.&lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-fontWeight-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Font Weight</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/fontWeight.png" alt="TTML fontWeight style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.9.9.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-lineHeight"></a>8.2.12 tts:lineHeight</h4><p>The <code>tts:lineHeight</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the inter-baseline separation between line areas generated by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-lineHeight"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>normal</code> |
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>normal</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>relative to this element's font size</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the value of this attribute is <code>normal</code>, then the
-computed value of the style property must be considered to be the same
-as the largest font size that applies to any
-descendant element in the intermediate synchronic document as determined by
-<a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-1"><b>9.3.2 Intermediate Synchronic Document Construction</b></a>.</p><p>If specified as a <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>, then the length must
-be non-negative.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>normal</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:lineHeight</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-lineHeight-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Line Height</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="255px 190px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontSize="16px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:lineHeight="32px"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  He thought he saw an elephant,&lt;br/&gt;
-  That practised on a fife:&lt;br/&gt;
-  He looked again, and found it was&lt;br/&gt;
-  A letter from his wife.&lt;br/&gt;
-  "At length I realise," he said,&lt;br/&gt;
-  "The bitterness of Life.
-"&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-lineHeight-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Line Height</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/lineHeight.png" alt="TTML lineHeight style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.16.4. Furthermore, it is the intention of this specification that the
-allocation rectangle of a line be consistent with the <span class="strong">per-inline-height-rectangle</span>
-as defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 4.5, i.e., that a CSS-style line box stacking strategy be used.
-</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-opacity"></a>8.2.13 tts:opacity</h4><p>The <code>tts:opacity</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the opacity (or conversely, the transparency)
-of marks associated with a region.</p><p>When presented onto a visual medium, the opacity of the region is applied uniformly and on a linear scale
-to all marks produced by content targeted to the
-region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-opacity"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#style-value-alpha">&lt;alpha&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>
-<code>1.0</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The <code>tts:opacity</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-opacity-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Opacity</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1" dur="5s"&gt;
-  &lt;set begin="0s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:opacity="1.00"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;set begin="1s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:opacity="0.75"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;set begin="2s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:opacity="0.50"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;set begin="3s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:opacity="0.25"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;set begin="4s" dur="1s" <span class="strong">tts:opacity="0.00"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="304px 77px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  The sun was shining on the sea
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-opacity-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Opacity</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<img src="images/opacity_0.png" alt="TTML opacity style property - [0,1)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/opacity_1.png" alt="TTML opacity style property - [1,2)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/opacity_2.png" alt="TTML opacity style property - [2,3)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/opacity_3.png" alt="TTML opacity style property - [3,4)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/opacity_4.png" alt="TTML opacity style property - [4,5)">
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#css3-color">[CSS3 Color]</a>,
-§ 3.2.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-origin"></a>8.2.14 tts:origin</h4><p>The <code>tts:origin</code> attribute is used to specify the
-<em>x</em> and <em>y</em> coordinates of the origin of a
-region area with respect to the origin of the <em>Root Container Region</em>.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-origin"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>auto</code> |
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>auto</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>relative to width and height of <em>Root Container Region</em></td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the value of this attribute consists of two <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> specifications,
-then they must be interpreted as <em>x</em> and <em>y</em> coordinates, where the first specification
-is the <em>x</em> coordinate, and the second specification is the <em>y</em> coordinate.</p><p>If the value of this attribute is <code>auto</code>, then the computed value
-of the style property must be considered to be the same as the origin of the <em>Root Container Region</em>.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>auto</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:origin</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-origin-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Origin</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:origin="40px 40px"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="308px 92px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  "To dine!" she shrieked in dragon-wrath.&lt;br/&gt;
-  "To swallow wines all foam and froth!&lt;br/&gt;
-   To simper at a table-cloth!"
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-origin-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Origin</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/origin.png" alt="TTML origin style property"></td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-overflow"></a>8.2.15 tts:overflow</h4><p>The <code>tts:overflow</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines whether a region area is clipped or not if the descendant areas of the region overflow
-its extent.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-overflow"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>visible</code> |
-<code>hidden</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>hidden</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the value of this attribute is <code>visible</code>, then content should
-not be clipped outside of the affected region, and region composition and layout
-must be performed as if the region's width and height were
-unconstrained,
-but with
-a well-defined origin.  If the value is <code>hidden</code>, then content should
-be clipped outside of the affected region.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Unless a manual line break element <code>br</code> is used by the content author,
-a paragraph of a given region will generate no more than one line area in that
-region if the value of the <code>tts:overflow</code> style that applies to the
-region is <code>visible</code> and if the applicable <code>tts:wrapOption</code>
-style is <code>noWrap</code>.</p></div><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>hidden</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:overflow</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-overflow-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Overflow</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="232px 40px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="red"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="before"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontSize="18px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:wrapOption="noWrap"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:overflow="visible"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r2"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="232px 40px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 43px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="red"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="before"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontSize="18px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:wrapOption="noWrap"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:overflow="hidden"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  "But wait a bit," the Oysters cried,&lt;br/&gt;
-  "Before we have our chat;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p region="r2"&gt;
-  For some of us are out of breath,&lt;br/&gt;
-  And all of us are fat!"
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-overflow-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Overflow</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/overflow.png" alt="TTML overflow style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the <code>tts:noWrap</code> is set to
-<code>noWrap</code> to prevent automatic line wrapping (breaking);
-if this were not specified, then overflow would occur in the block
-progression direction as opposed to the inline progression direction.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.21.2.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-padding"></a>8.2.16 tts:padding</h4><p>The <code>tts:padding</code> attribute is used to specify padding (or inset)
-space on all sides of a region area.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-padding"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> |
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> |
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> |
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>0px</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>relative to width and height of region</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the value of this attribute consists of one <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> specification,
-then that length applies to all edges of the affected areas. If the value
-consists of two <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> specifications, then the first applies to the
-before and after edges, and the second applies to the start and end edges.
-If three <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> specifications are provided, then the first applies to the
-before edge, the second applies to the start and end edges, and the third applies
-to the after edge.
-If four <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> specifications are provided, then they apply to before, end,
-after, and start edges, respectively.</p><p>The <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> value(s) used to express padding must be non-negative.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>0px</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:padding</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-padding-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Padding</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="446px 104px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:padding="10px 40px"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1" tts:backgroundColor="red"&gt;
-  Just the place for a Snark! I have said it twice:&lt;br/&gt;
-  That alone should encourage the crew.&lt;br/&gt;
-  Just the place for a Snark! I have said it thrice:&lt;br/&gt;
-  What I tell you three times is true.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>When rendering an area to which padding applies, the background color that
-applies to the area is rendered into the padded portion of the area.</p><a id="style-attribute-padding-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Padding</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<img src="images/padding.png" alt="TTML padding style property">
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.31.15, except that individual shorthand values map to writing
-mode relative padding values as defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.8.31, 7.8.32, 7.8.33, and 7.8.34.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-showBackground"></a>8.2.17 tts:showBackground</h4><p>The <code>tts:showBackground</code> attribute is used to specify
-constraints on when the background color of a region is intended to be
-presented.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-showBackground"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>always</code> |
-<code>whenActive</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>always</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If the value of this attribute is <code>always</code>, then the
-background color of a region is always rendered when performing presentation
-processing on a visual medium; if the value is <code>whenActive</code>,
-then the background color of a region is rendered only when some
-content is flowed into the region.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>always</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:showBackground</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-showBackground-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Show Background</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="265px 100px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:showBackground="always"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="before"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="start"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r2"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="205px 60px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="290px 100px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="red"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="before"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="end"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:showBackground="whenActive"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#smil21">[SMIL 2.1]</a>,
-§ 5.3.3.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-textAlign"></a>8.2.18 tts:textAlign</h4><p>The <code>tts:textAlign</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines how inline areas are aligned within a containing block area in the inline progression
-direction.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-textAlign"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>left</code> |
-<code>center</code> |
-<code>right</code> |
-<code>start</code> |
-<code>end</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>start</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>start</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:textAlign</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-textAlign-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Text Align</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="355px 43px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:textAlign="start"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r2"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="355px 43px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 47px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:textAlign="end"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  Beware the Jabberwock, my son!&lt;br/&gt;
-  The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p region="r2"&gt;
-  Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun&lt;br/&gt;
-  The frumious Bandersnatch!
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-textAlign-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Text Align</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/textAlign.png" alt="TTML textAlign style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.16.9.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-textDecoration"></a>8.2.19 tts:textDecoration</h4><p>The <code>tts:textDecoration</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines a text decoration effect to apply to glyph areas or other inline
-areas that are generated by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-textDecoration"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>none</code> |
-[ [
-<code>underline</code> |
-<code>noUnderline</code>
-] || [
-<code>lineThrough</code> |
-<code>noLineThrough</code>
-] || [
-<code>overline</code> |
-<code>noOverline</code>
-] ]
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>none</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td><a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a></td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this
-style property, each character child of a <code>p</code> element is
-considered to be enclosed in an anonymous span.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>none</code> were specified.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The syntax used above in defining the value of this property is based on the
-value component syntax defined in <a href="#css2">[CSS2]</a>, § 1.4.2.1. In essence,
-one or more of the values separated by <code>||</code> may appear in the property
-value in any order, such as <code>"noUnderline overline lineThrough"</code>.</p></div><p>The <code>tts:textDecoration</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-textDecoration-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Text Decoration</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="385px 82px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px 2px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:textDecoration="underline"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  The sea was wet&lt;span <span class="strong">tts:textDecoration="noUnderline"</span>&gt; as &lt;/span&gt;wet
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:textDecoration="noUnderline"</span>&gt;
-    could be,&lt;br/&gt;
-    The sand was dry as dry.&lt;br/&gt;
-    &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:textDecoration="lineThrough"</span>&gt;There weren't any&lt;/span&gt;
-    You &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:textDecoration="lineThrough"</span>&gt;couldn't&lt;/span&gt;
-    could not see a cloud&lt;br/&gt;
-    Because no cloud was in the sky.
-  &lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-textDecoration-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Text Decoration</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/textDecoration.png" alt="TTML textDecoration style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.17.4.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-textOutline"></a>8.2.20 tts:textOutline</h4><p>The <code>tts:textOutline</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines a text outline effect to apply to glyphs that are selected for glyph areas generated
-by content flowed into a region.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-textOutline"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>none</code> |
-<a href="#style-value-color">&lt;color&gt;</a>?
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>
-<a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a>?
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>none</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>relative to this element's font size</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>The value of this attribute consists of an optional <a href="#style-value-color">&lt;color&gt;</a> term
-followed by one or two <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> terms.  If a <em>color</em> term is
-present, then it denotes the outline color; if no <em>color</em> term is
-present, the computed value of the <code>tts:color</code> applies.  The first
-<em>length</em> term denotes the outline thickness and the second length
-term, if present, indicates the blur radius.</p><p>The <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> value(s) used to express thickness and blur radius must be non-negative.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>When a <a href="#style-value-length">&lt;length&gt;</a> expressed in
-cells is used in a <code>tts:textOutline</code> value,
-the cell's dimension in the block progression dimension applies.
-For example, if text outline thickness is specified as 0.1c, the cell resolution
-is 20 by 10, and the extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em> is 640 by 480, then the
-outline thickness will be a nominal 480 / 10 * 0.1 pixels, i.e., 4.8px,
-without taking into account rasterization effects.</p></div><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>none</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:textOutline</code> style is illustrated by the following
-example.</p><a id="style-attribute-textOutline-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Text Outline</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="transparent"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="yellow"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:textOutline="black 2px 0px"</span>/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontFamily="proportionalSansSerif"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:fontSize="24px"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p&gt;
-  How doth the little crocodile&lt;br/&gt;
-  Improve its shining tail,&lt;br/&gt;
-  And pour the waters of the Nile&lt;br/&gt;
-  On every golden scale!&lt;br/&gt;
-  How cheerfully he seems to grin,&lt;br/&gt;
-  How neatly spreads his claws,&lt;br/&gt;
-  And welcomes little fishes in,&lt;br/&gt;
-  With gently smiling jaws!
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-textOutline-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Text Outline</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/textOutline.png" alt="backgroundColor style property"></td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-unicodeBidi"></a>8.2.21 tts:unicodeBidi</h4><p>The <code>tts:unicodeBidi</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines a directional embedding or override according to
-the Unicode bidirectional algorithm.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-unicodeBidi"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>normal</code> |
-<code>embed</code> |
-<code>bidiOverride</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>
-<code>normal</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>normal</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:unicodeBidi</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-unicodeBidi-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Unicode Bidirectionality</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="265px 84px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="center"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  Little birds are playing&lt;br/&gt;
-  Bagpipes on the shore,&lt;br/&gt;
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:unicodeBidi="bidiOverride"</span> tts:direction="rtl"&gt;where the tourists snore.&lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-unicodeBidi-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Unicode Bidirectionality</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<img src="images/unicodeBidi.png" alt="TTML unicodeBidi style property">
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.29.6.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-visibility"></a>8.2.22 tts:visibility</h4><p>The <code>tts:visibility</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines whether generated areas are visible or not when rendered on a visual
-presentation medium.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-visibility"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>visible</code> |
-<code>hidden</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td>
-<code>visible</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-div"><code>div</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a>,
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>,
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>The <code>tts:visibility</code> style has no affect on content layout or
-composition, but merely determines whether composed content is visible or not.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>visible</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:visibility</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-visibility-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Visibility</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="398px 121px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1" dur="4s"&gt;
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:visibility="hidden"</span>&gt;
-    &lt;set begin="1s" <span class="strong">tts:visibility="visible"</span>/&gt;
-    Curiouser
-  &lt;/span&gt;
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:visibility="hidden"</span>&gt;
-    &lt;set begin="2s" <span class="strong">tts:visibility="visible"</span>/&gt;
-    and
-  &lt;/span&gt;
-  &lt;span <span class="strong">tts:visibility="hidden"</span>&gt;
-    &lt;set begin="3s" <span class="strong">tts:visibility="visible"</span>/&gt;
-    curiouser!
-  &lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-visibility-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Visibility</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<img src="images/visibility_0.png" alt="TTML visibility style property - [0,1)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/visibility_1.png" alt="TTML visibility style property - [1,2)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/visibility_2.png" alt="TTML visibility style property - [2,3)">
-</td></tr><tr><td>
-<img src="images/visibility_3.png" alt="TTML visibility style property - [3,4)">
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.30.17.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-wrapOption"></a>8.2.23 tts:wrapOption</h4><p>The <code>tts:wrapOption</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines whether or not automatic line wrapping (breaking) applies within the context of
-the affected element.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-wrapOption"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>wrap</code> |
-<code>noWrap</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>wrap</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>yes</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>For the purpose of determining applicability of this style property,
-each character child of a <code>p</code> element is considered to be enclosed in an anonymous
-span.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>wrap</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:wrapOption</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-wrapOption-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Wrap Option</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="192px 117px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:displayAlign="after"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:overflow="hidden"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:wrapOption="noWrap"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p&gt;
-  I'll tell thee everything I can:&lt;br/&gt;
-  There's little to relate.&lt;br/&gt;
-  I saw an aged aged man,&lt;br/&gt;
-  A-sitting on a gate.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-wrapOption-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Wrap Option</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/wrapOption.png" alt="TTML wrapOption style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.16.13.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-writingMode"></a>8.2.24 tts:writingMode</h4><p>The <code>tts:writingMode</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the block and inline progression directions to be used for the purpose of
-stacking block and inline areas within a region area.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-writingMode"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>lrtb</code> |
-<code>rltb</code> |
-<code>tbrl</code> |
-<code>tblr</code> |
-<code>lr</code> |
-<code>rl</code> |
-<code>tb</code>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>lrtb</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>lrtb</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:writingMode</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-writingMode-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Writing Mode</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="50px 570px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="10px 3px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:writingMode="tbrl"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r2"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="310px 50px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="70px 120px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="10px 3px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:writingMode="rltb"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  I sometimes dig for buttered rolls,&lt;br/&gt;
-  Or set limed twigs for crabs:
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p region="r2" tts:direction="rtl" tts:unicodeBidi="bidiOverride"&gt;
-  I sometimes search the grassy knolls for the wheels of Hansom-cabs.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><a id="style-attribute-writingMode-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Writing Mode</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/writingMode.png" alt="TTML writingMode style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the second paragraph in the above example that targets region
-<code>r2</code>, the <code>tts:unicodeBidi</code> and
-<code>tts:direction</code> properties are set to
-<code>bidiOverride</code> and <code>rtl</code>, respectively, in order
-to override the normally left-to-right directionality of characters in
-the Latin script.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.29.7.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-attribute-zIndex"></a>8.2.25 tts:zIndex</h4><p>The <code>tts:zIndex</code> attribute is used to specify a style property that
-defines the front-to-back ordering of region areas in the case that they overlap.</p><p>This attribute may be specified by any
-element type
-that permits use of attributes in the TT Style Namespace; however, this attribute applies
-as a style property only to those element types indicated in the following table.</p><a id="style-property-details-zIndex"></a><table class="common"><col width="25%" span="1"><col span="1"><tbody><tr><td><em>Values:</em></td><td>
-<code>auto</code> |
-<a href="#style-value-integer">&lt;integer&gt;</a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Initial:</em></td><td><code>auto</code></td></tr><tr><td><em>Applies to:</em></td><td>
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a>
-</td></tr><tr><td><em>Inherited:</em></td><td>no</td></tr><tr><td><em>Percentages:</em></td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td><em>Animatable:</em></td><td>discrete</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If two areas are associated with the same Z-index value, then, if those areas
-overlap in space, the area(s) generated by lexically subsequent elements must be
-rendered over area(s) generated by lexically prior elements, where lexical
-order is defined as the postorder traversal of a <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>The semantics of the value <code>auto</code> are those defined by
-<a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 7.30.18, where the <code>tt</code> element
-is considered to establish the root stacking context.</p><p>If a specified value of this attribute is not supported,
-then a presentation processor must interpret the attribute as if the
-value <code>auto</code> were specified.</p><p>The <code>tts:zIndex</code> style is illustrated by the following example.</p><a id="style-attribute-zIndex-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example Fragment – Z Index</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="400px 100px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:zIndex="0"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r2"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="100px 60px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="400px 100px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="red"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="end"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:zIndex="1"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r3"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="0px 120px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="400px 100px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="black"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:zIndex="2"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-&lt;region xml:id="r4"&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:origin="100px 180px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:extent="400px 100px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:padding="5px"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:backgroundColor="red"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:color="white"/&gt;
-  &lt;style tts:textAlign="end"/&gt;
-  &lt;style <span class="strong">tts:zIndex="3"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p region="r1"&gt;
-  I passed by his garden, and marked, with one eye,&lt;br/&gt;
-  How the Owl and the Panther were sharing a pie.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p region="r2"&gt;
-  The Panther took pie-crust, and gravy, and meat,&lt;br/&gt;
-  While the Owl had the dish as its share of the treat.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p region="r3"&gt;
-  When the pie was all finished, the Owl, as a boon,&lt;br/&gt;
-  Was kindly permitted to pocket the spoon:
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p region="r4"&gt;
-  While the Panther received knife and fork&lt;br/&gt;
-  with a growl,&lt;br/&gt;
-  And concluded the banquet by...
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><p></p><a id="style-attribute-zIndex-example-1-images"></a><table class="example-images"><caption>Example Rendition – Z Index</caption><tbody><tr><td><img src="images/zIndex.png" alt="TTML zIndex style property"></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of the style property
-represented by this attribute are based upon that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-§ 7.30.18.</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="styling-style-value-expressions"></a>8.3 Style Value Expressions</h3><p>Style property values include the use of the following expressions:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#style-value-alpha"><b>8.3.1 &lt;alpha&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-color"><b>8.3.2 &lt;color&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-digit"><b>8.3.3 &lt;digit&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-familyName"><b>8.3.5 &lt;familyName&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-genericFamilyName"><b>8.3.6 &lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-hexDigit"><b>8.3.7 &lt;hexDigit&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-integer"><b>8.3.8 &lt;integer&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-length"><b>8.3.9 &lt;length&gt;</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#style-value-namedColor"><b>8.3.10 &lt;namedColor&gt;</b></a></p></li></ul><p>In the syntax representations defined in this section, no
-linear whitespace (LWSP) is implied or permitted between tokens
-unless explicitly specified.</p><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-alpha"></a>8.3.1 &lt;alpha&gt;</h4><p>An &lt;alpha&gt; expression is used to express an opacity value,
-where	0 means fully transparent and 1 means fully opaque.</p><a id="alpha-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;alpha&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;alpha&gt;
-  : <em>float</em>
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>In the above syntax representation, the syntactic element
-<em><code>float</code></em> must adhere to the lexical
-representation defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>&nbsp;§
-3.2.4.1. If the value represented is less than 0.0,
-then it must be interpreted as equal to 0.0; similarly, if the value
-represented is greater than 1.0, then it must be interpreted as
-1.0. The value NaN must be interpreted as 0.0.</p><p>A specified value for &lt;alpha&gt; should not be <code>NaN</code>,
-less than 0, or greater than 1.</p><p>If a presentation processor does not support a specific,
-valid opacity value, then it must interpret it as being equal to the
-closest supported value.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-color"></a>8.3.2 &lt;color&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;color&gt; expression is used to specify a named color, exact RGB color triple,
-or exact RGBA color tuple, where the alpha component, if expressed,
-is maximum (255) at 100% opacity
-and minimum (0) at 0% opacity, and where the applicable color space is
-defined by <a href="#srgb">[SRGB]</a>.</p><a id="color-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;color&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;color&gt;
-  : "#" rrggbb
-  | "#" rrggbbaa
-  | "rgb" "(" r-value "," g-value "," b-value ")"
-  | "rgba" "(" r-value "," g-value "," b-value "," a-value ")"
-  | <a href="#style-value-namedColor">&lt;namedColor&gt;</a>
-
-rrggbb
-  :  <a href="#style-value-hexDigit">&lt;hexDigit&gt;</a>{6}
-
-rrggbbaa
-  :  <a href="#style-value-hexDigit">&lt;hexDigit&gt;</a>{8}
-
-r-value | g-value | b-value | a-value
-  : component-value
-
-component-value
-  : non-negative-integer                    // valid range: [0,255]
-
-non-negative-integer
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>When expressing RGB component values, these values are considered
-to <span class="strong">not</span> be premultiplied by alpha.</p><p>For the purpose of performing presentation processing such that
-non-opaque or non-transparent alpha or opacity values apply, then the
-semantics of compositing functions are defined with respect to the use of
-the <a href="#srgb">[SRGB]</a> color space for both inputs and outputs of
-the composition function.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The use of <a href="#srgb">[SRGB]</a> for the stated semantics of
-composition is not meant to prevent an actual processor from using some
-other color space either for internal or external purposes. For
-example, a presentation processor may ultimately convert the SRGB values
-used here to the YUV color space for rendition on a television device.</p></div><p>If a presentation processor does not support a specific,
-valid color or alpha value, then it must interpret it as being equal
-to the closest supported value.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-digit"></a>8.3.3 &lt;digit&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;digit&gt; is used to express integers and other types of numbers or tokens.</p><a id="digit-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;digit&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;digit&gt;
-  : "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-duration"></a>8.3.4 &lt;duration&gt;</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The information from this section has been removed due to lack of any normative
-use within this specification. This section is retained in its empty form
-in order to prevent section renumbering.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-familyName"></a>8.3.5 &lt;familyName&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;familyName&gt; expression specifies a font family name.</p><a id="familyName-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;familyName&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;familyName&gt;
-  : unquoted-string
-  | quoted-string
-
-unquoted-string
-  : identifier ( lwsp identifier )*
-
-lwsp
-  : ( ' ' | '\t' | '\n' | '\r' )+
-
-identifier
-  : [-]? identifier-start identifier-following*
-
-identifier-start
-  : [_a-zA-Z]
-  | non-ascii-or-c1
-  | escape
-
-identifier-following
-  : [_a-zA-Z0-9-]
-  | non-ascii-or-c1
-  | escape
-
-non-ascii-or-c1
-  : [^\0-\237]
-
-escape
-  : '\\' <em>char</em>
-
-quoted-string
-  : double-quoted-string
-  | single-quoted-string
-
-double-quoted-string
-  : '"' ( [^"\\] | escape )+ '"'
-
-single-quoted-string
-  : "'" ( [^'\\] | escape )+ "'"
-</pre></div>
-
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>In addition to adhering to the syntax rules specified above, the following semantic rules apply:</p><ul><li><p>the semantic value of a &lt;familyName&gt; expression is the semantic value of its <code>unquoted-string</code> or <code>quoted-string</code>
-non-terminal, according to whichever applies;</p></li><li><p>the semantic value of an <code>unquoted-string</code> non-terminal is a pair <code>&lt;</code><em>quoted</em>, <em>content</em><code>&gt;</code>,
-where <em>quoted</em> is a boolean <code>false</code>, and
-where <em>content</em> is the result of appending the value of each <code>identifier</code>
-non-terminal, in lexical order, where the value of each identifier is preceded by a single SPACE (U+0020) character if it is not the first
-identifier;</p></li><li><p>the semantic value of a <code>quoted-string</code> non-terminal is a pair <code>&lt;</code><em>quoted</em>, <em>content</em><code>&gt;</code>,
-where <em>quoted</em> is a boolean <code>true</code>, and
-where <em>content</em> is the unquoted content of the quoted string, i.e., the sequence of characters between the delimiting quotes.</p></li><li><p>the semantic value of an <code>escape</code> non-terminal is the value of the escaped <code>char</code>;</p></li><li><p>a &lt;familyName&gt; that takes the form of an <code>unquoted-string</code> that contains an <code>identifier</code> that
-starts with two <code>-</code> HYPHEN-MINUS (U+002D) characters must be considered to be invalid;</p></li><li><p>a &lt;familyName&gt; that takes the form of an <code>unquoted-string</code> that contains a single <code>identifier</code> that
-matches (by case sensitive comparison) a &lt;genericFamilyName&gt; must be interpreted as that &lt;genericFamilyName&gt;;</p></li><li><p>a &lt;familyName&gt; that takes the form of a <code>quoted-string</code> whose content (unquoted value)
-matches (by case sensitive comparison) a &lt;genericFamilyName&gt; must not be interpreted as that &lt;genericFamilyName&gt;, but as
-the actual name of a non-generic font family.</p></li></ul><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The syntactic element <em><code>char</code></em> is to be interpreted according
-to the <code>Char</code> production defined by <a href="#xml10">[XML 1.0]</a>&nbsp;§2.2.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The <code>{unicode}</code> escape mechanism defined by <a href="#css2">[CSS2]</a>&nbsp;§4.1.1
-is not supported by this syntax; rather, authors are expected to either (1) directly encode the character
-using the document encoding or (2) use an XML character reference according to
-<a href="#xml10">[XML 1.0]</a>&nbsp;§4.1. When a syntactically significant character needs to be used
-without its normal syntactic interpretation, it may be be escaped using the backslash
-(reverse solidus) <code>escape</code> non-terminal specified above.</p><p>When using the backslash (reverse solidus) <code>escape</code> non-terminal, the above syntax does
-not place any restriction on what character may be escaped, e.g., <code>\\[\n\r\f0-9a-f]</code> are
-permitted. If one of these latter escapes appears in a &lt;familyName&gt; expression, then it will
-need to be converted to a <code>{unicode}</code> escape if it is to be used with a standard XSL-FO
-or CSS parser. In particular, a backslash followed by a newline is ignored by CSS, while it is not
-ignored by the above syntax. Such an unignored escaped newline would need to be represented using
-an equivalent <code>{unicode}</code> escape, such as <code>\a</code>, to order to express in CSS.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-genericFamilyName"></a>8.3.6 &lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;genericFamilyName&gt; expression specifies a font family using a general
-token that indicates a class of font families.</p><p>The resolution of a generic family name to a concrete font instance is considered to
-be implementation dependent, both in the case of content authoring and content interpretation.</p><a id="genericFamilyName-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;genericFamilyName&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;genericFamilyName&gt;
-  : "default"
-  | "monospace"
-  | "sansSerif"
-  | "serif"
-  | "monospaceSansSerif"
-  | "monospaceSerif"
-  | "proportionalSansSerif"
-  | "proportionalSerif"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The mapping between a generic (font) family name and an actual font is not
-determined by this specification; however, the
-distinction of monospace versus proportional and serif versus sans-serif
-should be maintained if possible when performing presentation.</p><p>If a generic (font) family name of <code>monospace</code> is specified,
-then it may be interpreted as equivalent to either <code>monospaceSansSerif</code>
-or <code>monospaceSerif</code>. The generic family names <code>sansSerif</code>
-and <code>serif</code> are to be interpreted as equivalent to <code>proportionalSansSerif</code>
-and <code>proportionalSerif</code>, respectively.</p><p>If the generic family name <code>default</code> is specified (or implied by
-an initial value), then its typographic characteristics are considered to be implementation
-dependent; however, it is recommended that this default font family be mapped to
-an monospaced, sans-serif font.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-hexDigit"></a>8.3.7 &lt;hexDigit&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;hexDigit&gt; is used to express integers and other types of numbers or tokens
-that employ base 16 arithmetic.</p><p>For the purpose of parsing, a distinction must not be made between lower and upper case.</p><a id="hexDigit-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;hexDigit&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;hexDigit&gt;
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>
-  | "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f"
-  | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-integer"></a>8.3.8 &lt;integer&gt;</h4><p>An &lt;integer&gt; expression is used to express an arbitrary, signed integral value.</p><a id="integer-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;integer&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;integer&gt;
-  : ( "+" | "-" )? <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-length"></a>8.3.9 &lt;length&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;length&gt; expression is used to express either a coordinate component of point
-in a cartesian space or a distance between two points in a cartesian space.</p><a id="length-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;length&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;length&gt;
-  : scalar
-  | percentage
-
-scalar
-  : number units
-
-percentage
-  : number "%"
-
-sign
-  : "+" | "-"
-
-number
-  : sign? non-negative-number
-
-non-negative-number
-  : non-negative-integer
-  | non-negative-real
-
-non-negative-integer
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-
-non-negative-real
-  : <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>* "." <a href="#style-value-digit">&lt;digit&gt;</a>+
-
-units
-  : "px"
-  | "em"
-  | "c"                                     // abbreviation of "cell"
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>It is an error to omit the units component of a scalar length
-value.</p><p>The semantics of
-the unit of measure <code>px</code> (pixel) 
-are as defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 5.9.13.</p><p>When specified relative to a font whose size is expressed as a single length
-measure or as two length measures of equal length, the unit of measure <code>em</code> is considered to be
-identical to that defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 5.9.13;
-however, when specified relative to a font whose size is expressed as
-two length measures of non-equal lengths, then one <code>em</code> is
-equal to the inline progression dimension of the anamorphically
-scaled font when used to specify lengths in the inline progression
-direction and equal to the block progression dimension of the scaled
-font when used to specify lengths in the block progression direction.</p><p>The semantics of the unit of measure <code>c</code> (cell) are
-defined by the parameter <a href="#parameter-attribute-cellResolution"><b>6.2.1 ttp:cellResolution</b></a>.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-namedColor"></a>8.3.10 &lt;namedColor&gt;</h4><p>A &lt;namedColor&gt; is used to express an RGBA color with a convenient name, and where the applicable color space is
-defined by <a href="#srgb">[SRGB]</a>.</p><p>For the purpose of parsing, a distinction must not be made between lower and upper case.</p><a id="namedColor-style-expression-syntax"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>Syntax Representation – &lt;namedColor&gt;</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;namedColor&gt;
-  : "transparent"                           // #00000000
-  | "black"                                 // #000000ff
-  | "silver"                                // #c0c0c0ff
-  | "gray"                                  // #808080ff
-  | "white"                                 // #ffffffff
-  | "maroon"                                // #800000ff
-  | "red"                                   // #ff0000ff
-  | "purple"                                // #800080ff
-  | "fuchsia"                               // #ff00ffff
-  | "magenta"                               // #ff00ffff (= fuchsia)
-  | "green"                                 // #008000ff
-  | "lime"                                  // #00ff00ff
-  | "olive"                                 // #808000ff
-  | "yellow"                                // #ffff00ff
-  | "navy"                                  // #000080ff
-  | "blue"                                  // #0000ffff
-  | "teal"                                  // #008080ff
-  | "aqua"                                  // #00ffffff
-  | "cyan"                                  // #00ffffff (= aqua)
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Except for <code>transparent</code>, the set of named colors specified above constitutes a proper
-subset of the set of named colors specified by <a href="#svg11">[SVG 1.1]</a>, § 4.2.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-quotedString"></a>8.3.11 &lt;quotedString&gt;</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The information from this section has been incorporated into
-<a href="#style-value-familyName"><b>8.3.5 &lt;familyName&gt;</b></a>. This section is retained in its empty form
-in order to prevent section renumbering.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="style-value-string"></a>8.3.12 &lt;string&gt;</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The information from this section has been incorporated into
-<a href="#style-value-familyName"><b>8.3.5 &lt;familyName&gt;</b></a>. This section is retained in its empty form
-in order to prevent section renumbering.</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="semantics-style-resolution"></a>8.4 Style Resolution</h3><p>This section defines the semantics of style resolution in terms of
-a standard processing model as follows:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-association"><b>8.4.1 Style Association</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-inheritance"><b>8.4.2 Style Inheritance</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolution-value-categories"><b>8.4.3 Style Resolution Value Categories</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing"><b>8.4.4 Style Resolution Processing</b></a></p></li></ul><p>Any implementation of this model is permitted provided that the
-externally observable results are consistent with the results produced
-by this model.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The semantics of style resolution employed here are based upon
-<a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>, § 5.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-style-association"></a>8.4.1 Style Association</h4><p>Style association is a sub-process of <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing"><b>8.4.4 Style Resolution Processing</b></a> used to determine the
-specified style set of each content and
-layout element.</p><p>Style matter may be associated with content
- and layout matter in a number of ways:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-association-inline">inline styling</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-association-referential">referential styling</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-association-chained-referential">chained referential styling</a></p></li></ul><p>In addition to the above, style matter may be associated with layout matter using:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-association-nested">nested styling</a></p></li></ul><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-association-inline"></a>8.4.1.1 Inline Styling</h5><p>Style properties may be expressed in an inline manner by direct
-specification of an attribute from the TT Style Namespace on the
-affected element. When expressed in this manner, the association of
-style information is referred to as <em>inline styling</em>.</p><p>Style properties associated by inline styling are afforded a higher priority than all other
-forms of style association.</p><a id="style-association-example-1"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Inline Styling</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;p <span class="strong">tts:color="white"</span>&gt;White 1&nbsp;&lt;span <span class="strong">tts:color="yellow"</span>&gt;Yellow&lt;/span&gt;&nbsp;White 2&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the two text fragments <code>"White 1 "</code> and
-<code>" White 2"</code>, which are interpreted as anonymous spans, are not
-associated with a color style property; rather, they inherit their color style
-from their parent <code>p</code> element as described in <a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-content"><b>8.4.2.1 Content Style Inheritance</b></a> below.  </p></div></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-association-referential"></a>8.4.1.2 Referential Styling</h5><p>Style properties may be expressed in an out-of-line manner and referenced by the
-affected element using the <code>style</code> attribute. When expressed in this manner,
-the association of style information is referred to as <em>referential styling</em>.</p><p>If a <code>style</code> attribute specifies multiple references, then those references are
-evaluated in the specified order, and that order applies to resolution of the value of a
-style property in the case that it is specified along multiple reference paths.</p><p>The use of referential styling is restricted to making
-reference to <code>style</code> element descendants of a <code>styling</code>
-element. It is considered an error to reference a <code>style</code>
-element that is a descendant of a <code>layout</code> element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The use of referential styling encourages the reuse of style specifications while
-sacrificing locality of reference.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A single <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element may be associated with style properties by a hybrid mixture of
-inline and referential styling, in which case inline styling is given priority as described above
-by <a href="#semantics-style-association-inline"><b>8.4.1.1 Inline Styling</b></a>.</p></div><a id="style-association-example-2"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Referential Styling</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;style <span class="strong">xml:id="s1"</span> tts:color="white"/&gt;
-&lt;style <span class="strong">xml:id="s2"</span> tts:color="yellow"/&gt;
-...
-&lt;p <span class="strong">style="s1"</span>&gt;White 1&nbsp;&lt;span <span class="strong">style="s2"</span>&gt;Yellow&lt;/span&gt;&nbsp;White 2&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the two text fragments <code>"White 1 "</code> and
-<code>" White 2"</code>, which are interpreted as anonymous spans, are not
-associated with a color style property; rather, they inherit their color style
-from their parent <code>p</code> element as described in <a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-content"><b>8.4.2.1 Content Style Inheritance</b></a> below.</p></div></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-association-chained-referential"></a>8.4.1.3 Chained Referential Styling</h5><p>Style properties may be expressed in an out-of-line manner and may themselves reference
-other out-of-line style properties, thus creating a chain of references starting at the
-affected element. When expressed in this manner, the association of style information
-is referred to as <em>chained referential styling</em>.</p><p>If the same style property is specified in more than one referenced
-style set, then the last referenced style set applies, where the order of application starts from
-the affected element and proceeds to referenced style sets, and, in turn, to subsequent referenced style sets.</p><p>A loop in a sequence of chained style references must be considered an error.</p><p>The use of referential styling is restricted to making
-reference to <code>style</code> element descendants of a <code>styling</code>
-element. It is considered an error to reference a <code>style</code>
-element that is a descendant of a <code>layout</code> element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The use of chained referential styling encourages the grouping of style specifications
-into general and specific sets, which further aids in style specification reuse.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A single <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element may be associated with style properties by a hybrid mixture of
-inline, referential styling, and chained referential styling, in which case inline styling is
-given priority as described above by <a href="#semantics-style-association-inline"><b>8.4.1.1 Inline Styling</b></a>.</p></div><a id="style-association-example-3"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Chained Referential Styling</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;style <span class="strong">xml:id="s1"</span> tts:color="white" tts:fontFamily="monospaceSerif"/&gt;
-&lt;style <span class="strong">xml:id="s2"</span> <span class="strong">style="s1"</span> tts:color="yellow"/&gt;
-...
-&lt;p <span class="strong">style="s1"</span>&gt;White Monospace&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;p <span class="strong">style="s2"</span>&gt;Yellow Monospace&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-association-nested"></a>8.4.1.4 Nested Styling</h5><p>Style properties may be expressed in a nested manner by direct specification of one or
-more <code>style</code> element children of the affected element.
-When expressed in this manner, the association of style information
-is referred to as <em>nested styling</em>.</p><p>Style properties associated by nested styling are afforded a lower priority than inline
-styling but with higher priority than referential styling.</p><a id="style-association-example-4"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Nested Styling</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region xml:id="r1"&gt;
-  <span class="strong">&lt;style tts:extent="128px 66px"/&gt;</span>
-  <span class="strong">&lt;style tts:origin="0px 0px"/&gt;</span>
-  <span class="strong">&lt;style tts:displayAlign="center"/&gt;</span>
-&lt;/region&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In this version of this specification, nested styling applies only
-to the <code>region</code> element.</p></div></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-style-inheritance"></a>8.4.2 Style Inheritance</h4><p>Style inheritance is a sub-process of <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing"><b>8.4.4 Style Resolution Processing</b></a> used to determine the
-specified style set of each content and
-layout element.</p><p>Styles are further propagated to content matter
-using:
-</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-content">content style inheritance</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-content">region style inheritance</a></p></li></ul><p>For the purpose of determining inherited styles, the element hierarchy of
-an intermediate synchronic document form of a <em>Document Instance</em> must be used, where
-such intermediate forms are defined by <a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-1"><b>9.3.2 Intermediate Synchronic Document Construction</b></a>.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The intermediate synchronic document form is utilized rather than
-the original form in order to facilitate region inheritance
-processing.</p></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-inheritance-content"></a>8.4.2.1 Content Style Inheritance</h5><p>Style properties are inherited from ancestor <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements
-within an intermediate synchronic document
-if a style property is not associated with a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element (or
-an anonymous span) and the style property is designated as
-inheritable.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The <code>tt</code> element is not a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element;
-consequently, the <code>body</code> element is the outermost element from which content style inheritance occurs.</p></div><p>If a style property is determined to require inheritance, then the inherited value must
-be the value of the same named style property in the computed
-style set of the
-element's immediate ancestor element
-within the applicable intermediate synchronic document.</p><a id="style-inheritance-example-2"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Content Style Inheritance</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;p <span class="strong">tts:fontFamily="monospaceSansSerif"</span>&gt;
-  &lt;span tts:color="yellow"&gt;Yellow Monospace&lt;/span&gt;
-&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the <code>span</code> element that encloses the character items
-<code>Yellow Monospace</code> is not associated with a <code>tts:fontFamily</code> style
-property and this property is inheritable; therefore, the value of the
-<code>tts:fontFamily</code> style
-is inherited from the computed style
-set of the ancestor <code>p</code> element,
-and is added to the
-specified
-style
-set of the <code>span</code> element.</p></div></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-inheritance-region"></a>8.4.2.2 Region Style Inheritance</h5><p>Style properties are inherited from a region element in the following case:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>if a style property <em>P</em> is not associated with
-a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element
-or an anonymous span <em>E</em> and the style
-property is designated as inheritable, and</p></li><li><p>if that
-style property <em>P</em> is in the computed style
-set of region
-<em>R</em>,
-and</p></li><li><p>if that element <em>E</em> is flowed into (presented within) region
-<em>R</em>.</p></li></ol><a id="style-inheritance-example-3"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Region Style Inheritance</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region <span class="strong">xml:id="r1"</span>&gt;
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;style tts:color="yellow"/&gt;
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;style tts:fontFamily="monospaceSerif"/&gt;
-&lt;/region&gt;
-...
-&lt;p <span class="strong">region="r1"</span>&gt;Yellow Monospace&lt;/p&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, the anonymous span that encloses the character
-items <code>Yellow Monospace</code> effectively inherits the <code>tts:color</code>
-and <code>tts:fontFamily</code> styles specified on the <code>region</code>
-element into which the <code>p</code> element is flowed (presented).</p></div></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-style-resolution-value-categories"></a>8.4.3 Style Resolution Value Categories</h4><p>During style resolution, layout, and presentation processing,
-three categories of style property values are distinguished as
-follows:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolved-value-category-specified">specified values</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolved-value-category-computed">computed values</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolved-value-category-actual">actual values</a></p></li></ul><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolved-value-category-specified"></a>8.4.3.1 Specified Values</h5><p>Values of style properties that are associated with or inherited
-by an element or anonymous span are referred to as <em>specified values</em>. The
-set of all specified style properties of a given element is referred to
-as the <em>specified style set</em> of that element.</p></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolved-value-category-computed"></a>8.4.3.2 Computed Values</h5><p>When style properties are specified using relative value expressions,
-such as a named color, a relative unit (e.g., cell), or a percentage, then
-they need to be further resolved into absolute units, such as an RGB triple,
-pixels, etc.</p><p>During the style resolution process, all specified style values are
-reinterpreted (or recalculated) in absolute terms, and then recorded as
-<em>computed values</em>. The
-set of all computed style properties of a given element is referred to
-as the <em>computed style set</em> of that element.</p><p>When a style value is inherited, either explicitly or implicitly, it
-is the computed value of the style that is inherited from an ancestor
-element. This is required since the resolution of certain relative units,
-such as percentage, require evaluating the expression in the immediate
-(local) context of reference, and not in a distant (remote) context of
-reference where the related (resolving) expression is not available.</p></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolved-value-category-actual"></a>8.4.3.3 Actual Values</h5><p>During the actual presentation process, other transformations occur
-that map some value expressions to concrete, physical values. For example,
-the colors of computed style values are further subjected to closest color
-approximation and gamma correction
-during the display process. In addition, length value expressions that use
-pixels in computed style values are considered to express logical rather than
-physical (device) pixels. Consequently, these logical pixels are subject to
-being further transformed or mapped to physical (device) pixels during
-presentation.</p><p>The final values that result from the logical to device mapping
-process are referred to as <em>actual values</em>.  The set of all
-actual style properties of a given element is referred to as the
-<em>actual style set</em> of that element.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>More than one set of actual values may be produced during the
-process of presentation. For example, a TTML presentation processor
-device may output an RGBA component video signal which is then
-further transformed by an NTSC or PAL television to produce a final
-image. In this case, both color and dimensions may further be modified
-prior to presentation.</p></div><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In general, a TTML presentation processor will not have access
-to actual style set values; as a consequence, no further use or reference
-to actual values is made below when formally describing the style
-resolution process.</p></div></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-style-resolution-processing"></a>8.4.4 Style Resolution Processing</h4><p>The process of style resolution is defined herein as the procedure
-(and results thereof) for resolving (determining) the computed values
-of all style properties that apply to content and layout elements:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-definitions"><b>8.4.4.1 Conceptual Definitions</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-sss"><b>8.4.4.2 Specified Style Set Processing</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-css"><b>8.4.4.3 Computed Style Set Processing</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-style-resolution-process-overall"><b>8.4.4.4 Style Resolution Process</b></a></p></li></ul><p>The process described here forms an integral sub-process of
-<a href="#semantics-region-layout"><b>9.3 Region Layout and Presentation</b></a>.</p><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolution-processing-definitions"></a>8.4.4.1 Conceptual Definitions</h5><p>For the purpose of interpreting the style resolution processing
-model specified below, the following conceptual definitions apply:</p><dl><dt class="label">[style property]</dt><dd><p>a style property, <em>P</em>, is considered to consist of a
-tuple <code>[name, value]</code>, where the name of the
-property is a tuple <code>[namespace value,
-unqualified name]</code> and the value of the property is a
-tuple <code>[category, type, value expression]</code></p><a id="conceptual-definition-example-style-property"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – conceptual style property</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-[
-  ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "color"],
-  ["specified", <em>color</em>, "red"]
-]
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p></dd><dt class="label">[style (property) set]</dt><dd><p>a style (property) set consists of an unordered collection of style
-properties, where no two style properties within the set have an
-identical name, where by "identical name" is meant equality of
-namespace value of name tuple and unqualified name of name tuple;</p><p>in a specified style (property) set, the category of each style
-property is "specified"; a specified style (property) set of an
-element <em>E</em> is referred to as <em>SSS(E)</em>;</p><a id="conceptual-definition-example-specified-style-set"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – conceptual (specified) style (property) set</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-{
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "backgroundColor"],
-    ["specified", <em>color</em>, 0x00FF00 ]
-  ],
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "color"],
-    ["specified", <em>color</em>, "red" ]
-  ],
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "fontSize"],
-    ["specified", <em>length</em>, "1c" ]
-  ],
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "lineHeight"],
-    ["specified", <em>length</em>, "117%" ]
-  ]
-}
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>in a computed style (property) set, the category of each style
-property is either "specified" or "computed"; a computed style (property) set of an element
-<em>E</em> is referred to as <em>CSS(E)</em>;</p><a id="conceptual-definition-example-computed-style-set"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – conceptual (computed) style (property) set</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-{
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "backgroundColor"],
-    ["specified", <em>color</em>, 0x00FF00 ]
-  ],
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "color"],
-    ["computed", <em>color</em>, 0xFF0000 ]
-  ],
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "fontSize"],
-    ["computed", <em>length</em>, "24px" ]
-  ],
-  [
-    ["http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml#styling", "lineHeight"],
-    ["computed", <em>length</em>, "28px" ]
-  ]
-}
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p></dd><dt class="label">[style (property) merging]</dt><dd><p>a style property <em>P<sub>new</sub></em> is merged into a
-style (property) set, <em>SS</em>, as follows: if a style property
-<em>P<sub>old</sub></em> is already present in <em>SS</em>
-where the name of <em>P<sub>new</sub></em> is identical to the
-name of <em>P<sub>old</sub></em>, then replace
-<em>P<sub>old</sub></em> in <em>SS</em> with
-<em>P<sub>new</sub></em>; otherwise, add
-<em>P<sub>new</sub></em> to <em>SS</em>;</p></dd><dt class="label">[style (property) set merging]</dt><dd><p>a style (property) set <em>SS<sub>new</sub></em> is merged into
-an existing style (property) set <em>SS<sub>old</sub></em> as
-follows: for each style property <em>P<sub>new</sub></em> in
-<em>SS<sub>new</sub></em>, merge <em>P<sub>new</sub></em> into
-<em>SS<sub>old</sub></em>;</p></dd></dl></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolution-processing-sss"></a>8.4.4.2 Specified Style Set Processing</h5><p>The specified style set <em>SSS</em> of an element or
-anonymous span <em>E</em>,
-<em>SSS(E)</em>, is determined according to the following ordered
-rules:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p><span class="strong">[initialization]</span> initialize
-the specified style set <em>SSS</em> of <em>E</em> to the
-empty set;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[referential and chained referential
-styling]</span> for each <code>style</code> element <em>S<sub>REF</sub></em>
-referenced by a <code>style</code> attribute specified on
-<em>E</em>, and in the order specified in the <code>style</code>
-attribute, then, if <em>S<sub>REF</sub></em> is a descendant
-of a <code>styling</code> element,
-merge the specified style set of
-<em>S<sub>REF</sub></em>, <em>SSS(S<sub>REF</sub>)</em>, into
-the specified style set of <em>E</em>,
-<em>SSS(E)</em>;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[nested styling]</span> for each
-nested <code>style</code> element child <em>S<sub>NEST</sub></em> of
-<em>E</em>, and in the specified order of child elements, merge
-the specified style set of <em>S<sub>NEST</sub></em>,
-<em>SSS(S<sub>NEST</sub>)</em>, into the specified style set of
-<em>E</em>, <em>SSS(E)</em>;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[inline styling]</span> for each
-style property <em>P</em> expressed as a specified styling
-attribute of <em>E</em>,
-merge <em>P</em> into the specified style
-set of <em>E</em>, <em>SSS(E)</em>;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[animation styling]</span> for each
-style property <em>P</em> expressed as a specified styling
-attribute of an immediate animation (<code>set</code>) element child of element <em>E</em>,
-merge <em>P</em> into the specified style
-set of <em>E</em>, <em>SSS(E)</em>;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[implicit inheritance]</span> if the
-element type of <em>E</em> is not the styling element type
-<code>style</code>, then for each inheritable style property
-<em>P<sub>INH</sub></em> in the set of style properties defined
-above in <a href="#styling-attribute-vocabulary"><b>8.2 Styling Attribute Vocabulary</b></a>, perform the
-following ordered sub-steps:</p><ol class="enumla"><li><p>if <em>P<sub>INH</sub></em> is present in the specified
-style set of <em>E</em>, <em>SSS(E)</em>, then continue to the
-next inheritable style property;</p></li><li><p>if the element type of <em>E</em> is the layout element
-type <code>region</code>, then set <em>P′</em> to the initial value of
-property <em>P</em>, where the initial value of a property is
-determined according to the specific property definition found above
-in <a href="#styling-attribute-vocabulary"><b>8.2 Styling Attribute Vocabulary</b></a>;</p></li><li><p>if the element type of <em>E</em> is a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element
-type or anonymous span, then set <em>P′</em> to the result of
-looking up the value of <em>P</em> in the computed style set of
-the immediate ancestor element of <em>E</em>, i.e.,
-<em>CSS(PARENT(E))</em>;</p></li><li><p>if the value of <em>P′</em> is not undefined, then merge
-<em>P′</em> into the specified style set of <em>E</em>,
-<em>SSS(E)</em>.</p></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolution-processing-css"></a>8.4.4.3 Computed Style Set Processing</h5><p>The computed style set <em>CSS</em> of an element or
-anonymous span <em>E</em>,
-<em>CSS(E)</em>, is determined according to the following ordered
-rules:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p><span class="strong">[resolve specified styles]</span>
-determine (obtain) the specified style set <em>SSS</em> of
-<em>E</em>, namely, <em>SSS(E)</em>, in accordance with
-<a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-sss"><b>8.4.4.2 Specified Style Set Processing</b></a>;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[initialization]</span>
-initialize <em>CSS(E)</em> to a (deep) copy of
-<em>SSS(E)</em>;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[filter]</span> if
-<em>E</em> is a <code>style</code> element, then return
-<em>CSS(E)</em> as the resulting computed style set without
-further resolution; otherwise, continue with the next rule;</p></li><li><p><span class="strong">[relative value resolution]</span> for each
-style property <em>P</em> in <em>CSS(E)</em>, where the value
-type of <em>P</em> is relative, perform the following ordered
-sub-steps:</p><ol class="enumla"><li><p>replace the relative value of <em>P</em> with an
-equivalent, non-relative (computed) value;</p></li><li><p>set the category of <em>P</em> to "computed";</p></li></ol></li></ol><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>As a result of the filtering rule above, the computed style set of
-a <code>style</code> element includes only specified values, in which case
-relative value expressions remain relative; consequently, the
-resolution of relative value expressions (that may be assigned by
-means of referential style association) always takes place in the
-context of a layout or <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element which has a presentation
-context, and not in the non-presentation, declaration context
-of a referentiable <code>style</code> element.</p></div></div><div class="div4">
-<h5><a id="semantics-style-resolution-process-overall"></a>8.4.4.4 Style Resolution Process</h5><p>The top-level style resolution process is defined as follows: using
-a preorder traversal of each element and anonymous span,
-<em>E</em>, of an intermediate synchronic document,
-<em>DOC<sub>inter</sub></em>, perform the following ordered
-sub-steps:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p><span class="strong">[filter]</span> if the element type
-of <em>E</em> is not the styling element type <code>style</code>, is
-not the layout element type <code>region</code>, and is not one of the
-<a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element types <code>body</code>, <code>div</code>, <code>p</code>,
-<code>span</code>, <code>br</code>, or anonymous span, then continue to the
-next element in the preorder traversal;</p></li><li><p> <span class="strong">[resolve computed styles]</span>
-determine (obtain) the computed style set <em>CSS</em> of
-<em>E</em>, namely, <em>CSS(E)</em>, in accordance with
-<a href="#semantics-style-resolution-processing-css"><b>8.4.4.3 Computed Style Set Processing</b></a>.</p></li></ol></div></div></div></div><div class="div1">
-<h2><a id="layout"></a>9 Layout</h2><p>This section specifies the <em>layout</em> matter of the core
-vocabulary catalog, where
-layout is to be understood as a separable layer of information that applies to
-content and that denotes authorial intentions about the presentation of
-that content.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The two layers of layout and style matter are considered to be independently
-separable. Layout matter specifies one or more spaces or areas into
-which content is intended to be presented, while style matter specifies the manner in
-which presentation occurs within the layout.</p><p>In certain cases, a content author may choose to embed (inline) style matter directly
-into layout or content matter. In such cases, an alternative 
-exists – use of referential styling –
-in which the style
-matter is not embedded (inlined).</p></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="layout-element-vocabulary"></a>9.1 Layout Element Vocabulary</h3><p>The following elements specify the structure and principal layout aspects of a
-<em>Document Instance</em>:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#layout-vocabulary-layout"><b>9.1.1 layout</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><b>9.1.2 region</b></a></p></li></ul><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="layout-vocabulary-layout"></a>9.1.1 layout</h4><p>The <code>layout</code> element is a container element used to group
-layout matter, including metadata that applies to layout matter.</p><p>The <code>layout</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group, followed by
-zero or more <code>region</code> elements.</p><a id="elt-syntax-layout"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: layout</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;layout
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#layout-vocabulary-region">region</a>*
-&lt;/layout&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>To the extent that time semantics apply to the content of the
-<code>layout</code> element, the implied time interval of this element is
-defined to be coterminous with the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>.</p></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="layout-vocabulary-region"></a>9.1.2 region</h4><p>The <code>region</code> element is used to define a rectangular space or area into which content is
-to be flowed for the purpose of presentation.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The rectangular area of a region is explicitly not constrained to be contained within the <em>Root Container
-Region</em>. In particular, the origin components of a region may be negative, and the extent (width and
-height) components of a region may be greater than the width and height of the <em>Root Contatiner Region</em>.
-Whether a presentation processor clips such a region to the <em>Root Contatiner Region</em> is implementation
-dependent, and not prescribed by this specification.</p></div><p>In addition, and in accordance with
-<a href="#semantics-style-inheritance-region"><b>8.4.2.2 Region Style Inheritance</b></a>, 
-the <code>region</code> element may be used to specify inheritable style properties to be
-inherited by content that is flowed into it.</p><p>The <code>region</code> element accepts as its children zero or more
-elements in the <code>Metadata.class</code> element group,
-followed by zero or more
-elements in the <code>Animation.class</code> element group,
-followed by
-zero or more <code>style</code> elements.</p><p>Any metadata specified by children in the <code>Metadata.class</code>
-element group applies semantically to the <code>region</code> element and its descendants as a whole.
-Any animation elements specified by children in the <code>Animation.class</code>
-element group apply semantically to the <code>region</code> element.
-Any <code>style</code> child element must be considered a local style
-definition that applies only to the containing <code>region</code>
-element, i.e., does not apply for resolving referential styling (but does apply for region
-style inheritance).</p><a id="elt-syntax-region"></a><table class="syntax"><caption>XML Representation – Element Information Item: region</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;region
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-begin">begin</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-dur">dur</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-end">end</a> = <a href="#timing-value-timeExpression">&lt;timeExpression&gt;</a>
-  <a href="#style-attribute-style">style</a> = IDREFS
-  <a href="#timing-attribute-timeContainer">timeContainer</a> = (<em>par</em>|<em>seq</em>)
-  <a href="#metadata-attribute-role">ttm:role</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-id">xml:id</a> = ID
-  <a href="#content-attribute-lang">xml:lang</a> = string
-  <a href="#content-attribute-space">xml:space</a> = (<em>default</em>|<em>preserve</em>)
-  {<em>any attribute in TT Style namespace</em>}
-  {<em>any attribute not in default or any TT namespace</em>}&gt;
-  <em>Content:</em> <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Metadata.class</a>*, <a href="#element-vocab-group-table">Animation.class</a>*, <a href="#styling-vocabulary-style">style</a>*
-&lt;/region&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If <code>begin</code> and (or) <code>end</code> attributes are specified on a
-<code>region</code> element, then they specify the beginning and (or) ending points
-of a time interval during which the region is eligible for activation and with
-respect to which animation child elements of the region are timed.
-If specified, these begin and end points are relative to the time
-interval of the nearest ancestor element associated with a time
-interval, irregardless of whether that interval is explicit or implied.</p><p>The nearest ancestor element of a <code>region</code> element that is associated
-with a time interval is the <code>layout</code> element.</p><p>If a <code>dur</code> attribute is specified on the <code>region</code> element, then it
-specifies the simple duration of the region.</p><p>For the purpose of determining the semantics of presentation processing, a
-region that is temporally inactive must not produce any visible marks when
-presented on a visual medium.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>A <code>region</code> element may be associated with a time interval for two
-purposes: (1) in order to temporally bound the presentation of the region and
-its content, and (2) to provide a temporal context in which animations of region
-styles may be effected.</p><p>For example, an author may wish to specify a region that is otherwise empty, but
-may have a visible background color to be presented starting at some time and
-continuing over the region's duration.  The simple duration of the region serves
-additionally to scope the presentation effects of content that is targeted to the
-region. An author may also wish to move a region within the <em>Root Container Region</em>
-or change a region's background color by means of animation effects. In
-both of these cases, it is necessary to posit an active time interval for a
-region.</p></div><p>If no <code>timeContainer</code> attribute is specified on
-a <code>region</code> element, then it must be interpreted as having
-<em>parallel</em> time containment semantics.</p><p>If a <a href="#metadata-attribute-role"><code>ttm:role</code></a> attribute is
-specified on a <code>region</code> element, then it must adhere to the
-value syntax defined by <a href="#metadata-attribute-role-syntax"><b>Syntax Representation – ttm:role</b></a>, and where the roles identified
-by this attribute express the semantic roles of the region
-independently from the semantic roles of any content targeted to
-(associated with) the region.</p></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="layout-attribute-vocabulary"></a>9.2 Layout Attribute Vocabulary</h3><p>This section defines the <a href="#layout-attribute-region"><b>9.2.1 region</b></a> attribute used with <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> elements.</p><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="layout-attribute-region"></a>9.2.1 region</h4><p>The <code>region</code> attribute is used to reference a <code>region</code>
-element which defines a space or area into which a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element is intended to be flowed.</p><p>If specified, the value of a <code>region</code> attribute must
-adhere to the <code>IDREF</code> data type defined by <a href="#xsd-2">[XML Schema Part 2]</a>,
-§ 3.3.9, and, furthermore, this IDREF must reference a <code>region</code> element
-which has a <code>layout</code> element as an ancestor.</p><p>The <code>region</code> attribute may be specified by an instance of the following
-element types:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-div"><code>div</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-p"><code>p</code></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#content-vocabulary-span"><code>span</code></a></p></li></ul><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>See <a href="#semantics-region-layout"><b>9.3 Region Layout and Presentation</b></a> below for further information on content
-flow in a region.</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
-<h3><a id="semantics-region-layout"></a>9.3 Region Layout and Presentation</h3><p>This section defines the semantics of region layout and
-presentation in terms of a standard processing model as
-follows:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#semantics-default-region"><b>9.3.1 Default Region</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-1"><b>9.3.2 Intermediate Synchronic Document Construction</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-2"><b>9.3.3 Synchronic Flow Processing</b></a></p></li><li><p><a href="#semantics-region-layout-example"><b>9.3.4 Elaborated Example (Informative)</b></a></p></li></ul><p>Any
-implementation is permitted provided that the externally observable
-results are consistent with the results produced by this model.
-</p><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-default-region"></a>9.3.1 Default Region</h4><p>If a <em>Document Instance</em> does not specify a
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a> element,
-then a <em>default region</em> is implied with the following characteristics:</p><ul><li><p>the identity of the default region is considered to be anonymous;</p></li><li><p>the extent of the default region is the same as the extent of the <em>Root Container Region</em>;</p></li><li><p>the temporal interval of the default region is the same as the interval defined by the <em>Root Temporal Extent</em>;</p></li></ul><p>Furthermore, if no <a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a> element is
-specified, then the <a href="#layout-attribute-region"><code>region</code></a> attribute must
-not be specified on any <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element in the <em>Document Instance</em>.</p><p>If a default region is implied for a given <em>Document Instance</em>, then
-the <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a> element
-is implicitly targeted to (associated with) the default region.</p><p>When implying a default region, the <em>Document Instance</em> is to be
-treated as if a <a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a> element and its
-parent <a href="#layout-vocabulary-layout"><code>layout</code></a>
-element were specified in a <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-head"><code>head</code></a>
-element, and a matching <a href="#layout-attribute-region"><code>region</code></a> attribute were
-specified on the <a href="#document-structure-vocabulary-body"><code>body</code></a> element
-as shown in the following example:</p><a id="semantics-default-region-example"></a><table class="example"><caption>Example – Implied Default Region</caption><tbody><tr><td>
-<div class="exampleInner"><pre>
-&lt;tt xml:lang="" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/ns/ttml"&gt;
-  &lt;head&gt;
-    <span class="strong">&lt;layout&gt;
-      &lt;region xml:id="anonymous"/&gt;
-    &lt;/layout&gt;</span>
-  &lt;/head&gt;
-  &lt;body <span class="strong">region="anonymous"</span>/&gt;
-&lt;/tt&gt;
-</pre></div>
-</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In the above example, a default <code>region</code> element and <code>region</code>
-attribute are implied. In addition, a <code>layout</code> container element is implied for
-the implied <code>region</code> element.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-region-layout-step-1"></a>9.3.2 Intermediate Synchronic Document Construction</h4><p>For the purposes of performing presentation processing, the active time
-duration of a <em>Document Instance</em> is divided into a sequence of time coordinates where at
-each time coordinate, some element becomes temporally active or inactive,
-then, at each such time coordinate, a <em>Document Instance</em> is mapped from its original, source
-form, <em>DOC<sub>source</sub></em> , 
-to an intermediate
-synchronic document form,
-<em>DOC<sub>inter</sub></em> , according to the
-<span class="strong">[construct intermediate document]</span> procedure:</p><dl><dt class="label">[construct intermediate document]</dt><dd><ol class="enumar"><li><p>for each temporally active region <em>R</em>, replicate the
-sub-tree
- of <em>DOC<sub>source</sub></em>
-headed by the <code>body</code> element;</p></li><li><p>evaluating this sub-tree in a postorder traversal, prune elements if they
-are not a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element, if they are temporally inactive, if they are empty,
-or if they aren't associated with region <em>R</em> according to the
-<span class="strong">[associate region]</span> procedure;</p></li><li><p>if the pruned sub-tree is non-empty, then reparent it to the <em>R</em>
-element;</p></li><li><p>finally, after completing the above steps, prune the original <code>body</code>
-element from the intermediate document, then prune all <code>region</code>,
-<code>begin</code>, <code>end</code>, and <code>dur</code> attributes, which are no
-longer semantically relevant;</p></li></ol><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In this section, the term <em>prune</em>, when used in reference to
-an element, means that the element is to be removed from its parent's children,
-which, in turn, implies that the descendants of the pruned element will no longer
-be descendants of the element's parent. When <em>prune</em> is used in
-reference to an attribute, it means that attribute is to be removed from its
-associated (owning) element node.</p></div></dd><dt class="label">[associate region]</dt><dd><p>A <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element is associated with a region according
-to the following ordered rules, where the first rule satisfied
-is used and remaining rules are skipped:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>if the element specifies a <a href="#layout-attribute-region"><code>region</code></a> attribute,
-then the element is associated with the region referenced by that
-attribute;</p></li><li><p>if some ancestor of that element specifies a <a href="#layout-attribute-region"><code>region</code></a> attribute,
-then the element is associated with the region referenced by the most
-immediate ancestor that specifies this attribute;</p></li><li><p> if the element contains a descendant element that
-specifies a <a href="#layout-attribute-region"><code>region</code></a> attribute,
-then the element is associated with the region referenced by that
-attribute;</p></li><li><p>if a default region was implied (due to the absence of any
-<a href="#layout-vocabulary-region"><code>region</code></a> element),
-then the element is associated with the default region;</p></li><li><p>the element is not associated with any region.</p></li></ol></dd></dl><p>The result of performing the processing described above will be a sequence of
-<em>N</em> intermediate  synchronic
-<em>Document Instances</em>,
-<em>DOC<sub><span>inter<sub>0</sub></span></sub></em> …
-<em>DOC<sub><span>inter<sub>N−1</sub></span></sub></em>.</p><div class="note" id="semantics-smooth-scrolling-recommendation"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>Where an implementation is able to detect significant similarity between two
-adjacent synchronic <em>Document Instances</em>,
-<em>DOC<sub><span>inter<sub>N</sub></span></sub></em>
-<em>DOC<sub><span>inter<sub>N−1</sub></span></sub></em>,
-then it is preferred that the implementation make the transition between
-presenting the two instances as smooth as possible, e.g., as described
-by <a href="#cea608c">[CEA-608-C]</a>, § C.3.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
-<h4><a id="semantics-region-layout-step-2"></a>9.3.3 Synchronic Flow Processing</h4><p>Subsequent to performing a temporal (synchronic) slice and subsequent
-remapping of regionally selected content hierarchy, the resulting intermediate
-synchronic document is subjected to a flow transformation step that produces 
-a rooted flow object tree represented as an XSL FO document instance as defined by <a href="#xsl11">[XSL 1.1]</a>,
-and semantically extended by TTML specific style properties that have no XSL
-FO counterpart.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>In this section, the use of XSL FO is intended to be conceptual only, employed
-solely for the purpose of defining the normative presentation semantics of
-TTML. An actual implementation of this algorithm is not required to create or process
-XSL-FO representations. In particular, it is possible to implement these semantics
-using alternative presentation models, such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).</p></div><p>Each intermediate synchronic document produced by <a href="#semantics-region-layout-step-1"><b>9.3.2 Intermediate Synchronic Document Construction</b></a> is mapped 
-to an XSL FO document instance, <em>F</em>, as follows:</p><ol class="enumar"><li><p>perform the following ordered sub-steps to create anonymous spans:</p><ol class="enumla"><li><p>for each significant text node in a <a href="#element-vocab-type-content">Content</a> element,
-synthesize an anonymous span to enclose the text node, substituting
-the new anonymous span for the original text node child in its sibling
-and parent hierarchy;</p></li><li><p>for each contiguous sequence of anonymous spans, replace the
-sequence with a single anonymous span which contains a sequence of
-text nodes representing the individual text node children of the
-original sequence of anonymous spans;</p></li><li><p>for each span element whose child is a single anonymous span,
-replace the anonymous span with its sequence of child text
-nodes;</p></li></ol></li><li><p>resolve styles according to <a href="#semantics-style-resolution-process-overall"><b>8.4.4.4 Style Resolution Process</b></a>;</p></li><li><p>map the <code>tt</code> element to an <code>fo:root</code> element, populated
-initi