Merge
authorPat Hayes <phayes@ihmc.us>
Thu, 24 Oct 2013 12:25:46 -0500
changeset 1166 d3a5c33e0ec6
parent 1165 0122b0cefba2 (current diff)
parent 1164 b57ef35c741d (diff)
child 1167 8bf3e2a5d804
Merge
rdf-mt/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/drafts/turtle/Overview.html	Thu Oct 24 12:25:46 2013 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,1778 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr" typeof="bibo:Document " about="" property="dcterms:language" content="en" version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0">
+<head>
+	<title>Turtle</title>
+	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
+	<style type="text/css"></style><style type="text/css"></style>
+	
+    
+	
+    
+    <style type="text/css">
+    /* Style Turtle script blocks to be visable */
+    pre.example script {
+        display:block;
+    }
+    .separated { border-collapse:collapse; }
+    .separated thead tr th { border:1px solid black; padding: .2em; }
+    .separated tbody tr td { border:1px solid black; text-align: center; }
+    .separated tbody tr td.r { text-align: right; padding: .5em; }
+    .grammar td { font-family: monospace; vertical-align: top; }
+    .grammar-literal { color: gray;}
+    .atrisk {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #ffc;
+}
+
+/* .atrisk::before */
+.atrisktext
+{
+    /* content:    "Feature At Risk"; */
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+    </style> 
+	
+    <style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
+table.simple {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- EXAMPLES --- */
+div.example-title {
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.example-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;   
+}
+aside.example, div.example, div.illegal-example {
+    padding: 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+div.illegal-example { color: red }
+div.illegal-example p { color: black }
+aside.example, div.example {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+    border-color: #e0cb52;
+    background: #fcfaee;    
+}
+
+aside.example div.example {
+    border-left-width: .1em;
+    border-color: #999;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+aside.example div.example div.example-title {
+    color: #999;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
+div.note-title { color: #2b2; }
+div.issue-title span, div.note-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;
+}
+div.note, div.issue {
+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+.note > p:first-child, .issue > p:first-child { margin-top: 0 }
+.issue, .note {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+}
+div.issue, div.note {
+    padding: 1em 1.2em 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+span.note, span.issue { padding: .1em .5em .15em; }
+
+.issue {
+    border-color: #e05252;
+    background: #fbe9e9;
+}
+.note {
+    border-color: #52e052;
+    background: #e9fbe9;
+}
+
+
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--><script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8" async="" data-requirecontext="_" data-requiremodule="ui/save-html" src="https://raw.github.com/darobin/respec/gh-pages/js/ui/save-html.js"></script></head>
+
+    <body style="zoom: 1;" class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument"><div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">Turtle</h1>
+  
+    <h2 property="bibo:subtitle" id="subtitle">Terse <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Triple Language</h2>
+  
+  <h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2013-01-23T08:00:00.000Z" id="w3c-editor-s-draft-23-january-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Editor's Draft <time class="dt-published" datetime="2013-01-23">23 January 2013</time></h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a class="u-url" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      
+    
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Eric Prud" hommeaux'="" href="http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/">Eric Prud'hommeaux</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a></span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gavin Carothers" href="http://gavin.carothers.name/">Gavin Carothers</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://lexmachina.com/">Lex Machina, Inc</a></span>
+</dd>
+
+    
+      <dt>Authors:</dt>
+      <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="David Beckett" href="http://www.dajobe.org/">David Beckett</a></span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Tim Berners-Lee" href="http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/">Tim Berners-Lee</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a></span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Eric Prud" hommeaux'="" href="http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/">Eric Prud'hommeaux</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a></span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gavin Carothers" href="http://gavin.carothers.name/">Gavin Carothers</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://lexmachina.com/">Lex Machina, Inc</a></span>
+</dd>
+
+    
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> ©
+        2008-2013
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), 
+        
+        All Rights Reserved.
+        
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        
+          <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a>
+        
+        rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div>
+	<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">Abstract</h2>
+			<p>The Resource Description Framework
+			(<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr>) is a 
+			general-purpose language for representing information in the Web.</p>
+
+			<p>This document defines a textual syntax for <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> called Turtle
+			that allows an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph to be completely written in a compact and
+			natural text form, with abbreviations for common usage patterns and
+			datatypes.  Turtle provides levels of compatibility with the existing
+			<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases/#ntriples">N-Triples</a>
+			format as well as the triple pattern syntax of the
+			<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/"><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr></a>
+			<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
+			</p>
+	</section><section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+    
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft.
+          
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          
+          
+            All comments are welcome.</p>
+          
+        
+          <p>
+            Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+             
+                <a id="sotd_patent" about="" rel="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+            
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents"><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-intro" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#language-features" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Turtle Language</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#simple-triples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Simple Triples</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#predicate-lists" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Predicate Lists</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#object-lists" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Object Lists</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-iri" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Literals</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#turtle-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5.1 </span>Quoted Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#abbrev" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5.2 </span>Numbers</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#booleans" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5.3 </span>Booleans</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#BNodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.6 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Blank Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#unlabeled-bnodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Nesting Unlabeled Blank Nodes in Turtle</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Collections</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-examples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-diff-sparql" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Turtle compared to <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conformance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Conformance</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-mime" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Media Type and Content Encoding</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-grammar" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Turtle Grammar</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-grammar-ws" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>White Space</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-grammar-comments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Comments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-iri-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.3 </span>IRI References</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-escapes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.4 </span>Escape Sequences</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-grammar-grammar" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.5 </span>Grammar</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-parsing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Parsing</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-parsing-state" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.1 </span>Parser State</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-parsing-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.2 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Term Constructors</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-parsing-triples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.3 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Triples Constructors</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-parsing-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.4 </span>Parsing Example</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#in-html" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Embedding Turtle in HTML documents</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#xhtml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>XHTML</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#in-html-parsing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.2 </span>Parsing Turtle in HTML</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-mediaReg" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Internet Media Type, File Extension and Macintosh File Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-acks" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-changelog" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D. </span>Changes since the last publication of this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+
+    
+	
+	<section id="sec-intro" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+			<!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-intro"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+			<p>
+			  This document defines Turtle, the Terse <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Triple Language, a concrete syntax for <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr></a> ([<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]).
+			</p>
+
+			<p>
+			  A Turtle document is a textual representations of an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph. The following Turtle document describes the relationship between Green Goblin and Spiderman. 
+			</p>
+			<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@base &lt;http://example.org/&gt; .
[email protected] rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
[email protected] rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
[email protected] rel: &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/&gt; .
+
+&lt;#green-goblin&gt;
+    rel:enemyOf &lt;#spiderman&gt; ;
+    a foaf:Person ;    # in the context of the Marvel universe
+    foaf:name "Green Goblin" .
+
+&lt;#spiderman&gt;
+    rel:enemyOf &lt;#green-goblin&gt; ;
+    a foaf:Person ;
+    foaf:name "Spiderman", "Человек-паук"@ru .</span></pre></div>
+			<p>
+			  This example introduces many of features of the Turtle language:
+<a href="#relative-iris">@base and Relative IRIs</a>,
+<a href="#turtleIRIs">@prefix and prefixed names</a>,
+<a href="#predicate-lists">predicate lists</a> separated by '<code>;</code>',
+<a href="#object-lists">objects lists</a> separated by '<code>,</code>',
+the token <code><a href="#IRIs">a</a></code>,
+and <a href="#literals">literals</a>.
+			</p>
+
+    		<p>
+			  The Turtle grammar for <a href="#grammar-production-triples"><code>triples</code></a> is a subset of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/"><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> Query Language for <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr></a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>] grammar for <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rTriplesBlock"><code>TriplesBlock</code></a>.
+			  The two grammars share production and terminal names where possible.
+			</p>
+
+			<p>
+			  The construction of an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph from a Turtle document is defined in <a href="#sec-grammar" class="sectionRef">Turtle Grammar</a> and <a href="#sec-parsing" class="sectionRef">Parsing</a>.
+			</p>
+
+	</section>
+	<section id="language-features" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+		<!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_language-features"><span class="secno">2. </span>Turtle Language</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+		<p>A Turtle document allows writing down an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph in a compact textual form. An <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph is made up of <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-rdf-triple">triples</a> consisting of a subject, predicate and object.</p>
+		<p>Comments may be given after a '<code>#</code>' that is not part of another lexical token and continue to the end of the line.</p>
+		<section id="simple-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+			<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_simple-triples"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Simple Triples</h3>
+			<p>The simplest triple statement is a sequence of (subject, predicate, object) terms, separated by whitespace and terminated by '<code>.</code>' after each triple.</p>
+			<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span></div><pre class="example"><span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; .
+			</span></pre></div>
+		</section>
+		<section id="predicate-lists" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+			<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_predicate-lists"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Predicate Lists</h3>
+			<p>Often the same subject will be referenced by a number of predicates. The <a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">predicateObjectList production</a> matches a series of predicates and objects, separated by '<code>;</code>', following a subject.
+			  This expresses a series of <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Triples with that subject and each predicate and object allocated to one triple.
+			  Thus, the '<code>;</code>' symbol is used to repeat the subject of triples that vary only in predicate and object <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> terms.</p>
+			  <p>These two examples are equivalent ways of writing the triples about Spiderman.</p>
+   			<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span></div><pre class="example"><span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; ;
+				&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman" .
+			</span></pre></div>
+ 			<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span></div><pre class="example"><span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman" .
+			</span></pre></div>
+		</section>
+		<section id="object-lists" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+			<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_object-lists"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Object Lists</h3>
+			<p>
+			  As with predicates often objects are repeated with the same subject and predicate. The <a href="#grammar-production-objectList">objectList production</a> matches a series of objects separated by '<code>,</code>' following a predicate.
+			  This expresses a series of <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Triples with the corresponding subject and predicate and each object allocated to one triple.
+			  Thus, the '<code>,</code>' symbol is used to repeat the subject and predicate of triples that only differ in the object <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> term.</p>
+			  <p>These two examples  are equivalent ways of writing Spiderman's name in two languages.</p><p>
+ 			</p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span></div><pre class="example"><span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman", "Человек-паук"@ru .
+			</span></pre></div>
+ 			<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span></div><pre class="example"><span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman" .
+&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Человек-паук"@ru .
+			</span></pre></div>
+
+				</section>
+
+			<p>
+			  There are three types of <em><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Term</em> defined in <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Concepts:
+			  <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">IRIs</a> (Internationalized Resource Identifiers),
+			  <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">literals</a> and
+			  <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">blank nodes</a>. Turtle provides a number
+			  of ways of writing each.
+			</p>
+
+			<section id="sec-iri" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-iri"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>IRIs</h3>
+
+				<p>
+			   		<a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">IRIs</a> may be written as relative or absolute IRIs or prefixed names. 
+				  	Relative and absolute IRIs are enclosed in '&lt;' and '&gt;' and may contain <a href="#numeric">numeric escape sequences</a> (described below). For example <code>&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt;</code>.
+				</p>
+				<p>Relative IRIs like <code>&lt;#green-goblin&gt;</code> are resolved relative to the current base IRI. A new base IRI can be defined using the '<code>@base</code>' directive. Specifics of this operation are defined in <a href="#sec-iri-references" class="sectionRef sec-ref">section <span class="secno">6.3</span> <span class="sec-title">IRI References</span></a> </p>
+				<p>
+				  The token '<code>a</code>' in the predicate position of a Turtle triple represents the IRI <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</code> .
+				</p>
+
+				<p>
+				  A <em id="prefixed-name">prefixed name</em> is a prefix label and a local part, separated by a colon ":".
+				  A prefixed name is turned into an IRI by concatenating the IRI associated with the prefix and the local part. The '<code>@prefix</code>' directive associates a prefix label with an IRI.
+				  Subsequent '<code>@prefix</code>' directives may re-map the same prefix label. </p>
+
+				  <p>
+				  	To write <code>http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf</code> using a prefixed name: </p>
+				  	<ol>
+				  		<li>Define a prefix label for the vocabulary IRI <code>http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/</code> as <code>rel</code>
+			  			</li><li>Then write <code>rel:enemyOf</code> which is equivalent to writing <code>&lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt;</code></li>
+			  		</ol>
+
+				  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix rel: &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; rel:enemyOf &lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; .
+				  </span></pre></div>
+
+
+				<div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_1"><span>Note</span></div><div class="">
+				  <p>
+				    Prefixed names are a superset of XML QNames.
+				    They differ in that the local part of prefixed names may include:
+				  </p>
+				  <ul>
+				    <li>leading digits, e.g. <code>leg:3032571</code> or <code>isbn13:9780136019701</code></li>
+				    <li>non leading colons, e.g. <code>og:video:height</code></li>
+				    <li><a href="#reserved">reserved character escape sequences</a>, e.g. <code>wgs:lat\-long</code></li>
+				  </ul>
+				</div></div>
+
+				<p>The following Turtle document contains examples of all the different ways of writing IRIs in Turtle.</p>
+
+							<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span></div><pre class="example"><span># A triple with all absolute IRIs
+&lt;http://one.example/subject1&gt; &lt;http://one.example/predicate1&gt; &lt;http://one.example/object1&gt; .
+
[email protected] &lt;http://one.example/&gt; .
+&lt;subject2&gt; &lt;predicate2&gt; &lt;object2&gt; .     # relative IRIs, e.g. http://one.example/subject2
+
[email protected] p: &lt;http://two.example/&gt; .
+p:subject3 p:predicate3 p:object3 .     # prefixed name, e.g. http://two.example/subject3
+
[email protected] p: &lt;path/&gt; .                    # prefix p: now stands for http://one.example/path/
+p:subject4 p:predicate4 p:object4 .     # prefixed name, e.g. http://one.example/path/subject4
+
[email protected] : &lt;http://another.example/&gt; .    # empty prefix
+:subject5 :predicate5 :object5 .        # prefixed name, e.g. http://another.example/subject5
+
+:subject6 a :subject7 .                 # same as :subject6 &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt; :subject7 .
+
+&lt;http://伝言.example/?user=أكرم&amp;amp;channel=R%26D&gt; a :subject8 . # a multi-script subject IRI .
+</span></pre></div>
+	</section>
+
+
+
+
+			<section id="literals" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_literals"><span class="secno">2.5 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Literals</h3>
+
+				<p><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">Literals</a> are used to identify values such as strings, numbers, dates.</p>
+
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; foaf:name "Green Goblin" .
+
+&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; foaf:name "Spiderman" .</span></pre></div>
+
+
+				<section id="turtle-literals" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				  <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_turtle-literals"><span class="secno">2.5.1 </span>Quoted Literals</h4>
+
+				<p>
+				  Quoted Literals (Grammar production <a href="#grammar-production-RDFLiteral">RDFLiteral</a>) have a lexical form followed by a language tag, a datatype IRI, or neither.
+				  The representation of the lexical form consists of an initial delimiter, e.g. <code>"</code> (<span class="codepoint">U+0022</span>), a sequence of permitted characters or <a href="#numeric">numeric escape sequence</a> or <a href="#string">string escape sequence</a>, and a final delimiter.
+				  The corresponding <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-lexical-form"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> lexical form</a> is the characters between the delimiters, after processing any escape sequences.
+				  If present, the <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-language-tagged-string">language tag</a> is preceded by a '<code>@</code>' (<span class="codepoint">U+0040</span>).
+				  If there is no language tag, there may be a <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-datatype-URI">datatype IRI</a>, preceeded by '<code>^^</code>' (<span class="codepoint">U+005E</span> <span class="codepoint">U+005E</span>). The datatype IRI in Turtle may be written using either an <a href="#sec-iri">absolute IRI</a>, a <a href="#sec-iri">relative IRI</a>, or <a href="#prefixed-name">prefixed name</a>. If there is no datatype IRI and no language tag, the datatype is <code>xsd:string</code>.
+				</p>
+				<p>'<code>\</code>' (<span class="codepoint">U+005C</span>) may not appear in any quoted literal except as part of an escape sequence. Other restrictions depend on the delimiter:</p>
+				<ul>
+					<li>Literals delimited by <code>'</code> (<span class="codepoint">U+0027</span>), may not contain the characters <code>'</code>, <code title="LINE FEED"><sub>LF</sub></code> (<span class="codepoint">U+000A</span>), or <code title="CARRIAGE RETURN"><sub>CR</sub></code> (<span class="codepoint">U+000D</span>).
+					</li><li>Literals delimited by <code>"</code>, may not contain the characters <code>"</code>, <code title="LINE FEED"><sub>LF</sub></code>, or <code title="CARRIAGE RETURN"><sub>CR</sub></code>.
+					</li><li>Literals delimited by <code>'''</code> may not contain the sequence of characters <code>'''</code>.
+					</li><li>Literals delimited by <code>"""</code> may not contain the sequence of characters <code>"""</code>.
+				</li></ul>
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
[email protected] show: &lt;http://example.org/vocab/show/&gt; .
+
+show:218 rdfs:label "That Seventies Show"^^xsd:string .            # literal with XML Schema string datatype
+show:218 rdfs:label "That Seventies Show"^^&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&gt; . # same as above
+show:218 rdfs:label "That Seventies Show" .                                            # same again
+show:218 show:localName "That Seventies Show"@en .                 # literal with a language tag
+show:218 show:localName 'Cette Série des Années Soixante-dix'@fr . # literal delimited by single quote
+show:218 show:localName "Cette Série des Années Septante"@fr-be .  # literal with a region subtag
+show:218 show:blurb '''This is a multi-line                        # literal with embedded new lines and quotes
+literal with many quotes (""""")
+and up to two sequential apostrophes ('').''' .
+</span></pre></div>
+				</section>
+				<section id="abbrev" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_abbrev"><span class="secno">2.5.2 </span>Numbers</h4>
+				<p>Numbers can be written like other literals with lexical form and datatype (e.g. <code>"-5.0"^^xsd:decimal</code>). Turtle has a shorthand syntax for writing integer values, arbitrary precision decimal values, and double precision floating point values.</p>
+				<table class="separated">
+					<thead>
+						<tr>
+							<th>Data Type</th>
+							<th>Abbreviated</th>
+							<th>Lexical</th>
+							<th>Description</th>
+						</tr>
+					</thead>
+					<tbody>
+						<tr>
+							<td><strong>xsd:integer</strong></td>
+							<td><code>-5</code></td>
+							<td><code>"-5"^^xsd:integer</code></td>
+							<td>Integer values may be written as an optional sign and a series of digits. Integers match the regular expression "<code>[+-]?[0-9]+</code>".</td>
+						</tr>
+						<tr>
+							<td><strong>xsd:decimal</strong></td>
+							<td><code>-5.0</code></td>
+							<td><code>"-5.0"^^xsd:decimal</code></td>
+							<td>Arbitrary-precision decimals may be written as an optional sign, zero or more digits, a decimal point and one or more digits. Decimals match the regular expression "<code>[+-]?[0-9]*\.[0-9]+</code>".</td>
+						</tr>
+						<tr>
+							<td><strong>xsd:double</strong></td>
+							<td><code>4.2E9</code></td>
+							<td><code>"4.2E9"^^xsd:double</code></td>
+							<td>Double-precision floating point values may be written as an optionally signed mantissa with an optional decimal point, the letter "e" or "E", and an optionally signed integer exponent. The exponent matches the regular expression "<code>[+-]?[0-9]+</code>" and the mantissa one of these regular expressions: "<code>[+-]?[0-9]+\.[0-9]+</code>", "<code>[+-]?\.[0-9]+</code>" or "<code>[+-]?[0-9]</code>".</td>
+						</tr>
+					</tbody>
+				</table>
+
+<!-- 				<table class="separated">
+				  <caption style="font-weight: bold;">Example numeric representations:</caption>
+				  <tbody>
+				    <tr><th><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#integer">xsd:integer</a></th>
+				    <td><code>-5</code></td> <td><code>0</code></td> <td><code>1</code></td> <td><code>010</code></td> <td><code>+10</code></td></tr>
+				    <tr><th><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#decimal">xsd:decimal</a></th>
+				    <td><code>-5.0</code></td> <td><code>.0</code></td> <td><code>1.234567890</code></td> <td><code>010.0</code></td> <td><code>+10.0</code></td></tr>
+				    <tr><th><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#double">xsd:double</a></th>
+				    <td><code>-.5e1</code></td> <td><code>0E0</code></td> <td><code>1.234567890E0</code></td> <td><code>01e1</code></td> <td><code>+10e0</code></td></tr>
+				  </tbody>
+				</table>
+ -->
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/elements&gt; .                                                                              
+&lt;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helium&gt;                                                                                  
+    :atomicNumber 2 ;               # xsd:integer                                                                      
+    :atomicMass 4.002602 ;          # xsd:decimal                                                                      
+    :specificGravity 1.663E-4 .     # xsd:double                                                                       
+				</span></pre></div>
+			</section>
+			<section id="booleans">
+				<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_booleans"><span class="secno">2.5.3 </span>Booleans</h4>
+				<p>Boolean values may be written as either '<code>true</code>' or '<code>false</code>' (case-sensitive) and represent <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> literals with the datatype <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#boolean">xsd:boolean</a>.</p>
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stats&gt; .
+&lt;http://somecountry.example/census2007&gt;
+    :isLandlocked false .           # xsd:boolean</span></pre></div>
+
+			</section>
+			</section>
+
+			<section id="BNodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_BNodes"><span class="secno">2.6 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Blank Nodes</h3>
+				<p>
+				  <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> blank nodes</a> in Turtle are expressed as <code>_:</code> followed by a blank node label which is a series of name characters.
+				  The characters in the label are built upon <a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">PN_CHARS_BASE</a>, liberalized as follows:
+				</p>
+				<ul>
+				  <li>The characters <code>_</code> and digits may appear anywhere in a blank node label.</li>
+				  <li>The character <code>.</code> may appear anywhere except the first or last character.</li>
+				  <li>The characters <code>-</code>, <code>U+00B7</code>, <code>U+0300</code> to <code>U+036F</code> and <code>U+203F</code> to <code>U+2040</code> are permitted anywhere except the first character.</li>
+				</ul>
+				<p>
+				  A fresh <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> blank node is allocated for each unique blank node label in a document.
+				  Repeated use of the same blank node label identifies the same <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> blank node.
+				</p>
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 13</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+_:alice foaf:knows _:bob .
+_:bob foaf:knows _:alice .
+</span></pre></div>
+	</section>
+				<section id="unlabeled-bnodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				  <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_unlabeled-bnodes"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Nesting Unlabeled Blank Nodes in Turtle</h3>
+				  <p>
+				    In Turtle, fresh <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> blank nodes are also allocated when matching the production <a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a> and the terminal <a href="#grammar-production-ANON">ANON</a>.
+				    Both of these may appear in the <a href="#grammar-production-subject">subject</a> or <a href="#grammar-production-object">object</a> position of a triple (see the Turtle Grammar).
+				    That subject or object is a fresh <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> blank node.
+				    This blank node also serves as the subject of the triples produced by matching the <a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">predicateObjectList</a> production embedded in a blankNodePropertyList.
+				    The generation of these triples is described in <a href="#predicate-lists">Predicate  Lists</a>.
+				    Blank nodes are also allocated for <a href="#collections">collections</a> described below.
+				  </p>
+				  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 14</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+# Someone knows someone else, who has the name "Bob".
+[] foaf:knows [ foaf:name "Bob" ] .
+</span></pre></div>
+
+				  <p>
+				    The Turtle grammar allows <a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a>s to be nested.
+				    In this case, each inner <code>[</code> establishes a new subject blank node which reverts to the outer node at the <code>]</code>, and serves as the current subject for <a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">predicate object lists</a>.
+				  </p>
+				  <p>
+			    The use of <a href="predicateObjectList">predicateObjectList</a> within a <a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a> is a common idiom for representing a series of properties of a node.
+			  </p>
+		  <div style="float:left;">
+		    <p class="idlAttrName" style="padding-left:2em;">Abbreviated:</p>
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 15</span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+[ foaf:name "Alice" ] foaf:knows [
+    foaf:name "Bob" ;
+    foaf:knows [
+        foaf:name "Eve" ] ;
+    foaf:mbox &lt;[email protected]&gt; ] .
+				</span></pre></div>
+			      </div>
+				  <div style="float:left;">
+				    <p class="idlAttrName" style="padding-left:2em;">Corresponding simple triples:</p>
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 16</span></div><pre class="example"><span>
+_:a &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Alice" .
+_:a &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows&gt; _:b .
+_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Bob" .
+_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows&gt; _:c .
+_:c &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Eve" .
+_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox&gt; &lt;[email protected]&gt; .
+				</span></pre></div>
+			        </div>
+				<div style="clear:both;"></div>
+
+				</section>
+				<section id="collections" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+				<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_collections"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Collections</h3>
+
+				<p>
+				  <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> provides a <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/#collections">Collection</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>] structure for lists of <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> nodes.
+				  The Turtle syntax for Collections is a possibly empty list of <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> terms enclosed by <code>()</code>.
+				  This collection represents an <code>rdf:first</code>/<code>rdf:rest</code> list structure with the sequence of objects of the <code>rdf:first</code> statements being the order of the terms enclosed by <code>()</code>.
+				</p>
+
+				<p>
+				  The <code>(…)</code> syntax <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> appear in the <a href="#grammar-production-subject">subject</a> or <a href="#grammar-production-object">object</a> position of a triple (see the Turtle Grammar).
+				  The blank node at the head of the list is the subject or object of the containing triple.
+				</p>
+
+				<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 17</span></div><pre class="example"><span>
[email protected] : &lt;http://example.org/foo&gt; .
+# the object of this triple is the RDF collection blank node
+:subject :predicate ( :a :b :c ) .
+
+# an empty collection value - rdf:nil
+:subject :predicate2 () .
+				</span></pre></div>
+
+			</section>
+	</section>
+	        <section id="sec-examples" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-examples"><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+          <p>This example is a Turtle translation of 
+          <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/#example7">example 7</a>
+          in the
+          <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr>/XML Syntax specification</a>
+          (<a href="examples/example1.ttl">example1.ttl</a>):
+          </p>
+
+          <div><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 18</span></div><pre class="example">@prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&gt; .
[email protected] ex: &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar&gt;
+  dc:title "RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)" ;
+  ex:editor [
+    ex:fullname "Dave Beckett";
+    ex:homePage &lt;http://purl.org/net/dajobe/&gt;
+  ] .</pre></div></div>
+
+
+          <p>An example of an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> collection of two literals.</p>
+          <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 19</span></div><pre class="example"><span>
[email protected] : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+:a :b ( "apple" "banana" ) .
+          </span></pre></div>
+          <p>which is short for (<a href="examples/example2.ttl">example2.ttl</a>):</p>
+
+          <div><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 20</span></div><pre class="example">@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
[email protected] rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+:a :b
+  [ rdf:first "apple";
+    rdf:rest [ rdf:first "banana";
+               rdf:rest rdf:nil ]
+  ] .</pre></div></div>
+
+          <p>An example of two identical triples containing literal objects
+          containing newlines, written in plain and long literal forms.
+          The line breaks in this example are LINE FEED characters (U+000A).
+          (<a href="examples/example3.ttl">example3.ttl</a>):</p>
+
+          <div><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 21</span></div><pre class="example">@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+
+:a :b "The first line\nThe second line\n  more" .
+
+:a :b """The first line
+The second line
+  more""" .</pre></div></div>
+
+          <p>As indicated by the grammar, a <a href="#grammar-production-collection">collection</a> can be either a <a href="#grammar-production-subject">subject</a> or an <a href="#grammar-production-object">object</a>. This subject or object will be the novel blank node for the first object, if the collection has one or more objects, or <code>rdf:nil</code> if the collection is empty.</p>
+
+          <p>For example,</p>
+
+          <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 22</span></div><pre class="example untested"><span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+(1 2.0 3E1) :p "w" .</span></pre></div>
+
+          <p>is syntactic sugar for (noting that the blank nodes <code>b0</code>, <code>b1</code> and <code>b2</code> do not occur anywhere else in the <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph):</p>
+
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 23</span></div><pre class="example untested"><span>@prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+    _:b0  rdf:first  1 ;
+          rdf:rest   _:b1 .
+    _:b1  rdf:first  2.0 ;
+          rdf:rest   _:b2 .
+    _:b2  rdf:first  3E1 ;
+          rdf:rest   rdf:nil .
+    _:b0  :p         "w" . </span></pre></div>
+
+          <p><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> collections can be nested and can involve other syntactic forms:</p>
+
+          <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 24</span></div><pre class="example untested"><span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+(1 [:p :q] ( 2 ) ) .</span></pre></div>
+
+          <p>is syntactic sugar for:</p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 25</span></div><pre class="example untested"><span>@prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+    _:b0  rdf:first  1 ;
+          rdf:rest   _:b1 .
+    _:b1  rdf:first  _:b2 .
+    _:b2  :p         :q .
+    _:b1  rdf:rest   _:b3 .
+    _:b3  rdf:first  _:b4 .
+    _:b4  rdf:first  2 ;
+          rdf:rest   rdf:nil .
+    _:b3  rdf:rest   rdf:nil .</span></pre></div>
+        </section>        
+
+      <section id="sec-diff-sparql" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-diff-sparql"><span class="secno">4. </span>Turtle compared to <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr></h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+      <p>The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/"><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> Query Language for <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr></a> (<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr>) [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>] uses a Turtle style syntax for its <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rTriplesBlock">TriplesBlock production</a>.
+      This production differs from the Turtle language in that:
+      </p>
+
+      <ol>
+    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rGraphTerm"><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> permits <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Literals</a> as the subject of <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triples.</li>
+
+    <li><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> permits variables (<code>?</code><em>name</em> or <code>$</code><em>name</em>) in any part of the triple of the form.</li>
+    <li>Turtle allows <a href="#grammar-production-directive">prefix and base declarations</a> anywhere outside of a triple. In <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr>, they are only allowed in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rPrologue">Prologue</a> (at the start of the <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> query).</li>
+    <li><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> uses case insensitive keywords, except for '<code>a</code>'. Turtle's prefix and base declarations are case sensitive.</li>
+    <li>'<code>true</code>' and '<code>false</code>' are case insensitive in <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> and case sensitive in Turtle. <code>TrUe</code> is not a valid boolean value in Turtle.</li>
+
+      </ol>
+
+      <p>For further information see the
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#QSynIRI">Syntax for IRIs</a>
+      and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#grammar"><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> Grammar</a>
+      sections of the <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> query document [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>].
+      </p>
+      </section>
+        <section id="conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_conformance"><span class="secno">5. </span>Conformance</h2>
+<p>
+  As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples,
+  and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is
+  normative.
+</p>
+<p>
+  The key words <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">MUST NOT</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED">REQUIRED</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">SHOULD NOT</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">RECOMMENDED</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em>,
+  and <em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL">OPTIONAL</em> in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].
+</p>
+
+        	<p>This specification defines conformance criteria for:</p>
+        			<ul>
+        				<li>Turtle documents
+    					</li><li>Turtle parsers
+					</li></ul>
+			<p>A conforming <strong>Turtle document</strong> is a Unicode string that conforms to the grammar and additional constraints defined in <a href="#sec-grammar" class="sectionRef sec-ref">section <span class="secno">6.</span> <span class="sec-title">Turtle Grammar</span></a>, starting with the <a href="#grammar-production-turtleDoc"><code>turtleDoc</code> production</a>. A Turtle document serializes an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Graph.</p>
+
+			<p>A conforming <strong>Turtle parser</strong> is a system capable of reading Turtle documents on behalf of an application. It makes the serialized <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> dataset, as defined in <a href="#sec-parsing" class="sectionRef sec-ref">section <span class="secno">7.</span> <span class="sec-title">Parsing</span></a>, available to the application, usually through some form of API.</p>
+
+			<p>The IRI that identifies the Turtle language is: <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/formats/Turtle</code></p>          
+
+			<div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_2"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">This specification does not define how Turtle parsers handle non-conforming input documents.</p></div>
+	        <section id="sec-mime" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+	          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-mime"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Media Type and Content Encoding</h3>
+	          
+	          <p>The media type of Turtle is <code>text/turtle</code>.
+	          The content encoding of Turtle content is always UTF-8. Charset 
+	          parameters on the mime type are required until such time as the 
+	          <code>text/</code> media type tree permits UTF-8 to be sent without a 
+	          charset parameter. See <a href="#sec-mediaReg" class="sectionRef sec-ref">section <span class="secno">B.</span> <span class="sec-title">Internet Media Type, File Extension and Macintosh File Type</span></a> for the media type 
+	          registration form.
+	          </p>
+	        </section>
+        </section>
+
+        <section id="sec-grammar" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-grammar"><span class="secno">6. </span>Turtle Grammar</h2>
+
+          <p>A Turtle document is a
+          Unicode[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>]
+          character string encoded in UTF-8.
+          Unicode characters only in the range U+0000 to U+10FFFF inclusive are
+          allowed.
+          </p>
+          <section id="sec-grammar-ws" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+            <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-grammar-ws"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>White Space</h3>
+			<p>White space (production <a href="#grammar-production-WS">WS</a>) is used to separate two terminals which would otherwise be (mis-)recognized as one terminal. Rule names below in capitals indicate where white space is significant; these form a possible choice of terminals for constructing a Turtle parser.</p>
+
+			<p>White space is significant in the production <a href="#grammar-production-String">String</a>.</p>
+          </section>
+          <section id="sec-grammar-comments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+            <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-grammar-comments"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Comments</h3>
+
+            <p>Comments in Turtle take the form of '#', outside an
+            <a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF</a> or <a href="#grammar-production-String">String</a>,
+            and continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A)
+            or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment
+            marker.  Comments are treated as white space.
+
+            </p>
+          </section>
+          <section id="sec-iri-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          	<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-iri-references"><span class="secno">6.3 </span>IRI References</h3>
+  					<p>
+					  Relative IRIs are resolved with base IRIs as per <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt" class="norm">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a> [<a href="#rfc3986">RFC3986</a>] using only the basic algorithm in section 5.2.
+					  Neither Syntax-Based Normalization nor Scheme-Based Normalization (described in sections 6.2.2 and 6.2.3 of RFC3986) are performed.
+					  Characters additionally allowed in IRI references are treated in the same way that unreserved characters are treated in URI references, per section 6.5 of <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt" class="norm">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<a href="#rfc3987">RFC3987</a>].
+					</p>
+					<p>
+					  The <code>@base</code> directive defines the Base IRI used to resolve relative IRIs per RFC3986 section 5.1.1, "Base URI Embedded in Content".
+					  Section 5.1.2, "Base URI from the Encapsulating Entity" defines how the In-Scope Base IRI may come from an encapsulating document, such as a SOAP envelope with an xml:base directive or a mime multipart document with a Content-Location header.
+					  The "Retrieval URI" identified in 5.1.3, Base "URI from the Retrieval URI", is the URL from which a particular Turtle document was retrieved.
+					  If none of the above specifies the Base URI, the default Base URI (section 5.1.4, "Default Base URI") is used.
+					  Each <code>@base</code> directive sets a new In-Scope Base URI, relative to the previous one.
+					</p>
+			</section>
+
+          <section id="sec-escapes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+            <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-escapes"><span class="secno">6.4 </span>Escape Sequences</h3>
+
+	    <p>
+	      There are three forms of escapes used in turtle documents:
+	    </p>
+
+	    <ul>
+	      <li>
+		<p>
+		  <em id="numeric">numeric escape sequences</em> represent Unicode code points:
+		</p>
+
+		<table>
+		  <thead>
+		    <tr>
+		      <th>Escape sequence</th>
+
+		      <th>Unicode code point</th>
+
+		    </tr>
+		  </thead>
+		  <tbody>
+
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\u' <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a></td>
+		      <td>A Unicode character in the range U+0000 to U+FFFF inclusive
+		      corresponding to the value encoded by the four hexadecimal digits interpreted from most significant to least significant digit.</td>
+		    </tr>
+
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\U' <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a> <a href="#rHEX">hex</a></td>
+
+		      <td>A Unicode character in the range U+0000 to U+10FFFF inclusive
+		      corresponding to the value encoded by the eight hexadecimal digits interpreted from most significant to least significant digit.</td>
+		    </tr>
+
+		  </tbody>
+		</table>
+
+		<p>where <a href="#rHEX">HEX</a> is a hexadecimal character</p>
+		<blockquote>
+		  <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-size: 85%;">HEX 
+		  ::= [0-9] | [A-F] | [a-f]</span></p>
+
+		</blockquote>
+	      </li>
+
+	      <li>
+		<p>
+		  <em id="string">string escape sequences</em> represent the characters traditionally escaped in string literals:
+		</p>
+
+		<table>
+		  <thead>
+		    <tr>
+		      <th>Escape sequence</th>
+
+		      <th>Unicode code point</th>
+
+		    </tr>
+		  </thead>
+		  <tbody>
+
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\t'</td>
+		      <td>U+0009</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\b'</td>
+		      <td>U+0008</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+
+		      <td>'\n'</td>
+		      <td>U+000A</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\r'</td>
+		      <td>U+000D</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\f'</td>
+		      <td>U+000C</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\"'</td>
+		      <td>U+0022</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\''</td>
+		      <td>U+0027</td>
+		    </tr>
+		    
+		    <tr>
+		      <td>'\\'</td>
+
+		      <td>U+005C</td>
+		    </tr>
+
+		  </tbody>
+		</table>
+	      </li>
+
+	      <li>
+		<p>
+		  <em id="reserved">reserved character escape sequences</em> consist of a '\' followed by one of <code>~.-!$&amp;'()*+,;=/?#@%_</code> and represent the character to the right of the '\'.
+		</p>
+	      </li>
+
+	    </ul>
+
+	    <table id="term2escape" class="separated">
+		  <caption>Context where each kind of escape sequence can be used</caption>
+	      <thead>
+		<tr>
+		  <th></th>
+		  <th><a href="#numeric">numeric<br>escapes</a></th>
+		  <th><a href="#string">string<br>escapes</a></th>
+		  <th><a href="#reserved">reserved character<br>escapes</a></th>
+		</tr>
+	      </thead>
+	      <tbody>
+		<tr>
+		  <td class="r"><span style="font-weight:bold;">IRI</span>s, used as <a href="#grammar-production-IRIref"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> terms</a> or as in <a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">@prefix</a> or <a href="#grammar-production-base">@base</a> declarations</td>
+		  <td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">yes</td>
+		  <td>no</td>
+		  <td>no</td>
+		</tr>
+		<tr>
+		  <td class="r"><a href="#grammar-production-PN_LOCAL"><span style="font-weight:bold;">local name</span>s</a></td>
+		  <td>no</td>
+		  <td>no</td>
+		  <td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">yes</td>
+		</tr>
+		<tr>
+		  <td class="r"><span style="font-weight:bold;">String</span>s</td>
+		  <td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">yes</td>
+		  <td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">yes</td>
+		  <td>no</td>
+		</tr>
+	      </tbody>
+	    </table>
+	    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_3"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">%-encoded sequences are in the <a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">character range for IRIs</a> and are <a href="#grammar-production-PERCENT">explicitly allowed</a> in local names. These appear as a '%' followed by two hex characters and represent that same sequence of three characters. These sequences are <em>not</em> decoded during processing. A term written as <code>&lt;http://a.example/%66oo-bar&gt;</code> in Turtle designates the IRI <code>http://a.example/%66oo-bar</code> and not IRI <code>http://a.example/foo-bar</code>. A term written as <code>ex:%66oo-bar</code> with a prefix <code>@prefix ex: &lt;http://a.example/&gt;</code> also designates the IRI <code>http://a.example/%66oo-bar</code>.</p></div>
+
+          </section>
+          <section id="sec-grammar-grammar" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-grammar-grammar"><span class="secno">6.5 </span>Grammar</h3>
+            <div class="atrisk"><p class="atrisktext">Feature At Risk</p>
+            	<p>The <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Working Group proposes to make the following changes to align Turtle with <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr>.</p>
+            	<ul>
+            	<li>The addition of <a href="#grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">sparqlPrefix</a> and <a href="#grammar-production-sparqlBase">sparqlBase</a> which allow for using <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> style <code>BASE</code> and <code>PREFIX</code> directives in a Turtle document.</li>
+            	</ul>
+            	<p>Feedback, both positive and negative, is invited by sending email to mailing list <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">archives</a>).</p>
+            </div>
+            <p>The <abbr title="Extended Backus–Naur Form">EBNF</abbr> used here is defined in XML 1.0
+            [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-EBNF-NOTATION">EBNF-NOTATION</a></cite>]. Production labels consisting of a number and a final 's', e.g. [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rRDFLiteral"><span class="prodNo">60s</span></a>], reference the production with that number in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#sparqlGrammar"><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr> Query Language for <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> grammar</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>].
+            </p>
+
+	    <div>
+	    <p>Notes:</p>
+	    <ol>
+	      <li>
+		Keywords in single quotes ('<code class="grammar-literal">@base</code>', '<code class="grammar-literal">@prefix</code>', '<code class="grammar-literal">a</code>', '<code class="grammar-literal">true</code>', '<code class="grammar-literal">false</code>') are case-sensitive.
+		Keywords in double quotes ("<code class="grammar-literal">BASE</code>", "<code class="grammar-literal">PREFIX</code>") are case-insensitive.
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		Escape sequences <code><a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">UCHAR</a></code> and <code><a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">ECHAR</a></code> are case sensitive.
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		When tokenizing the input and choosing grammar rules, the longest match is chosen.
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		The Turtle grammar is LL(1) and LALR(1) when the rules with uppercased names are used as terminals.
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		The entry point into the grammar is <code>turtleDoc</code>.
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		In signed numbers, no white space is allowed between the sign and the number.
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		The
+		<span style="font-size: smaller;">
+    <span>[162s]</span>
+    <span><code>ANON</code></span>
+    <span>::=</span>
+    <span>'<code class="grammar-literal">[</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-WS">WS</a><code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">]</code>'</span>
+		</span>
+		token allows any amount of white space and comments between <code class="grammar-literal">[]</code>s.
+		The single space version is used in the grammar for clarity.		
+	      </li>
+	      <li>
+		The strings '<a href="#grammar-production-prefixID"><code class="grammar-literal">@prefix</code></a>' and '<a href="#grammar-production-base"><code class="grammar-literal">@base</code></a>' match the pattern for <a href="#grammar-production-LANGTAG">LANGTAG</a>, though neither "<code class="grammar-literal">prefix</code>" nor "<code class="grammar-literal">base</code>" are <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry">registered language subtags</a>.
+		This specification does not define whether a quoted literal followed by either of these tokens (e.g. <code>"A"@base</code>) is in the Turtle language.
+	      </li>
+	    </ol>
+	    </div>
+
+
+            <div><table class="grammar">
+    <tbody class="grammar-productions">
+            <tr id="grammar-production-turtleDoc" data-grammar-original="[1] turtleDoc ::= statement*" data-grammar-expression="('*', ('id', 'statement'))">
+    <td>[1]</td>
+    <td><code>turtleDoc</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-statement">statement</a><code class="grammar-star">*</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-statement" data-grammar-original="[2] statement ::= directive| triples &quot;.&quot;" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'directive'), (',', [('id', 'triples'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.')])])">
+    <td>[2]</td>
+    <td><code>statement</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-directive">directive</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-triples">triples</a> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-directive" data-grammar-original="[3] directive ::= prefixID| base | sparqlPrefix | sparqlBase" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'prefixID'), ('id', 'base'), ('id', 'sparqlPrefix'), ('id', 'sparqlBase')])">
+    <td>[3]</td>
+    <td><code>directive</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">prefixID</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-base">base</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">sparqlPrefix</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-sparqlBase">sparqlBase</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-prefixID" data-grammar-original="[4] prefixID ::= '@prefix' PNAME_NS IRIREF &quot;.&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '@prefix'), ('id', 'PNAME_NS'), ('id', 'IRIREF'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.')])">
+    <td>[4]</td>
+    <td><code>prefixID</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">@prefix</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">PNAME_NS</a> <a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF</a> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-base" data-grammar-original="[5] base ::= '@base' IRIREF &quot;.&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '@base'), ('id', 'IRIREF'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.')])">
+    <td>[5]</td>
+    <td><code>base</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">@base</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF</a> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-sparqlBase" data-grammar-original="[29*] sparqlBase ::= [Bb][Aa][Ss][Ee] IRIREF" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('[', 'Bb'), ('[', 'Aa'), ('[', 'Ss'), ('[', 'Ee'), ('id', 'IRIREF')])">
+    <td>[5s]</td>
+    <td><code>sparqlBase</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><span class="add">"<code class="grammar-literal">BASE</code>"</span> <a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-sparqlPrefix" data-grammar-original="[28*] sparqlPrefix ::= [Pp][Rr][Ee][Ff][Ii][Xx] PNAME_NS IRIREF" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('[', 'Pp'), ('[', 'Rr'), ('[', 'Ee'), ('[', 'Ff'), ('[', 'Ii'), ('[', 'Xx'), ('id', 'PNAME_NS'), ('id', 'IRIREF')])">
+    <td>[6s]</td>
+    <td><code>sparqlPrefix</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><span class="add">"<code class="grammar-literal">PREFIX</code>"</span> <a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">PNAME_NS</a> <a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-triples" data-grammar-original="[6] triples ::= subject predicateObjectList |blankNodePropertyList predicateObjectList?" data-grammar-expression="('|', [(',', [('id', 'subject'), ('id', 'predicateObjectList')]), (',', [('id', 'blankNodePropertyList'), ('?', ('id', 'predicateObjectList'))])])">
+    <td>[6]</td>
+    <td><code>triples</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-subject">subject</a> <a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">predicateObjectList</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a> <a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">predicateObjectList</a>?</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-predicateObjectList" data-grammar-original="[7] predicateObjectList ::= verb objectList (';' (verb objectList)? )*" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('id', 'verb'), ('id', 'objectList'), ('*', (',', [(&quot;'&quot;, ';'), ('?', (',', [('id', 'verb'), ('id', 'objectList')]))]))])">
+    <td>[7]</td>
+    <td><code>predicateObjectList</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-verb">verb</a> <a href="#grammar-production-objectList">objectList</a> ('<code class="grammar-literal">;</code>' (<a href="#grammar-production-verb">verb</a> <a href="#grammar-production-objectList">objectList</a>)?)<code class="grammar-star">*</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-objectList" data-grammar-original="[8] objectList ::= object ( &quot;,&quot; object )*" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('id', 'object'), ('*', (',', [(&quot;'&quot;, ','), ('id', 'object')]))])">
+    <td>[8]</td>
+    <td><code>objectList</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-object">object</a> ('<code class="grammar-literal">,</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-object">object</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-verb" data-grammar-original="[9] verb ::= predicate| &quot;a&quot;" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'predicate'), (&quot;'&quot;, 'a')])">
+    <td>[9]</td>
+    <td><code>verb</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-predicate">predicate</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">a</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-subject" data-grammar-original="[10] subject ::= iri| blank" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'iri'), ('id', 'blank')])">
+    <td>[10]</td>
+    <td><code>subject</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-iri">iri</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-BlankNode" class="add">BlankNode</a> <code class="add">| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-collection" class="add">collection</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-predicate" data-grammar-original="[11] predicate ::= iri" data-grammar-expression="('id', 'iri')">
+    <td>[11]</td>
+    <td><code>predicate</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-iri">iri</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-object" data-grammar-original="[12] object ::= iri| blank| blankNodePropertyList| literal" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'iri'), ('id', 'blank'), ('id', 'blankNodePropertyList'), ('id', 'literal')])">
+    <td>[12]</td>
+    <td><code>object</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-iri">iri</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-BlankNode" class="add">BlankNode</a> <code class="add">| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-collection" class="add">collection</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-literal">literal</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-literal" data-grammar-original="[13] literal ::= RDFLiteral| NumericLiteral| BooleanLiteral" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'RDFLiteral'), ('id', 'NumericLiteral'), ('id', 'BooleanLiteral')])">
+    <td>[13]</td>
+    <td><code>literal</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-RDFLiteral">RDFLiteral</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-NumericLiteral">NumericLiteral</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-BooleanLiteral">BooleanLiteral</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList" data-grammar-original="[15] blankNodePropertyList ::= &quot;[&quot; predicateObjectList &quot;]&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '['), ('id', 'predicateObjectList'), (&quot;'&quot;, ']')])">
+    <td>[14]</td>
+    <td><code>blankNodePropertyList</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">[</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">predicateObjectList</a> '<code class="grammar-literal">]</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-collection" data-grammar-original="[16] collection ::= &quot;(&quot; object* &quot;)&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '('), ('*', ('id', 'object')), (&quot;'&quot;, ')')])">
+    <td>[15]</td>
+    <td><code>collection</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">(</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-object">object</a><code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">)</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-NumericLiteral" data-grammar-original="[17] NumericLiteral ::= INTEGER | DECIMAL | DOUBLE" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'INTEGER'), ('id', 'DECIMAL'), ('id', 'DOUBLE')])">
+    <td>[16]</td>
+    <td><code>NumericLiteral</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-INTEGER">INTEGER</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-DECIMAL">DECIMAL</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-DOUBLE">DOUBLE</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-RDFLiteral" data-grammar-original="[128s] RDFLiteral ::= String ( LANGTAG | ( &quot;^^&quot; iri ) )?" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('id', 'String'), ('?', ('|', [('id', 'LANGTAG'), (',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '^^'), ('id', 'iri')])]))])">
+    <td>[128s]</td>
+    <td><code>RDFLiteral</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-String">String</a> (<a href="#grammar-production-LANGTAG">LANGTAG</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">^^</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-iri">iri</a>)?</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-BooleanLiteral" data-grammar-original="[133s] BooleanLiteral ::= &quot;true&quot;| &quot;false&quot;" data-grammar-expression="('|', [(&quot;'&quot;, 'true'), (&quot;'&quot;, 'false')])">
+    <td>[133s]</td>
+    <td><code>BooleanLiteral</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">true</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">false</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-String" data-grammar-original="[18] String ::= STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE| STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE| STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE| STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE'), ('id', 'STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE'), ('id', 'STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE'), ('id', 'STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE')])">
+    <td>[17]</td>
+    <td><code>String</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-iri" data-grammar-original="[135s] iri ::= IRIREF| PrefixedName" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'IRIREF'), ('id', 'PrefixedName')])">
+    <td>[135s]</td>
+    <td><code>iri</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-PrefixedName">PrefixedName</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PrefixedName" data-grammar-original="[136s] PrefixedName ::= PNAME_LN| PNAME_NS" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'PNAME_LN'), ('id', 'PNAME_NS')])">
+    <td>[136s]</td>
+    <td><code>PrefixedName</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_LN">PNAME_LN</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">PNAME_NS</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-BlankNode" data-grammar-original="[137s] BlankNode ::= BLANK_NODE_LABEL| ANON" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'BLANK_NODE_LABEL'), ('id', 'ANON')])">
+    <td>[137s]</td>
+    <td><code>BlankNode</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-BLANK_NODE_LABEL">BLANK_NODE_LABEL</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-ANON">ANON</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr><td colspan="5"><h3 id="terminals">Productions for terminals</h3></td></tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-IRIREF" data-grammar-original="[19] IRIREF ::=  '&lt;' ([^#x00-#x20&lt;&gt;\&quot;{}|^`\] | UCHAR)* '&gt;'" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '&lt;'), ('*', ('|', [('[', '^#x00-#x20&lt;&gt;\\&quot;{}|^`\\'), ('id', 'UCHAR')])), (&quot;'&quot;, '&gt;')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[18]</td>
+    <td><code>IRIREF</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">&lt;</code>' ([<code class="grammar-chars">^#x00-#x20&lt;&gt;\"{}|^`\</code>] <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">UCHAR</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">&gt;</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PNAME_NS" data-grammar-original="[139s] PNAME_NS ::= PN_PREFIX? &quot;:&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('?', ('id', 'PN_PREFIX')), (&quot;'&quot;, ':')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[139s]</td>
+    <td><code>PNAME_NS</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a>? '<code class="grammar-literal">:</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PNAME_LN" data-grammar-original="[140s] PNAME_LN ::= PNAME_NS PN_LOCAL" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('id', 'PNAME_NS'), ('id', 'PN_LOCAL')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[140s]</td>
+    <td><code>PNAME_LN</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">PNAME_NS</a> <a href="#grammar-production-PN_LOCAL">PN_LOCAL</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-BLANK_NODE_LABEL" data-grammar-original="[141s] BLANK_NODE_LABEL ::= '_:' ( PN_CHARS_U | [0-9] ) ((PN_CHARS|'.')* PN_CHARS)?" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '_:'), ('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS_U'), ('[', '0-9')]), ('?', (',', [('*', ('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.')])), ('id', 'PN_CHARS')]))])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[141s]</td>
+    <td><code>BLANK_NODE_LABEL</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">_:</code>' (<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">PN_CHARS_U</a> <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]) ((<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>')<code class="grammar-star">*</code> <a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a>)?</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-LANGTAG" data-grammar-original="[144s] LANGTAG ::= &quot;@&quot; [a-zA-Z]+ ( &quot;-&quot; [a-zA-Z0-9]+ )*" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '@'), ('+', ('[', 'a-zA-Z')), ('*', (',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '-'), ('+', ('[', 'a-zA-Z0-9'))]))])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[144s]</td>
+    <td><code>LANGTAG</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">@</code>' [<code class="grammar-chars">a-zA-Z</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code> ('<code class="grammar-literal">-</code>' [<code class="grammar-chars">a-zA-Z0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-INTEGER" data-grammar-original="[20] INTEGER ::= [+-]? [0-9]+" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('?', ('[', '+-')), ('+', ('[', '0-9'))])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[19]</td>
+    <td><code>INTEGER</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>[<code class="grammar-chars">+-</code>]? [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-DECIMAL" data-grammar-original="[21] DECIMAL ::= [+-]?  ( ([0-9])* '.' ([0-9])+  )" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('?', ('[', '+-')), (',', [('*', ('[', '0-9')), (&quot;'&quot;, '.'), ('+', ('[', '0-9'))])])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[20]</td>
+    <td><code>DECIMAL</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>[<code class="grammar-chars">+-</code>]? [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>' [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-DOUBLE" data-grammar-original="[22] DOUBLE ::= [+-]? ( [0-9]+ '.' [0-9]* EXPONENT | '.' ([0-9])+ EXPONENT | ([0-9])+EXPONENT )" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('?', ('[', '+-')), ('|', [(',', [('+', ('[', '0-9')), (&quot;'&quot;, '.'), ('*', ('[', '0-9')), ('id', 'EXPONENT')]), (',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '.'), ('+', ('[', '0-9')), ('id', 'EXPONENT')]), (',', [('+', ('[', '0-9')), ('id', 'EXPONENT')])])])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[21]</td>
+    <td><code>DOUBLE</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>[<code class="grammar-chars">+-</code>]? ([<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>' [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-star">*</code> <a href="#grammar-production-EXPONENT">EXPONENT</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>' [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code> <a href="#grammar-production-EXPONENT">EXPONENT</a> <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code> <a href="#grammar-production-EXPONENT">EXPONENT</a>)</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-EXPONENT" data-grammar-original="[154s] EXPONENT ::= [eE] [+-]? [0-9]+" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('[', 'eE'), ('?', ('[', '+-')), ('+', ('[', '0-9'))])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[154s]</td>
+    <td><code>EXPONENT</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>[<code class="grammar-chars">eE</code>] [<code class="grammar-chars">+-</code>]? [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>]<code class="grammar-plus">+</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE" data-grammar-original="[23] STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE ::= '&quot;' ( [^#x22#x5C#xA#xD] | ECHAR | UCHAR )* '&quot;'" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '&quot;'), ('*', ('|', [('[', '^#x22#x5C#xA#xD'), ('id', 'ECHAR'), ('id', 'UCHAR')])), (&quot;'&quot;, '&quot;')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[22]</td>
+    <td><code>STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">"</code>' ([<code class="grammar-chars">^#x22#x5C#xA#xD</code>] <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">ECHAR</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">UCHAR</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">"</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE" data-grammar-original="[24] STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE ::= &quot;'&quot; ( [^#x27#x5C#xA#xD] | ECHAR | UCHAR )* &quot;'&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, &quot;'&quot;), ('*', ('|', [('[', '^#x27#x5C#xA#xD'), ('id', 'ECHAR'), ('id', 'UCHAR')])), (&quot;'&quot;, &quot;'&quot;)])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[23]</td>
+    <td><code>STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>"<code class="grammar-literal">'</code>" ([<code class="grammar-chars">^#x27#x5C#xA#xD</code>] <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">ECHAR</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">UCHAR</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code> "<code class="grammar-literal">'</code>"</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE" data-grammar-original="[25] STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE ::= &quot;'''&quot; ( ( &quot;'&quot; | &quot;''&quot; )? ( [^'\] | ECHAR | UCHAR ) )* &quot;'''&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, &quot;'''&quot;), ('*', (',', [('?', ('|', [(&quot;'&quot;, &quot;'&quot;), (&quot;'&quot;, &quot;''&quot;)])), ('|', [('[', &quot;^'\\&quot;), ('id', 'ECHAR'), ('id', 'UCHAR')])])), (&quot;'&quot;, &quot;'''&quot;)])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[24]</td>
+    <td><code>STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>"<code class="grammar-literal">'''</code>" (("<code class="grammar-literal">'</code>" <code>| </code> "<code class="grammar-literal">''</code>")? [<code class="grammar-chars">^'\</code>] <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">ECHAR</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">UCHAR</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code> "<code class="grammar-literal">'''</code>"</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE" data-grammar-original="[26] STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE ::= '&quot;&quot;&quot;' ( ( '&quot;' | '&quot;&quot;' )? ( [^&quot;\] | ECHAR | UCHAR ) )* '&quot;&quot;&quot;'" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '&quot;&quot;&quot;'), ('*', (',', [('?', ('|', [(&quot;'&quot;, '&quot;'), (&quot;'&quot;, '&quot;&quot;')])), ('|', [('[', '^&quot;\\'), ('id', 'ECHAR'), ('id', 'UCHAR')])])), (&quot;'&quot;, '&quot;&quot;&quot;')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[25]</td>
+    <td><code>STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">"""</code>' (('<code class="grammar-literal">"</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">""</code>')? [<code class="grammar-chars">^"\</code>] <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">ECHAR</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">UCHAR</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">"""</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-UCHAR" data-grammar-original="[27] UCHAR ::= ( &quot;\u&quot; HEX HEX HEX HEX )| ( &quot;\U&quot; HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX )" data-grammar-expression="('|', [(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '\\u'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX')]), (',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '\\U'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX')])])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[26]</td>
+    <td><code>UCHAR</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">\u</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">\U</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-ECHAR" data-grammar-original="[159s] ECHAR ::= &quot;\&quot; [tbnrf\&quot;']" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '\\'), ('[', 'tbnrf\\&quot;\'')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[159s]</td>
+    <td><code>ECHAR</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">\</code>' [<code class="grammar-chars">tbnrf\"'</code>]</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-WS" data-grammar-original="[161s] WS ::= #x20 | #x9 | #xD | #xA" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('#', '#x20'), ('#', '#x9'), ('#', '#xD'), ('#', '#xA')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[161s]</td>
+    <td><code>WS</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><code class="grammar-char-escape">#x20</code> <code>| </code> <code class="grammar-char-escape">#x9</code> <code>| </code> <code class="grammar-char-escape">#xD</code> <code>| </code> <code class="grammar-char-escape">#xA</code></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-ANON" data-grammar-original="[162s] ANON ::= &quot;[&quot; WS* &quot;]&quot;" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '['), ('*', ('id', 'WS')), (&quot;'&quot;, ']')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[162s]</td>
+    <td><code>ANON</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">[</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-WS">WS</a><code class="grammar-star">*</code> '<code class="grammar-literal">]</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE" data-grammar-original="[163s] PN_CHARS_BASE ::= [A-Z]| [a-z]| [#00C0-#00D6]| [#00D8-#00F6]| [#00F8-#02FF]| [#0370-#037D]| [#037F-#1FFF]| [#200C-#200D]| [#2070-#218F]| [#2C00-#2FEF]| [#3001-#D7FF]| [#F900-#FDCF]| [#FDF0-#FFFD]| [#10000-#EFFFF]" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('[', 'A-Z'), ('[', 'a-z'), ('[', '#00C0-#00D6'), ('[', '#00D8-#00F6'), ('[', '#00F8-#02FF'), ('[', '#0370-#037D'), ('[', '#037F-#1FFF'), ('[', '#200C-#200D'), ('[', '#2070-#218F'), ('[', '#2C00-#2FEF'), ('[', '#3001-#D7FF'), ('[', '#F900-#FDCF'), ('[', '#FDF0-#FFFD'), ('[', '#10000-#EFFFF')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[163s]</td>
+    <td><code>PN_CHARS_BASE</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>[<code class="grammar-chars">A-Z</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">a-z</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>00C0-#<span class="add">x</span>00D6</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>00D8-#<span class="add">x</span>00F6</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>00F8-#<span class="add">x</span>02FF</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>0370-#<span class="add">x</span>037D</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>037F-#<span class="add">x</span>1FFF</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>200C-#<span class="add">x</span>200D</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>2070-#<span class="add">x</span>218F</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>2C00-#<span class="add">x</span>2FEF</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>3001-#<span class="add">x</span>D7FF</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>F900-#<span class="add">x</span>FDCF</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>FDF0-#<span class="add">x</span>FFFD</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>10000-#<span class="add">x</span>EFFFF</code>]</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U" data-grammar-original="[164s] PN_CHARS_U  ::=  PN_CHARS_BASE| '_'" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS_BASE'), (&quot;'&quot;, '_')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[164s]</td>
+    <td><code>PN_CHARS_U</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">PN_CHARS_BASE</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">_</code>'</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PN_CHARS" data-grammar-original="[166s] PN_CHARS ::= PN_CHARS_U| &quot;-&quot;| [0-9]| #00B7| [#0300-#036F]| [#203F-#2040]" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS_U'), (&quot;'&quot;, '-'), ('[', '0-9'), ('#', '#00B7'), ('[', '#0300-#036F'), ('[', '#203F-#2040')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[166s]</td>
+    <td><code>PN_CHARS</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">PN_CHARS_U</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">-</code>' <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>] <code>| </code> <code class="grammar-char-escape">#<span class="add">x</span>00B7</code> <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>0300-#<span class="add">x</span>036F</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">#<span class="add">x</span>203F-#<span class="add">x</span>2040</code>]</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PN_PREFIX" data-grammar-original="[167s] PN_PREFIX ::= PN_CHARS_BASE ( ( PN_CHARS | &quot;.&quot; )* PN_CHARS )?" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('id', 'PN_CHARS_BASE'), ('?', (',', [('*', ('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.')])), ('id', 'PN_CHARS')]))])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[167s]</td>
+    <td><code>PN_PREFIX</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">PN_CHARS_BASE</a> ((<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>')<code class="grammar-star">*</code> <a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a>)?</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PN_LOCAL" data-grammar-original="[168s] PN_LOCAL ::= ( PN_CHARS_U | ':' | [0-9] | PLX ) ( ( PN_CHARS | '.' | ':' | PLX )*  ( PN_CHARS | ':' | PLX ) ) ?" data-grammar-expression="(',', [('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS_U'), (&quot;'&quot;, ':'), ('[', '0-9'), ('id', 'PLX')]), ('?', (',', [('*', ('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.'), (&quot;'&quot;, ':'), ('id', 'PLX')])), ('|', [('id', 'PN_CHARS'), (&quot;'&quot;, ':'), ('id', 'PLX')])]))])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[168s]</td>
+    <td><code>PN_LOCAL</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>(<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">PN_CHARS_U</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">:</code>' <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>] <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-PLX">PLX</a>) ((<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">:</code>' <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-PLX">PLX</a>)<code class="grammar-star">*</code> (<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">:</code>' <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-PLX">PLX</a>))?</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PLX" data-grammar-original="[169s] PLX ::= PERCENT | PN_LOCAL_ESC" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('id', 'PERCENT'), ('id', 'PN_LOCAL_ESC')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[169s]</td>
+    <td><code>PLX</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td><a href="#grammar-production-PERCENT">PERCENT</a> <code>| </code> <a href="#grammar-production-PN_LOCAL_ESC">PN_LOCAL_ESC</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PERCENT" data-grammar-original="[170s] PERCENT ::= '%' HEX HEX" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '%'), ('id', 'HEX'), ('id', 'HEX')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[170s]</td>
+    <td><code>PERCENT</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">%</code>' <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a> <a href="#grammar-production-HEX">HEX</a></td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-HEX" data-grammar-original="[171s] HEX ::= [0-9] | [A-F] | [a-f]" data-grammar-expression="('|', [('[', '0-9'), ('[', 'A-F'), ('[', 'a-f')])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[171s]</td>
+    <td><code>HEX</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>[<code class="grammar-chars">0-9</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">A-F</code>] <code>| </code> [<code class="grammar-chars">a-f</code>]</td>
+</tr>
+            <tr id="grammar-production-PN_LOCAL_ESC" data-grammar-original="[172s] PN_LOCAL_ESC ::= '\' ( '_' | '~' | '.' | '-' | '!' | '$' | '&amp;' | &quot;'&quot; | '(' | ')' | '*' | '+' | ',' | ';' | '=' | '/' | '?' | '#' | '@' | '%' )" data-grammar-expression="(',', [(&quot;'&quot;, '\\'), ('|', [(&quot;'&quot;, '_'), (&quot;'&quot;, '~'), (&quot;'&quot;, '.'), (&quot;'&quot;, '-'), (&quot;'&quot;, '!'), (&quot;'&quot;, '$'), (&quot;'&quot;, '&amp;'), (&quot;'&quot;, &quot;'&quot;), (&quot;'&quot;, '('), (&quot;'&quot;, ')'), (&quot;'&quot;, '*'), (&quot;'&quot;, '+'), (&quot;'&quot;, ','), (&quot;'&quot;, ';'), (&quot;'&quot;, '='), (&quot;'&quot;, '/'), (&quot;'&quot;, '?'), (&quot;'&quot;, '#'), (&quot;'&quot;, '@'), (&quot;'&quot;, '%')])])" class="grammar-token">
+    <td>[172s]</td>
+    <td><code>PN_LOCAL_ESC</code></td>
+    <td>::=</td>
+    <td>'<code class="grammar-literal">\</code>' ('<code class="grammar-literal">_</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">~</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">.</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">-</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">!</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">$</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">&amp;</code>' <code>| </code> "<code class="grammar-literal">'</code>" <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">(</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">)</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">*</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">+</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">,</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">;</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">=</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">/</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">?</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">#</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">@</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class="grammar-literal">%</code>')</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+          </section>
+        </section>
+        <section id="sec-parsing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"> 
+          <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-parsing"><span class="secno">7. </span>Parsing</h2>
+
+          <p>The <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Concepts and Abstract Syntax</a> ([<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]) specification defines three types of <em><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Term</em>:
+
+          <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">IRIs</a>,
+          <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">literals</a> and
+          <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">blank nodes</a>.
+          Literals are composed of a <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</a> and an optional <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-language-tag">language tag</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>] or datatype IRI.
+          An extra type, <code id="prefix" class="dfn">prefix</code>, is used during parsing to map string identifiers to namespace IRIs.
+
+          This section maps a string conforming to the grammar in <a href="#sec-grammar-grammar" class="sectionRef sec-ref">section <span class="secno">6.5</span> <span class="sec-title">Grammar</span></a> to a set of triples by mapping strings matching productions and lexical tokens to <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> terms or their components (e.g. language tags, lexical forms of literals). Grammar productions change the parser state and emit triples.</p>
+          <section id="sec-parsing-state" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-state"><span class="secno">7.1 </span>Parser State</h3>
+
+              <p>Parsing Turtle requires a state of five items:</p>
+
+              <ul>
+                <li id="baseURI">IRI <code class="dfn">baseURI</code> — When the <a href="#grammar-production-base">base production</a> is reached, the second rule argument, <code>IRIREF</code>, is the base URI used for relative IRI resolution <span class="testrefs">(test: <a href="tests/#base1">base1</a> <a href="tests/#base2">base2</a>)</span>.</li>
+
+                <li id="namespaces">Map[<a class="type prefix" href="#prefix">prefix</a> -&gt; IRI] <code class="dfn">namespaces</code> — The second and third rule arguments (<code>PNAME_NS</code> and <code>IRIREF</code>) in the <a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">prefixID production</a> assign a namespace name (<code>IRIREF</code>) for the prefix (<code>PNAME_NS</code>). Outside of a <code>prefixID</code> production, any <code>PNAME_NS</code> is substituted with the namespace <span class="testrefs">(test: <a href="tests/#prefix1">prefix1</a> <!-- a href="tests/#escapedPrefix1">escapedPrefix1</a --> <a href="tests/#escapedNamespace1">escapedNamespace1</a>)</span>. Note that the prefix may be an empty string, per the <code>PNAME_NS,</code> production: <code>(PN_PREFIX)? ":"</code> <span class="testrefs">(test: <a href="tests/#default1">default1</a>)</span>.</li>
+
+                <li id="bnodeLabels">Map[string -&gt; <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">blank node</a>] <code class="dfn">bnodeLabels</code> — A mapping from string to blank node.</li>
+                <li id="curSubject">RDF_Term <code class="dfn">curSubject</code> — The <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> is bound to the <code><a href="#grammar-production-subject">subject</a></code> production.</li>
+
+                <li id="curPredicate">RDF_Term <code class="dfn">curPredicate</code> — The <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> is bound to the <code><a href="#grammar-production-verb">verb</a></code> production. If token matched was "<code>a</code>", <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> is bound to the IRI <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</code> <span class="testrefs">(test: <a href="tests/#type">type</a>)</span>.</li>
+
+              </ul>
+          </section>
+          <section id="sec-parsing-terms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-terms"><span class="secno">7.2 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Term Constructors</h3>
+
+              <p>This table maps productions and lexical tokens to <code><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> terms</code> or components of <code><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> terms</code> listed in <a href="#sec-parsing" class="sectionRef sec-ref">section <span class="secno">7.</span> <span class="sec-title">Parsing</span></a>:</p>
+
+              <table class="separated">
+                <thead>
+              <tr>                                  <th>                                                                       production               </th><th>                                                                                       type            </th><th>procedure</th></tr>
+                </thead>
+                <tbody>
+              <tr id="handle-IRIREF"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type IRI" href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">IRIREF               </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">      IRI         </a></td><td>The characters between "&lt;" and "&gt;" are taken, with the <a href="#numeric">numeric escape sequences</a> unescaped, to form the unicode string of the IRI. Relative IRI resolution is performed per <a href="#sec-iri-references" class="sectionRef">Section 6.3</a>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-PNAME_NS"><td style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2"><a class="type string" href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">PNAME_NS             </a></td><td><a href="#prefix">                                 prefix      </a></td><td>When used in a <a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">prefixID</a> or <a href="#grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">sparqlPrefix</a> production, the <code>prefix</code> is the potentially empty unicode string matching the first argument of the rule is a key into the <a href="#namespaces">namespaces map</a>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-PNAME_NS">                                                                                                                                        <td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">      IRI         </a></td><td>When used in a <a href="#grammar-production-PrefixedName">PrefixedName</a> production, the <code>iri</code> is the value in the <a href="#namespaces">namespaces map</a> corresponding to the first argument of the rule.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-PNAME_LN"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type IRI" href="#grammar-production-PNAME_LN">PNAME_LN             </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">      IRI         </a></td><td>A potentially empty <a href="#prefix">prefix</a> is identified by the first sequence, <code>PNAME_NS</code>. The <a href="#namespaces">namespaces map</a> <em class="rfc2119"><em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em></em> have a corresponding <code>namespace</code>. The unicode string of the IRI is formed by unescaping the <a href="#reserved">reserved characters</a> in the second argument, <code>PN_LOCAL</code>, and concatenating this onto the <code>namespace</code>.</td></tr>
+              <!-- tr id="handle-PrefixedName"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type IRI"         href="#grammar-production-PrefixedName"         >PrefixedName         </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">      IRI         </a></td><td>.</td></tr -->
+              <tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type lexicalForm" href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE      </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-lexical-form">                         lexical form</a></td><td>The characters between the outermost "'"s   are taken, with <a href="#numeric">numeric</a> and <a href="#string">string</a> escape sequences unescaped, to form the unicode string of a lexical form.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type lexicalForm" href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE      </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-lexical-form">                         lexical form</a></td><td>The characters between the outermost '"'s   are taken, with <a href="#numeric">numeric</a> and <a href="#string">string</a> escape sequences unescaped, to form the unicode string of a lexical form.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type lexicalForm" href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-lexical-form">                         lexical form</a></td><td>The characters between the outermost "'''"s are taken, with <a href="#numeric">numeric</a> and <a href="#string">string</a> escape sequences unescaped, to form the unicode string of a lexical form.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type lexicalForm" href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE">STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-lexical-form">                         lexical form</a></td><td>The characters between the outermost '"""'s are taken, with <a href="#numeric">numeric</a> and <a href="#string">string</a> escape sequences unescaped, to form the unicode string of a lexical form.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-LANGTAG"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type langTag" href="#grammar-production-LANGTAG">LANGTAG              </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-language-tag">language tag</a></td><td>The characters following the <code>@</code> form the unicode string of the language tag.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-RDFLiteral"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type literal" href="#grammar-production-RDFLiteral">RDFLiteral           </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">            literal     </a></td><td>The literal has a lexical form of the first rule argument, <code>String</code>, and either a language tag of <code>LANGTAG</code> or a datatype IRI of <code>iri</code>, depending on which rule matched the input. if neither a language tag nor a datatype IRI is provided, the literal has a datatype of <code>xsd:string</code>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-INTEGER"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type integer" href="#grammar-production-INTEGER">INTEGER              </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">            literal     </a></td><td>The literal has a lexical form of the input string, and a datatype of <code>xsd:integer</code>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-DECIMAL"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type decimal" href="#grammar-production-DECIMAL">DECIMAL              </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">            literal     </a></td><td>The literal has a lexical form of the input string, and a datatype of <code>xsd:decimal</code>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-DOUBLE"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type double" href="#grammar-production-DOUBLE">DOUBLE               </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">            literal     </a></td><td>The literal has a lexical form of the input string, and a datatype of <code>xsd:double</code>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-BooleanLiteral"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type boolean" href="#grammar-production-BooleanLiteral">BooleanLiteral       </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-literal">            literal     </a></td><td>The literal has a lexical form of the <code>true</code> or <code>false</code>, depending on which matched the input, and a datatype of <code>xsd:boolean</code>.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-BLANK_NODE_LABEL"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type bNode" href="#grammar-production-BLANK_NODE_LABEL">BLANK_NODE_LABEL     </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">         blank node  </a></td><td>The string matching the second argument, <code>PN_LOCAL</code>, is a key in <a href="#bnodeLabels">bnodeLabels</a>. If there is no corresponding blank node in the map, one is allocated.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-ANON"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type bNode" href="#grammar-production-ANON">ANON                 </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">         blank node  </a></td><td>A blank node is generated.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-blankNodePropertyList"><td style="text-align:left;"><a class="type bNode" href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">         blank node  </a></td><td>A blank node is generated. Note the rules for <code>blankNodePropertyList</code> in the next section.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-collection"><td style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2"><a class="type bNode" href="#grammar-production-collection">collection           </a></td><td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-blank-node">         blank node  </a></td><td>For non-empty lists, a blank node is generated. Note the rules for <code>collection</code> in the next section.</td></tr>
+              <tr id="handle-collection">                                                                                                                                                    <td><a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-iri">         IRI         </a></td><td>For empty lists, the resulting IRI is <code>rdf:nil</code>. Note the rules for <code>collection</code> in the next section.</td></tr>
+                </tbody>
+              </table>
+
+          </section>
+          <section id="sec-parsing-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-triples"><span class="secno">7.3 </span><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Triples Constructors</h3>
+              <p>
+		A Turtle document defines an <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-rdf-graph"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> graph</a> composed of set of <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-rdf-triple"><abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple</a>s.
+		The <code><a href="#grammar-production-subject">subject</a></code> production sets the <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code>.
+		The <code><a href="#grammar-production-verb">verb</a></code> production sets the <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code>.
+		Each <a tabindex="30" class="grammarRef" href="#grammar-production-object">object</a> <code>N</code> in the document produces an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple: <span class="ntriple"><code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> <code>N</code> .</span>
+          </p>
+
+	  <h3 id="propertyList" style="padding-bottom:0; margin-bottom:0;"><span>Property Lists:</span></h3>
+          <p style="padding-top:0; margin-top:0;">
+          Beginning the <code><a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a></code> production records the <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> and <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code>, and sets <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> to a novel <code>blank node</code> <code>B</code>.
+          Finishing the <code><a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a></code> production restores <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> and <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code>.
+          The node produced by matching <code><a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">blankNodePropertyList</a></code> is the blank node <code>B</code>.
+
+          </p>
+
+	  <h3 id="collection" style="padding-bottom:0; margin-bottom:0;"><span>Collections:</span></h3>
+          <p style="padding-top:0; margin-top:0;">
+          Beginning the <code><a href="#grammar-production-collection">collection</a></code> production records the <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> and <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code>.
+	  Each <code>object</code> in the <code><a href="#grammar-production-collection">collection</a></code> production has a <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> set to a novel <code>blank node</code> <code>B</code> and a <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> set to <code>rdf:first</code>.
+          For each object <code>object<sub>n</sub></code> after the first produces a triple:<span class="ntriple"><code>object<sub>n-1</sub></code> <code>rdf:rest</code> <code>object<sub>n</sub></code> .</span>
+          Finishing the <code><a href="#grammar-production-collection">collection</a></code> production creates an additional triple <span class="ntriple"><code>curSubject rdf:rest rdf:nil</code> .</span> and restores <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> and <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code>
+          The node produced by matching <code><a href="#grammar-production-collection">collection</a></code> is the first blank node <code>B</code> for non-empty lists and <code>rdf:nil</code> for empty lists.
+          </p>
+          </section>
+          <section id="sec-parsing-example" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-example"><span class="secno">7.4 </span>Parsing Example</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+          <p>The following informative example shows the semantic actions performed when  parsing this Turtle document with an LALR(1) parser:</p>
+          <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 26</span></div><pre class="example"><span>
[email protected] ericFoaf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/ericP-foaf.rdf#&gt; .
[email protected] : &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+ericFoaf:ericP :givenName "Eric" ;
+              :knows &lt;http://norman.walsh.name/knows/who/dan-brickley&gt; ,
+                      [ :mbox &lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt; ] ,
+                      &lt;http://getopenid.com/amyvdh&gt; .
+          </span></pre></div>
+
+              <ul>
+                <li>Map the prefix <code>ericFoaf</code> to the IRI <code>http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/ericP-foaf.rdf#</code>.</li>
+                <li>Map the empty prefix to the IRI <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</code>.</li>
+                <li>Assign <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> the IRI <code>http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/ericP-foaf.rdf#ericP</code>.</li>
+
+                <li>Assign <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> the IRI <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName</code>.</li>
+                <li>Emit an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple: <span class="ntriple"><code>&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;</code> <code>&lt;.../givenName&gt;</code> <code>"Eric"</code> .</span></li>
+
+                <li>Assign <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> the IRI <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows</code>.</li>
+                <li>Emit an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple: <span class="ntriple"><code>&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;</code> <code>&lt;.../knows&gt;</code> <code>&lt;...who/dan-brickley&gt;</code> .</span></li>
+
+                <li>Emit an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple: <span class="ntriple"><code>&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;</code> <code>&lt;.../knows&gt;</code> <code>_:1</code> .</span></li>
+                <li>Save <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> and reassign to the blank node <code>_:1</code>.</li>
+
+                <li>Save <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code>.</li>
+                <li>Assign <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> the IRI <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox</code>.</li>
+                <li>Emit an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple: <span class="ntriple"><code>_:1</code> <code>&lt;.../mbox&gt;</code> <code>&lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt;</code> .</span></li>
+
+                <li>Restore <code class="curSubject">curSubject</code> and <code class="curPredicate">curPredicate</code> to their saved values (<code>&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;.../knows&gt;</code>).</li>
+                <li>Emit an <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> triple: <span class="ntriple"><code>&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;</code> <code>&lt;.../knows&gt;</code> <code>&lt;http://getopenid.com/amyvdh&gt;</code> .</span></li>
+
+              </ul>
+          </section>
+        </section>
+      <section id="in-html" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_in-html"><span class="secno">A. </span>Embedding Turtle in HTML documents</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <p>HTML ([<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML5">HTML5</a></cite>]) <code>script</code> <a href="http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#scripting-1">tags</a> 
+        can be used to embed data blocks in documents. Turtle can be easily embedded in HTML this way.</p>
+        <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 27</span></div><pre class="example">&lt;script type="text/turtle"&gt;
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
[email protected] frbr: &lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://books.example.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt; a frbr:Work ;
+     dc:creator "Wil Wheaton"@en ;
+     dc:title "Just a Geek"@en ;
+     frbr:realization &lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;,
+         &lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt; a frbr:Expression ;
+     dc:type &lt;http://books.example.com/product-types/BOOK&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt; a frbr:Expression ;
+     dc:type &lt;http://books.example.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt; .
+&lt;/script&gt;</pre></div>
+        <p>Turtle content should be placed in a <code>script</code> tag with the 
+        <code>type</code> attribute set to <code>text/turtle</code>. <code>&lt;</code> and <code>&gt;</code> symbols
+        do not need to be escaped inside of script tags. The character encoding of the embedded Turtle
+        will match the HTML documents encoding.</p>
+        <section class="informative" id="xhtml">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_xhtml"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>XHTML</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+          <p>
+          Like JavaScript, Turtle authored for HTML (<code>text/html</code>) can break when used in XHTML 
+          (<code>application/xhtml+xml</code>). The solution is the same one used for JavaScript.
+          </p>
+        <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 28</span></div><pre class="example">&lt;script type="text/turtle"&gt;
+<strong># &lt;![CDATA[</strong>
[email protected] frbr: &lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://books.example.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt; a frbr:Work .
+<strong># ]]&gt;</strong>
+&lt;/script&gt;</pre></div>
+          <p>When embedded in XHTML Turtle data blocks must be enclosed in CDATA sections. Those CDATA markers must be in Turtle comments. If the character sequence "<code>]]&gt;</code>" occurs in the document it must be escaped using strings escapes (<code>\u005d\u0054\u003e</code>). This will also make Turtle safe in polyglot documents served as both <code>text/html</code>
+          and <code>application/xhtml+xml</code>. Failing to use CDATA sections or escape "<code>]]&gt;</code>" may result in a non well-formed XML document.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="in-html-parsing" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_in-html-parsing"><span class="secno">A.2 </span>Parsing Turtle in HTML</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+          <p>There are no syntactic or grammar differences between parsing Turtle that has been embedded 
+          and normal Turtle documents. A Turtle document parsed from an HTML DOM will be a stream of character data rather than a stream of UTF-8 encoded bytes. No decoding is necessary if the HTML document has already been parsed into DOM. Each <code>script</code> data block is considered to be it's own Turtle document. <code>@prefix</code> and <code>@base</code> declarations in a Turtle data bloc are scoped to that data block and do not effect other data blocks.
+The HTML <code>lang</code> attribute or XHTML <code>xml:lang</code> attribute have no effect on the parsing of the data blocks.
+The base URI of the encapsulating HTML document provides a "Base URI Embedded in Content" per RFC3986 section 5.1.1.
+
+
+        </p></section>
+      </section>      
+      <section id="sec-mediaReg" class="appendix" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-mediaReg"><span class="secno">B. </span>Internet Media Type, File Extension and Macintosh File Type</h2>
+        <dl>
+          <dt>Contact:</dt>
+          <dd>Ian Davis</dd>
+          <dt>See also:</dt>
+
+          <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype">How to Register a Media Type for a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Specification</a></dd>
+          <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2002/0129-mime">Internet Media Type registration, consistency of use</a><br>TAG Finding 3 June 2002 (Revised 4 September 2002)</dd>
+        </dl>
+        <p>The Internet Media Type / MIME Type for Turtle is "text/turtle".</p>
+        <p>It is recommended that Turtle files have the extension ".ttl" (all lowercase) on all platforms.</p>
+
+        <p>It is recommended that Turtle files stored on Macintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of "TEXT".</p>
+        <p>This information that follows has been <a href="http://www.w3.org/mid/[email protected]">submitted to the IESG</a> for review, approval, and registration with IANA.</p>
+        <dl>
+          <dt>Type name:</dt>
+          <dd>text</dd>
+
+          <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
+          <dd>turtle</dd>
+          <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
+          <dd>None</dd>
+          <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
+          <dd><code>charset</code> — this parameter is required when transferring non-ASCII data. If present, the value of <code>charset</code> is always <code>UTF-8</code>.</dd>
+
+          <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
+          <dd>The syntax of Turtle is expressed over code points in Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>]. The encoding is always UTF-8 [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UTF-8">UTF-8</a></cite>].</dd>
+          <dd>Unicode code points may also be expressed using an \uXXXX (U+0000 to U+FFFF) or \UXXXXXXXX syntax (for U+10000 onwards) where X is a hexadecimal digit [0-9A-Fa-f]</dd>
+          <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
+          <dd>Turtle is a general-purpose assertion language; applications may evaluate given data to infer more assertions or to dereference IRIs, invoking the security considerations of the scheme for that IRI. Note in particular, the privacy issues in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3023">RFC3023</a></cite>] section 10 for HTTP IRIs. Data obtained from an inaccurate or malicious data source may lead to inaccurate or misleading conclusions, as well as the dereferencing of unintended IRIs. Care must be taken to align the trust in consulted resources with the sensitivity of the intended use of the data; inferences of potential medical treatments would likely require different trust than inferences for trip planning.</dd>
+
+          <dd>Turtle is used to express arbitrary application data; security considerations will vary by domain of use. Security tools and protocols applicable to text (e.g. PGP encryption, MD5 sum validation, password-protected compression) may also be used on Turtle documents. Security/privacy protocols must be imposed which reflect the sensitivity of the embedded information.</dd>
+          <dd>Turtle can express data which is presented to the user, for example, <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> Schema labels. Application rendering strings retrieved from untrusted Turtle documents must ensure that malignant strings may not be used to mislead the reader. The security considerations in the media type registration for XML ([<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3023">RFC3023</a></cite>] section 10) provide additional guidance around the expression of arbitrary data and markup.</dd>
+          <dd>Turtle uses IRIs as term identifiers. Applications interpreting data expressed in Turtle should address the security issues of
+      <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>] Section 8, as well as
+      <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>] Section 7.</dd>
+
+          <dd>Multiple IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may 
+    look similar (a Cyrillic "о" may appear similar to a Latin "o"). A character followed 
+    by combining characters may have the same visual representation as another character 
+    (LATIN SMALL LETTER E followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT has the same visual representation 
+    as LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE).
+    <!-- (<code>foo:resum&#40751;code> and <code>f&#1086;&#1086;:resume&#769;</code>)-->
+    Any person or application that is writing or interpreting data in Turtle must take care to use the IRI that matches the intended semantics, and avoid IRIs that make look similar.
+    Further information about matching of similar characters can be found 
+    in <a class="inform" href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">Unicode Security 
+    Considerations</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE-SECURITY">UNICODE-SECURITY</a></cite>] and
+    <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource 
+    Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>] Section 8.
+
+    <[email protected]@ no security considerations section at this time. @@
+    See Turtle - Terse RDF Triple Language appendix X, <a href="#security">Security Considerations</a> 
+        as well as <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">RFC 3629</a> 
+        [<a href="#rfc3629">RFC3629</a>] section 7, Security Considerations. --></dd>
+
+          <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
+          <dd>There are no known interoperability issues.</dd>
+          <dt>Published specification:</dt>
+          <dd>This specification.</dd>
+          <dt>Applications which use this media type:</dt>
+
+          <dd>No widely deployed applications are known to use this media type. It may be used by some web services and clients consuming their data.</dd>
+          <dt>Additional information:</dt>
+          <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
+          <dd>Turtle documents may have the strings '@prefix' or '@base' (case dependent) near the beginning of the document.</dd>
+          <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
+          <dd>".ttl"</dd>
+
+          <dt>Base URI:</dt>
+          <dd>The Turtle '@base &lt;IRIref&gt;' term can change the current base URI for relative IRIrefs in the query language that are used sequentially later in the document.</dd>
+          <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
+          <dd>"TEXT"</dd>
+          <dt>Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</dt>
+
+          <dd>Eric Prud'hommeaux &lt;[email protected]&gt;</dd>
+          <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
+          <dd>COMMON</dd>
+          <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
+          <dd>None</dd>
+          <dt>Author/Change controller:</dt>
+
+          <dd>The Turtle specification is the product of the <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> WG. The <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> reserves change control over this specifications.</dd>
+        </dl>
+      </section>
+      
+
+      
+      <section id="sec-acks" class="appendix" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-acks"><span class="secno">C. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+        
+        <p>This work was described in the paper
+        <a href="http://www.dajobe.org/2003/11/new-syntaxes-rdf/">New Syntaxes for <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr></a>
+        which discusses other <abbr title="Resource Description Framework">RDF</abbr> syntaxes and the background
+        to the Turtle (Submitted to WWW2004, referred to as <em>N-Triples
+        Plus</em> there).</p>
+
+        <p>This work was started during the
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/">Semantic Web Advanced Development Europe (SWAD-Europe)</a>
+        project funded by the EU IST-7 programme IST-2001-34732 (2002-2004)
+        and further development supported by the
+        <a href="http://www.ilrt.bris.ac.uk/">Institute for Learning and Research Technology</a> at the  <a href="http://www.bristol.ac.uk/">University of Bristol</a>, UK (2002-Sep 2005).
+        </p>
+
+      </section>
+      <section id="sec-changelog" class="appendix" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-changelog"><span class="secno">D. </span>Changes since the last publication of this document</h2>
+
+      <ul>
+      		<li>Renaming for STRING_* productions to STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE sytle names rather than numbers
+      		</li><li>Local part of prefix names can now include ":"
+			</li><li>Turtle in HTML
+			</li><li>Renaming of grammar tokens and rules around IRIs
+			</li><li>Reserved character escape sequences
+			</li><li>String escape sequences limited to strings
+			</li><li>Numeric escape sequences limited to IRIs and Strings
+			</li><li>Support top-level blank-predicate-object lists
+			</li><li>Whitespace required between @prefix and prefix label
+	  </li></ul>
+
+      <p>Other changes since the Team Submission
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/2008/SUBM-turtle-20080114"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Turtle Submission 2008-01-14</a>
+      .  See the
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/2008/SUBM-turtle-20080114#sec-changelog">Previous changelog for further information</a>
+      </p>
+
+
+            <ul>
+
+          <li>Adopted three additional string syntaxes from <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr>: <a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL2">STRING_LITERAL2</a>, <a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG1">STRING_LITERAL_LONG1</a>, <a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG2">STRING_LITERAL_LONG2</a></li>
+
+          <li>Adopted <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr>'s syntax for prefixed names (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rPrefixedName">editor's draft</a>):
+          <ul>
+            <li>'.'s in names in all positions of a local name apart from the first or last, e.g. <code>ex:first.name</code>.</li>
+
+            <li>digits in the first character of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL">PN_LOCAL</a> lexical token, e.g. <code>ex:7tm</code>.</li>
+          </ul></li>
+            <li>adopted <abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">SPARQL</abbr>'s IRI resolution and prefix substitution text.</li>
+
+            <li>explicitly allowed re-use of the same prefix.</li>
+          <li>Added <a href="#sec-parsing">parsing rules</a>.</li>
+            </ul>
+
+      </section>
+
+
+        
+    
+
+
+
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_references"><span class="secno">E. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_normative-references"><span class="secno">E.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-BCP47">[BCP47]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">A. Phillips; M. Davis. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a>. September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47">http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-EBNF-NOTATION">[EBNF-NOTATION]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Tim Bray; Jean Paoli; C. M. Sperberg-McQueen; Eve Maler; François Yergeau. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation"><cite>EBNF Notation</cite></a> 26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-HTML5">[HTML5]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Robin Berjon; Steve Faulkner; Travis Leithead; Erika Doyle Navara; Edward O'Connor; Silvia Pfeiffer. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/"><cite>HTML5</cite></a>. 6 August 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/">http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Graham Klyne; Jeremy Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax</cite></a>. 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3023">[RFC3023]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">M. Murata; S. St.Laurent; D. Kohn. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><cite>XML Media Types (RFC 3023)</cite></a>. January 2001. RFC. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax (RFC 3986)</cite></a>. January 2005. RFC. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</cite></a>. January 2005. RFC. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE">[UNICODE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires"><a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/"><cite>The Unicode Standard</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/">http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-UTF-8">[UTF-8]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">F. Yergeau. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt"><cite>UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</cite></a>. IETF RFC 3629. November 2003. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt</a>
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_informative-references"><span class="secno">E.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-RDF-MT">[RDF-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Patrick Hayes. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/"><cite>RDF Semantics</cite></a>. 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">[RDF-SPARQL-QUERY]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eric Prud'hommeaux; Andy Seaborne. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/"><cite>SPARQL Query Language for RDF</cite></a>. 15 January 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE-SECURITY">[UNICODE-SECURITY]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Mark Davis; Michel Suignard. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><cite>Unicode Security Considerations</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/</a>
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file
--- a/local-biblio.js	Thu Oct 24 12:05:36 2013 -0500
+++ b/local-biblio.js	Thu Oct 24 12:25:46 2013 -0500
@@ -11,5 +11,7 @@
     "HORST05": "Herman J. ter Horst. <cite>Completeness, Decidability and Complexity of Entailment for RDF Schema and a Semantic Extension Involving the OWL Vocabulary</cite>, Journal of Web Semantics 3 (2005) 79-115.",
     "RDF-PLAIN-LITERAL": "Jie Bao, Sandro Hawke, Boris Motik, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Alex Polleres. <cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/\">rdf:PlainLiteral: A Datatype for RDF Plain Literals (Second Edition)</a></cite> 11 December 2012. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/</a>",
     "ISO24707": "<cite>Information technology — Common Logic (CL): a framework for a family of logic-based languages</cite> 1 October 2007. International Standard ISO/IEC 24707:2007(E). URL: <a href=\"http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c039175_ISO_IEC_24707_2007%28E%29.zip\"> http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c039175_ISO_IEC_24707_2007%28E%29.zip</a>",
-    "EBNF-NOTATION": "Tim Bray; Jean Paoli; C. M. Sperberg-McQueen; Eve Maler; François Yergeau. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation\"><cite>EBNF Notation</cite></a> 26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation\">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation</a>"
+    "EBNF-NOTATION": "Tim Bray; Jean Paoli; C. M. Sperberg-McQueen; Eve Maler; François Yergeau. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation\"><cite>EBNF Notation</cite></a> 26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation\">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-notation</a>",
+    "SPARQL11-ENTAILMENT": { aliasOf: "sparql11-entailment" },
+    "VOCAB-ORG": { aliasOf: "vocab-org" }
 };
--- a/rdf-concepts/index.html	Thu Oct 24 12:05:36 2013 -0500
+++ b/rdf-concepts/index.html	Thu Oct 24 12:25:46 2013 -0500
@@ -258,7 +258,7 @@
     by means of a specification or other document that explains
     what is denoted. For example, the
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">Organization Ontology
-    document</a> [[vocab-org]] specifies the intended referents
+    document</a> [[VOCAB-ORG]] specifies the intended referents
     of various IRIs that start with
     <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/org#</code>.</li>
 
@@ -1433,7 +1433,7 @@
   <em>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em>.</p>
 
   <ul>
-		<li>2013010-21: Added Markus Lanthaler as editor.  Minor editorial updates (e.g. repair of broken links).  Updates to sections 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1 and 5.4 to address <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/2013Oct/0057.html">comments from Michael Schneider</a> (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/161">ISSUE-161</a>)</li> 
+		<li>2013010-21: Added Markus Lanthaler as editor.  Minor editorial updates (e.g. repair of broken links).  Updates to sections 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1 and 5.4 to address <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/2013Oct/0057.html">comments from Michael Schneider</a> (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/161">ISSUE-161</a>)</li>
 		<li>2013-10-16: Fixed ReSpec issue regarding previous editor attributions
 		and added previous editors to acknowledgements to address <a
 		href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/150">ISSUE-150</a>.</li>
--- a/rdf-mt/index.html	Thu Oct 24 12:05:36 2013 -0500
+++ b/rdf-mt/index.html	Thu Oct 24 12:25:46 2013 -0500
@@ -161,7 +161,7 @@
       <h2 id="extensions">Semantic Extensions and Entailment Regimes</h2>
       <p>RDF is intended for use as a base notation for a variety of extended notations such as OWL [[OWL2-OVERVIEW]] and RIF [[RIF-OVERVIEW]], whose expressions can be encoded as RDF graphs which use a particular vocabulary with a specially defined meaning. Also, particular IRI vocabularies may be given meanings by other specifications or conventions. When such extra meanings are assumed, a given RDF graph may support more extensive entailments than are sanctioned by the basic RDF semantics. In general, the more assumptions that are made about the meanings of IRIs in an RDF graph, the more entailments follow from those assumptions. </p>
 
-<p>A particular such set of semantic assumptions is called a <dfn>semantic extension</dfn>. Each <a>semantic extension</a> defines an <dfn>entailment regime</dfn> (used here in the same sense as in the SPARQL 1.1 Entailment Regime recommendation [[!RDF-SPARQL-ENTAIL]] ) of entailments which are valid under that extension. RDFS, described later in this document, is one such <a>semantic extension</a>. We will refer to entailment regimes by names such as <em> RDFS entailment</em>, <em>D-entailment</em>, etc. </p>
+<p>A particular such set of semantic assumptions is called a <dfn>semantic extension</dfn>. Each <a>semantic extension</a> defines an <dfn>entailment regime</dfn> (used here in the same sense as in the SPARQL 1.1 Entailment Regime recommendation [[!SPARQL11-ENTAILMENT]] ) of entailments which are valid under that extension. RDFS, described later in this document, is one such <a>semantic extension</a>. We will refer to entailment regimes by names such as <em> RDFS entailment</em>, <em>D-entailment</em>, etc. </p>
 
 <p><a>Semantic extension</a>s MAY impose special syntactic conditions or restrictions upon RDF graphs, such as requiring certain triples to be present, or prohibiting particular combinations of IRIs in triples, and MAY consider RDF graphs which do not conform to these conditions to be errors. For example, RDF statements of the form <br/><br/> <code>ex:a rdfs:subClassOf "Thing"^^xsd:string .</code><br/><br/> are prohibited in the OWL <a>semantic extension</a> based on description logics [[OWL2-SYNTAX]]. In such cases, basic RDF operations such as taking a subset of triples, or combining RDF graphs, may cause syntax errors in parsers which recognize the extension conditions. None of the <a>semantic extension</a>s normatively defined in this document impose such syntactic restrictions on RDF graphs.</p>
 
@@ -593,7 +593,7 @@
             <td ><code>rdf:type rdf:subject rdf:predicate rdf:object
             rdf:first rdf:rest rdf:value rdf:nil
             rdf:List rdf:langString rdf:Property rdf:_1 rdf:_2
-             ... 
+             ...
     </div>
 </code></td>
           </tr>
@@ -1537,7 +1537,7 @@
 <li> Repaired several broken internal links and typos.</li>
 <li> Added table of RDF vocabulary. </li>
 <li> Added text mentioning lexical spaces in datatypes.</li>
-<li> Added extended change note defining datatype map.</li> 
+<li> Added extended change note defining datatype map.</li>
 <li> Removed informative section on intuitive summary of truth conditions 	</li>
 <li> Added a general description of the notion of interpretation. </li>
 <li> Adjusted several uses of "interpretation" and related terminology to state the particular kind of interpretation in question or use a more appropriate term. </li>
--- a/rdf-turtle/index.html	Thu Oct 24 12:05:36 2013 -0500
+++ b/rdf-turtle/index.html	Thu Oct 24 12:25:46 2013 -0500
@@ -3,8 +3,9 @@
     <head>
 	<title>Turtle</title>
 	<meta http-equiv='Content-Type' content='text/html;charset=utf-8'/>
+	<script src="../local-biblio.js" class="remove"></script>
 	<script src='https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.6.2/jquery.min.js' class='remove'></script>
-	<script src='https://raw.github.com/darobin/respec/develop/builds/respec-w3c-common-3.1.62.js' async class='remove'></script>
+    <script src="https://www.w3.org/Tools/respec/respec-w3c-common" class="remove"></script>
 	<script class='remove'>
       $.fn.renameElement = function (name) {
         return this.each(function () {
@@ -23,8 +24,9 @@
         }
       };
       var respecConfig = {
+      localBiblio: localBibliography,
 	  // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
-	  specStatus:           "ED",
+	  specStatus:           "PR",
 	  
 	  // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
 	  shortName:            "turtle",
@@ -34,7 +36,7 @@
 	  subtitle   :  "Terse RDF Triple Language",
 
 	  // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
-	  publishDate:  "2013-01-23",
+	  publishDate:  "2013-02-19",
 
 	  // if the specification's copyright date is a range of years, specify
 	  // the start date here:
@@ -42,19 +44,21 @@
 
 	  // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
 	  // and its maturity status
-	  previousPublishDate:  "2011-08-09",
-	  previousMaturity:  "FPWD",
-	  previousURI: "http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/",
+	  previousPublishDate:  "2013-02-19",
+	  previousMaturity:  "CR",
+	  //previousURI: "http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/",
 
 	  // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
 	  edDraftURI:           "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html",
 
 	  // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
 	  lcEnd: "2012-09-15",
+	  crEnd: "2013-03-26",
+	  prEnd: "2013-11-31",
 
 	  // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
 	  // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
-	  extraCSS:             ["http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css"],
+	  //extraCSS:             ["http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css"],
 
 	  // editors, add as many as you like
 	  // only "name" is required
@@ -62,8 +66,7 @@
 	      { name: "Eric Prud'hommeaux", url: "http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/",
 		company: "W3C", companyURL: "http://www.w3.org/" },
 	      { name: "Gavin Carothers", url: "http://gavin.carothers.name/",
-		company: [{name:"TopQuadrant, Inc", url: "http://topquadrant.com/"},
-				  {name:"Lex Machina, Inc", url: "http://lexmachina.com/"} ] },
+		company: "Lex Machina, Inc", companyURL: "http://lexmachina.com/"},
 	  ],
 
 	  // authors, add as many as you like. 
@@ -77,8 +80,7 @@
 	      { name: "Eric Prud'hommeaux", url: "http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/",
 		company: "W3C", companyURL: "http://www.w3.org/" },
 	      { name: "Gavin Carothers", url: "http://gavin.carothers.name/",
-		company: [{name:"TopQuadrant, Inc", url: "http://topquadrant.com/"},
-				  {name:"Lex Machina, Inc", url: "http://lexmachina.com/"} ]},
+		company: "Lex Machina, Inc", companyURL: "http://lexmachina.com/"},
 	  ],
 	  
 	  // name of the WG
@@ -102,8 +104,9 @@
     </script>
     <script class="remove">
     function updateExample(doc, content) {
+   	  var utils = require("core/utils");
     // perform transformations to make it render and prettier
-      return '<pre class="example">' + doc._esc(content) + '</pre>';
+      return '<pre class="example">' + utils.xmlEscape(content) + '</pre>';
     }
     function esc(doc, content) {
       return doc._esc(content);
@@ -212,7 +215,7 @@
 	<section id="language-features" class="informative">
 		<h2>Turtle Language</h2>
 		<p>A Turtle document allows writing down an RDF graph in a compact textual form. An RDF graph is made up of <a href="../rdf-concepts/index.html#dfn-rdf-triple">triples</a> consisting of a subject, predicate and object.</p>
-		<p>Comments may be given after a '<code>#</code>'' that is not part of another lexical token and continue to the end of the line.</p>
+		<p>Comments may be given after a '<code>#</code>' that is not part of another lexical token and continue to the end of the line.</p>
 		<section id="simple-triples">
 			<h3>Simple Triples</h3>
 			<p>The simplest triple statement is a sequence of (subject, predicate, object) terms, separated by whitespace and terminated by '<code>.</code>' after each triple.</p>
@@ -596,7 +599,7 @@
       </p>
 
       <ol>
-    <li>SPARQL permits RDF Literals as the subject of RDF triples (per <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rGraphTerm">Last Call draft</a>).</li>
+    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rGraphTerm">SPARQL permits RDF Literals</a> as the subject of RDF triples.</li>
 
     <li>SPARQL permits variables (<code>?</code><em>name</em> or <code>$</code><em>name</em>) in any part of the triple of the form.</li>
     <li>Turtle allows <a href="#grammar-production-directive">prefix and base declarations</a> anywhere outside of a triple. In SPARQL, they are only allowed in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rPrologue">Prologue</a> (at the start of the SPARQL query).</li>
@@ -617,13 +620,13 @@
         				<li>Turtle documents
     					<li>Turtle parsers
 					</ul>
-			<p>A conforming <strong>Turtle document</strong> is a Unicode string that conforms to the grammar and additional constraints defined in <a href="#sec-grammar" class="sectionRef"></a>, starting with the <a href="#grammar-production-trigDoc"><code>trigDoc</code> production</a>. A TriG document serializes an RDF Dataset.</p>
+			<p>A conforming <strong>Turtle document</strong> is a Unicode string that conforms to the grammar and additional constraints defined in <a href="#sec-grammar" class="sectionRef"></a>, starting with the <a href="#grammar-production-turtleDoc"><code>turtleDoc</code> production</a>. A Turtle document serializes an RDF Graph.</p>
 
-			<p>A conforming <strong>TriG parser</strong> is a system capable of reading TriG documents on behalf of an application. It makes the serialized RDF dataset, as defined in <a href="#sec-parsing" class="sectionRef"></a>, available to the application, usually through some form of API.</p>
+			<p>A conforming <strong>Turtle parser</strong> is a system capable of reading Turtle documents on behalf of an application. It makes the serialized RDF dataset, as defined in <a href="#sec-parsing" class="sectionRef"></a>, available to the application, usually through some form of API.</p>
 
-			<p>The IRI that identifies the TriG language is: <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/formats/TriG</code></p>          
+			<p>The IRI that identifies the Turtle language is: <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/formats/Turtle</code></p>          
 
-			<p class="note">This specification does not define how TriG parsers handle non-conforming input documents.</p>
+			<p class="note">This specification does not define how Turtle parsers handle non-conforming input documents.</p>
 	        <section id="sec-mime">
 	          <h2>Media Type and Content Encoding</h2>
 	          
@@ -1115,7 +1118,7 @@
     Any person or application that is writing or interpreting data in Turtle must take care to use the IRI that matches the intended semantics, and avoid IRIs that make look similar.
     Further information about matching of similar characters can be found 
     in <a class="inform" href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">Unicode Security 
-    Considerations</a> [[UNISEC]] and
+    Considerations</a> [[UNICODE-SECURITY]] and
     <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource 
     Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [[RFC3987]] Section 8.
 
--- a/rdf-turtle/turtle-bnf.html	Thu Oct 24 12:05:36 2013 -0500
+++ b/rdf-turtle/turtle-bnf.html	Thu Oct 24 12:25:46 2013 -0500
@@ -185,7 +185,7 @@
     <td>[20]</td>
     <td><code>DECIMAL</code></td>
     <td>::=</td>
-    <td>[<code class='grammar-chars'>+-</code>]? ([<code class='grammar-chars'>0-9</code>]<code class='grammar-star'>*</code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>.</code>' [<code class='grammar-chars'>0-9</code>]<code class='grammar-plus'>+</code>)</td>
+    <td>[<code class='grammar-chars'>+-</code>]? [<code class='grammar-chars'>0-9</code>]<code class='grammar-star'>*</code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>.</code>' [<code class='grammar-chars'>0-9</code>]<code class='grammar-plus'>+</code></td>
 </tr>
             <tr id="grammar-production-DOUBLE" data-grammar-original="[22] DOUBLE ::= [+-]? ( [0-9]+ &#x27;.&#x27; [0-9]* EXPONENT | &#x27;.&#x27; ([0-9])+ EXPONENT | ([0-9])+EXPONENT )" data-grammar-expression="(&#x27;,&#x27;, [(&#x27;?&#x27;, (&#x27;[&#x27;, &#x27;+-&#x27;)), (&#x27;|&#x27;, [(&#x27;,&#x27;, [(&#x27;+&#x27;, (&#x27;[&#x27;, &#x27;0-9&#x27;)), (&quot;&#x27;&quot;, &#x27;.&#x27;), (&#x27;*&#x27;, (&#x27;[&#x27;, &#x27;0-9&#x27;)), (&#x27;id&#x27;, &#x27;EXPONENT&#x27;)]), (&#x27;,&#x27;, [(&quot;&#x27;&quot;, &#x27;.&#x27;), (&#x27;+&#x27;, (&#x27;[&#x27;, &#x27;0-9&#x27;)), (&#x27;id&#x27;, &#x27;EXPONENT&#x27;)]), (&#x27;,&#x27;, [(&#x27;+&#x27;, (&#x27;[&#x27;, &#x27;0-9&#x27;)), (&#x27;id&#x27;, &#x27;EXPONENT&#x27;)])])])" class='grammar-token'>
     <td>[21]</td>
@@ -275,7 +275,7 @@
     <td>[168s]</td>
     <td><code>PN_LOCAL</code></td>
     <td>::=</td>
-    <td>(<a href='#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U'>PN_CHARS_U</a> <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>:</code>' <code>| </code> [<code class='grammar-chars'>0-9</code>] <code>| </code> <a href='#grammar-production-PLX'>PLX</a>) ((<a href='#grammar-production-PN_CHARS'>PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>.</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>:</code>' <code>| </code> <a href='#grammar-production-PLX'>PLX</a>)<code class='grammar-star'>*</code> <a href='#grammar-production-PN_CHARS'>PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>:</code>' <code>| </code> <a href='#grammar-production-PLX'>PLX</a>)?</td>
+    <td>(<a href='#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U'>PN_CHARS_U</a> <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>:</code>' <code>| </code> [<code class='grammar-chars'>0-9</code>] <code>| </code> <a href='#grammar-production-PLX'>PLX</a>) ((<a href='#grammar-production-PN_CHARS'>PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>.</code>' <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>:</code>' <code>| </code> <a href='#grammar-production-PLX'>PLX</a>)<code class='grammar-star'>*</code> (<a href='#grammar-production-PN_CHARS'>PN_CHARS</a> <code>| </code> '<code class='grammar-literal'>:</code>' <code>| </code> <a href='#grammar-production-PLX'>PLX</a>))?</td>
 </tr>
             <tr id="grammar-production-PLX" data-grammar-original="[169s] PLX ::= PERCENT | PN_LOCAL_ESC" data-grammar-expression="(&#x27;|&#x27;, [(&#x27;id&#x27;, &#x27;PERCENT&#x27;), (&#x27;id&#x27;, &#x27;PN_LOCAL_ESC&#x27;)])" class='grammar-token'>
     <td>[169s]</td>