Create static version of Concepts CR spec
authorMarkus Lanthaler <mail@markus-lanthaler.com>
Wed, 30 Oct 2013 19:07:51 +0100
changeset 1177 a5e0019806f1
parent 1176 140e996eab63
child 1178 2534410d4a29
Create static version of Concepts CR spec
drafts/rdf11-concepts/Overview.html
drafts/rdf11-concepts/diff-20130723.html
--- a/drafts/rdf11-concepts/Overview.html	Wed Oct 30 19:05:40 2013 +0100
+++ b/drafts/rdf11-concepts/Overview.html	Wed Oct 30 19:07:51 2013 +0100
@@ -1,22 +1,15 @@
 <!DOCTYPE html>
-<html lang="en" typeof="bibo:Document w3p:LastCall" about="" property="dcterms:language" content="en">
+<html lang="en" typeof="bibo:Document w3p:CR" about="" property="dcterms:language" content="en">
 <head>
-    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
+    <meta charset="utf-8">
     <title>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</title>
     <style type="text/css">
-.figure { text-align: center; }
-.figure a[href]:hover { background: transparent; }
-table td, table th { border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 0.2em 0.5em; }
+      figure { text-align: center; }
+      table td, table th { border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 0.2em 0.5em; }
     </style>
-    
-    
-  <style>/*****************************************************************
- * ReSpec 3 CSS
- * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
- *****************************************************************/
-
+  <style>
 /* --- INLINES --- */
-em.rfc2119 { 
+em.rfc2119 {
     text-transform:     lowercase;
     font-variant:       small-caps;
     font-style:         normal;
@@ -158,157 +151,216 @@
 }
 
 
-</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD" rel="stylesheet"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--></head>
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-CR"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--><script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8" async="" data-requirecontext="_" data-requiremodule="ui/save-html" src="https://raw.github.com/darobin/respec/gh-pages/js/ui/save-html.js"></script></head>
 
-<body class="h-entry"><div class="head">
+<body class="h-entry" style="" role="document" id="respecDocument"><div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
   <p>
-    
-      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" height="48" width="72"></a>
-    
+
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+
   </p>
   <h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</h1>
-  
-  <h2 id="w3c-last-call-working-draft-23-july-2013" property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2013-07-22T22:00:00.000Z"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Last Call Working Draft <time class="dt-published" datetime="2013-07-23">23 July 2013</time></h2>
+
+  <h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2013-11-04T23:00:00.000Z" id="w3c-candidate-recommendation-05-november-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Candidate Recommendation <time class="dt-published" datetime="2013-11-05">05 November 2013</time></h2>
   <dl>
-    
+
       <dt>This version:</dt>
-      <dd><a class="u-url" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/</a></dd>
+      <dd><a class="u-url" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/</a></dd>
       <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
       <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a></dd>
-    
-    
+
+
       <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
       <dd><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html</a></dd>
-    
-    
-    
-    
-    
+
+
+
+
+
       <dt>Previous version:</dt>
-      <dd><a rel="dcterms:replaces" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130115/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130115/</a></dd>
-    
-    
-      <dt>Latest recommendation:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts</a></dd>
-    
+      <dd><a rel="dcterms:replaces" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/</a></dd>
+
+
+
+          <dt>Latest Recommendation:</dt>
+          <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts</a></dd>
+
+
     <dt>Editors:</dt>
     <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Richard Cyganiak" href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/">Richard Cyganiak</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.deri.ie/">DERI, NUI Galway</a></span>
 </dd>
 <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="David Wood" href="http://about.me/david_wood">David Wood</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://3roundstones.com/">3 Round Stones</a></span>
 </dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">Markus Lanthaler</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">Graz University of Technology</a></span>
+</dd>
 
-    
-    
+
+
+
+
+          <dt>Previous Editors:</dt>
+
+
+
+                  <dd>
+                    <a href="http://www.ninebynine.org/">
+                      Graham Klyne
+                    </a>
+                  </dd>
+
+
+
+                  <dd>
+
+                      Jeremy J. Carroll
+
+                  </dd>
+
+
+
+                  <dd>
+
+                      Brian McBride
+
+                  </dd>
+
+
+
+
+
+
   </dl>
-  
-  
-  
-  
-    
+
+
+    <p>
+
+        This document is also available in this non-normative format:
+
+      <a rel="alternate" href="diff-20130723.html">diff to previous version</a>
+    </p>
+
+
+
+
       <p class="copyright">
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> ©
         2004-2013
-        
+
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
         (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
         <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
-        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>),
+
+        All Rights Reserved.
+
         <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+
+          <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a>
+
+        rules apply.
       </p>
-    
-  
+
+
   <hr>
 </div>
 
-<div class="head">
-			
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#abstract" typeof="bibo:Chapter" datatype="" property="dcterms:abstract" class="introductory" id="abstract"><h2>Abstract</h2>
-	
-    <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
-    representing information in the Web.</p>
-    <p>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax defines an abstract syntax
-    (a data model) which serves to link all RDF-based languages and
-    specifications. The abstract syntax has two key data structures:
-    RDF graphs are sets of subject-predicate-object triples,
-    where the elements may be IRIs, blank nodes, or datatyped literals. They
-    are used to express descriptions of resources. RDF datasets are used
-    to organize collections of RDF graphs, and comprise a default graph
-    and zero or more named graphs.
-    This document also introduces key concepts and terminology, and discusses
-    datatyping and the handling of fragment identifiers in IRIs within
-    RDF graphs.</p>
-</section><section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#sotd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
-  
-    
-      
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+  <section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">Abstract</h2>
+
+      <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
+      representing information in the Web.</p>
+      <p>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax defines an abstract syntax
+      (a data model) which serves to link all RDF-based languages and
+      specifications. The abstract syntax has two key data structures:
+      RDF graphs are sets of subject-predicate-object triples,
+      where the elements may be IRIs, blank nodes, or datatyped literals. They
+      are used to express descriptions of resources. RDF datasets are used
+      to organize collections of RDF graphs, and comprise a default graph
+      and zero or more named graphs.
+      This document also introduces key concepts and terminology, and discusses
+      datatyping and the handling of fragment identifiers in IRIs within
+      RDF graphs.</p>
+  </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">Status of This Document</h2>
+
+
+
         <p>
           <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
           documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
           of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
           index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
         </p>
-        
+
+
         <p>
-          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">RDF Working Group</a> as a Last Call Working Draft.
-          
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">RDF Working Group</a> as a Candidate Recommendation.
+
             This document is intended to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
-          
-          
-          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
-          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+
+
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>
           (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
           <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">archives</a>).
-          
-          The Last Call period ends 06 September 2013.
-          
-          
+
+
+
+            <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publishes a Candidate Recommendation to indicate that the document is believed
+            to be stable and to encourage implementation by the developer community. This
+            Candidate Recommendation is expected to advance to Proposed Recommendation no earlier than
+            26 November 2013.
+
+
             All comments are welcome.</p>
-          
-        
+
+
           <p>
-            Publication as a Last Call Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
-            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            Publication as a Candidate Recommendation does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at
             any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
           </p>
-        
-        
-          <p>
-            This is a Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this document has satisfied the
-            relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to advance through the Technical Recommendation process.
-          </p>
-        
+
+
+    <p>The following features are at risk and may be changed from normative to non-normative:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li><a href="#at-risk-html">The <code>rdf:HTML</code> datatype may be made non-normative</a></li>
+      <li><a href="#at-risk-xmlliteral">The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> datatype may be made non-normative</a></li>
+    </ul>
+
+
         <p>
-          
-            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
-             
+
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the
+
                 <a id="sotd_patent" about="" rel="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
-            
-          
-          
-          
-            
-              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
-            
-            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+
+
+
+
+
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a>
+
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for
             disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
             <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
             information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
             6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
-          
-          
+
+
         </p>
-        
-      
-    
-  
-</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-Introduction"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#data-model"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Graph-based Data Model</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#resources-and-statements"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Resources and Statements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#referents"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>The Referent of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#vocabularies"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>RDF Vocabularies and Namespace IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#change-over-time"><span class="secno">1.5 </span>RDF and Change Over Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#managing-graphs"><span class="secno">1.6 </span>Working with Multiple RDF Graphs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#entailment"><span class="secno">1.7 </span>Equivalence, Entailment and Inconsistency</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdf-documents"><span class="secno">1.8 </span>RDF Documents and Syntaxes</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#conformance"><span class="secno">2. </span>Conformance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-rdf-graph"><span class="secno">3. </span>RDF Graphs</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-triples"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Triples</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-IRIs"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-Graph-Literal"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-blank-nodes"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Blank Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-skolemization"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#graph-isomorphism"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Graph Comparison</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-dataset"><span class="secno">4. </span>RDF Datasets</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-dataset-isomorphism"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>RDF Dataset Comparison</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-dataset-conneg"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Content Negotiation of RDF Datasets</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-Datatypes"><span class="secno">5. </span>Datatypes</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#xsd-datatypes"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>The XML Schema Built-in Datatypes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-html"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>The <code>rdf:HTML</code> Datatype</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-XMLLiteral"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> Datatype</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#datatype-maps"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Datatype IRIs</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-fragID"><span class="secno">6. </span>Fragment Identifiers</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-generalized-rdf"><span class="secno">7. </span>Generalized RDF Triples, Graphs, and Datasets</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#section-Acknowledgments"><span class="secno">8. </span>Acknowledgments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#changes"><span class="secno">A. </span>Changes between RDF 2004 and RDF 1.1</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#change-log"><span class="secno">B. </span>Change Log</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#changes-wd4"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Changes from 15 January 2013 WD to this version</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#changes-wd3"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Changes from 05 June 2012 WD to this version</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#changes-wd2"><span class="secno">B.3 </span>Changes from FPWD to 05 June 2012 WD</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#changes-fpwd"><span class="secno">B.4 </span>Changes from RDF 2004 to FPWD</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#references"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#normative-references"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#informative-references"><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+
+
+
+
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Graph-based Data Model</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#resources-and-statements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Resources and Statements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#referents" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>The Referent of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#vocabularies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>RDF Vocabularies and Namespace IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#change-over-time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.5 </span>RDF and Change Over Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#managing-graphs" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.6 </span>Working with Multiple RDF Graphs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#entailment" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.7 </span>Equivalence, Entailment and Inconsistency</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-documents" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.8 </span>RDF Documents and Syntaxes</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conformance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Conformance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-rdf-graph" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>RDF Graphs</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-triples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Triples</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-IRIs" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Graph-Literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-blank-nodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Blank Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-skolemization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#graph-isomorphism" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Graph Comparison</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-dataset" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>RDF Datasets</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-dataset-isomorphism" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>RDF Dataset Comparison</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-dataset-conneg" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Content Negotiation of RDF Datasets</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Datatypes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Datatypes</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#xsd-datatypes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>The XML Schema Built-in Datatypes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-html" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>The <code>rdf:HTML</code> Datatype</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-XMLLiteral" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> Datatype</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#datatype-maps" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Datatype IRIs</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-fragID" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Fragment Identifiers</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-generalized-rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Generalized RDF Triples, Graphs, and Datasets</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Acknowledgments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8. </span>Acknowledgments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Changes between RDF 2004 and RDF 1.1</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#change-log" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Change Log</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-wd5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Changes from 23 July 2013 LC to this version</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-wd4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Changes from 15 January 2013 WD to this version</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-wd3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.3 </span>Changes from 05 June 2012 WD to this version</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-wd2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.4 </span>Changes from FPWD to 05 June 2012 WD</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-fpwd" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.5 </span>Changes from RDF 2004 to FPWD</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+
 
 </div>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-Introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-Introduction" class="informative">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section id="section-Introduction" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Introduction"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
     <p>The <em>Resource Description Framework</em> (RDF) is a framework
     for representing information in the Web.</p>
@@ -319,164 +371,166 @@
 
     <ul>
       <li>the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">formal
-      model-theoretic semantics for RDF and RDFS</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF11-MT" class="bibref">RDF11-MT</a></cite>].</li>
-      
+      model-theoretic semantics for RDF and RDFS</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">RDF11-MT</a></cite>].</li>
+
       <li>serialization syntaxes for storing and exchanging RDF
-      (e.g., <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">Turtle</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-TURTLE-CR" class="bibref">TURTLE-CR</a></cite>]
+      (e.g., <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">Turtle</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>]
       and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/">RDF/XML</a>
-      [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR" class="bibref">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>]),</li>
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>]),</li>
 
       <li>the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">SPARQL
-      Query Language</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY" class="bibref">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>],</li>
+      Query Language</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>],</li>
 
       <li>the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">RDF Vocabulary
-      Description Language</a> (RDFS) [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA" class="bibref">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>],</li>
+      Description Language</a> (RDFS) [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>],</li>
     </ul>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#data-model" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="data-model">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Graph-based Data Model</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section id="data-model" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_data-model"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Graph-based Data Model</h3>
 
     <p>The core structure of the abstract syntax is a set of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" title="RDF triple">triples</a>, each consisting of a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>,
-    a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-predicate">predicate</a> and an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-object">object</a>. A set of such triples is called
-    an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>. An RDF graph can be visualized as a node and
+    <a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">triples</a>, each consisting of a <a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">subject</a>,
+    a <a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">predicate</a> and an <a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">object</a>. A set of such triples is called
+    an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>. An RDF graph can be visualized as a node and
     directed-arc diagram, in which each triple is represented as a
     node-arc-node link.</p>
 
-    <figure id="fig-an-rdf-graph-with-two-nodes-subject-and-object-and-a-triple-connecting-them-predicate" class="figure">
+    <figure id="fig-an-rdf-graph-with-two-nodes-subject-and-object-and-a-triple-connecting-them-predicate">
       <a href="rdf-graph.svg"><img src="rdf-graph.svg" alt="An RDF graph with two nodes (Subject and Object) and a triple connecting them (Predicate)"></a>
-    <figcaption>Fig. <span class="figno">1</span> <span class="fig-title">An RDF graph with two nodes (Subject and Object) and a triple connecting them (Predicate)</span></figcaption></figure>
+      <figcaption>Fig. <span class="figno">1</span> <span class="fig-title">An RDF graph with two nodes (Subject and Object) and a triple connecting them (Predicate)</span></figcaption>
+    </figure>
 
-    <p>There can be three kinds of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-node" title="node">nodes</a> in an
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>: <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a>,
-    and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node" title="blank node">blank nodes</a>.</p>
+    <p>There can be three kinds of <a title="node" href="#dfn-node" class="internalDFN">nodes</a> in an
+    <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>: <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>, <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a>,
+    and <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank nodes</a>.</p>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#resources-and-statements" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="resources-and-statements">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Resources and Statements</h3>
+<section id="resources-and-statements" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_resources-and-statements"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Resources and Statements</h3>
 
-    <p>Any <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1">literal</a> <dfn id="dfn-denote" title="denote">denotes</dfn>
+    <p>Any <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a> <dfn title="denote" id="dfn-denote">denotes</dfn>
     something in the world (the "universe of discourse").
     These things are called
-    <dfn id="dfn-resource" title="resource">resources</dfn>. Anything can be a resource,
+    <dfn title="resource" id="dfn-resource">resources</dfn>. Anything can be a resource,
     including physical things, documents, abstract concepts, numbers
-    and strings; the term is synonymous with “entity”.
-    The resource denoted by an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is called its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-referent">referent</a>, and the
+    and strings; the term is synonymous with "entity" as it is used in
+		the RDF Semantics specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>].
+    The resource denoted by an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is called its <a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">referent</a>, and the
     resource denoted by a literal is called its
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-value" title="literal value">literal value</a>. Literals have
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype" title="datatype">datatypes</a> that define the range of possible
+    <a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">literal value</a>. Literals have
+    <a title="datatype" href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">datatypes</a> that define the range of possible
     values, such as strings, numbers, and dates. A special kind of literals,
-    <a>language-tagged strings</a>, denote plain-text strings in a
+    <a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">language-tagged strings</a>, denote plain-text strings in a
     natural language.</p>
 
-    <p>Asserting an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple">RDF triple</a> says that <em>some relationship,
-    indicated by the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-predicate">predicate</a>, holds between the
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource" title="resource">resources</a> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote" title="denote">denoted</a> by
-    the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-object">object</a></em>. This statement corresponding
+    <p>Asserting an <a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">RDF triple</a> says that <em>some relationship,
+    indicated by the <a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">predicate</a>, holds between the
+    <a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resources</a> <a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denoted</a> by
+    the <a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">subject</a> and <a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">object</a></em>. This statement corresponding
     to an RDF triple is known as an <dfn id="dfn-rdf-statement">RDF statement</dfn>.
-    The predicate itself is an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> and denotes a <dfn id="dfn-property">property</dfn>,
-    that is, a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource">resource</a> that can be thought of as a binary relation.
+    The predicate itself is an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> and denotes a <dfn id="dfn-property">property</dfn>,
+    that is, a <a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resource</a> that can be thought of as a binary relation.
     (Relations that involve more than two entities can only be
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-n-aryRelations/">indirectly
-    expressed in RDF</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS" class="bibref">SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS</a></cite>].)</p>
+    expressed in RDF</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS">SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS</a></cite>].)</p>
 
-    <p>Unlike <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a>,
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node" title="blank node">blank nodes</a> do not denote specific
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource" title="resource">resources</a>.
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" title="RDF statement">Statements</a> involving
+    <p>Unlike <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> and <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a>,
+    <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank nodes</a> do not denote specific
+    <a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resources</a>.
+    <a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">Statements</a> involving
     blank nodes say that something with the given
     relationships exists, without explicitly naming it.</p>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#referents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="referents">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>The Referent of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></h3>
+<section id="referents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_referents"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>The Referent of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></h3>
 
-		<p>The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource">resource</a> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote" title="denote">denoted</a> by an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
-		is also called its <dfn id="dfn-referent">referent</dfn>. For some IRIs with particular
-		meanings, such as those identifying XSD datatypes, the referent is
-		fixed by this specification. For all other IRIs, what exactly is
-		denoted by any given <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is not defined by this specification. Other
-		specifications may fix <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> referents, or apply other constraints on
-		what may be the referent of any <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>.</p>
+    <p>The <a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resource</a> <a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denoted</a> by an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
+    is also called its <dfn id="dfn-referent">referent</dfn>. For some IRIs with particular
+    meanings, such as those identifying XSD datatypes, the referent is
+    fixed by this specification. For all other IRIs, what exactly is
+    denoted by any given <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is not defined by this specification. Other
+    specifications may fix <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> referents, or apply other constraints on
+    what may be the referent of any <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>.</p>
 
-    <p>Guidelines for determining the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-referent">referent</a> of an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> are
+    <p>Guidelines for determining the <a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">referent</a> of an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> are
     provided in other documents, like
     <em><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/">Architecture of the
-    World Wide Web, Volume One</a></em> [<cite><a href="#bib-WEBARCH" class="bibref">WEBARCH</a></cite>] and
+    World Wide Web, Volume One</a></em> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">WEBARCH</a></cite>] and
     <em><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">Cool URIs for the
-    Semantic Web</a></em> [<cite><a href="#bib-COOLURIS" class="bibref">COOLURIS</a></cite>].
+    Semantic Web</a></em> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-COOLURIS">COOLURIS</a></cite>].
     A very brief, informal and partial account follows:</p>
 
     <ul>
     <li>IRIs have global scope: Two different appearances of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
-		<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote">denote</a> the same <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource">resource</a>.</li>
-		
+    <a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denote</a> the same <a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resource</a>.</li>
+
     <li>By social convention, the
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-ownership"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> owner</a>
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-WEBARCH" class="bibref">WEBARCH</a></cite>] gets to say what what the intended (or usual)
-		referent of an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> is.  Applications and users need not
-		abide by this intended denotation, but there may be a loss of
-		interoperability with other applications and users if they do
-		not do so.</li>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">WEBARCH</a></cite>] gets to say what the intended (or usual)
+    referent of an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> is.  Applications and users need not
+    abide by this intended denotation, but there may be a loss of
+    interoperability with other applications and users if they do
+    not do so.</li>
 
-    <li>The <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> owner can establish the intended <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-referent">referent</a>
+    <li>The <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> owner can establish the intended <a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">referent</a>
     by means of a specification or other document that explains
     what is denoted. For example, the
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">Organization Ontology
-    document</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-vocab-org" class="bibref">vocab-org</a></cite>] specifies the intended referents
+    document</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-VOCAB-ORG">VOCAB-ORG</a></cite>] specifies the intended referents
     of various IRIs that start with
     <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/org#</code>.</li>
 
     <li>A good way of communicating the intended referent
     is to set up the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> so that it
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-dereference">dereferences</a>
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-WEBARCH" class="bibref">WEBARCH</a></cite>] to such a document.</li>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">WEBARCH</a></cite>] to such a document.</li>
 
-    <li>Such a document can, in fact, be an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-document">RDF document</a>
+    <li>Such a document can, in fact, be an <a href="#dfn-rdf-document" class="internalDFN">RDF document</a>
     that describes the denoted resource by means of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" title="RDF statement">RDF statements</a>.</li>
+    <a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">RDF statements</a>.</li>
     </ul>
 
-    <p>Perhaps the most important characteristic of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>
-    in web architecture is that they can be 
+    <p>Perhaps the most important characteristic of <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>
+    in web architecture is that they can be
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-dereference">dereferenced</a>,
     and hence serve as starting points for interactions with a remote server.
     This specification is not concerned with such interactions.
     It does not define an interaction model. It only treats IRIs as globally
     unique identifiers in a graph data model that describes resources.
-		However, those interactions are critical to the concept of
-		<em><a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">Linked Data</a></em> [<cite><a href="#bib-LINKED-DATA" class="bibref">LINKED-DATA</a></cite>],
-		which makes use of the RDF data model and serialization formats.</p>
+    However, those interactions are critical to the concept of
+    <em><a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">Linked Data</a></em> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-LINKED-DATA">LINKED-DATA</a></cite>],
+    which makes use of the RDF data model and serialization formats.</p>
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#vocabularies" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="vocabularies">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.4 </span>RDF Vocabularies and Namespace IRIs</h3>
+<section id="vocabularies" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_vocabularies"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>RDF Vocabularies and Namespace IRIs</h3>
 
-    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-vocabulary">RDF vocabulary</dfn> is a collection of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>
-    intended for use in <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>. For example,
-    the IRIs documented in [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA" class="bibref">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>] are the RDF Schema vocabulary.
+    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-vocabulary">RDF vocabulary</dfn> is a collection of <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>
+    intended for use in <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>. For example,
+    the IRIs documented in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>] are the RDF Schema vocabulary.
     RDF Schema can itself be used to define and document additional
     RDF vocabularies. Some such vocabularies are mentioned in the
-    Primer [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER" class="bibref">RDF-PRIMER</a></cite>].</p>
+    Primer [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER">RDF-PRIMER</a></cite>].</p>
 
-    <p>The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a> in an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary">RDF vocabulary</a> often begin with
+    <p>The <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> in an <a href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">RDF vocabulary</a> often begin with
     a common substring known as a <dfn id="dfn-namespace-iri">namespace <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>.
     Some namespace IRIs are associated by convention with a short name
     known as a <dfn id="dfn-namespace-prefix">namespace prefix</dfn>. Some examples:
 
     </p><table class="simple">
-			<caption>Some example namespace prefixes and IRIs</caption>
+      <caption>Some example namespace prefixes and IRIs</caption>
       <tbody><tr><th>Namespace prefix</th><th>Namespace <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></th><th>RDF vocabulary</th></tr>
-      <tr><td>rdf</td><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</code></a></td><td>The RDF built-in vocabulary [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA" class="bibref">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>rdfs</td><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"><code>http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#</code></a></td><td>The RDF Schema vocabulary [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA" class="bibref">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>xsd</td><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"><code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</code></a></td><td>The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">RDF-compatible XSD types</a></td></tr>
+      <tr><td>rdf</td><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</code></a></td><td>The RDF built-in vocabulary [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+      <tr><td>rdfs</td><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"><code>http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#</code></a></td><td>The RDF Schema vocabulary [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+      <tr><td>xsd</td><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"><code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</code></a></td><td>The <a href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types" class="internalDFN">RDF-compatible XSD types</a></td></tr>
     </tbody></table>
 
-    <p>In some serialization formats it is common to abbreviate <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>
-    that start with <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace-iri" title="namespace IRI">namespace IRIs</a> by using a
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace-prefix">namespace prefix</a> in order to assist readability. For example, the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
+    <p>In some serialization formats it is common to abbreviate <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>
+    that start with <a title="namespace IRI" href="#dfn-namespace-iri" class="internalDFN">namespace IRIs</a> by using a
+    <a href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" class="internalDFN">namespace prefix</a> in order to assist readability. For example, the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
     <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral</code>
     would be abbreviated as <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code>.
     Note however that these abbreviations are <em>not</em> valid IRIs,
@@ -487,54 +541,54 @@
 
     <p>The term “<dfn id="dfn-namespace">namespace</dfn>” on its own does not have a
     well-defined meaning in the context of RDF, but is sometimes informally
-    used to mean “<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace-iri">namespace <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>” or “<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary">RDF vocabulary</a>”.</p>
+    used to mean “<a href="#dfn-namespace-iri" class="internalDFN">namespace <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>” or “<a href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">RDF vocabulary</a>”.</p>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#change-over-time" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="change-over-time">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.5 </span>RDF and Change Over Time</h3>
+<section id="change-over-time" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_change-over-time"><span class="secno">1.5 </span>RDF and Change Over Time</h3>
 
     <p>The RDF data model is <em>atemporal</em>: It does not deal with time,
     and does not have a built-in notion of temporal validity of information.
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a> are static snapshots of
+    <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a> are static snapshots of
     information.</p>
 
-    <p>However, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a> can express information
+    <p>However, <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a> can express information
     about events and about temporal aspects of other entities,
-    given appropriate <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" title="RDF vocabulary">vocabulary</a> terms.</p>
+    given appropriate <a title="RDF vocabulary" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">vocabulary</a> terms.</p>
 
-    <p>Since <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a> are defined as mathematical
-    sets, adding or removing <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" title="RDF triple">triples</a> from an
+    <p>Since <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a> are defined as mathematical
+    sets, adding or removing <a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">triples</a> from an
     RDF graph yields a different RDF graph.</p>
 
     <p>We informally use the term <dfn id="dfn-rdf-source">RDF source</dfn> to refer to a
     persistent yet mutable source or container of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>. An RDF source is a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource">resource</a>
+    <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>. An RDF source is a <a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resource</a>
     that may be said to have a state that can change over time.
     A snapshot of the state can be expressed as an RDF graph.
     For example, any web document that has an RDF-bearing representation
     may be considered an RDF source. Like all resources, RDF sources may
-    be named with <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a> and therefore described in
+    be named with <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> and therefore described in
     other RDF graphs.</p>
 
     <p>Intuitively speaking, changes in the universe of discourse
     can be reflected in the following ways:</p>
 
     <ul>
-      <li>An <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>, once <a title="minting">minted</a>, should never
-      change its intended <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-referent">referent</a>. (See
+      <li>An <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>, once minted, should never
+      change its intended <a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">referent</a>. (See
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#URI-persistence"><abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr>
-      persistence</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-WEBARCH" class="bibref">WEBARCH</a></cite>].)</li>
-      <li><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">Literals</a>, by design, are constants and
-      never change their <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-value" title="literal value">value</a>.</li>
-      <li>Some <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-property" title="property">properties</a> may change over time.
-      A relationship that holds between two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource" title="resource">resources</a>
+      persistence</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">WEBARCH</a></cite>].)</li>
+      <li><a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">Literals</a>, by design, are constants and
+      never change their <a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">value</a>.</li>
+      <li>Some <a title="property" href="#dfn-property" class="internalDFN">properties</a> may change over time.
+      A relationship that holds between two <a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resources</a>
       at one time may not hold at another time.</li>
-      <li><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-source" title="RDF source">RDF sources</a> may change their state
+      <li><a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">RDF sources</a> may change their state
       over time.
-      That is, they may provide different <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>
+      That is, they may provide different <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>
       at different times.</li>
-      <li>Some <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-source" title="RDF source">RDF sources</a> may, however, be immutable
+      <li>Some <a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">RDF sources</a> may, however, be immutable
       snapshots of another RDF source, archiving its state at some
       point in time.</li>
     </ul>
@@ -542,97 +596,97 @@
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#managing-graphs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="managing-graphs">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.6 </span>Working with Multiple RDF Graphs</h3>
+<section id="managing-graphs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_managing-graphs"><span class="secno">1.6 </span>Working with Multiple RDF Graphs</h3>
 
     <p>As RDF graphs are sets of triples, they can be
-    <a title="merge">combined</a> easily, supporting the use of data from
+    combined easily, supporting the use of data from
     multiple sources. Nevertheless, it is sometimes desirable to work
     with multiple RDF graphs while keeping their contents separate.
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF dataset">RDF datasets</a> support this requirement.</p>
+    <a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF datasets</a> support this requirement.</p>
 
-    <p>An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset">RDF dataset</a> is a collection of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>. All but one of these graphs have
-    an associated <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or blank node. They are called
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-named-graph" title="named graph">named graphs</a>, and the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> or blank node
-		is called the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-graph-name">graph name</a>.
+    <p>An <a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset</a> is a collection of
+    <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>. All but one of these graphs have
+    an associated <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or blank node. They are called
+    <a title="named graph" href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">named graphs</a>, and the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> or blank node
+    is called the <a href="#dfn-graph-name" class="internalDFN">graph name</a>.
     The remaining graph does not have an associated <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>, and is called
-    the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-default-graph">default graph</a> of the RDF dataset.</p>
+    the <a href="#dfn-default-graph" class="internalDFN">default graph</a> of the RDF dataset.</p>
 
-    <p>There are many possible uses for <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF dataset">RDF datasets</a>.
+    <p>There are many possible uses for <a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF datasets</a>.
     One such use is to hold snapshots of multiple
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-source" title="RDF source">RDF sources</a>.</p>
+    <a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">RDF sources</a>.</p>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#entailment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="entailment">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.7 </span>Equivalence, Entailment and Inconsistency</h3>
+<section id="entailment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_entailment"><span class="secno">1.7 </span>Equivalence, Entailment and Inconsistency</h3>
 
-    <p>An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple">RDF triple</a> encodes a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" title="RDF statement">statement</a>—a
+    <p>An <a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">RDF triple</a> encodes a <a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">statement</a>—a
     simple <dfn id="dfn-logical-expression">logical expression</dfn>, or claim about the world.
-    An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> is the conjunction (logical <em>AND</em>) of
+    An <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> is the conjunction (logical <em>AND</em>) of
     its triples.   The precise details of this meaning of RDF triples and graphs are
-		the subject of the RDF Semantics specification [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-MT" class="bibref">RDF-MT</a></cite>], which yields the
-		following relationships between <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>s:</p>
+    the subject of the RDF Semantics specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>], which yields the
+    following relationships between <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>s:</p>
 
     <dl>
     <dt><dfn id="dfn-entailment">Entailment</dfn></dt>
-    <dd>An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> <em>A</em> entails another RDF graph <em>B</em>
+    <dd>An <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> <em>A</em> entails another RDF graph <em>B</em>
     if every possible arrangement of the world
     that makes <em>A</em> true also makes <em>B</em> true. When <em>A</em>
     entails <em>B</em>, if the truth of <em>A</em> is presumed or demonstrated
     then the truth of <em>B</em> is established.</dd>
 
     <dt><dfn id="dfn-equivalence">Equivalence</dfn></dt>
-    <dd>Two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a> <em>A</em> and <em>B</em>
+    <dd>Two <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a> <em>A</em> and <em>B</em>
     are equivalent if they make the same claim about the world.
     <em>A</em> is equivalent to <em>B</em> if and only if
-    <em>A</em> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entailment" title="entailment">entails</a> <em>B</em> and
+    <em>A</em> <a title="entailment" href="#dfn-entailment" class="internalDFN">entails</a> <em>B</em> and
     <em>B</em> entails <em>A</em>.</dd>
 
     <dt><dfn id="dfn-inconsistency">Inconsistency</dfn></dt>
-    <dd>An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> is inconsistent if it contains
+    <dd>An <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> is inconsistent if it contains
     an internal contradiction. There is no possible arrangement
     of the world that would make the expression true.</dd>
     </dl>
 
-    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-entailment-regime">entailment regime</dfn> [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-MT" class="bibref">RDF-MT</a></cite>] is a specification that
-    defines precise conditions that make these relationships hold. 
+    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-entailment-regime">entailment regime</dfn> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>] is a specification that
+    defines precise conditions that make these relationships hold.
     RDF itself recognizes only some basic cases of entailment, equivalence
     and inconsistency. Other specifications, such as
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">RDF Schema</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA" class="bibref">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">RDF Schema</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]
     and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">OWL 2</a>
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW" class="bibref">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>], add more powerful entailment regimes,
-    as do some domain-specific <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" title="RDF vocabulary">vocabularies</a>.
-		</p>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>], add more powerful entailment regimes,
+    as do some domain-specific <a title="RDF vocabulary" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">vocabularies</a>.
+    </p>
 
     <p>This specification does not constrain how implementations
-    use the logical relationships defined by 
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entailment-regime" title="entailment regime">entailment regimes</a>.
+    use the logical relationships defined by
+    <a title="entailment regime" href="#dfn-entailment-regime" class="internalDFN">entailment regimes</a>.
     Implementations may or may not detect
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-inconsistency" title="inconsistency">inconsistencies</a>, and may make all,
-    some or no <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entailment" title="entailment">entailed</a> information
+    <a title="inconsistency" href="#dfn-inconsistency" class="internalDFN">inconsistencies</a>, and may make all,
+    some or no <a title="entailment" href="#dfn-entailment" class="internalDFN">entailed</a> information
     available to users.</p>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#rdf-documents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="rdf-documents">
-    <h3><span class="secno">1.8 </span>RDF Documents and Syntaxes</h3>
+<section id="rdf-documents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_rdf-documents"><span class="secno">1.8 </span>RDF Documents and Syntaxes</h3>
 
     <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-document">RDF document</dfn> is a document that encodes an
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> or <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset">RDF dataset</a> in a <dfn id="dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax">concrete RDF syntax</dfn>,
-    such as Turtle [<cite><a href="#bib-TURTLE-CR" class="bibref">TURTLE-CR</a></cite>], RDFa [<cite><a href="#bib-RDFA-PRIMER" class="bibref">RDFA-PRIMER</a></cite>], JSON-LD [<cite><a href="#bib-JSON-LD" class="bibref">JSON-LD</a></cite>],
-    RDF/XML [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR" class="bibref">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>], or N-Triples [<cite><a href="#bib-N-TRIPLES" class="bibref">N-TRIPLES</a></cite>].  
+    <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> or <a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset</a> in a <dfn id="dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax">concrete RDF syntax</dfn>,
+    such as Turtle [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>], RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFA-PRIMER">RDFA-PRIMER</a></cite>], JSON-LD [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>],
+    RDF/XML [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>], or N-Triples [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES">N-TRIPLES</a></cite>].
     RDF documents enable the exchange of RDF graphs and RDF datasets
     between systems.</p>
 
-    <p>A <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax">concrete RDF syntax</a> may offer
-    many different ways to encode the same <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> or
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset">RDF dataset</a>, for example through the use of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" title="namespace prefix">namespace prefixes</a>,
-    relative IRIs, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</a>,
+    <p>A <a href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">concrete RDF syntax</a> may offer
+    many different ways to encode the same <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> or
+    <a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset</a>, for example through the use of
+    <a title="namespace prefix" href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" class="internalDFN">namespace prefixes</a>,
+    relative IRIs, <a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">blank node identifiers</a>,
     and different ordering of statements. While these aspects can have great
-    effect on the convenience of working with the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-document">RDF document</a>,
+    effect on the convenience of working with the <a href="#dfn-rdf-document" class="internalDFN">RDF document</a>,
     they are not significant for its meaning.</p>
 </section>
 
@@ -640,21 +694,21 @@
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="conformance"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Conformance</h2>
+<section id="conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_conformance"><span class="secno">2. </span>Conformance</h2>
 <p>
   As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples,
   and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is
   normative.
 </p>
 <p>
-  The key words <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em>, <em title="MUST NOT" class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</em>, <em title="REQUIRED" class="rfc2119">REQUIRED</em>, <em title="SHOULD" class="rfc2119">SHOULD</em>, <em title="SHOULD NOT" class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</em>, <em title="RECOMMENDED" class="rfc2119">RECOMMENDED</em>, <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em>,
-  and <em title="OPTIONAL" class="rfc2119">OPTIONAL</em> in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC2119" class="bibref">RFC2119</a></cite>].
+  The key words <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">MUST NOT</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED">REQUIRED</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">SHOULD NOT</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">RECOMMENDED</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em>,
+  and <em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL">OPTIONAL</em> in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].
 </p>
 
     <p>This specification, <em>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em>,
     defines a data model and related terminology for use in
     other specifications, such as
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" title="concrete RDF syntax">concrete RDF syntaxes</a>,
+    <a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">concrete RDF syntaxes</a>,
     API specifications, and query languages.
     Implementations cannot directly conform to
     <em>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em>,
@@ -663,97 +717,98 @@
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-rdf-graph" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-rdf-graph">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>RDF Graphs</h2>
+<section id="section-rdf-graph" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-rdf-graph"><span class="secno">3. </span>RDF Graphs</h2>
 
     <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</dfn> is a set of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" title="RDF triple">RDF triples</a>.</p>
+    <a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">RDF triples</a>.</p>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-triples">
-    <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Triples</h3>
+<section id="section-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-triples"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Triples</h3>
 
     <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-triple">RDF triple</dfn> consists of three components:</p>
 
     <ul>
       <li>the <dfn id="dfn-subject">subject</dfn>, which is an
-      <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node">blank node</a></li>
+      <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or a <a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank node</a></li>
 
-      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-predicate">predicate</dfn>, which is an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a></li>
+      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-predicate">predicate</dfn>, which is an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a></li>
 
-      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-object">object</dfn>, which is an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>,
-      a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1">literal</a> or a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node">blank node</a></li>
+      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-object">object</dfn>, which is an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>,
+      a <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a> or a <a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank node</a></li>
     </ul>
 
     <p>An RDF triple is conventionally written in the order subject,
     predicate, object.</p>
-    
-    <p>The set of <dfn id="dfn-node" title="node">nodes</dfn> of an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>
+
+    <p>The set of <dfn title="node" id="dfn-node">nodes</dfn> of an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>
     is the set of subjects and objects of triples in the graph.
     It is possible for a predicate <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> to also occur as a node in
     the same graph.</p>
 
-    <p><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a> and
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node" title="blank node">blank nodes</a> are collectively known as
-    <dfn id="dfn-rdf-term" title="RDF term">RDF terms</dfn>.</p>
+    <p><a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>, <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> and
+    <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank nodes</a> are collectively known as
+    <dfn title="RDF term" id="dfn-rdf-term">RDF terms</dfn>.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class=""><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a>
-    and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node" title="blank node">blank nodes</a> are distinct and distinguishable.
+    <p><a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>, <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a>
+    and <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank nodes</a> are distinct and distinguishable.
     For example, <code>http://example.org/</code> as a string literal
     is not equal to <code>http://example.org/</code> as an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>,
-    nor to a blank node with the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier">blank node identifier</a>
-    <code>http://example.org/</code>.</p></div>
+    nor to a blank node with the <a href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">blank node identifier</a>
+    <code>http://example.org/</code>.</p>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-IRIs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-IRIs">
-    <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>IRIs</h3>
+<section id="section-IRIs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-IRIs"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>IRIs</h3>
 
-    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-iri" title="IRI"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>
+    <p>An <dfn title="IRI" id="dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>
     (Internationalized Resource Identifier) within an RDF graph
-    is a Unicode string [<cite><a href="#bib-UNICODE" class="bibref">UNICODE</a></cite>] that conforms to the syntax
-    defined in RFC 3987 [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3987" class="bibref">RFC3987</a></cite>].</p>
+    is a Unicode string [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] that conforms to the syntax
+    defined in RFC 3987 [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>].</p>
 
-    <p>IRIs in the RDF abstract syntax <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em> be absolute, and <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em>
+    <p>IRIs in the RDF abstract syntax <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> be absolute, and <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em>
     contain a fragment identifier.</p>
 
     <p><dfn id="dfn-iri-equality"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> equality</dfn>:
     Two IRIs are equal if and only if they are equivalent
     under Simple String Comparison according to
     <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5.1">section 5.1</a>
-    of [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3987" class="bibref">RFC3987</a></cite>]. Further normalization <em title="MUST NOT" class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</em> be performed when
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]. Further normalization <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">MUST NOT</em> be performed when
     comparing IRIs for equality.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><div class="" id="note-iris">
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_1"><span>Note</span></div><div class="" id="note-iris">
     <p><strong>URIs and IRIs:</strong>
     IRIs are a generalization of
-    <dfn id="dfn-uri" title="URI"><abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr>s</dfn> [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3986" class="bibref">RFC3986</a></cite>] that permits a much wider range of Unicode characters.
+    <dfn title="URI" id="dfn-uri"><abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr>s</dfn>
+		[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>] that permits a wider range of Unicode characters.
     Every absolute <abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr> and URL is an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>, but not every <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is an <abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr>.
     When IRIs are used in operations that are only
     defined for URIs, they must first be converted according to
     the mapping defined in
     <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-3.1">section 3.1</a>
-    of [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3987" class="bibref">RFC3987</a></cite>]. A notable example is retrieval over the HTTP
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]. A notable example is retrieval over the HTTP
     protocol. The mapping involves UTF-8 encoding of non-ASCII
     characters, %-encoding of octets not allowed in URIs, and
     Punycode-encoding of domain names.</p>
 
     <p><strong>Relative IRIs:</strong>
-    Some <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" title="concrete RDF syntax">concrete RDF syntaxes</a> permit
-    <dfn id="dfn-relative-iri" title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</dfn> as a convenient shorthand
+    Some <a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">concrete RDF syntaxes</a> permit
+    <dfn title="relative IRI" id="dfn-relative-iri">relative IRIs</dfn> as a convenient shorthand
     that allows authoring of documents independently from their final
     publishing location. Relative IRIs must be
     <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.2">resolved
     against</a> a <dfn id="dfn-base-iri">base <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn> to make them absolute.
     Therefore, the RDF graph serialized in such syntaxes is well-defined only
     if a <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1">base <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
-    can be established</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3986" class="bibref">RFC3986</a></cite>].</p>
+    can be established</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>].</p>
 
       <p><strong><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> normalization:</strong>
       Interoperability problems can be avoided by minting
       only IRIs that are normalized according to
       <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5">Section 5</a>
-      of [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3987" class="bibref">RFC3987</a></cite>]. Non-normalized forms that are best avoided
+      of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]. Non-normalized forms that are best avoided
       include:</p>
 
       <ul>
@@ -774,111 +829,112 @@
         <li>Punycode-encoding of Internationalized Domain Names
           in IRIs</li>
         <li>IRIs that are not in Unicode Normalization
-          Form C [<cite><a href="#bib-NFC" class="bibref">NFC</a></cite>]</li>
+          Form C [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-NFC">NFC</a></cite>]</li>
       </ul>
     </div></div>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-Graph-Literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-Graph-Literal">
-    <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Literals</h3>
+<section id="section-Graph-Literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-Graph-Literal"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Literals</h3>
 
     <p>Literals are used for values such as strings, numbers and dates.</p>
 
-    <p>A <dfn id="dfn-literal">literal</dfn> in an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> consists of two or three
+    <p>A <dfn id="dfn-literal">literal</dfn> in an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> consists of two or three
     elements:</p>
 
     <ul>
-    <li>a <dfn id="dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</dfn>, being a Unicode [<cite><a href="#bib-UNICODE" class="bibref">UNICODE</a></cite>] string,
-    which <em title="SHOULD" class="rfc2119">SHOULD</em> be in Normal Form C [<cite><a href="#bib-NFC" class="bibref">NFC</a></cite>],</li>
-    <li>a <dfn id="dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>, being an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> that determines
-    how the lexical form maps to a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-value">literal value</a>.</li>
+    <li>a <dfn id="dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</dfn>, being a Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] string,
+    which <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em> be in Normal Form C [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-NFC">NFC</a></cite>],</li>
+    <li>a <dfn id="dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>, being an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> identifying a
+		datatype that determines how the lexical form maps to a
+		<a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">literal value</a>.</li>
     </ul>
 
     <p>A literal is a <dfn id="dfn-language-tagged-string">language-tagged string</dfn> if and only if its
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> is
+    <a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> is
     <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString</code>,
     and only in this case the third element is present:</p>
 
     <ul>
-    <li>a non-empty <dfn id="dfn-language-tag">language tag</dfn> as defined by [<cite><a href="#bib-BCP47" class="bibref">BCP47</a></cite>].
-    The language tag <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em> be well-formed according to
+    <li>a non-empty <dfn id="dfn-language-tag">language tag</dfn> as defined by [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>].
+    The language tag <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> be well-formed according to
     <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">section 2.2.9</a>
-    of [<cite><a href="#bib-BCP47" class="bibref">BCP47</a></cite>]. Lexical representations of language tags <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> be converted to
-		lower case.  The value space of language tags is always in lower case.</li>
-		<li>A badly formed language tag <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em> be treated as a syntax error.</li>
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>]. Lexical representations of language tags <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> be converted to
+    lower case.  The value space of language tags is always in lower case.</li>
+    <li>A badly formed language tag <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> be treated as a syntax error.</li>
     </ul>
 
-		<div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-language-tag-regex">
-		Implementors might wish to note that language tags conform to the
-		regular expression <code>’@’ [a-zA-Z]{1,8} (’-’
-		[a-zA-Z0-9]{1,8})*</code>
-		before normalizing to lowercase.</p></div>
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-language-tag-regex">
+    Implementors might wish to note that language tags conform to the
+    regular expression <code>’@’ [a-zA-Z]{1,8} (’-’
+    [a-zA-Z0-9]{1,8})*</code>
+    before normalizing to lowercase.</p></div>
 
-		<p>Multiple literals may have the same lexical form.</p>
+    <p>Multiple literals may have the same lexical form.</p>
 
-    <p>Concrete syntaxes <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> support <dfn id="dfn-simple-literal" title="simple literal">simple
-    literals</dfn>, consisting of only a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</a>
+    <p>Concrete syntaxes <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> support <dfn title="simple literal" id="dfn-simple-literal">simple
+    literals</dfn>, consisting of only a <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a>
     without any datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> or language tag. Simple literals only
     exist in concrete syntaxes, and are treated as
     syntactic sugar for abstract syntax
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a> with the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
+    <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> with the <a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
     <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string</code>.</p>
 
-		<p><dfn id="dfn-literal-term-equality">Literal term equality</dfn>: Two literals are term-equal
-		(the same RDF literal) if and only if the two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-form" title="lexical form">lexical forms</a>, the
-		two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype-iri" title="datatype IRI">datatype IRIs</a>, and the two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tag" title="language tag">language tags</a> (if any) compare equal,
-		character by character.</p>
-		
-		<p>Two literals can have the same value without being the same
-		<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-term" title="RDF Term">RDF term</a>.  For example:
-		
-		</p><pre>		"1"^^xs:integer
-		"01"^^xs:integer
-		</pre>
-		
-		<p>denote the same value, but are not the same literal
-		<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-term" title="RDF Term">RDF terms</a> and are not term-equals.</p>
-		
-		<p>The <dfn id="dfn-literal-value">literal value</dfn> associated with a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1">literal</a> is:</p>
+    <p><dfn id="dfn-literal-term-equality">Literal term equality</dfn>: Two literals are term-equal
+    (the same RDF literal) if and only if the two <a title="lexical form" href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical forms</a>, the
+    two <a title="datatype IRI" href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype IRIs</a>, and the two <a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">language tags</a> (if any) compare equal,
+    character by character.</p>
+
+    <p>Two literals can have the same value without being the same
+    <a title="RDF Term" href="#dfn-rdf-term" class="internalDFN">RDF term</a>.  For example:
+
+    </p><pre>    "1"^^xs:integer
+    "01"^^xs:integer
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>denote the same value, but are not the same literal
+    <a title="RDF Term" href="#dfn-rdf-term" class="internalDFN">RDF terms</a> and are not term-equals.</p>
+
+    <p>The <dfn id="dfn-literal-value">literal value</dfn> associated with a <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a> is:</p>
 
     <ol>
-    <li><strong>If the literal is a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string">language-tagged string</a>,</strong>
-    then the literal value is a pair consisting of its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</a>
-    and its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tag">language tag</a>, in that order.</li>
-    <li><strong>If the literal's <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> is not
-		<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" title="recognized datatype IRIs">recognized</a> by an
-		implementation,</strong> then the literal value
+    <li><strong>If the literal is a <a href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">language-tagged string</a>,</strong>
+    then the literal value is a pair consisting of its <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a>
+    and its <a href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">language tag</a>, in that order.</li>
+    <li><strong>If the literal's <a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> is not
+    <a title="recognized datatype IRIs" href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">recognized</a> by an
+    implementation,</strong> then the literal value
     is not defined by this specification.</li>
-    <li>Let <var>d</var> be the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-referent">referent</a> of the
-    datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> in the set of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris">recognized datatype IRIs</a>.
-    <strong>If the literal's <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</a> is in the
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</a> of <var>d</var>,</strong> then the literal value
-    is the result of applying the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">lexical-to-value mapping</a>
-    of <var>d</var> to the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</a>.</li>
-		<li><strong>Otherwise</strong>, the <dfn id="dfn-literal-1">literal</dfn> is ill-typed,
-		and no literal value can be associated with the literal. Such a case
-		produces a semantic inconsistency but is not <em>syntactically</em>
-		ill-formed and implementations <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em> accept ill-typed literals and produce
-		RDF graphs from them.  Implementations <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> produce warnings when
-		encountering ill-typed literals.</li>
+    <li>Let <var>d</var> be the <a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">referent</a> of the
+    datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> in the set of <a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">recognized datatype IRIs</a>.
+    <strong>If the literal's <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a> is in the
+    <a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">lexical space</a> of <var>d</var>,</strong> then the literal value
+    is the result of applying the <a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">lexical-to-value mapping</a>
+    of <var>d</var> to the <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a>.</li>
+    <li><strong>Otherwise</strong>, the literal is ill-typed,
+    and no literal value can be associated with the literal. Such a case
+    produces a semantic inconsistency but is not <em>syntactically</em>
+    ill-formed and implementations <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> accept ill-typed literals and produce
+    RDF graphs from them.  Implementations <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> produce warnings when
+    encountering ill-typed literals.</li>
     </ol>
-			
+
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-blank-nodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-blank-nodes">
-    <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Blank Nodes</h3>
+<section id="section-blank-nodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-blank-nodes"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Blank Nodes</h3>
 
-    <p><dfn id="dfn-blank-node" title="blank node">Blank nodes</dfn> are disjoint from
-	  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a>.  Otherwise,
-		the set of possible blank nodes is arbitrary.  RDF makes no reference to
-		any internal structure of blank nodes.</p>
+    <p><dfn title="blank node" id="dfn-blank-node">Blank nodes</dfn> are disjoint from
+    <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> and <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a>.  Otherwise,
+    the set of possible blank nodes is arbitrary.  RDF makes no reference to
+    any internal structure of blank nodes.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-bnode-id">
-    <dfn id="dfn-blank-node-identifier" title="blank node identifier">Blank node identifiers</dfn>
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_3"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-bnode-id">
+    <dfn title="blank node identifier" id="dfn-blank-node-identifier">Blank node identifiers</dfn>
     are local identifiers that are used in some
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" title="concrete RDF syntax">concrete RDF syntaxes</a>
+    <a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">concrete RDF syntaxes</a>
     or RDF store implementations.
     They are always locally scoped to the file or RDF store,
     and are <em>not</em> persistent or portable identifiers
@@ -887,24 +943,24 @@
     on the concrete syntax or implementation. The syntactic restrictions
     on blank node identifiers, if any, therefore also depend on
     the concrete RDF syntax or implementation.  Implementations that handle blank node
-		identifiers in concrete syntaxes need to be careful not to create the
-		same blank node from multiple occurences of the same blank node identifier
-		except in situations where this is supported by the syntax.</p></div>
+    identifiers in concrete syntaxes need to be careful not to create the
+    same blank node from multiple occurences of the same blank node identifier
+    except in situations where this is supported by the syntax.</p></div>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-skolemization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-skolemization">
-    <h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</h3>
+<section id="section-skolemization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-skolemization"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</h3>
 
     <p>Blank nodes do not have identifiers in the RDF abstract syntax. The
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</a> introduced
+    <a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">blank node identifiers</a> introduced
     by some concrete syntaxes have only
     local scope and are purely an artifact of the serialization.</p>
 
-    <p>In situations where stronger identification is needed, systems <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em>
+    <p>In situations where stronger identification is needed, systems <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em>
     systematically replace some or all of the blank nodes in an RDF graph
-    with <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>.  Systems wishing to do this <em title="SHOULD" class="rfc2119">SHOULD</em>
-    <a title="minting">mint</a> a new, globally
+    with <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>.  Systems wishing to do this <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em>
+    mint a new, globally
     unique <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> (a <dfn id="dfn-skolem-iri">Skolem <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>) for each blank node so replaced.</p>
 
     <p>This transformation does not appreciably change the meaning of an
@@ -919,7 +975,7 @@
     if needed.</p>
 
     <p>Systems that want Skolem IRIs to be recognizable outside of the system
-    boundaries <em title="SHOULD" class="rfc2119">SHOULD</em> use a well-known <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC5785" class="bibref">RFC5785</a></cite>] with the registered
+    boundaries <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em> use a well-known <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5785">RFC5785</a></cite>] with the registered
     name <code>genid</code>. This is an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> that uses the HTTP or HTTPS scheme,
     or another scheme that has been specified to use well-known IRIs; and whose
     path component starts with <code>/.well-known/genid/</code>.
@@ -929,27 +985,27 @@
 
     <pre>http://example.com/.well-known/genid/d26a2d0e98334696f4ad70a677abc1f6</pre>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">RFC 5785 [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC5785" class="bibref">RFC5785</a></cite>] only specifies well-known URIs,
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_4"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">RFC 5785 [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5785">RFC5785</a></cite>] only specifies well-known URIs,
     not IRIs. For the purpose of this document, a well-known <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is any
-    <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> that results in a well-known <abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr> after <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>-to-<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr> mapping [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3987" class="bibref">RFC3987</a></cite>].</p></div>
+    <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> that results in a well-known <abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr> after <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>-to-<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr> mapping [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>].</p></div>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#graph-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="graph-isomorphism">
-    <h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Graph Comparison</h3>
+<section id="graph-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_graph-isomorphism"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Graph Comparison</h3>
 
     <p id="section-graph-equality">Two
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a> <var>G</var> and <var>G'</var> are
-    <dfn id="dfn-graph-isomorphism" title="graph isomorphism">isomorphic</dfn> (that is, they have an identical
-		form) if there is a bijection <var>M</var> between the sets of nodes of the two
-		graphs, such that:</p>
+    <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a> <var>G</var> and <var>G'</var> are
+    <dfn title="graph isomorphism" id="dfn-graph-isomorphism">isomorphic</dfn> (that is, they have an identical
+    form) if there is a bijection <var>M</var> between the sets of nodes of the two
+    graphs, such that:</p>
 
     <ol>
       <li><var>M</var> maps blank nodes to blank nodes.</li>
-      <li><var>M(lit)=lit</var> for all <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">RDF literals</a> <var>lit</var> which
+      <li><var>M(lit)=lit</var> for all <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">RDF literals</a> <var>lit</var> which
       are nodes of <var>G</var>.</li>
 
-      <li><var>M(uri)=uri</var> for all <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a> <var>uri</var>
+      <li><var>M(uri)=uri</var> for all <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> <var>uri</var>
       which are nodes of <var>G</var>.</li>
 
       <li>The triple <var>( s, p, o )</var> is in <var>G</var> if and
@@ -957,45 +1013,45 @@
       <var>G'</var></li>
     </ol>
 
-    <p>See also: <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri-equality"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> equality</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-term-equality">literal term equality</a>.</p>
+    <p>See also: <a href="#dfn-iri-equality" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> equality</a>, <a href="#dfn-literal-term-equality" class="internalDFN">literal term equality</a>.</p>
 
-    <p>With this definition, <var>M</var> shows how each blank node 
+    <p>With this definition, <var>M</var> shows how each blank node
     in <var>G</var> can be replaced with
     a new blank node to give <var>G'</var>. Graph isomorphism
-    is needed to support the RDF Test Cases [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-TESTCASES" class="bibref">RDF-TESTCASES</a></cite>] specification.</p>
+    is needed to support the RDF Test Cases [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-TESTCASES">RDF-TESTCASES</a></cite>] specification.</p>
 </section>
 
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-dataset" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-dataset">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>RDF Datasets</h2>
+<section id="section-dataset" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-dataset"><span class="secno">4. </span>RDF Datasets</h2>
 
     <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-dataset">RDF dataset</dfn> is a collection of
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>, and comprises:</p>
+    <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>, and comprises:</p>
 
     <ul>
-    <li>Exactly one <dfn id="dfn-default-graph">default graph</dfn>, being an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>.
-    The default graph does not have a name and <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> be empty.</li>
-    <li>Zero or more <dfn id="dfn-named-graph" title="named graph">named graphs</dfn>.
-    Each named graph is a pair consisting of an <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or a blank node
-    (the <dfn id="dfn-graph-name">graph name</dfn>), and an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>.
+    <li>Exactly one <dfn id="dfn-default-graph">default graph</dfn>, being an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>.
+    The default graph does not have a name and <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> be empty.</li>
+    <li>Zero or more <dfn title="named graph" id="dfn-named-graph">named graphs</dfn>.
+    Each named graph is a pair consisting of an <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> or a blank node
+    (the <dfn id="dfn-graph-name">graph name</dfn>), and an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>.
     Graph names are unique within an RDF dataset.</li>
     </ul>
 
-    <p><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-blank-node" title="blank node">Blank nodes</a> <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> be shared between graphs
-    in an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF Dataset">RDF dataset</a>.</p>
+    <p><a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">Blank nodes</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> be shared between graphs
+    in an <a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset</a>.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="3" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><div class="" id="note-datasets">
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_5"><span>Note</span></div><div class="" id="note-datasets">
     <p>Despite the use of the word “name”
-    in “<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-named-graph">named graph</a>”, the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-graph-name">graph name</a> does not formally
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote">denote</a> the graph. It is merely syntactically paired with
+    in “<a href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">named graph</a>”, the <a href="#dfn-graph-name" class="internalDFN">graph name</a> does not formally
+    <a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denote</a> the graph. It is merely syntactically paired with
     the graph. RDF does not place any formal restrictions on what
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource">resource</a> the graph name may denote, nor on the relationship between
+    <a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resource</a> the graph name may denote, nor on the relationship between
     that resource and the graph.</p>
 
-    <p>Some <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF Dataset">RDF dataset</a>
-    implementations do not track empty <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-named-graph" title="named graph">named graphs</a>.
+    <p>Some <a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset</a>
+    implementations do not track empty <a title="named graph" href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">named graphs</a>.
     Applications can avoid interoperability issues by not
     ascribing importance to the presence or absence of empty named graphs.</p>
 
@@ -1007,83 +1063,88 @@
 
     </div></div>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-dataset-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-dataset-isomorphism">
-		<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>RDF Dataset Comparison</h3>
+<section id="section-dataset-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-dataset-isomorphism"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>RDF Dataset Comparison</h3>
 
-    <p id="section-dataset-equality">Two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF Dataset">RDF datasets</a>
-    (the RDF dataset <var>D1</var> with default graph <var>DG1</var> and named
-		graph <var>NG1</var> and the RDF dataset <var>D2</var> with default graph
-		<var>DG2</var> and named graph <var>NG2</var>) are
-		<dfn id="dfn-dataset-isomorphism" title="dataset isomorphism">dataset-isomorphic</dfn> if and only if:</p>
-		<ol>
-		  <li><var>DG1</var> and <var>DG2</var> are graph-isomorphic;</li>
-		  <li>For each <var>(n1,g1)</var> in <var>NG1</var>, there exists 
-			<var>(n2,g2)</var> in <var>NG2</var> such that <var>n1</var>=<var>n2</var> 
-			and <var>g1</var> and <var>g2</var> are graph-isomorphic;</li>
-		  <li>For each <var>(n2,g2)</var> in <var>NG2</var>, there exists 
-			<var>(n1,g1)</var> in <var>NG1</var> such that <var>n1</var>=<var>n2</var> 
-			and <var>g1</var> and <var>g2</var> are graph-isomorphic.</li>
-		</ol>
-		
+    <p id="section-dataset-equality">Two <a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF datasets</a>
+      (the RDF dataset <var>D1</var> with default graph <var>DG1</var> and any named
+      graph <var>NG1</var> and the RDF dataset <var>D2</var> with default graph
+      <var>DG2</var> and any named graph <var>NG2</var>)
+      are <dfn title="dataset isomorphism" id="dfn-dataset-isomorphism">dataset-isomorphic</dfn> if and only if
+      there is a bijection <var>M</var> between the nodes, triples and graphs in
+      <var>D1</var> and those in <var>D2</var> such that:</p>
+
+    <ol>
+      <li><var>M</var> maps blank nodes to blank nodes;</li>
+      <li><var>M</var> is the identity map on literals and URIs;</li>
+      <li>For every triple &lt;s p o&gt;, <var>M</var>(&lt;s, p, o&gt;)=
+        &lt;<var>M(s)</var>, <var>M(p)</var>, <var>M(o)</var>&gt;;</li>
+      <li>For every graph <var>G</var>={t1, ..., tn},
+        <var>M(G)</var>={<var>M(t1)</var>, ..., <var>M(tn)</var>};</li>
+      <li><var>DG2</var> = <var>M(DG1)</var>; and</li>
+      <li>&lt;n, G&gt; is in <var>NG1</var> if and only if
+        &lt;<var>M(n)</var>, <var>M(G)</var>&gt; is in <var>NG2</var>.
+    </li></ol>
+
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-dataset-conneg" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-dataset-conneg" class="informative">
-		<h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Content Negotiation of RDF Datasets</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
-		
-		<p>Primary resources may have multiple representations that are
-		made available via
-		<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#frag-coneg">content negotiation</a>
-		[<cite><a href="#bib-WEBARCH" class="bibref">WEBARCH</a></cite>].  A representation may be returned in an RDF serialization
-		format that supports the expression of both <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF Dataset">RDF datasets</a> and
-		<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>.  If an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF Dataset">RDF dataset</a>
-		is returned and the consumer is expecting an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graph</a>,
-		the consumer is expected to use the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" title="RDF Dataset">RDF dataset's</a> default graph.</p>
-		
+<section id="section-dataset-conneg" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-dataset-conneg"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Content Negotiation of RDF Datasets</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+    <p>Primary resources may have multiple representations that are
+    made available via
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#frag-coneg">content negotiation</a>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">WEBARCH</a></cite>].  A representation may be returned in an RDF serialization
+    format that supports the expression of both <a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF datasets</a> and
+    <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>.  If an <a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset</a>
+    is returned and the consumer is expecting an <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>,
+    the consumer is expected to use the <a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">RDF dataset's</a> default graph.</p>
+
 </section>
 
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-Datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-Datatypes">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Datatypes</h2>
+<section id="section-Datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Datatypes"><span class="secno">5. </span>Datatypes</h2>
 
-    <p>Datatypes are used with RDF <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a>
+    <p>Datatypes are used with RDF <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a>
     to represent values such as strings, numbers and dates.
     The datatype abstraction used in RDF is compatible with XML Schema
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2" class="bibref">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]. Any datatype definition that conforms
-    to this abstraction <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> be used in RDF, even if not defined
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]. Any datatype definition that conforms
+    to this abstraction <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> be used in RDF, even if not defined
     in terms of XML Schema. RDF re-uses many of the XML Schema
     built-in datatypes,
     and provides two additional built-in datatypes,
-    <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-html">rdf:HTML</a></code> and <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code>.
+    <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-html" class="internalDFN">rdf:HTML</a></code> and <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code>.
     The list of datatypes supported by an implementation is determined
-    by its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris">recognized datatype IRIs</a>.</p>
+    by its <a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">recognized datatype IRIs</a>.</p>
 
-    <p>A <dfn id="dfn-datatype">datatype</dfn> consists of a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</a>,
-    a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-value-space">value space</a> and a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">lexical-to-value mapping</a>, and
-    is denoted by one or more <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>.</p>
+    <p>A <dfn id="dfn-datatype">datatype</dfn> consists of a <a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">lexical space</a>,
+    a <a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">value space</a> and a <a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">lexical-to-value mapping</a>, and
+    is denoted by one or more <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>.</p>
 
-<p>The <dfn id="dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</dfn> of a datatype is a set of Unicode [<cite><a href="#bib-UNICODE" class="bibref">UNICODE</a></cite>] strings.</p>
+<p>The <dfn id="dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</dfn> of a datatype is a set of Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] strings.</p>
 
     <p>The <dfn id="dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">lexical-to-value mapping</dfn> of a datatype is a set of
-    pairs whose first element belongs to the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</a>,
+    pairs whose first element belongs to the <a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">lexical space</a>,
     and the second element belongs to the <dfn id="dfn-value-space">value space</dfn>
     of the datatype. Each member of the lexical space is paired with exactly
     one value, and is a <em>lexical representation</em>
     of that value. The mapping can be seen as a function
     from the lexical space to the value space.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="3" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class=""><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" title="language-tagged string">Language-tagged
-    strings</a> have the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_6"><span>Note</span></div><p class=""><a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">Language-tagged
+    strings</a> have the <a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
     <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString</code>.
     No datatype is formally defined for this <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> because the definition
-    of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype" title="datatype">datatypes</a> does not accommodate
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tag" title="language tag">language tags</a> in the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</a>.
-    The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-value-space">value space</a> associated with this datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is the set
+    of <a title="datatype" href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">datatypes</a> does not accommodate
+    <a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">language tags</a> in the <a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">lexical space</a>.
+    The <a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">value space</a> associated with this datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is the set
     of all pairs of strings and language tags.</p></div>
 
     <p>For example, the XML Schema datatype <code>xsd:boolean</code>,
-    where each member of the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-value-space">value space</a> has two lexical
+    where each member of the <a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">value space</a> has two lexical
     representations, is defined as follows:</p>
 
     <dl>
@@ -1100,11 +1161,11 @@
         }</dd>
     </dl>
 
-    <p>The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a> that can be defined using this
+    <p>The <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> that can be defined using this
     datatype are:</p>
 
     <table class="simple">
-			<caption>This table lists the literals of type xsd:boolean.</caption>
+      <caption>This table lists the literals of type xsd:boolean.</caption>
       <tbody><tr>
         <th>Literal</th>
         <th>Value</th>
@@ -1128,24 +1189,24 @@
     </tbody></table>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#xsd-datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="xsd-datatypes">
-    <h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>The XML Schema Built-in Datatypes</h3>
+<section id="xsd-datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_xsd-datatypes"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>The XML Schema Built-in Datatypes</h3>
 
-    <p><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a> of the form
+    <p><a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> of the form
     <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#<em>xxx</em></code>,
     where <code><em>xxx</em></code>
     is the name of a datatype, denote the built-in datatypes defined in
     <em><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/">XML Schema 1.1 Part 2:
-    Datatypes</a></em> [<cite><a href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2" class="bibref">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]. The XML Schema built-in types
+    Datatypes</a></em> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]. The XML Schema built-in types
     listed in the following table are the
-    <dfn id="dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">RDF-compatible XSD types</dfn>. Their use is <em title="RECOMMENDED" class="rfc2119">RECOMMENDED</em>.</p>
+    <dfn id="dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">RDF-compatible XSD types</dfn>. Their use is <em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">RECOMMENDED</em>.</p>
 
-		<p>Readers might note that the xsd:hexBinary and xsd:base64Binary
-		datatypes are the only safe datatypes for transferring binary
-		information.</p>
- 
+    <p>Readers might note that the xsd:hexBinary and xsd:base64Binary
+    datatypes are the only safe datatypes for transferring binary
+    information.</p>
+
     <table class="simple">
-			<caption>A list of the RDF-compatible XSD types, with short descriptions"</caption>
+      <caption>A list of the RDF-compatible XSD types, with short descriptions"</caption>
     <tbody><tr><th></th><th>Datatype</th><th>Value space (informative)</th></tr>
 
     <tr><th rowspan="4">Core types</th><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><code>xsd:string</code></a></td><td>Character strings (but not all Unicode character strings)</td></tr>
@@ -1195,7 +1256,7 @@
 
     <tr><th rowspan="7">Miscellaneous<br>XSD types</th>
         <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#anyURI"><code>xsd:anyURI</code></a></td><td>Absolute or relative URIs and IRIs</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#language"><code>xsd:language</code></a></td><td>Language tags per [<cite><a href="#bib-BCP47" class="bibref">BCP47</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#language"><code>xsd:language</code></a></td><td>Language tags per [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>]</td></tr>
     <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#normalizedString"><code>xsd:normalizedString</code></a></td><td>Whitespace-normalized strings</td></tr>
     <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#token"><code>xsd:token</code></a></td><td>Tokenized strings</td></tr>
     <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKEN"><code>xsd:NMTOKEN</code></a></td><td>XML NMTOKENs</td></tr>
@@ -1204,25 +1265,25 @@
     </tbody></table>
 
     <p>The other built-in XML Schema datatypes are unsuitable
-    for various reasons, and <em title="SHOULD NOT" class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</em> be used.</p>
+    for various reasons, and <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">SHOULD NOT</em> be used.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><div class="">
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_7"><span>Note</span></div><div class="">
     <ul>
-    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#QName"><code>xsd:QName</code></a> 
+    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#QName"><code>xsd:QName</code></a>
     and
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ENTITY"><code>xsd:ENTITY</code></a> 
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ENTITY"><code>xsd:ENTITY</code></a>
     require an enclosing XML document context.</li>
-    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ID"><code>xsd:ID</code></a> 
+    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ID"><code>xsd:ID</code></a>
     and
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#IDREF"><code>xsd:IDREF</code></a>
     are for cross references within an XML document.</li>
-    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NOTATION"><code>xsd:NOTATION</code></a> 
+    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NOTATION"><code>xsd:NOTATION</code></a>
     is not intended for direct use.</li>
-    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#IDREFS"><code>xsd:IDREFS</code></a>, 
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ENTITIES"><code>xsd:ENTITIES</code></a> 
+    <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#IDREFS"><code>xsd:IDREFS</code></a>,
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ENTITIES"><code>xsd:ENTITIES</code></a>
     and
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKENS"><code>xsd:NMTOKENS</code></a> 
-    are sequence-valued datatypes which do not fit the RDF <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype">datatype</a>
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKENS"><code>xsd:NMTOKENS</code></a>
+    are sequence-valued datatypes which do not fit the RDF <a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">datatype</a>
     model.</li>
     </ul>
     </div></div>
@@ -1230,12 +1291,19 @@
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-html" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-html">
-    <h3><span class="secno">5.2 </span>The <code>rdf:HTML</code> Datatype</h3>
+<section id="section-html" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-html"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>The <code>rdf:HTML</code> Datatype</h3>
 
-    <p>RDF provides for HTML content as a possible <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-value">literal value</a>.
+    <div class="issue atrisk"><div class="issue-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_issue_1"><span>Feature at Risk 1</span></div><div class="atrisk" id="at-risk-html">
+      <p>The <code>rdf:HTML</code> datatype is at risk of being changed from normative to non-normative
+        because the definitions in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>] and thus the lexical-to-value mapping are not yet stable.
+        Consequently interoperability can not be guaranteed at this point in time. Please send feedback
+        to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>.</p>
+    </div></div>
+
+    <p>RDF provides for HTML content as a possible <a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">literal value</a>.
     This allows markup in literal values. Such content is indicated
-    in an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> using a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1">literal</a> whose <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype">datatype</a>
+    in an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> using a <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a> whose <a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">datatype</a>
     is a special built-in datatype <code><dfn id="dfn-rdf-html">rdf:HTML</dfn></code>.
     This datatype is defined as follows:</p>
 
@@ -1244,250 +1312,280 @@
     <dd>is <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML</code>.</dd>
 
     <dt>The lexical space</dt>
-    <dd>is the set of Unicode [<cite><a href="#bib-UNICODE" class="bibref">UNICODE</a></cite>] strings.</dd>
+    <dd>is the set of Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] strings.</dd>
 
     <dt>The value space</dt>
     <dd>is a set of DOM
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment"><code>DocumentFragment</code></a>
-    nodes [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>]. Two
+    nodes [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>]. Two
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment"><code>DocumentFragment</code></a>
     nodes <em>A</em> and <em>B</em> are considered equal if and only if
     the DOM method
     <code><em>A</em>.<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-isequalnode">isEqualNode</a>(<em>B</em>)</code>
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>] returns <code>true</code>.</dd>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>] returns <code>true</code>.</dd>
 
     <dt>The lexical-to-value mapping</dt>
     <dd>
-      <p>Each member of the lexical space is associated with the result 
+      <p>Each member of the lexical space is associated with the result
       of applying the following algorithm:</p>
       <ul>
         <li>Let <code>domnodes</code> be the list of
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#node">DOM nodes</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>]
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#node">DOM nodes</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>]
         that result from applying the
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/syntax.html#parsing-html-fragments">HTML fragment parsing algorithm</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-HTML5" class="bibref">HTML5</a></cite>]
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/syntax.html#parsing-html-fragments">HTML fragment parsing algorithm</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML5">HTML5</a></cite>]
         to the input string, without a context element.</li>
         <li>Let <code>domfrag</code> be a DOM
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment"><code>DocumentFragment</code></a>
-        [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>] whose <code>childNodes</code> attribute is equal to
+        [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>] whose <code>childNodes</code> attribute is equal to
         <code>domnodes</code></li>
         <li>Return <code>domfrag.<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-normalize">normalize</a>()</code></li>
       </ul>
     </dd>
     </dl>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-html">
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_8"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-html">
     Any language annotation (<code>lang="…"</code>) or
     XML namespaces (<code>xmlns</code>) desired in the HTML content
     must be included explicitly in the HTML literal. Relative URLs
     in attributes such as <code>href</code> do not have a well-defined
-    base URL and are best avoided.  
+    base URL and are best avoided.
     RDF applications may use additional equivalence relations,
     such as that which relates an <code>xsd:string</code> with an
     <code>rdf:HTML</code> literal corresponding to a single text node
     of the same string.</p></div>
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-XMLLiteral" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-XMLLiteral">
-    <h3><span class="secno">5.3 </span>The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> Datatype</h3>
+<section id="section-XMLLiteral" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-XMLLiteral"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> Datatype</h3>
 
-    <p>RDF provides for XML content as a possible <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-value">literal value</a>.
-    Such content is indicated in an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> using a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1">literal</a>
-    whose <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype">datatype</a> is a special built-in datatype
+    <div class="issue atrisk"><div class="issue-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_issue_2"><span>Feature at Risk 2</span></div><div class="atrisk" id="at-risk-xmlliteral">
+      <p>The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> datatype is at risk of being changed from normative to non-normative
+        because the definitions in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>] and thus the lexical-to-value mapping are not yet stable.
+        Consequently interoperability can not be guaranteed at this point in time. Please send feedback
+        to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>.</p>
+    </div></div>
+
+    <p>RDF provides for XML content as a possible <a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">literal value</a>.
+    Such content is indicated in an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> using a <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a>
+    whose <a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">datatype</a> is a special built-in datatype
     <code><dfn id="dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</dfn></code>, which is defined as follows:</p>
-   
+
     <dl>
-      <dt id="XMLLiteral-uri">An <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> denoting this <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype">datatype</a></dt>
+      <dt id="XMLLiteral-uri">An <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> denoting this <a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">datatype</a></dt>
 
       <dd>is
       <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral</code>.</dd>
 
-      <dt id="XMLLiteral-lexical-space">The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</a></dt>
+      <dt id="XMLLiteral-lexical-space">The <a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">lexical space</a></dt>
 
-      <dd>is the set of all strings which are well-balanced, self-contained 
-      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#NT-content">XML content</a> 
-      [<cite><a href="#bib-XML10" class="bibref">XML10</a></cite>]; and for which embedding between an arbitrary
+      <dd>is the set of all strings which are well-balanced, self-contained
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#NT-content">XML content</a>
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML10">XML10</a></cite>]; and for which embedding between an arbitrary
       XML start tag and an end tag yields a document conforming to
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114/">XML Namespaces</a>
-      [<cite><a href="#bib-XML-NAMES" class="bibref">XML-NAMES</a></cite>].</dd>
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>].</dd>
 
-      <dt id="XMLLiteral-value-space">The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-value-space">value space</a></dt>
+      <dt id="XMLLiteral-value-space">The <a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">value space</a></dt>
 
       <dd>is a set of DOM
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment"><code>DocumentFragment</code></a>
-      nodes [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>]. Two
+      nodes [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>]. Two
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment"><code>DocumentFragment</code></a>
       nodes <em>A</em> and <em>B</em> are considered equal
       if and only if the DOM method
       <code><em>A</em>.<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-isequalnode">isEqualNode</a>(<em>B</em>)</code>
       returns <code>true</code>.</dd>
 
-      <dt id="XMLLiteral-mapping">The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">lexical-to-value mapping</a></dt>
+      <dt id="XMLLiteral-mapping">The <a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">lexical-to-value mapping</a></dt>
 
       <dd>
-      <p>Each member of the lexical space is associated with the result 
+      <p>Each member of the lexical space is associated with the result
       of applying the following algorithm:</p>
       <ul>
       <li>Let <code>domfrag</code> be a DOM
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment"><code>DocumentFragment</code></a>
-      node [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>] corresponding to the input string</li>
+      node [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">DOM4</a></cite>] corresponding to the input string</li>
       <li>Return <code>domfrag.<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-normalize">normalize</a>()</code></li>
       </ul></dd>
 
-      <dt id="XMLLiteral-canonical">The <a>canonical mapping</a></dt>
+      <dt id="XMLLiteral-canonical">The canonical mapping</dt>
       <dd>defines a
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dt-canonical-mapping">canonical lexical form</a>
-      [<cite><a href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2" class="bibref">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>] for each member of the value space.
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>] for each member of the value space.
       The <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> canonical mapping is the
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-exclusive-XML-canonicalization-method">exclusive
-      XML canonicalization method</a> (<em>with comments, with empty  
+      XML canonicalization method</a> (<em>with comments, with empty
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-InclusiveNamespaces-PrefixList">
-      InclusiveNamespaces PrefixList</a></em>) [<cite><a href="#bib-XML-EXC-C14N" class="bibref">XML-EXC-C14N</a></cite>].
+      InclusiveNamespaces PrefixList</a></em>) [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML-EXC-C14N">XML-EXC-C14N</a></cite>].
 
       </dd></dl>
 
-      <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">Any XML namespace declarations (<code>xmlns</code>),
+      <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_9"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">Any XML namespace declarations (<code>xmlns</code>),
       language annotation (<code>xml:lang</code>) or base <abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</abbr>
       declarations (<code>xml:base</code>) desired in the
       XML content must be included explicitly in the XML literal.
       Note that some concrete RDF syntaxes may define mechanisms
       for inheriting them from the context
       (e.g., <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/#parseTypeLiteralPropertyElt"><code>@parseType="literal"</code></a>
-      in RDF/XML [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR" class="bibref">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>]).</p></div>
+      in RDF/XML [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>]).</p></div>
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#datatype-maps" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="datatype-maps">
-    <h3><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Datatype IRIs</h3>
-
-    <p>Datatypes are identified by <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>. If
-		<var>D</var> is a set of IRIs which are used to refer to
-		datatypes, then the elements of <var>D</var> are called <dfn id="dfn-recognized-datatype-iris">recognized
-		datatype IRIs</dfn>. Recognized IRIs have fixed
-		<a href="#referents">referents</a>, which <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em> satisfy these
-		conditions:
+<section id="datatype-maps" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_datatype-maps"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Datatype IRIs</h3>
 
-		</p><ol>
-			<li>If the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> 
-				<code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral</code>
-				is recognized then it refers to the datatype
-				<code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code>;</li>
-			<li>If the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> 
-				<code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML</code>
-				is recognized then it refers to the datatype <code>rdf:HTML</code>;</li>
-			<li>If any <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> of the form  
-				<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#xxx</code>
-				is recognized then it refers to the RDF-compatible XSD type
-				named <code>xsd:xxx</code>, for every XSD type listed in
-				<a href="#xsd-datatypes">section 5.1</a>.</li>
-		</ol>
+    <p>Datatypes are identified by <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>. If
+    <var>D</var> is a set of IRIs which are used to refer to
+    datatypes, then the elements of <var>D</var> are called <dfn id="dfn-recognized-datatype-iris">recognized
+    datatype IRIs</dfn>. Recognized IRIs have fixed
+    <a href="#referents">referents</a>, which <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> satisfy these
+    conditions:
 
-		<p>Semantic extensions of RDF <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> recognize other datatype IRIs
-		and require them to refer to a fixed datatype.</p>
+    </p><ol>
+      <li>If the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
+        <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral</code>
+        is recognized then it refers to the datatype
+        <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code>;</li>
+      <li>If the <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
+        <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML</code>
+        is recognized then it refers to the datatype <code>rdf:HTML</code>;</li>
+      <li>If any <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> of the form
+        <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#xxx</code>
+        is recognized then it refers to the RDF-compatible XSD type
+        named <code>xsd:xxx</code>, for every XSD type listed in
+        <a href="#xsd-datatypes">section 5.1</a>.</li>
+    </ol>
 
-		<p>RDF processors are not required to recognize datatype IRIs.
-		Any literal typed with an unrecognized <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is treated just like
-		an unknown <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>, i.e. as referring to an unknown thing. Applications
-		<em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> give a warning message if they are unable to determine the
-		referent of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> used in a typed literal, but they <em title="SHOULD NOT" class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</em>
-		reject such RDF as either a syntactic or semantic error.</p><p>
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_10"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">Semantic extensions of RDF might choose to
+		recognize other datatype IRIs
+    and require them to refer to a fixed datatype.  See the RDF
+		Semantics specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>] for more information on
+		semantic extensions.</p></div>
+
+    <p>RDF processors are not required to recognize datatype IRIs.
+    Any literal typed with an unrecognized <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> is treated just like
+    an unknown <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>, i.e. as referring to an unknown thing. Applications
+    <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> give a warning message if they are unable to determine the
+    referent of an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> used in a typed literal, but they <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">SHOULD NOT</em>
+    reject such RDF as either a syntactic or semantic error.</p><p>
 
     </p><p>Other specifications
-    <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> impose additional constraints on <a>datatype IRIs</a>,
+    <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> impose additional constraints on <a title="datatype IRI" href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype IRIs</a>,
     for example, require support for certain datatypes.</p>
 
-    <div class="note"><div aria-level="4" class="note-title" role="heading"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-custom-datatypes">The Web Ontology Language
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW" class="bibref">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] offers facilities for formally defining 
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_11"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-custom-datatypes">The Web Ontology Language
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] offers facilities for formally defining
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Datatype_Definitions">custom
-    datatypes</a> that can be used with RDF. Furthermore, a practice for 
-    identifying 
+    datatypes</a> that can be used with RDF. Furthermore, a practice for
+    identifying
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-xsch-datatypes/#sec-userDefined">
     user-defined simple XML Schema datatypes</a>
-    is suggested in [<cite><a href="#bib-SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES" class="bibref">SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES</a></cite>]. RDF implementations
+    is suggested in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES">SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES</a></cite>]. RDF implementations
     are not required to support either of these facilities.</p></div>
 </section>
 
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-fragID" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-fragID" class="informative">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">6. </span>Fragment Identifiers</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section id="section-fragID" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-fragID"><span class="secno">6. </span>Fragment Identifiers</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
-    <p>RDF uses <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-iri" title="IRI">IRIs</a>, which may include
+    <p>RDF uses <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>, which may include
     <dfn id="dfn-fragment-identifiers">fragment identifiers</dfn>, as resource identifiers.
     The semantics of fragment identifiers is
     <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.5">defined in
-    RFC 3986</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3986" class="bibref">RFC3986</a></cite>]: They identify a secondary resource
+    RFC 3986</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>]: They identify a secondary resource
     that is usually a part of, view of, defined in, or described in
     the primary resource, and the precise semantics depend on the set
     of representations that might result from a retrieval action
     on the primary resource.</p>
 
     <p>This section discusses the handling of fragment identifiers
-    in representations that encode <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a>.</p>
+    in representations that encode <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a>.</p>
 
     <p>In RDF-bearing representations of a primary resource
     <code>&lt;foo&gt;</code>,
     the secondary resource identified by a fragment <code>bar</code>
-    is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-resource">resource</a> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote" title="denote">denoted</a> by the
-    full <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> <code>&lt;foo#bar&gt;</code> in the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a>.
+    is the <a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">resource</a> <a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denoted</a> by the
+    full <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> <code>&lt;foo#bar&gt;</code> in the <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a>.
     Since IRIs in RDF graphs can denote anything, this can be
     something external to the representation, or even external
     to the web.</p>
 
     <p>In this way, the RDF-bearing representation acts as an intermediary
     between the web-accessible primary resource, and some set of possibly
-    non-web or abstract entities that the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> may describe.</p>
+    non-web or abstract entities that the <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> may describe.</p>
 
     <p>In cases where other specifications constrain the semantics of
     fragment identifiers in RDF-bearing representations, the encoded
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</a> should use fragment identifiers in a way that is consistent
-    with these constraints. For example, in an HTML+RDFa document [<cite><a href="#bib-HTML-RDFA" class="bibref">HTML-RDFA</a></cite>],
+    <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> should use fragment identifiers in a way that is consistent
+    with these constraints. For example, in an HTML+RDFa document [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML-RDFA">HTML-RDFA</a></cite>],
     the fragment <code>chapter1</code> may identify a document section
     via the semantics of HTML's <code>@name</code> or <code>@id</code>
-    attributes. The <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> <code>&lt;#chapter1&gt;</code> should
-    then be taken to <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote">denote</a> that same section in any RDFa-encoded
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" title="RDF triple">triples</a> within the same document.
-    Similarly, if the <code>@xml:id</code> attribute [<cite><a href="#bib-XML-ID" class="bibref">XML-ID</a></cite>] is used
+    attributes. The <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a> <code>&lt;#chapter1&gt;</code> should
+    then be taken to <a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denote</a> that same section in any RDFa-encoded
+    <a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">triples</a> within the same document.
+    Similarly, if the <code>@xml:id</code> attribute [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML-ID">XML-ID</a></cite>] is used
     in an RDF/XML document, then the corresponding <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>
     should be taken to denote an XML element.</p>
 
     <p>Primary resources may have multiple representations that are
     made available via
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#frag-coneg">content negotiation</a>
-    [<cite><a href="#bib-WEBARCH" class="bibref">WEBARCH</a></cite>]. Fragments in RDF-bearing representations
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">WEBARCH</a></cite>]. Fragments in RDF-bearing representations
     should be used in a way that is consistent with the semantics imposed by any
     non-RDF representations. For example, if the fragment
     <code>chapter1</code> identifies a document section in an
-    HTML representation of the primary resource, then the <a><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
+    HTML representation of the primary resource, then the <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>
     <code>&lt;#chapter1&gt;</code>
-    should be taken to <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-denote">denote</a> that same section in all RDF-bearing
+    should be taken to <a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">denote</a> that same section in all RDF-bearing
     representations of the same primary resource.</p>
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-generalized-rdf" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-generalized-rdf" class="informative">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Generalized RDF Triples, Graphs, and Datasets</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section id="section-generalized-rdf" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-generalized-rdf"><span class="secno">7. </span>Generalized RDF Triples, Graphs, and Datasets</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
-<p>It is sometimes convenient to loosen the requirements on <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-triple">RDF
-    triple</a>s.  For example, the completeness of the RDFS entailment rules
-    is easier to show with a generalization of RDF triples.  Note that any
-    users of these generalized notions need to be aware that their use may
-    cause interoperability problems, and that there is no requirement on the
-    part of any RDF tool to accept, process, or produce anything beyond
-    regular RDF triples, graphs, and datasets. </p>
+    <p>It is sometimes convenient to loosen the requirements
+    on <a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">RDF triple</a>s.  For example, the completeness
+    of the RDFS entailment rules is easier to show with a
+    generalization of RDF triples.</p>
 
-    <p>A <dfn id="dfn-generalized-rdf-triple">generalized RDF triple</dfn> is an RDF triple generalized so
-    that subjects, predicates, and objects are all allowed to be IRIs, blank
-    nodes, or literals.  A <dfn id="dfn-generalized-rdf-graph">generalized RDF graph</dfn> is an RDF graph of
-    generalized RDF triples, i.e., a set of generalized RDF triples.
-    A <dfn id="dfn-generalized-rdf-dataset">generalized RDF dataset</dfn> is an RDF dataset of generalized RDF
-    graphs where graph labels can be IRIs, blank nodes, or literals.</p>
+    <p>A <dfn title="generalized RDF triple" id="dfn-generalized-rdf-triple">generalized RDF
+      triple</dfn> is a triple having a subject, a predicate,
+      and object, where each can be an <a title="iri" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>, a
+      <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank node</a> or a
+      <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a>. A
+      <dfn title="generalized RDF graph" id="dfn-generalized-rdf-graph">generalized RDF graph</dfn>
+      is a set of generalized RDF triples. A
+      <dfn title="generalized RDF dataset" id="dfn-generalized-rdf-dataset">generalized RDF dataset</dfn>
+      comprises a distinguished generalized RDF graph, and zero
+      or more pairs each associating an <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr>, a blank node or a literal
+      to a generalized RDF graph.</p>
+
+
+    <p>Generalized RDF triples, graphs, and datasets differ
+      from normative RDF <a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">triples</a>,
+      <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">graphs</a>, and
+      <a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">datasets</a> only
+      by allowing <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>,
+      <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank nodes</a> and
+      <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> to appear
+      in any position, i.e., as subject, predicate, object or graph names.</p>
+
+    <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_12"><span>Note</span></div><p class="" id="note-generalized-rdf"> Any users of
+    generalized RDF triples, graphs or datasets need to be
+    aware that these notions are non-standard extensions of
+    RDF and their use may cause interoperability problems.
+    There is no requirement on the part of any RDF tool to
+    accept, process, or produce anything beyond standard RDF
+    triples, graphs, and datasets. </p></div>
 
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#section-Acknowledgments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="section-Acknowledgments" class="informative">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">8. </span>Acknowledgments</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section id="section-Acknowledgments" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Acknowledgments"><span class="secno">8. </span>Acknowledgments</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
     <p>The RDF 1.1 editors acknowledge valuable contributions from
-    Thomas Baker, Dan Brickley, Gavin Carothers, Jeremy Carroll, 
+    Thomas Baker, Dan Brickley, Gavin Carothers, Jeremy Carroll,
     Pierre-Antoine Champin, Dan Connolly, Tim Berners-Lee,
     John Cowan, Martin J. Dürst, Alex Hall, Steve Harris, Pat Hayes,
     Ivan Herman, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Addison Phillips,
@@ -1496,9 +1594,13 @@
 
     <p>The RDF 2004 editors acknowledge valuable contributions from
     Frank Manola, Pat Hayes, Dan Brickley, Jos de Roo, Sergey Melnik,
-    Dave Beckett, Patrick Stickler, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Jerome Euzenat, 
+    Dave Beckett, Patrick Stickler, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Jerome Euzenat,
     Massimo Marchiori, Tim Berners-Lee, Dave Reynolds and Dan Connolly.</p>
 
+		<p>Editors of the 2004 version of this specification were Graham Klyne
+		and Jeremy J. Carroll. Brian McBride served as series editor for
+		the 2004 RDF specifications.</p>
+
     <p>This specification is a product of extended deliberations by the
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/dbwg/details?group=46168&amp;public=1">members of the RDF Working Group</a>.
     It draws upon two earlier specifications,
@@ -1509,8 +1611,8 @@
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#changes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix informative" id="changes">
-    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Changes between RDF 2004 and RDF 1.1</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section class="appendix informative" id="changes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_changes"><span class="secno">A. </span>Changes between RDF 2004 and RDF 1.1</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
     <!--
 
     <p class="issue">The Working Group intends to publish a separate
@@ -1522,7 +1624,7 @@
     as to what else has changed and why.</p>
     -->
 
-    <p>This section discusses changes between the 
+    <p>This section discusses changes between the
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">2004
     Recommendation of <em>RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em></a> and
     the RDF 1.1 versions of this specification.</p>
@@ -1537,75 +1639,93 @@
     ‘<code>“</code>’ (double quote), and “<code> </code>” (space).
     In IRIs, these characters must be percent-encoded as
     described in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.1">section 2.1</a>
-    of [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3986" class="bibref">RFC3986</a></cite>].</p>
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>].</p>
 
-    <p>In earlier versions of RDF, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a>
-    with a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tag">language tag</a> did not have a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-datatype-iri">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>, and
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-simple-literal" title="simple literal">simple literals</a> could appear
+    <p>In earlier versions of RDF, <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a>
+    with a <a href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">language tag</a> did not have a <a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></a>, and
+    <a title="simple literal" href="#dfn-simple-literal" class="internalDFN">simple literals</a> could appear
     directly in the abstract syntax. Simple literals and literals with a
     language tag were collectively known as
-    <dfn id="dfn-plain-literal" title="plain literal">plain literals</dfn>.</p>
+    <dfn title="plain literal" id="dfn-plain-literal">plain literals</dfn>.</p>
 
     <p>Earlier versions of RDF permitted
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-language-tag" title="language tag">language tags</a> that
+    <a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">language tags</a> that
     adhered to the generic tag/subtag syntax of language tags,
-    but were not well-formed according to [<cite><a href="#bib-BCP47" class="bibref">BCP47</a></cite>]. Such
+    but were not well-formed according to [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>]. Such
     language tags do not conform to RDF 1.1.</p>
 
     <p>The <code>xsd:string</code> datatype does not
     permit the <code>#x0</code> character, and implementations might not permit
     control codes in the <code>#x1-#x1F</code> range. Earlier versions of
     RDF allowed these characters in
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-simple-literal" title="simple literal">simple literals</a>, although they
+    <a title="simple literal" href="#dfn-simple-literal" class="internalDFN">simple literals</a>, although they
     could never be serialized in a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>-recommended concrete syntax.
-		Currently a literal with type xsd:string containing the #x0 character
-		is an ill-typed literal.</p>
-		
+    Currently a literal with type xsd:string containing the #x0 character
+    is an ill-typed literal.</p>
+
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#change-log" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix informative" id="change-log">
-  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Change Log</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section class="appendix informative" id="change-log" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_change-log"><span class="secno">B. </span>Change Log</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#changes-wd4" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix" id="changes-wd4">
-  <h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Changes from 15 January 2013 WD to this version</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+<section class="appendix" id="changes-wd5" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+  <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_changes-wd5"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Changes from 23 July 2013 LC to this version</h3>
 
   <p>This section lists changes from the
-  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130115/">15 January 2013 Working Draft (WD)</a> to this Editor's Draft of 
+  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/">23 July 2013 Last Call Working Draft (LC)</a> to this Candidate Recommendation of
   <em>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em>.</p>
 
   <ul>
-		<li>2013-07-15: Editorial change to the first paragraph of Section 1.7 in an attempt to clarify the relationship to RDF-MT following the <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0003.html">review by Markus Lanthaler</a> and <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0164.html">suggested changes by Peter Patel-Schneider</a></li>
-		<li>2013-07-03: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0003.html">a review by Markus Lanthaler</a> and a <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0026.html">related request</a></li>
-	  <li>2013-06-27: Added informative section on generalized RDF triples, graphs, and
-	  datasets.</li>
-	  <li>2013-06-27: Added caution on the use of graph names as blank nodes.</li>
-	  <li>2013-06-19: Noted that RDF Dataset graph names may be blank nodes (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/274">ACTION-274</a>, <a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-06-12#resolution_1">resolution</a>)</li>
-		<li>2013-06-19: Changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013May/0221.html">a
-		review by Peter Patel-Schneider</a></li>
-		<li>2013-06-05: Minor change to note to specify the value space and lexical space of language tags (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/265">ACTION-265</a>, <a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-05-22#resolution_3">resolution</a>)</li>
-		<li>2013-05-08: Minor change to note that a badly formed language tag is a syntax error (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/262">ACTION-262</a>)</li>
-  	<li>2013-05-08: Migrated language related to datatype maps to recognized datatype IRIs (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/118">ISSUE-118</a>)</li>
-		<li>2013-05-08: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013May/0058.html">a discussion of literal equality</a></li>
-		<li>2013-05-08: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013May/0075.html">a review by Sandro Hawke</a></li>
+    <li>2013-10-30: Mark <code>rdf:rdf:HTML</code> and <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> as at risk.</li>
+		<li>2013010-21: Added Markus Lanthaler as editor.  Minor editorial updates (e.g. repair of broken links).  Updates to sections 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1 and 5.4 to address <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/2013Oct/0057.html">comments from Michael Schneider</a> (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/161">ISSUE-161</a>)</li>
+		<li>2013-10-16: Fixed ReSpec issue regarding previous editor attributions
+		and added previous editors to acknowledgements to address <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/150">ISSUE-150</a>.</li>
+    <li>2013-10-16: Update to Section 7 in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/147">ISSUE-147</a> (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/309">ACTION-309</a>, <a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-10-09#line0258">assignment of action</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-09-10: Update to Section 7 in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/139">ISSUE-139</a> (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-09-04#resolution_3">resolution</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-08-26: Update to Section 4.1 to satisfy <a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/283">ACTION-283</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/140">ISSUE-140</a> (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-08-21#resolution_7">resolution</a>)</li>
+  </ul>
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix" id="changes-wd4" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+  <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_changes-wd4"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Changes from 15 January 2013 WD to this version</h3>
+
+  <p>This section lists changes from the
+  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130115/">15 January 2013 Working Draft (LC)</a> to the Last Call Working Draft of
+  <em>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em>.</p>
+
+  <ul>
+    <li>2013-07-15: Editorial change to the first paragraph of Section 1.7 in an attempt to clarify the relationship to RDF-MT following the <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0003.html">review by Markus Lanthaler</a> and <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0164.html">suggested changes by Peter Patel-Schneider</a></li>
+    <li>2013-07-03: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0003.html">a review by Markus Lanthaler</a> and a <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Jul/0026.html">related request</a></li>
+    <li>2013-06-27: Added informative section on generalized RDF triples, graphs, and
+    datasets.</li>
+    <li>2013-06-27: Added caution on the use of graph names as blank nodes.</li>
+    <li>2013-06-19: Noted that RDF Dataset graph names may be blank nodes (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/274">ACTION-274</a>, <a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-06-12#resolution_1">resolution</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-06-19: Changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013May/0221.html">a
+    review by Peter Patel-Schneider</a></li>
+    <li>2013-06-05: Minor change to note to specify the value space and lexical space of language tags (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/265">ACTION-265</a>, <a href="https://www.w3.org/2013/meeting/rdf-wg/2013-05-22#resolution_3">resolution</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-05-08: Minor change to note that a badly formed language tag is a syntax error (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/actions/262">ACTION-262</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-05-08: Migrated language related to datatype maps to recognized datatype IRIs (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/118">ISSUE-118</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-05-08: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013May/0058.html">a discussion of literal equality</a></li>
+    <li>2013-05-08: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013May/0075.html">a review by Sandro Hawke</a></li>
     <li>2013-05-07: Revised the definition of blank nodes (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/107">ISSUE-107</a>)</li>
-	  <li>2013-05-07: Defined the consequence of a literal being ill-typed (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/109">ISSUE-109</a>)</li>
+    <li>2013-05-07: Defined the consequence of a literal being ill-typed (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/109">ISSUE-109</a>)</li>
     <li>2013-05-07: Clarified the existence of null control characters in xsd:strings (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/126">ISSUE-126</a>)</li>
     <li>2013-05-07: Added a definition of RDF Dataset isomorphism (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/111">ISSUE-111</a>)</li>
     <li>2013-05-07: Addressed content negotiation as it relates to graphs and datasets (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/105">ISSUE-105</a>)</li>
   </ul>
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#changes-wd3" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix" id="changes-wd3">
-  <h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Changes from 05 June 2012 WD to this version</h3>
+<section class="appendix" id="changes-wd3" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+  <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_changes-wd3"><span class="secno">B.3 </span>Changes from 05 June 2012 WD to this version</h3>
 
   <p>This section lists changes from the
-  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-rdf11-concepts-20120605/">05 June 2012 Working Draft (WD)</a> to this Editor's Draft of 
+  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-rdf11-concepts-20120605/">05 June 2012 Working Draft (WD)</a> to this Editor's Draft of
   <em>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em>.</p>
 
   <ul>
     <li>2013-01-14: Editorial changes in response to <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2012Nov/0354.html">reviews from Antoine Zimmermann</a> <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2012Nov/0360.html">and Peter Patel-Schneider</a></li>
-    <li>2012-11-21: Replaced the placeholder term “g-box” with “<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-source">RDF source</a>” (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/110">ISSUE-110</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-11-21: Replaced the placeholder term “g-box” with “<a href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">RDF source</a>” (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/110">ISSUE-110</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-11-21: Removed various Notes (as <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2012Nov/0131.html">listed here</a>), and refactored others (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/104">ISSUE-104</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-11-17: Many changes to Introduction, including mostly new subsections on <a href="#managing-graphs">Working with Multiple RDF Graphs and G-Boxes</a>, <a href="#entailment">Equivalence, Entailment and Inconsistencies</a>, and <a href="#rdf-documents">RDF Documents and Syntaxes</a></li>
     <li>2012-11-17: Reverted section on <a href="#section-blank-nodes">Blank Nodes</a> to earlier state</li>
@@ -1616,18 +1736,18 @@
     <li>2012-11-09: Moved all informative material about changes between RDF 2004 and RDF 1.1 to a <a href="#changes">new appendix</a></li>
     <li>2012-11-07: Add <a href="#change-over-time">new informative section on Change Over Time</a></li>
     <li>2012-11-07: New <a href="#abstract">abstract</a>, based on comments from Dan Connolly</li>
-    <li>2012-11-06: Tweak definition of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-literal-1" title="literal">literals</a> to avoid apparent contradiction (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/94">ISSUE-94</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-11-06: Tweak definition of <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> to avoid apparent contradiction (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/94">ISSUE-94</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-11-06: Add a <a href="#note-custom-datatypes">note</a> on the use of OWL2 custom datatypes and simple user-defined XML Schema datatypes (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/96">ISSUE-96</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-11-06: Add a note on empty named graphs (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/22">ISSUE-22</a>)</li>
-    <li>2012-11-06: Modify the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-relative-iri" title="relative IRI">Note on relative IRIs</a> to stress their usefulness and to clarify the role of RFC 3986 in the resolution process</li>
+    <li>2012-11-06: Modify the <a title="relative IRI" href="#dfn-relative-iri" class="internalDFN">Note on relative IRIs</a> to stress their usefulness and to clarify the role of RFC 3986 in the resolution process</li>
     <li>2012-11-06: Informatively <a href="#referents">explain</a> that IRIs in this spec are treated only as nodes in a graph data model, and no interaction model is implied</li>
-    <li>2012-08-09: Clarify that all datatypes are optional, but RDF-conformant specifications <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em> require specific <a title="datatype map">datatype maps</a></li>
+    <li>2012-08-09: Clarify that all datatypes are optional, but RDF-conformant specifications <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> require specific datatype maps</li>
   </ul>
 </section>
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#changes-wd2" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix" id="changes-wd2">
-  <h3><span class="secno">B.3 </span>Changes from FPWD to 05 June 2012 WD</h3>
+<section class="appendix" id="changes-wd2" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+  <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_changes-wd2"><span class="secno">B.4 </span>Changes from FPWD to 05 June 2012 WD</h3>
 
   <p>This section lists changes from the
   <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdf11-concepts-20110830/">First Public Working Draft (FPWD)</a>
@@ -1637,22 +1757,22 @@
   <ul>
     <li>2012-05-31: Update <a href="#section-Acknowledgments">Acknowledgements</a> for RDF 1.1; added RDFa 1.1 markup</li>
     <li>2012-05-24: Moved the multigraph section to an earlier position and renamed it to “<a href="#section-dataset">RDF Datasets</a>”</li>
-    <li>2012-05-17: Changed normative reference for DOM in <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code> from [DOM3CORE] to [DOM4] as we need DOM4 anyways for <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-html">rdf:HTML</a></code></li>
-    <li>2012-05-17: Added <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-html">rdf:HTML</a></code> datatype (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/63">ISSUE-63</a>)</li>
-    <li>2012-05-17: Added <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#duration"><code>xsd:duration</code></a> to list of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">RDF-compatible XSD types</a> (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/88">ISSUE-88</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-05-17: Changed normative reference for DOM in <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code> from [DOM3CORE] to [DOM4] as we need DOM4 anyways for <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-html" class="internalDFN">rdf:HTML</a></code></li>
+    <li>2012-05-17: Added <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-html" class="internalDFN">rdf:HTML</a></code> datatype (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/63">ISSUE-63</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-05-17: Added <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#duration"><code>xsd:duration</code></a> to list of <a href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types" class="internalDFN">RDF-compatible XSD types</a> (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/88">ISSUE-88</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-05-14: Replaced the example graph diagram in <a href="#data-model">Section 1.1</a> with a re-drawn SVG version, with support from Dominik Tomaszuk</li>
     <li>2012-05-10: New <a href="#conformance">Conformance section</a> to explain that this specification is not implemented directly, but through other specifications that use our definitions</li>
-    <li>2012-05-10: Simplified <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code>'s new value space slightly after feedback from Ivan Herman and Arnaud Le Hors.</li>
+    <li>2012-05-10: Simplified <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code>'s new value space slightly after feedback from Ivan Herman and Arnaud Le Hors.</li>
     <li>2012-05-10: Added an informative subsection on <a href="#vocabularies">RDF vocabularies and namespace IRIs</a>.</li>
     <li>2012-05-09: Removed an example from the conformance section that didn't make sense any more with the modified <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code>. Added some new issue boxes.</li>
-    <li>2012-05-09: <code><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code> no longer requires lexical forms to be canonicalized, and the value space is now defined in terms of [DOM-LEVEL-3-CORE] (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/13">ISSUE-13</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-05-09: <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code> no longer requires lexical forms to be canonicalized, and the value space is now defined in terms of [DOM-LEVEL-3-CORE] (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/13">ISSUE-13</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-05-09: Removed Section 3 <em>RDF Vocabulary <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr> and Namespace</em>; its contents will be folded into the RDF Schema document</li>
-    <li>2012-05-02: Renamed “graph equivalence” to “<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-graph-isomorphism">graph isomorphism</a>” (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/86">ISSUE-86</a>)</li>
-    <li>2012-05-02: Updated [<cite><a href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-1" class="bibref">XMLSCHEMA11-1</a></cite>] and [<cite><a href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2" class="bibref">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>] references to the new REC versions</li>
-    <li>2012-05-02: Added the new XSD 1.1 datatypes <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dayTimeDuration">xsd:dayTimeDuration</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#yearMonthDuration">xsd:yearMonthDuration</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTimeStamp">xsd:dateTimeStamp</a> to the list of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">RDF-compatible XSD types</a> (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/66">ISSUE-66</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-05-02: Renamed “graph equivalence” to “<a href="#dfn-graph-isomorphism" class="internalDFN">graph isomorphism</a>” (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/86">ISSUE-86</a>)</li>
+    <li>2012-05-02: Updated [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-1">XMLSCHEMA11-1</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>] references to the new REC versions</li>
+    <li>2012-05-02: Added the new XSD 1.1 datatypes <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dayTimeDuration">xsd:dayTimeDuration</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#yearMonthDuration">xsd:yearMonthDuration</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTimeStamp">xsd:dateTimeStamp</a> to the list of <a href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types" class="internalDFN">RDF-compatible XSD types</a> (<a href="https://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/66">ISSUE-66</a>)</li>
     <li>2012-04-26: Remove normative definition of “property” as it disagreed with RDF Semantics; small editorial changes.</li>
     <li>2011-11-21: Updated XHTML 1.0 reference to XHTML 1.1</li>
-    <li>2011-11-20: Added table of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">RDF-compatible XSD types</a>, and definition of <a>datatype map</a>, both adapted from previous content in [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-MT" class="bibref">RDF-MT</a></cite>]
+    <li>2011-11-20: Added table of <a href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types" class="internalDFN">RDF-compatible XSD types</a>, and definition of datatype map, both adapted from previous content in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>]
     </li><li>2011-11-18: Replaced informative <em>Introduction</em> and <em>RDF Concepts</em> sections with a new extended introduction. Folded some content from <em>RDF Concepts</em> into the later normative sections, mostly as examples and notes.</li>
     <li>2011-11-10: Changed XSD references to version 1.1</li>
     <li>2011-11-10: Replaced the <a href="#section-fragID">section on fragment identifiers</a> with an updated account that follows RFC 3986</li>
@@ -1661,8 +1781,8 @@
   </li></ul>
 </section>
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#changes-fpwd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix" id="changes-fpwd">
-  <h3><span class="secno">B.4 </span>Changes from RDF 2004 to FPWD</h3>
+<section class="appendix" id="changes-fpwd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+  <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_changes-fpwd"><span class="secno">B.5 </span>Changes from RDF 2004 to FPWD</h3>
 
   <p>This section lists changes from the
   <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">2004 Recommendation of
@@ -1691,26 +1811,26 @@
 
 </section>
 
-  
 
 
-<section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" class="appendix" id="references"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#normative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl about="" class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-BCP47">[BCP47]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">A. Phillips; M. Davis. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a>. September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47">http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47</a>
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><!--OddPage--><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_references"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_normative-references"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-BCP47">[BCP47]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">A. Phillips; M. Davis. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a>. September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47">http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-DOM4">[DOM4]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Anne van Kesteren; Aryeh Gregor; Lachlan Hunt; Ms2ger. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/"><cite>DOM4</cite></a>. 6 December 2012. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/">http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-HTML5">[HTML5]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Robin Berjon et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/"><cite>HTML5</cite></a>. 17 December 2012. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/">http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-HTML5">[HTML5]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Robin Berjon; Steve Faulkner; Travis Leithead; Erika Doyle Navara; Edward O'Connor; Silvia Pfeiffer. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/"><cite>HTML5</cite></a>. 6 August 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/">http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-NFC">[NFC]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">M. Davis, Ken Whistler. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/"><cite>TR15, Unicode Normalization Forms.</cite></a>. 17 September 2010, URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/">http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-MT">[RDF11-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Patrick J. Hayes; Peter F. Patel-Schneider. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-mt-20130723/"><cite>RDF 1.1 Semantics</cite></a>. 23 July 2013. W3C Last Call Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-mt-20130723/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-mt-20130723/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-MT">[RDF11-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Patrick J. Hayes, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Editors. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-mt-20131105/">RDF 1.1 Semantics.</a></cite> 5 November 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation (work in progress). URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-mt-20131105/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-mt-20131105/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</cite></a>. January 2005. RFC. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE">[UNICODE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires"><a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/"><cite>The Unicode Standard</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/">http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XML-EXC-C14N">[XML-EXC-C14N]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">John Boyer; Donald Eastlake; Joseph Reagle. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-exc-c14n"><cite>Exclusive XML Canonicalization Version 1.0</cite></a>. 18 July 2002. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-exc-c14n">http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-exc-c14n</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XML-NAMES">[XML-NAMES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Tim Bray; Dave Hollander; Andrew Layman; Richard Tobin; Henry Thompson et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names"><cite>Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition)</cite></a>. 8 December 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names">http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XML10">[XML10]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Tim Bray; Jean Paoli; Michael Sperberg-McQueen; Eve Maler; François Yergeau et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml"><cite>Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)</cite></a>. 26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml">http://www.w3.org/TR/xml</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">David Peterson; Sandy Gao; Ashok Malhotra; Michael Sperberg-McQueen; Henry Thompson; Paul V. Biron et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/"><cite>W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes</cite></a>. 5 April 2012. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/</a>
-</dd></dl></section><section rel="bibo:chapter" resource="#informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl about="" class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-COOLURIS">[COOLURIS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Leo Sauermann; Richard Cyganiak. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris"><cite>Cool URIs for the Semantic Web</cite></a>. 3 December 2008. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris">http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris</a>
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_informative-references"><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-COOLURIS">[COOLURIS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Leo Sauermann; Richard Cyganiak. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris"><cite>Cool URIs for the Semantic Web</cite></a>. 3 December 2008. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris">http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-HTML-RDFA">[HTML-RDFA]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Manu Sporny et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/"><cite>HTML+RDFa 1.1</cite></a>. 25 May 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Manu Sporny; Gregg Kellogg; Markus Lanthaler. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/"><cite>JSON-LD 1.0</cite></a>. 11 April 2013. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-LINKED-DATA">[LINKED-DATA]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Tim Berners-Lee. <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html"><cite>Linked Data Design Issues</cite></a>. 27 July 2006. W3C-Internal Document. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-N-TRIPLES">[N-TRIPLES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Gavin Carothers. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-n-triples-20130409/"><cite>N-Triples</cite></a>. 9 April 2013. W3C Working Group Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-n-triples-20130409/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-n-triples-20130409/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/">http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler, Editors. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-json-ld-20131105/">JSON-LD 1.0</a>.</cite> 5 November 2013. W3C Proposed Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-json-ld-20131105/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-json-ld-20131105/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-LINKED-DATA">[LINKED-DATA]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Tim Berners-Lee. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">Linked Data</a></cite>. Personal View, imperfect but published. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-N-TRIPLES">[N-TRIPLES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Gavin Carothers, Editor. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-n-triples-20131105/">RDF 1.1 N-Triples</a></cite>. 5 November 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation (work in progress). URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-n-triples-20131105/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-n-triples-20131105/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/">http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">[OWL2-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">W3C OWL Working Group. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/"><cite>OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview (Second Edition)</cite></a>. 11 December 2012. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RDF-MT">[RDF-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Patrick Hayes. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/"><cite>RDF Semantics</cite></a>. 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RDF-PRIMER">[RDF-PRIMER]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Frank Manola; Eric Miller. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/"><cite>RDF Primer</cite></a>. 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/</a>
@@ -1718,14 +1838,14 @@
 </dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">[RDF-SPARQL-QUERY]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eric Prud'hommeaux; Andy Seaborne. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/"><cite>SPARQL Query Language for RDF</cite></a>. 15 January 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">[RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Dave Beckett. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar"><cite>RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)</cite></a>. 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RDF-TESTCASES">[RDF-TESTCASES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">jan grant; Dave Beckett. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases"><cite>RDF Test Cases</cite></a>. 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-PRIMER">[RDFA-PRIMER]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Ben Adida; Ivan Herman; Manu Sporny; Mark Birbeck. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-primer/"><cite>RDFa 1.1 Primer</cite></a>. 7 June 2012. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-primer/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-PRIMER">[RDFA-PRIMER]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Ivan Herman; Ben Adida; Manu Sporny; Mark Birbeck. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-primer/"><cite>RDFa 1.1 Primer - Second Edition</cite></a>. 22 August 2013. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-primer/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax (RFC 3986)</cite></a>. January 2005. RFC. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC5785">[RFC5785]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Mark Nottingham; Eran Hammer-Lahav. <a href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5785.txt"><cite>Defining Well-Known Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) (RFC 5785)</cite></a>. April 2010. RFC. URL: <a href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5785.txt">http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5785.txt</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS">[SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Natasha Noy; Alan Rector. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-n-aryRelations"><cite>Defining N-ary Relations on the Semantic Web</cite></a>. 12 April 2006. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-n-aryRelations">http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-n-aryRelations</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES">[SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Jeremy Carroll; Jeff Pan. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-xsch-datatypes"><cite>XML Schema Datatypes in RDF and OWL</cite></a>. 14 March 2006. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-xsch-datatypes">http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-xsch-datatypes</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE-CR">[TURTLE-CR]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">Turtle; Terse RDF Triple Language</a></cite> 19 February 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers, Editors. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">RDF 1.1 Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language.</a></cite> 19 February 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation (work in progress). URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-VOCAB-ORG">[VOCAB-ORG]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Dave Reynolds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/"><cite>The Organization Ontology</cite></a>. 25 June 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-WEBARCH">[WEBARCH]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Ian Jacobs; Norman Walsh. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/"><cite>Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One</cite></a>. 15 December 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/">http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XML-ID">[XML-ID]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Jonathan Marsh; Daniel Veillard; Norman Walsh. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-id/"><cite>xml:id Version 1.0</cite></a>. 9 September 2005. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-id/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-id/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-1">[XMLSCHEMA11-1]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Sandy Gao; Michael Sperberg-McQueen; Henry Thompson; Noah Mendelsohn; David Beech; Murray Maloney. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-1/"><cite>W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 1: Structures</cite></a>. 5 April 2012. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-1/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-1/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-vocab-org">[vocab-org]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Dave Reynolds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/"><cite>The Organization Ontology</cite></a>. 25 June 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/</a>
-</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/drafts/rdf11-concepts/diff-20130723.html	Wed Oct 30 19:07:51 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,13850 @@
+<html lang="en" typeof="bibo:Document w3p:CR" about="" property="dcterms:language" content="en" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+<head>
+<meta charset="utf-8" />
+<title>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</title>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+      figure { text-align: center; }
+      table td, table th { border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 0.2em 0.5em; }
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 {
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
+table.simple {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
+div.note-title { color: #2b2; }
+div.issue-title span, div.note-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;
+}
+div.note, div.issue {
+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+.note > p:first-child, .issue > p:first-child { margin-top: 0 }
+.issue, .note {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+}
+div.issue, div.note {
+    padding: 1em 1.2em 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+span.note, span.issue { padding: .1em .5em .15em; }
+
+.issue {
+    border-color: #e05252;
+    background: #fbe9e9;
+}
+.note {
+    border-color: #52e052;
+    background: #e9fbe9;
+}
+
+
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-CR" type="text/css" /><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+<script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8" async="" data-requirecontext="_" data-requiremodule="ui/save-html" src="https://raw.github.com/darobin/respec/gh-pages/js/ui/save-html.js">
+</script>
+<style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
+.diff-new { background-color: yellow; }
+.diff-chg { background-color: lime; }
+.diff-new:before,
+.diff-new:after
+    { content: "\2191" }
+.diff-chg:before, .diff-chg:after
+    { content: "\2195" }
+.diff-old { text-decoration: line-through; background-color: #FBB; }
+.diff-old:before,
+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+<body class="h-entry" style="" role="document" id="respecDocument">
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</h1>
+<h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2013-11-04T23:00:00.000Z" id="w3c-candidate-recommendation-05-november-2013">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+23
+July
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins><time class="dt-published" datetime="2013-11-05"><ins class="diff-chg">
+05
+November
+</ins>
+2013
+</time>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/
+</del>
+<a class="u-url" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html">
+https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Previous
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130115/
+</del>
+<a rel="dcterms:replaces" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+<del class="diff-old">recommendation:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation:
+</ins>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Richard Cyganiak" href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/">
+Richard
+Cyganiak
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.deri.ie/">
+DERI,
+NUI
+Galway
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="David Wood" href="http://about.me/david_wood">
+David
+Wood
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://3roundstones.com/">
+3
+Round
+Stones
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+<ins class="diff-new">Markus
+Lanthaler
+</ins></a>,<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.tugraz.at/"><ins class="diff-new">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</ins></a></span></dd><dt><ins class="diff-new">
+Previous
+Editors:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.ninebynine.org/"><ins class="diff-new">
+Graham
+Klyne
+</ins></a></dd><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Jeremy
+J.
+Carroll
+</ins></dd><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Brian
+McBride
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+</ins><a rel="alternate" href="diff-20130723.html"><ins class="diff-new">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</ins></a></p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2004-2013
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+Beihang
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+(RDF)
+is
+a
+framework
+for
+representing
+information
+in
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+defines
+an
+abstract
+syntax
+(a
+data
+model)
+which
+serves
+to
+link
+all
+RDF-based
+languages
+and
+specifications.
+The
+abstract
+syntax
+has
+two
+key
+data
+structures:
+RDF
+graphs
+are
+sets
+of
+subject-predicate-object
+triples,
+where
+the
+elements
+may
+be
+IRIs,
+blank
+nodes,
+or
+datatyped
+literals.
+They
+are
+used
+to
+express
+descriptions
+of
+resources.
+RDF
+datasets
+are
+used
+to
+organize
+collections
+of
+RDF
+graphs,
+and
+comprise
+a
+default
+graph
+and
+zero
+or
+more
+named
+graphs.
+This
+document
+also
+introduces
+key
+concepts
+and
+terminology,
+and
+discusses
+datatyping
+and
+the
+handling
+of
+fragment
+identifiers
+in
+IRIs
+within
+RDF
+graphs.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Candidate
+Recommendation.
+</ins>
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Recommendation.
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+).
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Last
+Call
+period
+ends
+06
+September
+</del>
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+<ins class="diff-chg">W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+publishes
+a
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+to
+indicate
+that
+the
+document
+is
+believed
+to
+be
+stable
+and
+to
+encourage
+implementation
+by
+the
+developer
+community.
+This
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+is
+expected
+to
+advance
+to
+Proposed
+Recommendation
+no
+earlier
+than
+26
+November
+</ins>
+2013.
+All
+comments
+are
+welcome.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins>
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+is
+a
+Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+and
+thus
+the
+Working
+Group
+has
+determined
+that
+this
+document
+has
+satisfied
+the
+relevant
+technical
+requirements
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+following
+features
+are
+at
+risk
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">is
+sufficiently
+stable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+be
+changed
+from
+normative
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">advance
+through
+the
+Technical
+Recommendation
+process.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<a href="#at-risk-html">
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+rdf:HTML
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+datatype
+may
+be
+made
+non-normative
+</ins></a></li><li><a href="#at-risk-xmlliteral"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+datatype
+may
+be
+made
+non-normative
+</ins></a></li></ul>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a id="sotd_patent" about="" rel="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-model" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Graph-based
+Data
+Model
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#resources-and-statements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Resources
+and
+Statements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#referents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+The
+Referent
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#vocabularies" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.4
+</span>
+RDF
+Vocabularies
+and
+Namespace
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#change-over-time" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.5
+</span>
+RDF
+and
+Change
+Over
+Time
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#managing-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.6
+</span>
+Working
+with
+Multiple
+RDF
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#entailment" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.7
+</span>
+Equivalence,
+Entailment
+and
+Inconsistency
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-documents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.8
+</span>
+RDF
+Documents
+and
+Syntaxes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformance" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-rdf-graph" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+RDF
+Graphs
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-triples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Triples
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-IRIs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Graph-Literal" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Literals
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-blank-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-skolemization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+Replacing
+Blank
+Nodes
+with
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#graph-isomorphism" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Graph
+Comparison
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-dataset" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+RDF
+Datasets
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-dataset-isomorphism" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+RDF
+Dataset
+Comparison
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-dataset-conneg" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Content
+Negotiation
+of
+RDF
+Datasets
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Datatypes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Datatypes
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#xsd-datatypes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+XML
+Schema
+Built-in
+Datatypes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-html" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+Datatype
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-XMLLiteral" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+Datatype
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#datatype-maps" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Datatype
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-fragID" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Fragment
+Identifiers
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-generalized-rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.
+</span>
+Generalized
+RDF
+Triples,
+Graphs,
+and
+Datasets
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Acknowledgments" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.
+</span>
+Acknowledgments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#changes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Changes
+between
+RDF
+2004
+and
+RDF
+1.1
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#change-log" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Change
+Log
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#changes-wd5" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.1
+</span>
+Changes
+from
+<ins class="diff-new">23
+July
+2013
+LC
+to
+this
+version
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-wd4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+B.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Changes
+from
+</ins>
+15
+January
+2013
+WD
+to
+this
+version
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#changes-wd3" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Changes
+from
+05
+June
+2012
+WD
+to
+this
+version
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#changes-wd2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Changes
+from
+FPWD
+to
+05
+June
+2012
+WD
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#changes-fpwd" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Changes
+from
+RDF
+2004
+to
+FPWD
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+</div>
+<section id="section-Introduction" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Introduction">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+</em>
+(RDF)
+is
+a
+framework
+for
+representing
+information
+in
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+defines
+an
+abstract
+syntax
+(a
+data
+model)
+which
+serves
+to
+link
+all
+RDF-based
+languages
+and
+specifications,
+including:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">
+formal
+model-theoretic
+semantics
+for
+RDF
+and
+RDFS
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</li>
+<li>
+serialization
+syntaxes
+for
+storing
+and
+exchanging
+RDF
+(e.g.,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">
+Turtle
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">TURTLE-CR
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">
+<ins class="diff-chg">TURTLE
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/">
+RDF/XML
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">
+RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">
+SPARQL
+Query
+Language
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">
+RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">
+RDF
+Vocabulary
+Description
+Language
+</a>
+(RDFS)
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">
+RDF-SCHEMA
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+</li>
+</ul>
+<section id="data-model" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_data-model">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Graph-based
+Data
+Model
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</del>
+<p>
+The
+core
+structure
+of
+the
+abstract
+syntax
+is
+a
+set
+of
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+triples
+</a>,
+each
+consisting
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">
+predicate
+</a>
+and
+an
+<a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">
+object
+</a>.
+A
+set
+of
+such
+triples
+is
+called
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+An
+RDF
+graph
+can
+be
+visualized
+as
+a
+node
+and
+directed-arc
+diagram,
+in
+which
+each
+triple
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+node-arc-node
+link.
+</p>
+<figure id="fig-an-rdf-graph-with-two-nodes-subject-and-object-and-a-triple-connecting-them-predicate">
+<a href="rdf-graph.svg">
+<img src="rdf-graph.svg" alt="An RDF graph with two nodes (Subject and Object) and a triple connecting them (Predicate)" />
+</a>
+<figcaption>
+Fig.
+<span class="figno">
+1
+</span>
+<span class="fig-title">
+An
+RDF
+graph
+with
+two
+nodes
+(Subject
+and
+Object)
+and
+a
+triple
+connecting
+them
+(Predicate)
+</span>
+</figcaption>
+</figure>
+<p>
+There
+can
+be
+three
+kinds
+of
+<a title="node" href="#dfn-node" class="internalDFN">
+nodes
+</a>
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>:
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>,
+and
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="resources-and-statements" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_resources-and-statements">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Resources
+and
+Statements
+</h3>
+<p>
+Any
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+<dfn title="denote" id="dfn-denote">
+denotes
+</dfn>
+something
+in
+the
+world
+(the
+"universe
+of
+discourse").
+These
+things
+are
+called
+<dfn title="resource" id="dfn-resource">
+resources
+</dfn>.
+Anything
+can
+be
+a
+resource,
+including
+physical
+things,
+documents,
+abstract
+concepts,
+numbers
+and
+strings;
+the
+term
+is
+synonymous
+with
+<del class="diff-old">“entity”.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"entity"
+as
+it
+is
+used
+in
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-MT
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+</ins>
+The
+resource
+denoted
+by
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+called
+its
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>,
+and
+the
+resource
+denoted
+by
+a
+literal
+is
+called
+its
+<a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+value
+</a>.
+Literals
+have
+<a title="datatype" href="#dfn-datatype" class= "internalDFN">
+datatypes
+</a>
+that
+define
+the
+range
+of
+possible
+values,
+such
+as
+strings,
+numbers,
+and
+dates.
+A
+special
+kind
+of
+literals,
+<a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">
+language-tagged
+strings
+</a>,
+denote
+plain-text
+strings
+in
+a
+natural
+language.
+</p>
+<p>
+Asserting
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+says
+that
+<em>
+some
+relationship,
+indicated
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">
+predicate
+</a>,
+holds
+between
+the
+<a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resources
+</a>
+<a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denoted
+</a>
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">
+object
+</a>
+</em>.
+This
+statement
+corresponding
+to
+an
+RDF
+triple
+is
+known
+as
+an
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-statement">
+RDF
+statement
+</dfn>.
+The
+predicate
+itself
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+and
+denotes
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>,
+that
+is,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+thought
+of
+as
+a
+binary
+relation.
+(Relations
+that
+involve
+more
+than
+two
+entities
+can
+only
+be
+<a href= "http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-n-aryRelations/">
+indirectly
+expressed
+in
+RDF
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS">
+SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].)
+</p>
+<p>
+Unlike
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>,
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+do
+not
+denote
+specific
+<a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resources
+</a>.
+<a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">
+Statements
+</a>
+involving
+blank
+nodes
+say
+that
+something
+with
+the
+given
+relationships
+exists,
+without
+explicitly
+naming
+it.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="referents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_referents">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+The
+Referent
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+<a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denoted
+</a>
+by
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+also
+called
+its
+<dfn id="dfn-referent">
+referent
+</dfn>.
+For
+some
+IRIs
+with
+particular
+meanings,
+such
+as
+those
+identifying
+XSD
+datatypes,
+the
+referent
+is
+fixed
+by
+this
+specification.
+For
+all
+other
+IRIs,
+what
+exactly
+is
+denoted
+by
+any
+given
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+not
+defined
+by
+this
+specification.
+Other
+specifications
+may
+fix
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+referents,
+or
+apply
+other
+constraints
+on
+what
+may
+be
+the
+referent
+of
+any
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Guidelines
+for
+determining
+the
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>
+of
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+are
+provided
+in
+other
+documents,
+like
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/">
+Architecture
+of
+the
+World
+Wide
+Web,
+Volume
+One
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">
+Cool
+URIs
+for
+the
+Semantic
+Web
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-COOLURIS">
+COOLURIS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+A
+very
+brief,
+informal
+and
+partial
+account
+follows:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+IRIs
+have
+global
+scope:
+Two
+different
+appearances
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denote
+</a>
+the
+same
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+social
+convention,
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-ownership">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+owner
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+gets
+to
+say
+what
+<del class="diff-old">what
+</del>
+the
+intended
+(or
+usual)
+referent
+of
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is.
+Applications
+and
+users
+need
+not
+abide
+by
+this
+intended
+denotation,
+but
+there
+may
+be
+a
+loss
+of
+interoperability
+with
+other
+applications
+and
+users
+if
+they
+do
+not
+do
+so.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+owner
+can
+establish
+the
+intended
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>
+by
+means
+of
+a
+specification
+or
+other
+document
+that
+explains
+what
+is
+denoted.
+For
+example,
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">
+Organization
+Ontology
+document
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">vocab-org
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-VOCAB-ORG">
+<ins class="diff-chg">VOCAB-ORG
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+specifies
+the
+intended
+referents
+of
+various
+IRIs
+that
+start
+with
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/org#
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+good
+way
+of
+communicating
+the
+intended
+referent
+is
+to
+set
+up
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+so
+that
+it
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-dereference">
+dereferences
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+to
+such
+a
+document.
+</li>
+<li>
+Such
+a
+document
+can,
+in
+fact,
+be
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-document" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+document
+</a>
+that
+describes
+the
+denoted
+resource
+by
+means
+of
+<a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+statements
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Perhaps
+the
+most
+important
+characteristic
+of
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+in
+web
+architecture
+is
+that
+they
+can
+be
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-dereference">
+dereferenced
+</a>,
+and
+hence
+serve
+as
+starting
+points
+for
+interactions
+with
+a
+remote
+server.
+This
+specification
+is
+not
+concerned
+with
+such
+interactions.
+It
+does
+not
+define
+an
+interaction
+model.
+It
+only
+treats
+IRIs
+as
+globally
+unique
+identifiers
+in
+a
+graph
+data
+model
+that
+describes
+resources.
+However,
+those
+interactions
+are
+critical
+to
+the
+concept
+of
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-LINKED-DATA">
+LINKED-DATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+makes
+use
+of
+the
+RDF
+data
+model
+and
+serialization
+formats.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="vocabularies" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_vocabularies">
+<span class="secno">
+1.4
+</span>
+RDF
+Vocabularies
+and
+Namespace
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-vocabulary">
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+collection
+of
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+intended
+for
+use
+in
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+For
+example,
+the
+IRIs
+documented
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">
+RDF-SCHEMA
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+are
+the
+RDF
+Schema
+vocabulary.
+RDF
+Schema
+can
+itself
+be
+used
+to
+define
+and
+document
+additional
+RDF
+vocabularies.
+Some
+such
+vocabularies
+are
+mentioned
+in
+the
+Primer
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER">
+RDF-PRIMER
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</a>
+often
+begin
+with
+a
+common
+substring
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-namespace-iri">
+namespace
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>.
+Some
+namespace
+IRIs
+are
+associated
+by
+convention
+with
+a
+short
+name
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-namespace-prefix">
+namespace
+prefix
+</dfn>.
+Some
+examples:
+</p>
+<table class="simple">
+<caption>
+Some
+example
+namespace
+prefixes
+and
+IRIs
+</caption>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Namespace
+prefix
+</th>
+<th>
+Namespace
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</th>
+<th>
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+rdf
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+RDF
+built-in
+vocabulary
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">
+RDF-SCHEMA
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+rdfs
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#">
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+RDF
+Schema
+vocabulary
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">
+RDF-SCHEMA
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+xsd
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types" class="internalDFN">
+RDF-compatible
+XSD
+types
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+In
+some
+serialization
+formats
+it
+is
+common
+to
+abbreviate
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+that
+start
+with
+<a title="namespace IRI" href="#dfn-namespace-iri" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+IRIs
+</a>
+by
+using
+a
+<a href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+prefix
+</a>
+in
+order
+to
+assist
+readability.
+For
+example,
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral
+</code>
+would
+be
+abbreviated
+as
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>.
+Note
+however
+that
+these
+abbreviations
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+valid
+IRIs,
+and
+must
+not
+be
+used
+in
+contexts
+where
+IRIs
+are
+expected.
+Namespace
+IRIs
+and
+namespace
+prefixes
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+a
+formal
+part
+of
+the
+RDF
+data
+model.
+They
+are
+merely
+a
+syntactic
+convenience
+for
+abbreviating
+IRIs.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+term
+“
+<dfn id="dfn-namespace">
+namespace
+</dfn>
+”
+on
+its
+own
+does
+not
+have
+a
+well-defined
+meaning
+in
+the
+context
+of
+RDF,
+but
+is
+sometimes
+informally
+used
+to
+mean
+“
+<a href="#dfn-namespace-iri" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+”
+or
+“
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</a>
+”.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="change-over-time" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_change-over-time">
+<span class="secno">
+1.5
+</span>
+RDF
+and
+Change
+Over
+Time
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+RDF
+data
+model
+is
+<em>
+atemporal
+</em>:
+It
+does
+not
+deal
+with
+time,
+and
+does
+not
+have
+a
+built-in
+notion
+of
+temporal
+validity
+of
+information.
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+are
+static
+snapshots
+of
+information.
+</p>
+<p>
+However,
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+can
+express
+information
+about
+events
+and
+about
+temporal
+aspects
+of
+other
+entities,
+given
+appropriate
+<a title="RDF vocabulary" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+terms.
+</p>
+<p>
+Since
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+are
+defined
+as
+mathematical
+sets,
+adding
+or
+removing
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+triples
+</a>
+from
+an
+RDF
+graph
+yields
+a
+different
+RDF
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+informally
+use
+the
+term
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-source">
+RDF
+source
+</dfn>
+to
+refer
+to
+a
+persistent
+yet
+mutable
+source
+or
+container
+of
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+An
+RDF
+source
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+that
+may
+be
+said
+to
+have
+a
+state
+that
+can
+change
+over
+time.
+A
+snapshot
+of
+the
+state
+can
+be
+expressed
+as
+an
+RDF
+graph.
+For
+example,
+any
+web
+document
+that
+has
+an
+RDF-bearing
+representation
+may
+be
+considered
+an
+RDF
+source.
+Like
+all
+resources,
+RDF
+sources
+may
+be
+named
+with
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+therefore
+described
+in
+other
+RDF
+graphs.
+</p>
+<p>
+Intuitively
+speaking,
+changes
+in
+the
+universe
+of
+discourse
+can
+be
+reflected
+in
+the
+following
+ways:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+An
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+once
+<del class="diff-old">minted
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">minted,
+</ins>
+should
+never
+change
+its
+intended
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>.
+(See
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#URI-persistence">
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+persistence
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+].)
+</li>
+<li>
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+Literals
+</a>,
+by
+design,
+are
+constants
+and
+never
+change
+their
+<a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+value
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Some
+<a title="property" href="#dfn-property" class="internalDFN">
+properties
+</a>
+may
+change
+over
+time.
+A
+relationship
+that
+holds
+between
+two
+<a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resources
+</a>
+at
+one
+time
+may
+not
+hold
+at
+another
+time.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+sources
+</a>
+may
+change
+their
+state
+over
+time.
+That
+is,
+they
+may
+provide
+different
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+at
+different
+times.
+</li>
+<li>
+Some
+<a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+sources
+</a>
+may,
+however,
+be
+immutable
+snapshots
+of
+another
+RDF
+source,
+archiving
+its
+state
+at
+some
+point
+in
+time.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="managing-graphs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_managing-graphs">
+<span class="secno">
+1.6
+</span>
+Working
+with
+Multiple
+RDF
+Graphs
+</h3>
+<p>
+As
+RDF
+graphs
+are
+sets
+of
+triples,
+they
+can
+be
+combined
+easily,
+supporting
+the
+use
+of
+data
+from
+multiple
+sources.
+Nevertheless,
+it
+is
+sometimes
+desirable
+to
+work
+with
+multiple
+RDF
+graphs
+while
+keeping
+their
+contents
+separate.
+<a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>
+support
+this
+requirement.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+is
+a
+collection
+of
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+All
+but
+one
+of
+these
+graphs
+have
+an
+associated
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+blank
+node.
+They
+are
+called
+<a title="named graph" href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">
+named
+graphs
+</a>,
+and
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+or
+blank
+node
+is
+called
+the
+<a href="#dfn-graph-name" class="internalDFN">
+graph
+name
+</a>.
+The
+remaining
+graph
+does
+not
+have
+an
+associated
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+and
+is
+called
+the
+<a href="#dfn-default-graph" class="internalDFN">
+default
+graph
+</a>
+of
+the
+RDF
+dataset.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+many
+possible
+uses
+for
+<a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>.
+One
+such
+use
+is
+to
+hold
+snapshots
+of
+multiple
+<a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+sources
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="entailment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_entailment">
+<span class="secno">
+1.7
+</span>
+Equivalence,
+Entailment
+and
+Inconsistency
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+encodes
+a
+<a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">
+statement
+</a>
+—a
+simple
+<dfn id="dfn-logical-expression">
+logical
+expression
+</dfn>,
+or
+claim
+about
+the
+world.
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+is
+the
+conjunction
+(logical
+<em>
+AND
+</em>
+)
+of
+its
+triples.
+The
+precise
+details
+of
+this
+meaning
+of
+RDF
+triples
+and
+graphs
+are
+the
+subject
+of
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">
+RDF-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+yields
+the
+following
+relationships
+between
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-entailment">
+Entailment
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+entails
+another
+RDF
+graph
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+if
+every
+possible
+arrangement
+of
+the
+world
+that
+makes
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+true
+also
+makes
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+true.
+When
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+entails
+<em>
+B
+</em>,
+if
+the
+truth
+of
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+is
+presumed
+or
+demonstrated
+then
+the
+truth
+of
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+is
+established.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-equivalence">
+Equivalence
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Two
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+are
+equivalent
+if
+they
+make
+the
+same
+claim
+about
+the
+world.
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+is
+equivalent
+to
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+<a title="entailment" href="#dfn-entailment" class="internalDFN">
+entails
+</a>
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+entails
+<em>
+A
+</em>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-inconsistency">
+Inconsistency
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+is
+inconsistent
+if
+it
+contains
+an
+internal
+contradiction.
+There
+is
+no
+possible
+arrangement
+of
+the
+world
+that
+would
+make
+the
+expression
+true.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-entailment-regime">
+entailment
+regime
+</dfn>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">
+RDF-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+is
+a
+specification
+that
+defines
+precise
+conditions
+that
+make
+these
+relationships
+hold.
+RDF
+itself
+recognizes
+only
+some
+basic
+cases
+of
+entailment,
+equivalence
+and
+inconsistency.
+Other
+specifications,
+such
+as
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">
+RDF
+Schema
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">
+RDF-SCHEMA
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">
+OWL
+2
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">
+OWL2-OVERVIEW
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+add
+more
+powerful
+entailment
+regimes,
+as
+do
+some
+domain-specific
+<a title="RDF vocabulary" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+vocabularies
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+constrain
+how
+implementations
+use
+the
+logical
+relationships
+defined
+by
+<a title="entailment regime" href="#dfn-entailment-regime" class="internalDFN">
+entailment
+regimes
+</a>.
+Implementations
+may
+or
+may
+not
+detect
+<a title="inconsistency" href="#dfn-inconsistency" class="internalDFN">
+inconsistencies
+</a>,
+and
+may
+make
+all,
+some
+or
+no
+<a title="entailment" href="#dfn-entailment" class="internalDFN">
+entailed
+</a>
+information
+available
+to
+users.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="rdf-documents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_rdf-documents">
+<span class="secno">
+1.8
+</span>
+RDF
+Documents
+and
+Syntaxes
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-document">
+RDF
+document
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+document
+that
+encodes
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+in
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntax
+</dfn>,
+such
+as
+Turtle
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">TURTLE-CR
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">
+<ins class="diff-chg">TURTLE
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFA-PRIMER">
+RDFA-PRIMER
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+RDF/XML
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">
+RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+or
+N-Triples
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES">
+N-TRIPLES
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+RDF
+documents
+enable
+the
+exchange
+of
+RDF
+graphs
+and
+RDF
+datasets
+between
+systems.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntax
+</a>
+may
+offer
+many
+different
+ways
+to
+encode
+the
+same
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>,
+for
+example
+through
+the
+use
+of
+<a title="namespace prefix" href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+prefixes
+</a>,
+relative
+IRIs,
+<a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+</a>,
+and
+different
+ordering
+of
+statements.
+While
+these
+aspects
+can
+have
+great
+effect
+on
+the
+convenience
+of
+working
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-document" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+document
+</a>,
+they
+are
+not
+significant
+for
+its
+meaning.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_conformance">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</h2>
+<p>
+As
+well
+as
+sections
+marked
+as
+non-normative,
+all
+authoring
+guidelines,
+diagrams,
+examples,
+and
+notes
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+non-normative.
+Everything
+else
+in
+this
+specification
+is
+normative.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+key
+words
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+MUST
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED">
+REQUIRED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">
+SHOULD
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">
+RECOMMENDED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL">
+OPTIONAL
+</em>
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">
+RFC2119
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification,
+<em>
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</em>,
+defines
+a
+data
+model
+and
+related
+terminology
+for
+use
+in
+other
+specifications,
+such
+as
+<a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+</a>,
+API
+specifications,
+and
+query
+languages.
+Implementations
+cannot
+directly
+conform
+to
+<em>
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</em>,
+but
+can
+conform
+to
+such
+other
+specifications
+that
+normatively
+reference
+terms
+defined
+here.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="section-rdf-graph" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-rdf-graph">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+RDF
+Graphs
+</h2>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-graph">
+RDF
+graph
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triples
+</a>.
+</p>
+<section id="section-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-triples">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Triples
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-triple">
+RDF
+triple
+</dfn>
+consists
+of
+three
+components:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-subject">
+subject
+</dfn>,
+which
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-predicate">
+predicate
+</dfn>,
+which
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>,
+which
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+An
+RDF
+triple
+is
+conventionally
+written
+in
+the
+order
+subject,
+predicate,
+object.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+set
+of
+<dfn title="node" id="dfn-node">
+nodes
+</dfn>
+of
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+is
+the
+set
+of
+subjects
+and
+objects
+of
+triples
+in
+the
+graph.
+It
+is
+possible
+for
+a
+predicate
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+also
+occur
+as
+a
+node
+in
+the
+same
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+and
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+are
+collectively
+known
+as
+<dfn title="RDF term" id="dfn-rdf-term">
+RDF
+terms
+</dfn>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<p>
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+and
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+are
+distinct
+and
+distinguishable.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+http://example.org/
+</code>
+as
+a
+string
+literal
+is
+not
+equal
+to
+<code>
+http://example.org/
+</code>
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+nor
+to
+a
+blank
+node
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</a>
+<code>
+http://example.org/
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="section-IRIs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-IRIs">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="IRI" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier)
+within
+an
+RDF
+graph
+is
+a
+Unicode
+string
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+that
+conforms
+to
+the
+syntax
+defined
+in
+RFC
+3987
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+in
+the
+RDF
+abstract
+syntax
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+absolute,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+contain
+a
+fragment
+identifier.
+</p>
+<p>
+<dfn id="dfn-iri-equality">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+equality
+</dfn>:
+Two
+IRIs
+are
+equal
+if
+and
+only
+if
+they
+are
+equivalent
+under
+Simple
+String
+Comparison
+according
+to
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5.1">
+section
+5.1
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Further
+normalization
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+MUST
+NOT
+</em>
+be
+performed
+when
+comparing
+IRIs
+for
+equality.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_1">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<div class="" id="note-iris">
+<p>
+<strong>
+URIs
+and
+IRIs:
+</strong>
+IRIs
+are
+a
+generalization
+of
+<dfn title="URI" id="dfn-uri">
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+s
+</dfn>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+that
+permits
+a
+<del class="diff-old">much
+</del>
+wider
+range
+of
+Unicode
+characters.
+Every
+absolute
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+and
+URL
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+but
+not
+every
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>.
+When
+IRIs
+are
+used
+in
+operations
+that
+are
+only
+defined
+for
+URIs,
+they
+must
+first
+be
+converted
+according
+to
+the
+mapping
+defined
+in
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-3.1">
+section
+3.1
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+A
+notable
+example
+is
+retrieval
+over
+the
+HTTP
+protocol.
+The
+mapping
+involves
+UTF-8
+encoding
+of
+non-ASCII
+characters,
+%-encoding
+of
+octets
+not
+allowed
+in
+URIs,
+and
+Punycode-encoding
+of
+domain
+names.
+</p>
+<p>
+<strong>
+Relative
+IRIs:
+</strong>
+Some
+<a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+</a>
+permit
+<dfn title="relative IRI" id="dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</dfn>
+as
+a
+convenient
+shorthand
+that
+allows
+authoring
+of
+documents
+independently
+from
+their
+final
+publishing
+location.
+Relative
+IRIs
+must
+be
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.2">
+resolved
+against
+</a>
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-base-iri">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+to
+make
+them
+absolute.
+Therefore,
+the
+RDF
+graph
+serialized
+in
+such
+syntaxes
+is
+well-defined
+only
+if
+a
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+can
+be
+established
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+<strong>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+normalization:
+</strong>
+Interoperability
+problems
+can
+be
+avoided
+by
+minting
+only
+IRIs
+that
+are
+normalized
+according
+to
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5">
+Section
+5
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Non-normalized
+forms
+that
+are
+best
+avoided
+include:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Uppercase
+characters
+in
+scheme
+names
+and
+domain
+names
+</li>
+<li>
+Percent-encoding
+of
+characters
+where
+it
+is
+not
+required
+by
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+syntax
+</li>
+<li>
+Explicitly
+stated
+HTTP
+default
+port
+(
+<code>
+http://example.com:80/
+</code>
+);
+<code>
+http://example.com/
+</code>
+is
+preferrable
+</li>
+<li>
+Completely
+empty
+path
+in
+HTTP
+IRIs
+(
+<code>
+http://example.com
+</code>
+);
+<code>
+http://example.com/
+</code>
+is
+preferrable
+</li>
+<li>
+“
+<code>
+/./
+</code>
+”
+or
+“
+<code>
+/../
+</code>
+”
+in
+the
+path
+component
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</li>
+<li>
+Lowercase
+hexadecimal
+letters
+within
+percent-encoding
+triplets
+(“
+<code>
+%3F
+</code>
+”
+is
+preferable
+over
+“
+<code>
+%3f
+</code>
+”)
+</li>
+<li>
+Punycode-encoding
+of
+Internationalized
+Domain
+Names
+in
+IRIs
+</li>
+<li>
+IRIs
+that
+are
+not
+in
+Unicode
+Normalization
+Form
+C
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-NFC">
+NFC
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="section-Graph-Literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-Graph-Literal">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Literals
+</h3>
+<p>
+Literals
+are
+used
+for
+values
+such
+as
+strings,
+numbers
+and
+dates.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn id="dfn-literal">
+literal
+</dfn>
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+consists
+of
+two
+or
+three
+elements:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</dfn>,
+being
+a
+Unicode
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+string,
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>
+be
+in
+Normal
+Form
+C
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-NFC">
+NFC
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-datatype-iri">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>,
+being
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">identifying
+a
+datatype
+</ins>
+that
+determines
+how
+the
+lexical
+form
+maps
+to
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+value
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+A
+literal
+is
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-language-tagged-string">
+language-tagged
+string
+</dfn>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+its
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString
+</code>,
+and
+only
+in
+this
+case
+the
+third
+element
+is
+present:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+non-empty
+<dfn id="dfn-language-tag">
+language
+tag
+</dfn>
+as
+defined
+by
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+language
+tag
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+well-formed
+according
+to
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">
+section
+2.2.9
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Lexical
+representations
+of
+language
+tags
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+converted
+to
+lower
+case.
+The
+value
+space
+of
+language
+tags
+is
+always
+in
+lower
+case.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+badly
+formed
+language
+tag
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+treated
+as
+a
+syntax
+error.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="" id="note-language-tag-regex">
+Implementors
+might
+wish
+to
+note
+that
+language
+tags
+conform
+to
+the
+regular
+expression
+<code>
+’@’
+[a-zA-Z]{1,8}
+(’-’
+[a-zA-Z0-9]{1,8})*
+</code>
+before
+normalizing
+to
+lowercase.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+Multiple
+literals
+may
+have
+the
+same
+lexical
+form.
+</p>
+<p>
+Concrete
+syntaxes
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+support
+<dfn title="simple literal" id="dfn-simple-literal">
+simple
+literals
+</dfn>,
+consisting
+of
+only
+a
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+without
+any
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+or
+language
+tag.
+Simple
+literals
+only
+exist
+in
+concrete
+syntaxes,
+and
+are
+treated
+as
+syntactic
+sugar
+for
+abstract
+syntax
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<dfn id="dfn-literal-term-equality">
+Literal
+term
+equality
+</dfn>:
+Two
+literals
+are
+term-equal
+(the
+same
+RDF
+literal)
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+two
+<a title="lexical form" href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+forms
+</a>,
+the
+two
+<a title="datatype IRI" href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+IRIs
+</a>,
+and
+the
+two
+<a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">
+language
+tags
+</a>
+(if
+any)
+compare
+equal,
+character
+by
+character.
+</p>
+<p>
+Two
+literals
+can
+have
+the
+same
+value
+without
+being
+the
+same
+<a title="RDF Term" href="#dfn-rdf-term" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+term
+</a>.
+For
+example:
+<del class="diff-old">				"1"^^xs:integer
+		"01"^^xs:integer
+</del>
+</p>
+<pre>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "1"^^xs:integer
+    "01"^^xs:integer
+    
+</ins>
+</pre>
+<p>
+denote
+the
+same
+value,
+but
+are
+not
+the
+same
+literal
+<a title="RDF Term" href="#dfn-rdf-term" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+terms
+</a>
+and
+are
+not
+term-equals.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-literal-value">
+literal
+value
+</dfn>
+associated
+with
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<strong>
+If
+the
+literal
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">
+language-tagged
+string
+</a>,
+</strong>
+then
+the
+literal
+value
+is
+a
+pair
+consisting
+of
+its
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+and
+its
+<a href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">
+language
+tag
+</a>,
+in
+that
+order.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+If
+the
+literal's
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+not
+<a title="recognized datatype IRIs" href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">
+recognized
+</a>
+by
+an
+implementation,
+</strong>
+then
+the
+literal
+value
+is
+not
+defined
+by
+this
+specification.
+</li>
+<li>
+Let
+<var>
+d
+</var>
+be
+the
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>
+of
+the
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+in
+the
+set
+of
+<a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+</a>.
+<strong>
+If
+the
+literal's
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+is
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>
+of
+<var>
+d
+</var>,
+</strong>
+then
+the
+literal
+value
+is
+the
+result
+of
+applying
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</a>
+of
+<var>
+d
+</var>
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<strong>
+Otherwise
+</strong>,
+the
+literal
+is
+ill-typed,
+and
+no
+literal
+value
+can
+be
+associated
+with
+the
+literal.
+Such
+a
+case
+produces
+a
+semantic
+inconsistency
+but
+is
+not
+<em>
+syntactically
+</em>
+ill-formed
+and
+implementations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+accept
+ill-typed
+literals
+and
+produce
+RDF
+graphs
+from
+them.
+Implementations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+produce
+warnings
+when
+encountering
+ill-typed
+literals.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</section>
+<section id="section-blank-nodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-blank-nodes">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</h3>
+<p>
+<dfn title="blank node" id="dfn-blank-node">
+Blank
+nodes
+</dfn>
+are
+disjoint
+from
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>.
+Otherwise,
+the
+set
+of
+possible
+blank
+nodes
+is
+arbitrary.
+RDF
+makes
+no
+reference
+to
+any
+internal
+structure
+of
+blank
+nodes.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_3">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="" id="note-bnode-id">
+<dfn title="blank node identifier" id="dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+Blank
+node
+identifiers
+</dfn>
+are
+local
+identifiers
+that
+are
+used
+in
+some
+<a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+</a>
+or
+RDF
+store
+implementations.
+They
+are
+always
+locally
+scoped
+to
+the
+file
+or
+RDF
+store,
+and
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+persistent
+or
+portable
+identifiers
+for
+blank
+nodes.
+Blank
+node
+identifiers
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+part
+of
+the
+RDF
+abstract
+syntax,
+but
+are
+entirely
+dependent
+on
+the
+concrete
+syntax
+or
+implementation.
+The
+syntactic
+restrictions
+on
+blank
+node
+identifiers,
+if
+any,
+therefore
+also
+depend
+on
+the
+concrete
+RDF
+syntax
+or
+implementation.
+Implementations
+that
+handle
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+in
+concrete
+syntaxes
+need
+to
+be
+careful
+not
+to
+create
+the
+same
+blank
+node
+from
+multiple
+occurences
+of
+the
+same
+blank
+node
+identifier
+except
+in
+situations
+where
+this
+is
+supported
+by
+the
+syntax.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="section-skolemization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-skolemization">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+Replacing
+Blank
+Nodes
+with
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Blank
+nodes
+do
+not
+have
+identifiers
+in
+the
+RDF
+abstract
+syntax.
+The
+<a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+</a>
+introduced
+by
+some
+concrete
+syntaxes
+have
+only
+local
+scope
+and
+are
+purely
+an
+artifact
+of
+the
+serialization.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+situations
+where
+stronger
+identification
+is
+needed,
+systems
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+systematically
+replace
+some
+or
+all
+of
+the
+blank
+nodes
+in
+an
+RDF
+graph
+with
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+Systems
+wishing
+to
+do
+this
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>
+mint
+a
+new,
+globally
+unique
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(a
+<dfn id="dfn-skolem-iri">
+Skolem
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+)
+for
+each
+blank
+node
+so
+replaced.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+transformation
+does
+not
+appreciably
+change
+the
+meaning
+of
+an
+RDF
+graph,
+provided
+that
+the
+Skolem
+IRIs
+do
+not
+occur
+anywhere
+else.
+It
+does
+however
+permit
+the
+possibility
+of
+other
+graphs
+subsequently
+using
+the
+Skolem
+IRIs,
+which
+is
+not
+possible
+for
+blank
+nodes.
+</p>
+<p>
+Systems
+may
+wish
+to
+mint
+Skolem
+IRIs
+in
+such
+a
+way
+that
+they
+can
+recognize
+the
+IRIs
+as
+having
+been
+introduced
+solely
+to
+replace
+blank
+nodes.
+This
+allows
+a
+system
+to
+map
+IRIs
+back
+to
+blank
+nodes
+if
+needed.
+</p>
+<p>
+Systems
+that
+want
+Skolem
+IRIs
+to
+be
+recognizable
+outside
+of
+the
+system
+boundaries
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>
+use
+a
+well-known
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5785">
+RFC5785
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+with
+the
+registered
+name
+<code>
+genid
+</code>.
+This
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+uses
+the
+HTTP
+or
+HTTPS
+scheme,
+or
+another
+scheme
+that
+has
+been
+specified
+to
+use
+well-known
+IRIs;
+and
+whose
+path
+component
+starts
+with
+<code>
+/.well-known/genid/
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+the
+authority
+responsible
+for
+the
+domain
+<code>
+example.com
+</code>
+could
+mint
+the
+following
+recognizable
+Skolem
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>:
+</p>
+<pre>
+http://example.com/.well-known/genid/d26a2d0e98334696f4ad70a677abc1f6
+</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_4">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+RFC
+5785
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5785">
+RFC5785
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+only
+specifies
+well-known
+URIs,
+not
+IRIs.
+For
+the
+purpose
+of
+this
+document,
+a
+well-known
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+any
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+results
+in
+a
+well-known
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+after
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+-to-
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="graph-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_graph-isomorphism">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Graph
+Comparison
+</h3>
+<p id="section-graph-equality">
+Two
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+and
+<var>
+G'
+</var>
+are
+<dfn title="graph isomorphism" id="dfn-graph-isomorphism">
+isomorphic
+</dfn>
+(that
+is,
+they
+have
+an
+identical
+form)
+if
+there
+is
+a
+bijection
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+between
+the
+sets
+of
+nodes
+of
+the
+two
+graphs,
+such
+that:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+maps
+blank
+nodes
+to
+blank
+nodes.
+</li>
+<li>
+<var>
+M(lit)=lit
+</var>
+for
+all
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+literals
+</a>
+<var>
+lit
+</var>
+which
+are
+nodes
+of
+<var>
+G
+</var>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<var>
+M(uri)=uri
+</var>
+for
+all
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<var>
+uri
+</var>
+which
+are
+nodes
+of
+<var>
+G
+</var>.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+triple
+<var>
+(
+s,
+p,
+o
+)
+</var>
+is
+in
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+triple
+<var>
+(
+M(s),
+p,
+M(o)
+)
+</var>
+is
+in
+<var>
+G'
+</var>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+See
+also:
+<a href="#dfn-iri-equality" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+equality
+</a>,
+<a href="#dfn-literal-term-equality" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+term
+equality
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+With
+this
+definition,
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+shows
+how
+each
+blank
+node
+in
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+can
+be
+replaced
+with
+a
+new
+blank
+node
+to
+give
+<var>
+G'
+</var>.
+Graph
+isomorphism
+is
+needed
+to
+support
+the
+RDF
+Test
+Cases
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-TESTCASES">
+RDF-TESTCASES
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+specification.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="section-dataset" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-dataset">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+RDF
+Datasets
+</h2>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-dataset">
+RDF
+dataset
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+collection
+of
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>,
+and
+comprises:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Exactly
+one
+<dfn id="dfn-default-graph">
+default
+graph
+</dfn>,
+being
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+The
+default
+graph
+does
+not
+have
+a
+name
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+empty.
+</li>
+<li>
+Zero
+or
+more
+<dfn title="named graph" id="dfn-named-graph">
+named
+graphs
+</dfn>.
+Each
+named
+graph
+is
+a
+pair
+consisting
+of
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+blank
+node
+(the
+<dfn id="dfn-graph-name">
+graph
+name
+</dfn>
+),
+and
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+Graph
+names
+are
+unique
+within
+an
+RDF
+dataset.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+Blank
+nodes
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+shared
+between
+graphs
+in
+an
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_5">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<div class="" id="note-datasets">
+<p>
+Despite
+the
+use
+of
+the
+word
+“name”
+in
+“
+<a href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">
+named
+graph
+</a>
+”,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-graph-name" class="internalDFN">
+graph
+name
+</a>
+does
+not
+formally
+<a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denote
+</a>
+the
+graph.
+It
+is
+merely
+syntactically
+paired
+with
+the
+graph.
+RDF
+does
+not
+place
+any
+formal
+restrictions
+on
+what
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+the
+graph
+name
+may
+denote,
+nor
+on
+the
+relationship
+between
+that
+resource
+and
+the
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+Some
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+implementations
+do
+not
+track
+empty
+<a title="named graph" href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">
+named
+graphs
+</a>.
+Applications
+can
+avoid
+interoperability
+issues
+by
+not
+ascribing
+importance
+to
+the
+presence
+or
+absence
+of
+empty
+named
+graphs.
+</p>
+<p>
+Blank
+nodes
+as
+graph
+names
+are
+new.
+Existing
+SPARQL
+implementations
+might
+not
+accept
+this
+new
+feature
+for
+some
+time,
+so
+the
+use
+of
+blank
+nodes
+as
+graph
+names
+can
+cause
+interoperability
+problems.
+<a href="#section-skolemization">
+Skolemizing
+</a>
+blank
+nodes
+used
+as
+graph
+names
+can
+be
+used
+to
+overcome
+these
+interoperability
+problems.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<section id="section-dataset-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-dataset-isomorphism">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+RDF
+Dataset
+Comparison
+</h3>
+<p id="section-dataset-equality">
+Two
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>
+(the
+RDF
+dataset
+<var>
+D1
+</var>
+with
+default
+graph
+<var>
+DG1
+</var>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">any
+</ins>
+named
+graph
+<var>
+NG1
+</var>
+and
+the
+RDF
+dataset
+<var>
+D2
+</var>
+with
+default
+graph
+<var>
+DG2
+</var>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">any
+</ins>
+named
+graph
+<var>
+NG2
+</var>
+)
+are
+<dfn title="dataset isomorphism" id="dfn-dataset-isomorphism">
+dataset-isomorphic
+</dfn>
+if
+and
+only
+<del class="diff-old">if:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">if
+there
+is
+a
+bijection
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">DG1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M
+</ins>
+</var>
+<ins class="diff-new">between
+the
+nodes,
+triples
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">DG2
+are
+graph-isomorphic;
+For
+each
+(n1,g1)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">graphs
+</ins>
+in
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">NG1
+,
+there
+exists
+(n2,g2)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D1
+</ins>
+</var>
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+those
+</ins>
+in
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">NG2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D2
+</ins>
+</var>
+such
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">that:
+</ins></p><ol><li>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">n1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">=
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">maps
+blank
+nodes
+to
+blank
+nodes;
+</ins></li><li>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">n2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M
+</ins>
+</var>
+<ins class="diff-new">is
+the
+identity
+map
+on
+literals
+</ins>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">URIs;
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+For
+every
+triple
+&lt;s
+p
+o&gt;,
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">g1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(&lt;s,
+p,
+o&gt;)=
+&lt;
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">g2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M(s)
+</ins></var>,<var><ins class="diff-chg">
+M(p)
+</ins></var>,<var><ins class="diff-chg">
+M(o)
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+graph-isomorphic;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&gt;;
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+<del class="diff-old">each
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">every
+graph
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">(n2,g2)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">G
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">in
+NG2
+,
+there
+exists
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">={t1,
+...,
+tn},
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">(n1,g1)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M(G)
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">={
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">NG1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M(t1)
+</ins></var>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+...,
+</ins><var><ins class="diff-chg">
+M(tn)
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">such
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">};
+</ins></li><li>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">n1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">DG2
+</ins>
+</var>
+=
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">n2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M(DG1)
+</ins>
+</var>
+<ins class="diff-new">;
+</ins>
+and
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">&lt;n,
+G&gt;
+is
+in
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">g1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">NG1
+</ins>
+</var>
+<ins class="diff-new">if
+</ins>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">only
+if
+&lt;
+</ins>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">g2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M(n)
+</ins></var>,<var><ins class="diff-chg">
+M(G)
+</ins>
+</var>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+graph-isomorphic.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&gt;
+is
+in
+</ins><var><ins class="diff-chg">
+NG2
+</ins></var>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</section>
+<section id="section-dataset-conneg" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-dataset-conneg">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Content
+Negotiation
+of
+RDF
+Datasets
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+Primary
+resources
+may
+have
+multiple
+representations
+that
+are
+made
+available
+via
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#frag-coneg">
+content
+negotiation
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+A
+representation
+may
+be
+returned
+in
+an
+RDF
+serialization
+format
+that
+supports
+the
+expression
+of
+both
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>
+and
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+If
+an
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+is
+returned
+and
+the
+consumer
+is
+expecting
+an
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>,
+the
+consumer
+is
+expected
+to
+use
+the
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset's
+</a>
+default
+graph.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="section-Datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Datatypes">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Datatypes
+</h2>
+<p>
+Datatypes
+are
+used
+with
+RDF
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+to
+represent
+values
+such
+as
+strings,
+numbers
+and
+dates.
+The
+datatype
+abstraction
+used
+in
+RDF
+is
+compatible
+with
+XML
+Schema
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">
+XMLSCHEMA11-2
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Any
+datatype
+definition
+that
+conforms
+to
+this
+abstraction
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+used
+in
+RDF,
+even
+if
+not
+defined
+in
+terms
+of
+XML
+Schema.
+RDF
+re-uses
+many
+of
+the
+XML
+Schema
+built-in
+datatypes,
+and
+provides
+two
+additional
+built-in
+datatypes,
+<code>
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-html" class="internalDFN">
+rdf:HTML
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+list
+of
+datatypes
+supported
+by
+an
+implementation
+is
+determined
+by
+its
+<a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn id="dfn-datatype">
+datatype
+</dfn>
+consists
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</a>,
+and
+is
+denoted
+by
+one
+or
+more
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-lexical-space">
+lexical
+space
+</dfn>
+of
+a
+datatype
+is
+a
+set
+of
+Unicode
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+strings.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</dfn>
+of
+a
+datatype
+is
+a
+set
+of
+pairs
+whose
+first
+element
+belongs
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>,
+and
+the
+second
+element
+belongs
+to
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-value-space">
+value
+space
+</dfn>
+of
+the
+datatype.
+Each
+member
+of
+the
+lexical
+space
+is
+paired
+with
+exactly
+one
+value,
+and
+is
+a
+<em>
+lexical
+representation
+</em>
+of
+that
+value.
+The
+mapping
+can
+be
+seen
+as
+a
+function
+from
+the
+lexical
+space
+to
+the
+value
+space.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_6">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+<a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">
+Language-tagged
+strings
+</a>
+have
+the
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString
+</code>.
+No
+datatype
+is
+formally
+defined
+for
+this
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+because
+the
+definition
+of
+<a title="datatype" href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">
+datatypes
+</a>
+does
+not
+accommodate
+<a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">
+language
+tags
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+associated
+with
+this
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+the
+set
+of
+all
+pairs
+of
+strings
+and
+language
+tags.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+the
+XML
+Schema
+datatype
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>,
+where
+each
+member
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+has
+two
+lexical
+representations,
+is
+defined
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Lexical
+space:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+{“
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+”,
+“
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+”,
+“
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+”,
+“
+<code>
+0
+</code>
+”}
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Value
+space:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+{
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>,
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+}
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</dt>
+<dd>
+{
+&lt;“
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+&lt;“
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+&lt;“
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+&lt;“
+<code>
+0
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+}
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+The
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+defined
+using
+this
+datatype
+are:
+</p>
+<table class="simple">
+<caption>
+This
+table
+lists
+the
+literals
+of
+type
+xsd:boolean.
+</caption>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Literal
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+0
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<section id="xsd-datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_xsd-datatypes">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+XML
+Schema
+Built-in
+Datatypes
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+of
+the
+form
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
+<em>
+xxx
+</em>
+</code>,
+where
+<code>
+<em>
+xxx
+</em>
+</code>
+is
+the
+name
+of
+a
+datatype,
+denote
+the
+built-in
+datatypes
+defined
+in
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/">
+XML
+Schema
+1.1
+Part
+2:
+Datatypes
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">
+XMLSCHEMA11-2
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+XML
+Schema
+built-in
+types
+listed
+in
+the
+following
+table
+are
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">
+RDF-compatible
+XSD
+types
+</dfn>.
+Their
+use
+is
+<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">
+RECOMMENDED
+</em>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Readers
+might
+note
+that
+the
+xsd:hexBinary
+and
+xsd:base64Binary
+datatypes
+are
+the
+only
+safe
+datatypes
+for
+transferring
+binary
+information.
+</p>
+<table class="simple">
+<caption>
+A
+list
+of
+the
+RDF-compatible
+XSD
+types,
+with
+short
+descriptions"
+</caption>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+</th>
+<th>
+Datatype
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+space
+(informative)
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="4">
+Core
+types
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string">
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Character
+strings
+(but
+not
+all
+Unicode
+character
+strings)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#boolean">
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+true,
+false
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#decimal">
+<code>
+xsd:decimal
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Arbitrary-precision
+decimal
+numbers
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#integer">
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Arbitrary-size
+integer
+numbers
+</td>