new version
authorGuus Schreiber <guus.schreiber@vu.nl>
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 00:29:24 +0100
changeset 1751 90480ef5bc7b
parent 1750 970a72d69195
child 1752 690ea86537ca
new version
PR-drafts/PR-turtle-20140109/diff-20130219.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/PR-drafts/PR-turtle-20140109/diff-20130219.html	Sun Jan 05 00:29:24 2014 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,13350 @@
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr" typeof="bibo:Document w3p:PR" about="" property="dcterms:language" content="en" prefix="bibo: http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ w3p: http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+<head>
+<title>RDF 1.1 Turtle</title>
+<meta charset="utf-8" />
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+    /* Style Turtle script blocks to be visable */
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+    .separated thead tr th { border:1px solid black; padding: .2em; }
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+    .separated tbody tr td.r { text-align: right; padding: .5em; }
+    .grammar td { font-family: monospace; vertical-align: top; }
+    .grammar-literal { color: gray;}
+        .grammar_comment { color: #A52A2A; font-style: italic; }
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+/*****************************************************************
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+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
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+
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+}
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+a.externalDFN {
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+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
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+    font-style:   italic;
+}
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+/* --- TABLE --- */
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+}
+
+.simple th {
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+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
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+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+/* --- EXAMPLES --- */
+div.example-title {
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.example-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;   
+}
+aside.example, div.example, div.illegal-example {
+    padding: 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+div.illegal-example { color: red }
+div.illegal-example p { color: black }
+aside.example, div.example {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+    border-color: #e0cb52;
+    background: #fcfaee;    
+}
+
+aside.example div.example {
+    border-left-width: .1em;
+    border-color: #999;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+aside.example div.example div.example-title {
+    color: #999;
+}
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
+div.note-title { color: #2b2; }
+div.issue-title span, div.note-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;
+}
+div.note, div.issue {
+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+.note > p:first-child, .issue > p:first-child { margin-top: 0 }
+.issue, .note {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+}
+div.issue, div.note {
+    padding: 1em 1.2em 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+span.note, span.issue { padding: .1em .5em .15em; }
+
+.issue {
+    border-color: #e05252;
+    background: #fbe9e9;
+}
+.note {
+    border-color: #52e052;
+    background: #e9fbe9;
+}
+
+
+/*]]>*/
+</style>
+<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-PR" type="text/css" /><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+<style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
+.diff-new { background-color: yellow; }
+.diff-chg { background-color: lime; }
+.diff-new:before,
+.diff-new:after
+    { content: "\2191" }
+.diff-chg:before, .diff-chg:after
+    { content: "\2195" }
+.diff-old { text-decoration: line-through; background-color: #FBB; }
+.diff-old:before,
+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+<body class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument">
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 property="dcterms:title" id="title" class="title p-name">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+<ins class="diff-new">RDF
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+1.1
+Turtle
+</ins></h1><h2 id="subtitle" property="bibo:subtitle"><ins class="diff-new">
+Terse
+</ins><abbr title="Resource Description Framework"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+Triple
+Language
+</ins></h2><h2 content="2014-01-08T23:00:00.000Z" datatype="xsd:dateTime" property="dcterms:issued" id="w3c-proposed-recommendation-09-january-2014"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+Proposed
+Recommendation
+</ins><time datetime="2014-01-09" class="dt-published"><ins class="diff-new">
+09
+January
+2014
+</ins></time></h2><dl><dt><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+version:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-turtle-20140109/" class="u-url"><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-turtle-20140109/
+</ins></a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Latest
+published
+version:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/
+</ins></a></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html"><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html
+</ins></a></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Test
+suite:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/TurtleTests/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/2013/TurtleTests/
+</ins></a></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Implementation
+report:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/reports/index.html"><ins class="diff-chg">
+https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/reports/index.html
+</ins></a></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Previous
+version:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/" rel="dcterms:replaces"><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/
+</ins></a></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Editors:
+</ins></dt><dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/" content="Eric Prud'hommeaux" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Eric
+Prud'hommeaux
+</ins></a>,<a href="http://www.w3.org/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr></a></span></dd><dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a href="http://gavin.carothers.name/" content="Gavin Carothers" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Gavin
+Carothers
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">TopQuadrant,
+Inc
+,
+</del>
+<a href="http://lexmachina.com/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+Lex
+Machina,
+Inc
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://www.dajobe.org/" content="David Beckett" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+David
+Beckett
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/" content="Tim Berners-Lee" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Tim
+Berners-Lee
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/" content="Eric Prud'hommeaux" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Eric
+Prud'hommeaux
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://gavin.carothers.name/" content="Gavin Carothers" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Gavin
+Carothers
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">TopQuadrant,
+Inc
+,
+</del>
+<a href="http://lexmachina.com/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+Lex
+Machina,
+Inc
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+</ins><a href="diff-20130219.html" rel="alternate"><ins class="diff-new">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</ins></a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+<del class="diff-old">2013
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2008-2014
+</ins>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+Beihang
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+(
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+)
+is
+a
+general-purpose
+language
+for
+representing
+information
+in
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+defines
+a
+textual
+syntax
+for
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+called
+Turtle
+that
+allows
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph
+to
+be
+completely
+written
+in
+a
+compact
+and
+natural
+text
+form,
+with
+abbreviations
+for
+common
+usage
+patterns
+and
+datatypes.
+Turtle
+provides
+levels
+of
+compatibility
+with
+the
+<del class="diff-old">existing
+</del>
+N-Triples
+<ins class="diff-new">[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES"><ins class="diff-new">
+N-TRIPLES
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-new">]
+</ins>
+format
+as
+well
+as
+the
+triple
+pattern
+syntax
+of
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/">
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Recommendation.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="introductory" id="sotd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+Recommendation
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+Recommendation.
+</ins>
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Recommendation
+.
+</del>
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation.
+The
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">publishes
+a
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+to
+indicate
+that
+the
+document
+is
+believed
+to
+be
+stable
+</del>
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Membership
+</ins>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">other
+interested
+parties
+are
+invited
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">encourage
+implementation
+by
+the
+developer
+community.
+See
+the
+separate
+information
+on
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">review
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+Recommendation
+exit
+criteria
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">the
+available
+tests.
+This
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+is
+expected
+to
+advance
+to
+Proposed
+Recommendation
+in
+the
+course
+of
+2013.
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+</del>
+send
+<del class="diff-old">them
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">comments
+</ins>
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="discussion">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+The
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+period
+ends
+26
+March
+2013.
+All
+feedback
+is
+welcome.
+The
+following
+feature
+is
+at
+risk
+and
+may
+be
+removed:
+In
+order
+to
+improve
+alignment
+Turtle
+with
+SPARQL
+the
+Working
+Group
+proposes
+to
+add
+the
+grammar
+productions
+sparqlPrefix
+and
+sparqlBase
+which
+allow
+for
+using
+SPARQL
+style
+BASE
+and
+PREFIX
+directives
+in
+a
+Turtle
+document.
+Changes
+since
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">)
+through
+09
+February
+2014.
+Advisory
+Committee
+Representatives
+should
+consult
+their
+</ins><a href="https://www.w3.org/2002/09/wbs/myQuestionnaires"><ins class="diff-chg">
+WBS
+questionnaires
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+that
+substantive
+technical
+comments
+were
+expected
+during
+</ins>
+the
+Last
+Call
+<del class="diff-old">version
+(see:
+the
+HTML
+colorized
+diffs
+):
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">review
+period
+that
+ended
+15
+September
+2012.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Renaming
+for
+STRING_*
+productions
+to
+STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE
+style
+names
+rather
+than
+numbers
+Local
+part
+of
+prefix
+names
+can
+now
+include
+":"
+Turtle
+in
+HTML
+Renaming
+of
+grammar
+tokens
+and
+rules
+around
+IRIs
+Reserved
+character
+escape
+sequences
+String
+escape
+sequences
+limited
+to
+strings
+Numeric
+escape
+sequences
+limited
+to
+IRIs
+and
+Strings
+Support
+top-level
+blank-predicate-object
+lists
+White
+space
+required
+between
[email protected]
+and
+prefix
+label
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">None
+of
+the
+changes
+made
+since
+the
+July
+10,
+2012
+start
+of
+Last
+Call
+are
+considered
+to
+have
+the
+effect
+of
+completely
+invalidating
+any
+previous
+review
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Please
+see
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">specification.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Working
+Group's
+</ins><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/reports/index.html"><ins class="diff-chg">
+implementation
+report
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/" rel="w3p:patentRules" about="" id="sotd_patent">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a rel="disclosure" href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-intro" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#language-features" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+Language
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#simple-triples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Simple
+Triples
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#predicate-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Predicate
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#object-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Object
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-iri" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#literals" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Literals
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#turtle-literals" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5.1
+</span>
+Quoted
+Literals
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#abbrev" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5.2
+</span>
+Numbers
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#booleans" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5.3
+</span>
+Booleans
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#BNodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.6
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#unlabeled-bnodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.7
+</span>
+Nesting
+Unlabeled
+Blank
+Nodes
+in
+Turtle
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#collections" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.8
+</span>
+Collections
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Examples
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-diff-sparql" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+compared
+to
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformance" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Conformance
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-mime" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+Media
+Type
+and
+Content
+Encoding
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+Grammar
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-grammar-ws" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+White
+Space
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-grammar-comments" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Comments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-iri-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+IRI
+References
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-escapes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4
+</span>
+Escape
+Sequences
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-grammar-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+Grammar
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-parsing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Parsing
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-parsing-state" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.1
+</span>
+Parser
+State
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-parsing-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.2
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Term
+Constructors
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-parsing-triples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.3
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Triples
+Constructors
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-parsing-example" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.4
+</span>
+Parsing
+Example
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#in-html" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Embedding
+Turtle
+in
+HTML
+documents
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#xhtml" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+XHTML
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#in-html-parsing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+Parsing
+Turtle
+in
+HTML
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-mediaReg" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Internet
+Media
+Type,
+File
+Extension
+and
+Macintosh
+File
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-acks" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">C.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-changelog" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">D
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Change
+Log
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-changelog-CR-PR" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+D.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Changes
+<del class="diff-old">since
+the
+last
+publication
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">from
+</ins><span class="formerLink"><ins class="diff-chg">
+February
+2013
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins>
+this
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+Recommendation
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sec-changelog-WD-CR" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">D.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Changes
+from
+</ins><span class="formerLink"><ins class="diff-new">
+August
+2011
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+to
+</ins><span class="formerLink"><ins class="diff-new">
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins></span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sec-changelog-Subm-WD" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+D.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Changes
+from
+</ins><span class="formerLink"><ins class="diff-new">
+January
+2008
+Team
+Submission
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+to
+</ins><span class="formerLink"><ins class="diff-new">
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+</ins></span></a></li></ul></li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">E.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+E.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+E.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="sec-intro" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-intro">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+defines
+Turtle,
+the
+Terse
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Triple
+Language,
+a
+concrete
+syntax
+for
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+([
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-CONCEPTS
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]).
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+Turtle
+document
+is
+a
+textual
+representations
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph.
+The
+following
+Turtle
+document
+describes
+the
+relationship
+between
+Green
+Goblin
+and
+Spiderman.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">			@base &lt;http://example.org/&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+1
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>@base &lt;http://example.org/&gt; .
[email protected] rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
[email protected] rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
[email protected] rel: &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/&gt; .
+&lt;#green-goblin&gt;
+    rel:enemyOf &lt;#spiderman&gt; ;
+    a foaf:Person ;    # in the context of the Marvel universe
+<del class="diff-old">    foaf:name &quot;Green Goblin&quot; .
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    foaf:name "Green Goblin" .
+</ins>
+&lt;#spiderman&gt;
+    rel:enemyOf &lt;#green-goblin&gt; ;
+    a foaf:Person ;
+<del class="diff-old">foaf:name
+&quot;Spiderman&quot;,
+&quot;Человек-паук&quot;@ru
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    foaf:name "Spiderman", "Человек-паук"@ru .</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+This
+example
+introduces
+many
+of
+features
+of
+the
+Turtle
+language:
+<a href="#relative-iri">
[email protected]
+and
+Relative
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a href="#prefixed-name">
[email protected]
+and
+prefixed
+names
+</a>,
+<a href="#predicate-lists">
+predicate
+lists
+</a>
+separated
+by
+'
+<code>
+;
+</code>
+',
+<a href="#object-lists">
+<del class="diff-old">objects
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins>
+lists
+</a>
+separated
+by
+'
+<code>,
+</code>
+',
+the
+token
+<code>
+<a href="#iri-a">
+a
+</a>
+</code>,
+and
+<a href="#literals">
+literals
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+Turtle
+grammar
+for
+<a href="#grammar-production-triples">
+<code>
+triples
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+a
+subset
+of
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/">
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+Query
+Language
+for
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">
+RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+grammar
+for
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rTriplesBlock">
+<code>
+TriplesBlock
+</code>
+</a>.
+The
+two
+grammars
+share
+production
+and
+terminal
+names
+where
+possible.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+construction
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph
+from
+a
+Turtle
+document
+is
+defined
+in
+<del class="diff-old">section
+6
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef" href="#sec-grammar">
+Turtle
+Grammar
+</a>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">section
+7
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef" href="#sec-parsing">
+Parsing
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="language-features" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_language-features">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+Language
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+Turtle
+document
+allows
+writing
+down
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph
+in
+a
+compact
+textual
+form.
+An
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph
+is
+made
+up
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple">
+triples
+</a>
+consisting
+of
+a
+subject,
+predicate
+and
+object.
+</p>
+<p>
+Comments
+may
+be
+given
+after
+a
+'
+<code>
+#
+</code>
+'
+that
+is
+not
+part
+of
+another
+lexical
+token
+and
+continue
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+line.
+</p>
+<section id="simple-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_simple-triples">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Simple
+Triples
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+simplest
+triple
+statement
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+(subject,
+predicate,
+object)
+terms,
+separated
+by
+whitespace
+and
+terminated
+by
+'
+<code>.
+</code>
+'
+after
+each
+triple.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">			&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+2
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; .
+                        </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="predicate-lists" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_predicate-lists">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Predicate
+Lists
+</h3>
+<p>
+Often
+the
+same
+subject
+will
+be
+referenced
+by
+a
+number
+of
+predicates.
+The
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicateObjectList
+production
+</a>
+matches
+a
+series
+of
+predicates
+and
+objects,
+separated
+by
+'
+<code>
+;
+</code>
+',
+following
+a
+subject.
+This
+expresses
+a
+series
+of
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Triples
+with
+that
+subject
+and
+each
+predicate
+and
+object
+allocated
+to
+one
+triple.
+Thus,
+the
+'
+<code>
+;
+</code>
+'
+symbol
+is
+used
+to
+repeat
+the
+subject
+of
+triples
+that
+vary
+only
+in
+predicate
+and
+object
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+terms.
+</p>
+<p>
+These
+two
+examples
+are
+equivalent
+ways
+of
+writing
+the
+triples
+about
+Spiderman.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">   			&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; ;
+				&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Spiderman&quot; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+3
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; ;
+<ins class="diff-new">                                &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman" .
+</ins>                        </span>
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old"> 			&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Spiderman&quot; .
+</del>
+</div>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+4
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt; &lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new">&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman" .
+</ins>                        </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="object-lists" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_object-lists">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Object
+Lists
+</h3>
+<p>
+As
+with
+predicates
+often
+objects
+are
+repeated
+with
+the
+same
+subject
+and
+predicate.
+The
+<a href="#grammar-production-objectList">
+objectList
+production
+</a>
+matches
+a
+series
+of
+objects
+separated
+by
+'
+<code>,
+</code>
+'
+following
+a
+predicate.
+This
+expresses
+a
+series
+of
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Triples
+with
+the
+corresponding
+subject
+and
+predicate
+and
+each
+object
+allocated
+to
+one
+triple.
+Thus,
+the
+'
+<code>,
+</code>
+'
+symbol
+is
+used
+to
+repeat
+the
+subject
+and
+predicate
+of
+triples
+that
+only
+differ
+in
+the
+object
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+term.
+</p>
+<p>
+These
+two
+examples
+are
+equivalent
+ways
+of
+writing
+Spiderman's
+name
+in
+two
+languages.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old"> 			&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Spiderman&quot;, &quot;Человек-паук&quot;@ru .
+</del>
+</p>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+5
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman", "Человек-паук"@ru .
+                        </span>
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old"> 			&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Spiderman&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Человек-паук&quot;@ru .
+</del>
+</div>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+6
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Spiderman" .
+<ins class="diff-new">&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Человек-паук"@ru .
+</ins>                        </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<p>
+There
+are
+three
+types
+of
+<em>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Term
+</em>
+defined
+in
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Concepts:
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers),
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literals
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>.
+Turtle
+provides
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+of
+writing
+each.
+</p>
+<section id="sec-iri" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-iri">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+may
+be
+written
+as
+relative
+or
+absolute
+IRIs
+or
+prefixed
+names.
+Relative
+and
+absolute
+IRIs
+are
+enclosed
+in
+'&lt;'
+and
+'&gt;'
+and
+may
+contain
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+escape
+sequences
+</a>
+(described
+below).
+For
+example
+<code>
+&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt;
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p id="relative-iri">
+Relative
+IRIs
+like
+<code>
+&lt;#green-goblin&gt;
+</code>
+are
+resolved
+relative
+to
+the
+current
+base
+IRI.
+A
+new
+base
+IRI
+can
+be
+defined
+using
+the
+'
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+BASE
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+</ins>
+directive.
+Specifics
+of
+this
+operation
+are
+defined
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sec-iri-references">
+section
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+IRI
+References
+</span>
+</a>
+</p>
+<p id="iri-a">
+The
+token
+'
+<code>
+a
+</code>
+'
+in
+the
+predicate
+position
+of
+a
+Turtle
+triple
+represents
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
+</code>
+.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<em id="prefixed-name">
+prefixed
+name
+</em>
+is
+a
+prefix
+label
+and
+a
+local
+part,
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;:&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">":".
+</ins>
+A
+prefixed
+name
+is
+turned
+into
+an
+IRI
+by
+concatenating
+the
+IRI
+associated
+with
+the
+prefix
+and
+the
+local
+part.
+The
+'
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+PREFIX
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+</ins>
+directive
+associates
+a
+prefix
+label
+with
+an
+IRI.
+Subsequent
+'
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+PREFIX
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+</ins>
+directives
+may
+re-map
+the
+same
+prefix
+label.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_1">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Note
+</ins></span></div><div class=""><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+Turtle
+language
+originally
+permitted
+only
+the
+syntax
+including
+the
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+character
+for
+writing
+prefix
+and
+base
+directives.
+The
+case-insensitive
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+PREFIX
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+and
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+BASE
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+forms
+were
+added
+to
+align
+Turtle's
+syntax
+with
+that
+of
+</ins><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language"><ins class="diff-new">
+SPARQL
+</ins></abbr>.<ins class="diff-new">
+It
+is
+advisable
+to
+serialize
+</ins><abbr title="Resource Description Framework"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+using
+the
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+and
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+'
+forms
+until
+</ins><abbr title="Resource Description Framework"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+1.1
+Turtle
+parsers
+are
+widely
+deployed.
+</ins></p></div></div>
+<p>
+To
+write
+<code>
+http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf
+</code>
+using
+a
+prefixed
+name:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+Define
+a
+prefix
+label
+for
+the
+vocabulary
+IRI
+<code>
+http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/
+</code>
+as
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">rel
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">somePrefix
+</ins>
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+Then
+write
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">rel:enemyOf
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">somePrefix:enemyOf
+</ins>
+</code>
+which
+is
+equivalent
+to
+writing
+<code>
+&lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/enemyOf&gt;
+</code>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<del class="diff-old">				  @prefix rel: &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/&gt; .
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+can
+be
+written
+using
+either
+the
+original
+Turtle
+syntax
+for
+prefix
+declarations:
+</ins></p><div class="example"><div class="example-title">
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; rel:enemyOf &lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; .
+</del>
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+7
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>@prefix somePrefix: &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new">&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; somePrefix:enemyOf &lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; .
+</ins>                                  </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+</ins><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language"><ins class="diff-new">
+SPARQL
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+'s
+syntax
+for
+prefix
+declarations:
+</ins></p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span><ins class="diff-new">
+Example
+8
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>PREFIX somePrefix: &lt;http://www.perceive.net/schemas/relationship/&gt;<ins class="diff-new">
+&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; somePrefix:enemyOf &lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; .
+</ins>                                  </span></pre></div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Note
+</ins></span></div><div class="">
+<p>
+Prefixed
+names
+are
+a
+superset
+of
+XML
+QNames.
+They
+differ
+in
+that
+the
+local
+part
+of
+prefixed
+names
+may
+include:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+leading
+digits,
+e.g.
+<code>
+leg:3032571
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+isbn13:9780136019701
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+non
+leading
+colons,
+e.g.
+<code>
+og:video:height
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#reserved">
+reserved
+character
+escape
+sequences
+</a>,
+e.g.
+<code>
+wgs:lat\-long
+</code>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+Turtle
+document
+contains
+examples
+of
+all
+the
+different
+ways
+of
+writing
+IRIs
+in
+Turtle.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">							# A triple with all absolute IRIs
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+9
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span># A triple with all absolute IRIs
+&lt;http://one.example/subject1&gt; &lt;http://one.example/predicate1&gt; &lt;http://one.example/object1&gt; .
[email protected] &lt;http://one.example/&gt; .
+&lt;subject2&gt; &lt;predicate2&gt; &lt;object2&gt; .     # relative IRIs, e.g. http://one.example/subject2
+<ins class="diff-new">BASE &lt;http://one.example/&gt;
+&lt;subject2&gt; &lt;predicate2&gt; &lt;object2&gt; .     # relative IRIs, e.g. http://one.example/subject2
+</ins>
[email protected] p: &lt;http://two.example/&gt; .
+p:subject3 p:predicate3 p:object3 .     # prefixed name, e.g. http://two.example/subject3
+<ins class="diff-new">PREFIX p: &lt;http://two.example/&gt;
+p:subject3 p:predicate3 p:object3 .     # prefixed name, e.g. http://two.example/subject3
+</ins>
[email protected] p: &lt;path/&gt; .                    # prefix p: now stands for http://one.example/path/
+p:subject4 p:predicate4 p:object4 .     # prefixed name, e.g. http://one.example/path/subject4
[email protected] : &lt;http://another.example/&gt; .    # empty prefix
+:subject5 :predicate5 :object5 .        # prefixed name, e.g. http://another.example/subject5
+:subject6 a :subject7 .                 # same as :subject6 &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt; :subject7 .
+&lt;http://伝言.example/?user=أكرم&amp;amp;channel=R%26D&gt; a :subject8 . # a multi-script subject IRI .
+</span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_3">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Note
+</ins></span></div><div class=""><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'
+and
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'
+directives
+require
+a
+trailing
+'
+</ins><code>.</code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'
+after
+the
+IRI,
+the
+equalivent
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+PREFIX
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'
+and
+'
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+BASE
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'
+must
+not
+have
+a
+trailing
+'
+</ins><code>.</code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'
+after
+the
+IRI
+part
+of
+the
+directive.
+</ins></p></div></div></section><section id="literals" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_literals">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Literals
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+Literals
+</a>
+are
+used
+to
+identify
+values
+such
+as
+strings,
+numbers,
+dates.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; foaf:name &quot;Green Goblin&quot; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt;
+foaf:name
+&quot;Spiderman&quot;
+.
+</del>
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+10
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new">&lt;http://example.org/#green-goblin&gt; foaf:name "Green Goblin" .
+&lt;http://example.org/#spiderman&gt; foaf:name "Spiderman" .</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<section id="turtle-literals" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_turtle-literals">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5.1
+</span>
+Quoted
+Literals
+</h4>
+<p>
+Quoted
+Literals
+(Grammar
+production
+<a href="#grammar-production-RDFLiteral">
+RDFLiteral
+</a>
+)
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+followed
+by
+a
+language
+tag,
+a
+datatype
+IRI,
+or
+neither.
+The
+representation
+of
+the
+lexical
+form
+consists
+of
+an
+initial
+delimiter,
+e.g.
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</code>
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+0022
+</span>
+),
+a
+sequence
+of
+permitted
+characters
+or
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+escape
+sequence
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#string">
+string
+escape
+sequence
+</a>,
+and
+a
+final
+delimiter.
+The
+corresponding
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-lexical-form">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+is
+the
+characters
+between
+the
+delimiters,
+after
+processing
+any
+escape
+sequences.
+If
+present,
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tagged-string">
+language
+tag
+</a>
+is
+preceded
+by
+a
+'
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+0040
+</span>
+).
+If
+there
+is
+no
+language
+tag,
+there
+may
+be
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-datatype-iri">
+datatype
+IRI
+</a>,
+preceeded
+by
+'
+<code>
+^^
+</code>
+'
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+005E
+</span>
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+005E
+</span>
+).
+The
+datatype
+IRI
+in
+Turtle
+may
+be
+written
+using
+either
+an
+<a href="#sec-iri">
+absolute
+IRI
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#sec-iri">
+relative
+IRI
+</a>,
+or
+<a href="#prefixed-name">
+prefixed
+name
+</a>.
+If
+there
+is
+no
+datatype
+IRI
+and
+no
+language
+tag,
+the
+datatype
+is
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+'
+<code>
+\
+</code>
+'
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+005C
+</span>
+)
+may
+not
+appear
+in
+any
+quoted
+literal
+except
+as
+part
+of
+an
+escape
+sequence.
+Other
+restrictions
+depend
+on
+the
+delimiter:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Literals
+delimited
+by
+<code>
+'
+</code>
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+0027
+</span>
+),
+may
+not
+contain
+the
+characters
+<code>
+'
+</code>,
+<code title="LINE FEED">
+<sub>
+LF
+</sub>
+</code>
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+000A
+</span>
+),
+or
+<code title="CARRIAGE RETURN">
+<sub>
+CR
+</sub>
+</code>
+(
+<span class="codepoint">
+U+000D
+</span>
+).
+</li>
+<li>
+Literals
+delimited
+by
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</code>,
+may
+not
+contain
+the
+characters
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</code>,
+<code title="LINE FEED">
+<sub>
+LF
+</sub>
+</code>,
+or
+<code title="CARRIAGE RETURN">
+<sub>
+CR
+</sub>
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Literals
+delimited
+by
+<code>
+'''
+</code>
+may
+not
+contain
+the
+sequence
+of
+characters
+<code>
+'''
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Literals
+delimited
+by
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"""
+</ins>
+</code>
+may
+not
+contain
+the
+sequence
+of
+characters
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"""
+</ins>
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<del class="diff-old">				@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+11
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
[email protected] show: &lt;http://example.org/vocab/show/&gt; .
+<del class="diff-old">show:218 rdfs:label &quot;That Seventies Show&quot;^^xsd:string .            # literal with XML Schema string datatype
+show:218 rdfs:label &quot;That Seventies Show&quot;^^&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&gt; . # same as above
+show:218 rdfs:label &quot;That Seventies Show&quot; .                                            # same again
+show:218 show:localName &quot;That Seventies Show&quot;@en .                 # literal with a language tag
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">show:218 rdfs:label "That Seventies Show"^^xsd:string .            # literal with XML Schema string datatype
+show:218 rdfs:label "That Seventies Show"^^&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&gt; . # same as above
+show:218 rdfs:label "That Seventies Show" .                                            # same again
+show:218 show:localName "That Seventies Show"@en .                 # literal with a language tag
+</ins>
+show:218 show:localName 'Cette Série des Années Soixante-dix'@fr . # literal delimited by single quote
+<del class="diff-old">show:218 show:localName &quot;Cette Série des Années Septante&quot;@fr-be .  # literal with a region subtag
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">show:218 show:localName "Cette Série des Années Septante"@fr-be .  # literal with a region subtag
+</ins>
+show:218 show:blurb '''This is a multi-line                        # literal with embedded new lines and quotes
+<del class="diff-old">literal with many quotes (&quot;&quot;&quot;&quot;&quot;)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal with many quotes (""""")
+</ins>
+and up to two sequential apostrophes ('').''' .
+</span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="abbrev" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_abbrev">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5.2
+</span>
+Numbers
+</h4>
+<p>
+Numbers
+can
+be
+written
+like
+other
+literals
+with
+lexical
+form
+and
+datatype
+(e.g.
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;-5.0&quot;^^xsd:decimal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"-5.0"^^xsd:decimal
+</ins>
+</code>
+).
+Turtle
+has
+a
+shorthand
+syntax
+for
+writing
+integer
+values,
+arbitrary
+precision
+decimal
+values,
+and
+double
+precision
+floating
+point
+values.
+</p>
+<table class="separated">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Data
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Abbreviated
+</th>
+<th>
+Lexical
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<strong>
+xsd:integer
+</strong>
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+-5
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;-5&quot;^^xsd:integer
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"-5"^^xsd:integer
+</ins>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>
+Integer
+values
+may
+be
+written
+as
+an
+optional
+sign
+and
+a
+series
+of
+digits.
+Integers
+match
+the
+regular
+expression
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+[+-]?[0-9]+
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">".
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+-5.0
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;-5.0&quot;^^xsd:decimal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"-5.0"^^xsd:decimal
+</ins>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>
+Arbitrary-precision
+decimals
+may
+be
+written
+as
+an
+optional
+sign,
+zero
+or
+more
+digits,
+a
+decimal
+point
+and
+one
+or
+more
+digits.
+Decimals
+match
+the
+regular
+expression
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+[+-]?[0-9]*\.[0-9]+
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">".
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+4.2E9
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;4.2E9&quot;^^xsd:double
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"4.2E9"^^xsd:double
+</ins>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>
+Double-precision
+floating
+point
+values
+may
+be
+written
+as
+an
+optionally
+signed
+mantissa
+with
+an
+optional
+decimal
+point,
+the
+letter
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;e&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"e"
+</ins>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;E&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"E",
+</ins>
+and
+an
+optionally
+signed
+integer
+exponent.
+The
+exponent
+matches
+the
+regular
+expression
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+[+-]?[0-9]+
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+and
+the
+mantissa
+one
+of
+these
+regular
+expressions:
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+[+-]?[0-9]+\.[0-9]+
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;,
+&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">",
+"
+</ins>
+<code>
+[+-]?\.[0-9]+
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+[+-]?[0-9]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">".
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<del class="diff-old">				@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/elements&gt; .                                                                              
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+12
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/elements&gt; .                                                                              
+&lt;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helium&gt;                                                                                  
+    :atomicNumber 2 ;               # xsd:integer                                                                      
+    :atomicMass 4.002602 ;          # xsd:decimal                                                                      
+    :specificGravity 1.663E-4 .     # xsd:double                                                                       
+                                </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="booleans" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_booleans">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5.3
+</span>
+Booleans
+</h4>
+<p>
+Boolean
+values
+may
+be
+written
+as
+either
+'
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+'
+or
+'
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+'
+(case-sensitive)
+and
+represent
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+literals
+with
+the
+datatype
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#boolean">
+xsd:boolean
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stats&gt; .
+&lt;http://somecountry.example/census2007&gt;
+:isLandlocked
+false
+.
+#
+xsd:boolean
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+13
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stats&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new">&lt;http://somecountry.example/census2007&gt;
+    :isLandlocked false .           # xsd:boolean</span>
+</ins></pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="BNodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_BNodes">
+<span class="secno">
+2.6
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+in
+Turtle
+are
+expressed
+as
+<code>
+_:
+</code>
+followed
+by
+a
+blank
+node
+label
+which
+is
+a
+series
+of
+name
+characters.
+The
+characters
+in
+the
+label
+are
+built
+upon
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">
+PN_CHARS_BASE
+</a>,
+liberalized
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+The
+characters
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+and
+digits
+may
+appear
+anywhere
+in
+a
+blank
+node
+label.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+character
+<code>.
+</code>
+may
+appear
+anywhere
+except
+the
+first
+or
+last
+character.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+characters
+<code>
+-
+</code>,
+<code>
+U+00B7
+</code>,
+<code>
+U+0300
+</code>
+to
+<code>
+U+036F
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+U+203F
+</code>
+to
+<code>
+U+2040
+</code>
+are
+permitted
+anywhere
+except
+the
+first
+character.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+A
+fresh
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+blank
+node
+is
+allocated
+for
+each
+unique
+blank
+node
+label
+in
+a
+document.
+Repeated
+use
+of
+the
+same
+blank
+node
+label
+identifies
+the
+same
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+blank
+node.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+14
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+_:alice foaf:knows _:bob .
+_:bob foaf:knows _:alice .
+</span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="unlabeled-bnodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_unlabeled-bnodes">
+<span class="secno">
+2.7
+</span>
+Nesting
+Unlabeled
+Blank
+Nodes
+in
+Turtle
+</h3>
+<p>
+In
+Turtle,
+fresh
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+blank
+nodes
+are
+also
+allocated
+when
+matching
+the
+production
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+and
+the
+terminal
+<a href="#grammar-production-ANON">
+ANON
+</a>.
+Both
+of
+these
+may
+appear
+in
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#grammar-production-object">
+object
+</a>
+position
+of
+a
+triple
+(see
+the
+Turtle
+Grammar).
+That
+subject
+or
+object
+is
+a
+fresh
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+blank
+node.
+This
+blank
+node
+also
+serves
+as
+the
+subject
+of
+the
+triples
+produced
+by
+matching
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicateObjectList
+</a>
+production
+embedded
+in
+a
+blankNodePropertyList.
+The
+generation
+of
+these
+triples
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#predicate-lists">
+Predicate
+Lists
+</a>.
+Blank
+nodes
+are
+also
+allocated
+for
+<a href="#collections">
+collections
+</a>
+described
+below.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				  @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<del class="diff-old"># Someone knows someone else, who has the name &quot;Bob&quot;.
+[] foaf:knows [ foaf:name &quot;Bob&quot; ] .
+</del>
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+15
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new"># Someone knows someone else, who has the name "Bob".
+[] foaf:knows [ foaf:name "Bob" ] .
+</ins></span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+Turtle
+grammar
+allows
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+s
+to
+be
+nested.
+In
+this
+case,
+each
+inner
+<code>
+[
+</code>
+establishes
+a
+new
+subject
+blank
+node
+which
+reverts
+to
+the
+outer
+node
+at
+the
+<code>
+]
+</code>,
+and
+serves
+as
+the
+current
+subject
+for
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicate
+object
+lists
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+use
+of
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicateObjectList
+</a>
+within
+a
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+is
+a
+common
+idiom
+for
+representing
+a
+series
+of
+properties
+of
+a
+node.
+</p>
+<div style="float:left;">
+<p style="padding-left:2em;" class="idlAttrName">
+Abbreviated:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<del class="diff-old">[ foaf:name &quot;Alice&quot; ] foaf:knows [
+    foaf:name &quot;Bob&quot; ;
+    foaf:knows [
+        foaf:name &quot;Eve&quot; ] ;
+    foaf:mbox &lt;[email protected]&gt; ] .
+</del>
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+16
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new">[ foaf:name "Alice" ] foaf:knows [
+    foaf:name "Bob" ;
+    foaf:knows [
+        foaf:name "Eve" ] ;
+    foaf:mbox &lt;[email protected]&gt; ] .
+</ins>                                </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div style="float:left;">
+<p style="padding-left:2em;" class="idlAttrName">
+Corresponding
+simple
+triples:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				
+_:a &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Alice&quot; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+17
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span><ins class="diff-chg">
+_:a &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Alice" .
+</ins>
+_:a &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows&gt; _:b .
+<del class="diff-old">_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Bob&quot; .
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Bob" .
+</ins>
+_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows&gt; _:c .
+<del class="diff-old">_:c &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; &quot;Eve&quot; .
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">_:c &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; "Eve" .
+</ins>
+_:b &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox&gt; &lt;[email protected]&gt; .
+                                </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div style="clear:both;">
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="collections" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_collections">
+<span class="secno">
+2.8
+</span>
+Collections
+</h3>
+<p>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+provides
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/#collections">
+Collection
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-MT">
+RDF-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+structure
+for
+lists
+of
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+nodes.
+The
+Turtle
+syntax
+for
+Collections
+is
+a
+possibly
+empty
+list
+of
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+terms
+enclosed
+by
+<code>
+()
+</code>.
+This
+collection
+represents
+an
+<code>
+rdf:first
+</code>
+/
+<code>
+rdf:rest
+</code>
+list
+structure
+with
+the
+sequence
+of
+objects
+of
+the
+<code>
+rdf:first
+</code>
+statements
+being
+the
+order
+of
+the
+terms
+enclosed
+by
+<code>
+()
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+(…)
+</code>
+syntax
+<del class="diff-old">must
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+<ins class="diff-chg">MUST
+</ins>
+</em>
+appear
+in
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#grammar-production-object">
+object
+</a>
+position
+of
+a
+triple
+(see
+the
+Turtle
+Grammar).
+The
+blank
+node
+at
+the
+head
+of
+the
+list
+is
+the
+subject
+or
+object
+of
+the
+containing
+triple.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">				
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+18
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>
[email protected] : &lt;http://example.org/foo&gt; .
+<del class="diff-old"># the object of this triple is the  collection blank node
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg"># the object of this triple is the RDF collection blank node
+</ins>
+:subject :predicate ( :a :b :c ) .
+# an empty collection value - rdf:nil
+:subject :predicate2 () .
+                                </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="sec-examples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-examples">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Examples
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+example
+is
+a
+Turtle
+translation
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/#example7">
+example
+7
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+/XML
+Syntax
+specification
+</a>
+(
+<a href="examples/example1.ttl">
+example1.ttl
+</a>
+):
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          @prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+</del>
+<div>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+19
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected] rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+</ins>
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&gt; .
[email protected] ex: &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar&gt;
+<del class="diff-old">  dc:title &quot;/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)&quot; ;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  dc:title "RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)" ;
+</ins>
+  ex:editor [
+<del class="diff-old">    ex:fullname &quot;Dave Beckett&quot;;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    ex:fullname "Dave Beckett";
+</ins>
+    ex:homePage &lt;http://purl.org/net/dajobe/&gt;
+<del class="diff-old">]
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  ] .
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>
+An
+example
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+collection
+of
+two
+literals.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          
[email protected] : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+:a :b ( &quot;apple&quot; &quot;banana&quot; ) .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+20
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-new">PREFIX : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt;
+:a :b ( "apple" "banana" ) .
+</ins>          </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+which
+is
+short
+for
+(
+<a href="examples/example2.ttl">
+example2.ttl
+</a>
+):
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          @prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+</del>
+<div>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+21
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected] : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+</ins>
[email protected] rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+:a :b
+<del class="diff-old">  [ rdf:first &quot;apple&quot;;
+    rdf:rest [ rdf:first &quot;banana&quot;;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  [ rdf:first "apple";
+    rdf:rest [ rdf:first "banana";
+</ins>
+               rdf:rest rdf:nil ]
+<del class="diff-old">]
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  ] .
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>
+An
+example
+of
+two
+identical
+triples
+containing
+literal
+objects
+containing
+newlines,
+written
+in
+plain
+and
+long
+literal
+forms.
+The
+line
+breaks
+in
+this
+example
+are
+LINE
+FEED
+characters
+(U+000A).
+(
+<a href="examples/example3.ttl">
+example3.ttl
+</a>
+):
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          @prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+</del>
+<div>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<del class="diff-old">:a :b &quot;The first line\nThe second line\n  more&quot; .
+</del>
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+22
+</ins></span>
+<del class="diff-old">:a :b &quot;&quot;&quot;The first line
+</del>
+</div>
+<pre class="example">
+<ins class="diff-chg">@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+:a :b "The first line\nThe second line\n  more" .
+:a :b """The first line
+</ins>
+The second line
+<del class="diff-old">more&quot;&quot;&quot;
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  more""" .
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>
+As
+indicated
+by
+the
+grammar,
+a
+<a href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+can
+be
+either
+a
+<a href="#grammar-production-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a href="#grammar-production-object">
+object
+</a>.
+This
+subject
+or
+object
+will
+be
+the
+novel
+blank
+node
+for
+the
+first
+object,
+if
+the
+collection
+has
+one
+or
+more
+objects,
+or
+<code>
+rdf:nil
+</code>
+if
+the
+collection
+is
+empty.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          @prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+(1
+2.0
+3E1)
+:p
+&quot;w&quot;
+.
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+23
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example untested">
+<span>@prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-new">(1 2.0 3E1) :p "w" .</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+is
+syntactic
+sugar
+for
+(noting
+that
+the
+blank
+nodes
+<code>
+b0
+</code>,
+<code>
+b1
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+b2
+</code>
+do
+not
+occur
+anywhere
+else
+in
+the
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph):
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+24
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example untested"><span>@prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+    _:b0  rdf:first  1 ;
+          rdf:rest   _:b1 .
+    _:b1  rdf:first  2.0 ;
+          rdf:rest   _:b2 .
+    _:b2  rdf:first  3E1 ;
+          rdf:rest   rdf:nil .
+<del class="diff-old">_:b0
+:p
+&quot;w&quot;
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    _:b0  :p         "w" . </span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+collections
+can
+be
+nested
+and
+can
+involve
+other
+syntactic
+forms:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          @prefix : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt; .
+(1
+[:p
+:q]
+(
+2
+)
+)
+.
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+25
+</ins>
+</span>
+</div>
+<pre class="example untested">
+<span>PREFIX : &lt;http://example.org/stuff/1.0/&gt;
+<ins class="diff-new">(1 [:p :q] ( 2 ) ) :p2 :q2 .</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">          @prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+</del>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+syntactic
+sugar
+for:
+</ins></p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Example
+26
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example untested"><span>@prefix rdf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&gt; .
+    _:b0  rdf:first  1 ;
+          rdf:rest   _:b1 .
+    _:b1  rdf:first  _:b2 .
+    _:b2  :p         :q .
+    _:b1  rdf:rest   _:b3 .
+    _:b3  rdf:first  _:b4 .
+    _:b4  rdf:first  2 ;
+          rdf:rest   rdf:nil .
+<del class="diff-old">_:b3
+rdf:rest
+rdf:nil
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    _:b3  rdf:rest   rdf:nil .</span>
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="sec-diff-sparql" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-diff-sparql">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+compared
+to
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/">
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+Query
+Language
+for
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+)
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">
+RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+uses
+a
+Turtle
+style
+syntax
+for
+its
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rTriplesBlock">
+TriplesBlock
+production
+</a>.
+This
+production
+differs
+from
+the
+Turtle
+language
+in
+that:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rGraphTerm">
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+permits
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Literals
+</a>
+as
+the
+subject
+of
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">triples
+(per
+Proposed
+Recommendation
+).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">triples.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+permits
+variables
+(
+<code>
+?
+</code>
+<em>
+name
+</em>
+or
+<code>
+$
+</code>
+<em>
+name
+</em>
+)
+in
+any
+part
+of
+the
+triple
+of
+the
+form.
+</li>
+<li>
+Turtle
+allows
+<a href="#grammar-production-directive">
+prefix
+and
+base
+declarations
+</a>
+anywhere
+outside
+of
+a
+triple.
+In
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>,
+they
+are
+only
+allowed
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rPrologue">
+Prologue
+</a>
+(at
+the
+start
+of
+the
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+query).
+</li>
+<li>
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+uses
+case
+insensitive
+keywords,
+except
+for
+'
+<code>
+a
+</code>
+'.
+Turtle's
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@prefix
+</ins></code>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">base
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@base
+</ins></code>
+declarations
+are
+case
+<del class="diff-old">sensitive.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">sensitive,
+the
+</ins><abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language"><ins class="diff-chg">
+SPARQL
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+dervied
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+PREFIX
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+BASE
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+are
+case
+insensitive.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+'
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+'
+and
+'
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+'
+are
+case
+insensitive
+in
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+and
+case
+sensitive
+in
+Turtle.
+<code>
+TrUe
+</code>
+is
+not
+a
+valid
+boolean
+value
+in
+Turtle.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+For
+further
+information
+see
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#QSynIRI">
+Syntax
+for
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#grammar">
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+Grammar
+</a>
+sections
+of
+the
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+query
+document
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">
+RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_conformance">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Conformance
+</h2>
+<p>
+As
+well
+as
+sections
+marked
+as
+non-normative,
+all
+authoring
+guidelines,
+diagrams,
+examples,
+and
+notes
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+non-normative.
+Everything
+else
+in
+this
+specification
+is
+normative.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+key
+words
+<del class="diff-old">must
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+<ins class="diff-chg">MUST
+</ins>
+</em>,
+<del class="diff-old">must
+not
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+<ins class="diff-chg">MUST
+NOT
+</ins>
+</em>,
+<del class="diff-old">required
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED">
+<ins class="diff-chg">REQUIRED
+</ins>
+</em>,
+<del class="diff-old">should
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+<ins class="diff-chg">SHOULD
+</ins>
+</em>,
+<del class="diff-old">should
+not
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">
+<ins class="diff-chg">SHOULD
+NOT
+</ins>
+</em>,
+<del class="diff-old">recommended
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RECOMMENDED
+</ins>
+</em>,
+<del class="diff-old">may
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+<ins class="diff-chg">MAY
+</ins>
+</em>,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">optional
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL">
+<ins class="diff-chg">OPTIONAL
+</ins>
+</em>
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">
+RFC2119
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+defines
+conformance
+criteria
+for:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Turtle
+documents
+</li>
+<li>
+Turtle
+parsers
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+A
+conforming
+<strong>
+Turtle
+document
+</strong>
+is
+a
+Unicode
+string
+that
+conforms
+to
+the
+grammar
+and
+additional
+constraints
+defined
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sec-grammar">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">6
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title">
+Turtle
+Grammar
+</span>
+</a>,
+starting
+with
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-turtleDoc">
+<code>
+turtleDoc
+</code>
+production
+</a>.
+A
+Turtle
+document
+serializes
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">graph.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Graph.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+conforming
+<strong>
+Turtle
+parser
+</strong>
+is
+a
+system
+capable
+of
+reading
+Turtle
+documents
+on
+behalf
+of
+an
+application.
+It
+makes
+the
+serialized
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">graph,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dataset,
+</ins>
+as
+defined
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sec-parsing">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">7
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title">
+Parsing
+</span>
+</a>,
+available
+to
+the
+application,
+usually
+through
+some
+form
+of
+API.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+IRI
+that
+identifies
+the
+Turtle
+language
+is:
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/formats/Turtle
+</code>
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_4">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Note
+</ins></span></div><p class="">
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+define
+how
+Turtle
+parsers
+handle
+non-conforming
+input
+documents.
+</p>
+</div>
+<section id="sec-mime" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-mime">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+Media
+Type
+and
+Content
+Encoding
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+media
+type
+of
+Turtle
+is
+<code>
+text/turtle
+</code>.
+The
+content
+encoding
+of
+Turtle
+content
+is
+always
+UTF-8.
+Charset
+parameters
+on
+the
+mime
+type
+are
+required
+until
+such
+time
+as
+the
+<code>
+text/
+</code>
+media
+type
+tree
+permits
+UTF-8
+to
+be
+sent
+without
+a
+charset
+parameter.
+See
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sec-mediaReg">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">B
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title">
+Internet
+Media
+Type,
+File
+Extension
+and
+Macintosh
+File
+Type
+</span>
+</a>
+for
+the
+media
+type
+registration
+form.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-grammar" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-grammar">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+Grammar
+</h2>
+<p>
+A
+Turtle
+document
+is
+a
+Unicode[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+character
+string
+encoded
+in
+UTF-8.
+Unicode
+characters
+only
+in
+the
+range
+U+0000
+to
+U+10FFFF
+inclusive
+are
+allowed.
+</p>
+<section id="sec-grammar-ws" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-grammar-ws">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+White
+Space
+</h3>
+<p>
+White
+space
+(production
+<a href="#grammar-production-WS">
+WS
+</a>
+)
+is
+used
+to
+separate
+two
+terminals
+which
+would
+otherwise
+be
+(mis-)recognized
+as
+one
+terminal.
+Rule
+names
+below
+in
+capitals
+indicate
+where
+white
+space
+is
+significant;
+these
+form
+a
+possible
+choice
+of
+terminals
+for
+constructing
+a
+Turtle
+parser.
+</p>
+<p>
+White
+space
+is
+significant
+in
+the
+production
+<a href="#grammar-production-String">
+String
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-grammar-comments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-grammar-comments">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Comments
+</h3>
+<p>
+Comments
+in
+Turtle
+take
+the
+form
+of
+'#',
+outside
+an
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#grammar-production-String">
+String
+</a>,
+and
+continue
+to
+the
+end
+of
+line
+(marked
+by
+characters
+U+000D
+or
+U+000A)
+or
+end
+of
+file
+if
+there
+is
+no
+end
+of
+line
+after
+the
+comment
+marker.
+Comments
+are
+treated
+as
+white
+space.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-iri-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-iri-references">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+IRI
+References
+</h3>
+<p>
+Relative
+IRIs
+are
+resolved
+with
+base
+IRIs
+as
+per
+<a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">
+Uniform
+Resource
+Identifier
+(URI):
+Generic
+Syntax
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+using
+only
+the
+basic
+algorithm
+in
+section
+5.2.
+Neither
+Syntax-Based
+Normalization
+nor
+Scheme-Based
+Normalization
+(described
+in
+sections
+6.2.2
+and
+6.2.3
+of
+RFC3986)
+are
+performed.
+Characters
+additionally
+allowed
+in
+IRI
+references
+are
+treated
+in
+the
+same
+way
+that
+unreserved
+characters
+are
+treated
+in
+URI
+references,
+per
+section
+6.5
+of
+<a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers
+(IRIs)
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+BASE
+</ins></code>
+directive
+defines
+the
+Base
+IRI
+used
+to
+resolve
+relative
+IRIs
+per
+RFC3986
+section
+5.1.1,
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Base
+</ins>
+URI
+Embedded
+in
+<del class="diff-old">Content&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Content".
+</ins>
+Section
+5.1.2,
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Base
+</ins>
+URI
+from
+the
+Encapsulating
+<del class="diff-old">Entity&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Entity"
+</ins>
+defines
+how
+the
+In-Scope
+Base
+IRI
+may
+come
+from
+an
+encapsulating
+document,
+such
+as
+a
+SOAP
+envelope
+with
+an
+xml:base
+directive
+or
+a
+mime
+multipart
+document
+with
+a
+Content-Location
+header.
+The
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Retrieval
+URI&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Retrieval
+URI"
+</ins>
+identified
+in
+5.1.3,
+Base
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;URI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"URI
+</ins>
+from
+the
+Retrieval
+<del class="diff-old">URI&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">URI",
+</ins>
+is
+the
+URL
+from
+which
+a
+particular
+Turtle
+document
+was
+retrieved.
+If
+none
+of
+the
+above
+specifies
+the
+Base
+URI,
+the
+default
+Base
+URI
+(section
+5.1.4,
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Default
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Default
+</ins>
+Base
+<del class="diff-old">URI&quot;)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">URI")
+</ins>
+is
+used.
+Each
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+BASE
+</ins></code>
+directive
+sets
+a
+new
+In-Scope
+Base
+URI,
+relative
+to
+the
+previous
+one.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-escapes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-escapes">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4
+</span>
+Escape
+Sequences
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+three
+forms
+of
+escapes
+used
+in
+turtle
+documents:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+<em id="numeric">
+numeric
+escape
+sequences
+</em>
+represent
+Unicode
+code
+points:
+</p>
+<table>
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Escape
+sequence
+</th>
+<th>
+Unicode
+code
+point
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\u'
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+Unicode
+character
+in
+the
+range
+U+0000
+to
+U+FFFF
+inclusive
+corresponding
+to
+the
+value
+encoded
+by
+the
+four
+hexadecimal
+digits
+interpreted
+from
+most
+significant
+to
+least
+significant
+digit.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\U'
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+hex
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+Unicode
+character
+in
+the
+range
+U+0000
+to
+U+10FFFF
+inclusive
+corresponding
+to
+the
+value
+encoded
+by
+the
+eight
+hexadecimal
+digits
+interpreted
+from
+most
+significant
+to
+least
+significant
+digit.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+where
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+is
+a
+hexadecimal
+character
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p>
+<span style="font-family: monospace; font-size: 85%;">
+HEX
+::=
+[0-9]
+|
+[A-F]
+|
+[a-f]
+</span>
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<em id="string">
+string
+escape
+sequences
+</em>
+represent
+the
+characters
+traditionally
+escaped
+in
+string
+literals:
+</p>
+<table>
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Escape
+sequence
+</th>
+<th>
+Unicode
+code
+point
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\t'
+</td>
+<td>
+U+0009
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\b'
+</td>
+<td>
+U+0008
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\n'
+</td>
+<td>
+U+000A
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\r'
+</td>
+<td>
+U+000D
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\f'
+</td>
+<td>
+U+000C
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<del class="diff-old">'\&quot;'
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">'\"'
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td>
+U+0022
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\''
+</td>
+<td>
+U+0027
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+'\\'
+</td>
+<td>
+U+005C
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<em id="reserved">
+reserved
+character
+escape
+sequences
+</em>
+consist
+of
+a
+'\'
+followed
+by
+one
+of
+<code>
+~.-!$&amp;'()*+,;=/?#@%_
+</code>
+and
+represent
+the
+character
+to
+the
+right
+of
+the
+'\'.
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<table class="separated" id="term2escape">
+<caption>
+Context
+where
+each
+kind
+of
+escape
+sequence
+can
+be
+used
+</caption>
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+</th>
+<th>
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+<br />
+escapes
+</a>
+</th>
+<th>
+<a href="#string">
+string
+<br />
+escapes
+</a>
+</th>
+<th>
+<a href="#reserved">
+reserved
+character
+<br />
+escapes
+</a>
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td class="r">
+<span style="font-weight:bold;">
+IRI
+</span>
+s,
+used
+as
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+terms
+</a>
+or
+as
+in
+<a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">or
+</del>
+</a>,
+<a href="#grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">
+<ins class="diff-chg">PREFIX
+</ins></a>,
+<a href="#grammar-production-base">
[email protected]
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+</ins><a href="#grammar-production-sparqlBase"><ins class="diff-new">
+BASE
+</ins>
+</a>
+declarations
+</td>
+<td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">
+yes
+</td>
+<td>
+no
+</td>
+<td>
+no
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="r">
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_LOCAL">
+<span style="font-weight:bold;">
+local
+name
+</span>
+s
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+no
+</td>
+<td>
+no
+</td>
+<td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">
+yes
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="r">
+<span style="font-weight:bold;">
+String
+</span>
+s
+</td>
+<td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">
+yes
+</td>
+<td style="background-color: green; border:1px solid black;">
+yes
+</td>
+<td>
+no
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_5">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Note
+</ins></span></div><p class="">
+%-encoded
+sequences
+are
+in
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+character
+range
+for
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+are
+<a href="#grammar-production-PERCENT">
+explicitly
+allowed
+</a>
+in
+local
+names.
+These
+appear
+as
+a
+'%'
+followed
+by
+two
+hex
+characters
+and
+represent
+that
+same
+sequence
+of
+three
+characters.
+These
+sequences
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+decoded
+during
+processing.
+A
+term
+written
+as
+<code>
+&lt;http://a.example/%66oo-bar&gt;
+</code>
+in
+Turtle
+designates
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://a.example/%66oo-bar
+</code>
+and
+not
+IRI
+<code>
+http://a.example/foo-bar
+</code>.
+A
+term
+written
+as
+<code>
+ex:%66oo-bar
+</code>
+with
+a
+prefix
+<code>
[email protected]
+ex:
+&lt;http://a.example/&gt;
+</code>
+also
+designates
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://a.example/%66oo-bar
+</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-grammar-grammar" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-grammar-grammar">
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+Grammar
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">Feature
+At
+Risk
+The
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+has
+added
+the
+following
+features,
+but
+they
+may
+be
+removed
+due
+to
+implementor
+feedback
+(this
+is
+ISSUE-89
+):
+The
+addition
+of
+sparqlPrefix
+and
+sparqlBase
+which
+allow
+for
+using
+SPARQL
+style
+BASE
+and
+PREFIX
+directives
+in
+a
+Turtle
+document.
+Feedback,
+both
+positive
+and
+negative,
+is
+invited
+by
+sending
+email
+to
+mailing
+list
[email protected]
+(
+subscribe
+,
+archives
+).
+</del>
+<p>
+The
+<abbr title="Extended Backus–Naur Form">
+EBNF
+</abbr>
+used
+here
+is
+defined
+in
+XML
+1.0
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-EBNF-NOTATION">
+EBNF-NOTATION
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Production
+labels
+consisting
+of
+a
+number
+and
+a
+final
+'s',
+e.g.
+[
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#rRDFLiteral">
+<span class="prodNo">
+60s
+</span>
+</a>
+],
+reference
+the
+production
+with
+that
+number
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/#sparqlGrammar">
+<abbr title="SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language">
+SPARQL
+</abbr>
+Query
+Language
+for
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+grammar
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">
+RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<div>
+<p>
+Notes:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+Keywords
+in
+single
+quotes
+('
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+',
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+',
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+a
+</code>
+',
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+true
+</code>
+',
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+false
+</code>
+')
+are
+case-sensitive.
+Keywords
+in
+double
+quotes
+<del class="diff-old">(&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">("
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+BASE
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;,
+&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">",
+"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+PREFIX
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">")
+</ins>
+are
+case-insensitive.
+</li>
+<li>
+Escape
+sequences
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">
+UCHAR
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">
+ECHAR
+</a>
+</code>
+are
+case
+sensitive.
+</li>
+<li>
+When
+tokenizing
+the
+input
+and
+choosing
+grammar
+rules,
+the
+longest
+match
+is
+chosen.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+Turtle
+grammar
+is
+LL(1)
+and
+LALR(1)
+when
+the
+rules
+with
+uppercased
+names
+are
+used
+as
+terminals.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+entry
+point
+into
+the
+grammar
+is
+<code>
+turtleDoc
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+In
+signed
+numbers,
+no
+white
+space
+is
+allowed
+between
+the
+sign
+and
+the
+number.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<span style="font-size: smaller;">
+<span>
+[162s]
+</span>
+<span>
+<code>
+ANON
+</code>
+</span>
+<span>::=
+</span>
+<span>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+[
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-WS">
+WS
+</a>
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+]
+</code>
+'
+</span>
+</span>
+token
+allows
+any
+amount
+of
+white
+space
+and
+comments
+between
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+[]
+</code>
+s.
+The
+single
+space
+version
+is
+used
+in
+the
+grammar
+for
+clarity.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+strings
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+</a>
+'
+and
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-base">
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+</a>
+'
+match
+the
+pattern
+for
+<a href="#grammar-production-LANGTAG">
+LANGTAG
+</a>,
+though
+neither
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+prefix
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+nor
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+base
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+are
+<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry">
+registered
+language
+subtags
+</a>.
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+define
+whether
+a
+quoted
+literal
+followed
+by
+either
+of
+these
+tokens
+(e.g.
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;A&quot;@base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"A"@base
+</ins>
+</code>
+)
+is
+in
+the
+Turtle
+language.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div>
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="grammar-productions">
+<tr id="grammar-production-turtleDoc">
+<td>
+[1]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+turtleDoc
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-statement">
+statement
+</a>
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-statement">
+<td>
+[2]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+statement
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-directive">
+directive
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-triples">
+triples
+</a>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-directive">
+<td>
+[3]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+directive
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">
+prefixID
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-base">
+base
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">
+sparqlPrefix
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-sparqlBase">
+sparqlBase
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-prefixID">
+<td>
+[4]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+prefixID
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">
+PNAME_NS
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-base">
+<td>
+[5]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+base
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-sparqlBase">
+<td>
+[5s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+sparqlBase
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<span class="add">
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+BASE
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</span>
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">
+<td>
+[6s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+sparqlPrefix
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<span class="add">
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+PREFIX
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</span>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">
+PNAME_NS
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-triples">
+<td>
+[6]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+triples
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicateObjectList
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicateObjectList
+</a>
+?
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+<td>
+[7]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+predicateObjectList
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-verb">
+verb
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-objectList">
+objectList
+</a>
+('
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+;
+</code>
+'
+(
+<a href="#grammar-production-verb">
+verb
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-objectList">
+objectList
+</a>
+)?)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-objectList">
+<td>
+[8]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+objectList
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-object">
+object
+</a>
+('
+<code class="grammar-literal">,
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-object">
+object
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-verb">
+<td>
+[9]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+verb
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicate">
+predicate
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+a
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-subject">
+<td>
+[10]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+subject
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-iri">
+iri
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a class="add" href="#grammar-production-BlankNode">
+BlankNode
+</a>
+<code class="add">
+|
+</code>
+<a class="add" href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-predicate">
+<td>
+[11]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+predicate
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-iri">
+iri
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-object">
+<td>
+[12]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-iri">
+iri
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a class="add" href="#grammar-production-BlankNode">
+BlankNode
+</a>
+<code class="add">
+|
+</code>
+<a class="add" href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-literal">
+<td>
+[13]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+literal
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-RDFLiteral">
+RDFLiteral
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-NumericLiteral">
+NumericLiteral
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-BooleanLiteral">
+BooleanLiteral
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+<td>
+[14]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+blankNodePropertyList
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+[
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-predicateObjectList">
+predicateObjectList
+</a>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+]
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-collection">
+<td>
+[15]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+collection
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+(
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-object">
+object
+</a>
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+)
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-NumericLiteral">
+<td>
+[16]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+NumericLiteral
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-INTEGER">
+INTEGER
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-DECIMAL">
+DECIMAL
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-DOUBLE">
+DOUBLE
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-RDFLiteral">
+<td>
+[128s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+RDFLiteral
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-String">
+String
+</a>
+(
+<a href="#grammar-production-LANGTAG">
+LANGTAG
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+^^
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-iri">
+iri
+</a>
+)?
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-BooleanLiteral">
+<td>
+[133s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+BooleanLiteral
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+true
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+false
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-String">
+<td>
+[17]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+String
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE">
+STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE">
+STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE">
+STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE">
+STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-iri">
+<td>
+[135s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+iri
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PrefixedName">
+PrefixedName
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-PrefixedName">
+<td>
+[136s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PrefixedName
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_LN">
+PNAME_LN
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">
+PNAME_NS
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="grammar-production-BlankNode">
+<td>
+[137s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-BLANK_NODE_LABEL">
+BLANK_NODE_LABEL
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-ANON">
+ANON
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td colspan="4">
+<h3 id="terminals">
+Productions
+for
+terminals
+</h3>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-IRIREF">
+<td>
+[18]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+IRIREF
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+&lt;
+</code>
+'
+([
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">^#x00-#x20&lt;&gt;\&quot;{}|^`\
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">^#x00-#x20&lt;&gt;"{}|^`\
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">
+UCHAR
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+&gt;
+</code>
+'
+<span class="grammar_comment">
+<ins class="diff-new">/*
+#x00=NULL
+#01-#x1F=control
+codes
+#x20=space
+*/
+</ins></span>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PNAME_NS">
+<td>
+[139s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PNAME_NS
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_PREFIX">
+PN_PREFIX
+</a>
+?
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">:
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PNAME_LN">
+<td>
+[140s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PNAME_LN
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS">
+PNAME_NS
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_LOCAL">
+PN_LOCAL
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-BLANK_NODE_LABEL">
+<td>
+[141s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+BLANK_NODE_LABEL
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+_:
+</code>
+'
+(
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">
+PN_CHARS_U
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+])
+((
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+PN_CHARS
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+')
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+PN_CHARS
+</a>
+)?
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-LANGTAG">
+<td>
+[144s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+LANGTAG
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+a-zA-Z
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+('
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+-
+</code>
+'
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+a-zA-Z0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-INTEGER">
+<td>
+[19]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+INTEGER
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
++-
+</code>
+]?
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-DECIMAL">
+<td>
+[20]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+DECIMAL
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
++-
+</code>
+]?
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-DOUBLE">
+<td>
+[21]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+DOUBLE
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
++-
+</code>
+]?
+([
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-EXPONENT">
+EXPONENT
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-EXPONENT">
+EXPONENT
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">EXPONENT
+)
+</del>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-EXPONENT">
+<td>
+[154s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+EXPONENT
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+eE
+</code>
+]
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
++-
+</code>
+]?
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code class="grammar-plus">
++
+</code>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE">
+<td>
+[22]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</code>
+'
+([
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+^#x22#x5C#xA#xD
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">
+ECHAR
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">
+UCHAR
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</code>
+'
+<span class="grammar_comment">
+<ins class="diff-new">/*
+#x22="
+#x5C=\
+#xA=new
+line
+#xD=carriage
+return
+*/
+</ins></span>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE">
+<td>
+[23]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+'
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+([
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+^#x27#x5C#xA#xD
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">
+ECHAR
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">
+UCHAR
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+'
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins><a href="#grammar-production-EXPONENT"><ins class="diff-chg">
+EXPONENT
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+</ins><span class="grammar_comment"><ins class="diff-chg">
+/*
+#x27='
+#x5C=\
+#xA=new
+line
+#xD=carriage
+return
+*/
+</ins></span>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE">
+<td>
+[24]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+'''
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+((&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+(("
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+'
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+''
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;)?
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">")?
+</ins>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+^'\
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">
+ECHAR
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">
+UCHAR
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+'''
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE">
+<td>
+[25]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"""
+</ins>
+</code>
+'
+(('
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">""
+</ins>
+</code>
+')?
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">^&quot;\
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">^"\
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-ECHAR">
+ECHAR
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-UCHAR">
+UCHAR
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"""
+</ins>
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-UCHAR">
+<td>
+[26]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+UCHAR
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+\u
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+\U
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-ECHAR">
+<td>
+[159s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+ECHAR
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+\
+</code>
+'
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">tbnrf\&quot;'
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">tbnrf"'\
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-WS">
+<td>
+[161s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+WS
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<code class="grammar-char-escape">
+#x20
+</code>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<code class="grammar-char-escape">
+#x9
+</code>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<code class="grammar-char-escape">
+#xD
+</code>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<code class="grammar-char-escape">
+#xA
+</code>
+<span class="grammar_comment">
+<ins class="diff-new">/*
+#x20=space
+#x9=character
+tabulation
+#xD=carriage
+return
+#xA=new
+line
+*/
+</ins></span>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-ANON">
+<td>
+[162s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+ANON
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+[
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-WS">
+WS
+</a>
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+]
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">
+<td>
+[163s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PN_CHARS_BASE
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+A-Z
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+a-z
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x00C0-#x00D6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+00C0-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+00D6
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x00D8-#x00F6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+00D8-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+00F6
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x00F8-#x02FF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+00F8-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+02FF
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x0370-#x037D
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+0370-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+037D
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x037F-#x1FFF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+037F-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+1FFF
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x200C-#x200D
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+200C-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+200D
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x2070-#x218F
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+2070-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+218F
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x2C00-#x2FEF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class= "add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+2C00-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+2FEF
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x3001-#xD7FF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+3001-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+D7FF
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#xF900-#xFDCF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+F900-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+FDCF
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#xFDF0-#xFFFD
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+FDF0-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+FFFD
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x10000-#xEFFFF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+10000-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+EFFFF
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">
+<td>
+[164s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PN_CHARS_U
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">
+PN_CHARS_BASE
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+_
+</code>
+'
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+<td>
+[166s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PN_CHARS
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">
+PN_CHARS_U
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+-
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<code class="grammar-char-escape">
+<del class="diff-old">#x00B7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+00B7
+</ins>
+</code>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x0300-#x036F
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+0300-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+036F
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+<del class="diff-old">#x203F-#x2040
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+203F-#
+</ins><span class="add"><ins class="diff-chg">
+x
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+2040
+</ins>
+</code>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PN_PREFIX">
+<td>
+[167s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PN_PREFIX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_BASE">
+PN_CHARS_BASE
+</a>
+((
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+PN_CHARS
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+')
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+PN_CHARS
+</a>
+)?
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PN_LOCAL">
+<td>
+[168s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PN_LOCAL
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+(
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS_U">
+PN_CHARS_U
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">:
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PLX">
+PLX
+</a>
+)
+((
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+PN_CHARS
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">:
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PLX">
+PLX
+</a>
+)
+<code class="grammar-star">
+*
+</code>
+(
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_CHARS">
+PN_CHARS
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">:
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PLX">
+PLX
+</a>
+))?
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PLX">
+<td>
+[169s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PLX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PERCENT">
+PERCENT
+</a>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-PN_LOCAL_ESC">
+PN_LOCAL_ESC
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PERCENT">
+<td>
+[170s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PERCENT
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+%
+</code>
+'
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+<a href="#grammar-production-HEX">
+HEX
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-HEX">
+<td>
+[171s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+HEX
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+0-9
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+A-F
+</code>
+]
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+[
+<code class="grammar-chars">
+a-f
+</code>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="grammar-token" id="grammar-production-PN_LOCAL_ESC">
+<td>
+[172s]
+</td>
+<td>
+<code>
+PN_LOCAL_ESC
+</code>
+</td>
+<td>::=
+</td>
+<td>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+\
+</code>
+'
+('
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+_
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+~
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">.
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+-
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">!
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+$
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+&amp;
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+'
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+(
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+)
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+*
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
++
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">,
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+;
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+=
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+/
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+?
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+#
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
[email protected]
+</code>
+'
+<code>
+|
+</code>
+'
+<code class="grammar-literal">
+%
+</code>
+')
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-parsing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-parsing">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Parsing
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-new">1.1
+</ins>
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+<ins class="diff-chg">specification
+</ins>
+([
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-CONCEPTS
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+])
+<del class="diff-old">specification
+</del>
+defines
+three
+types
+of
+<em>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Term
+</em>:
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literals
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>.
+Literals
+are
+composed
+of
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+and
+an
+optional
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tag">
+language
+tag
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+or
+datatype
+IRI.
+An
+extra
+type,
+<code class="dfn" id="prefix">
+prefix
+</code>,
+is
+used
+during
+parsing
+to
+map
+string
+identifiers
+to
+namespace
+IRIs.
+This
+section
+maps
+a
+string
+conforming
+to
+the
+grammar
+in
+<a class= "sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sec-grammar-grammar">
+section
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Grammar
+</span>
+</a>
+to
+a
+set
+of
+triples
+by
+mapping
+strings
+matching
+productions
+and
+lexical
+tokens
+to
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+terms
+or
+their
+components
+(e.g.
+language
+tags,
+lexical
+forms
+of
+literals).
+Grammar
+productions
+change
+the
+parser
+state
+and
+emit
+triples.
+</p>
+<section id="sec-parsing-state" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-state">
+<span class="secno">
+7.1
+</span>
+Parser
+State
+</h3>
+<p>
+Parsing
+Turtle
+requires
+a
+state
+of
+five
+items:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li id="baseURI">
+IRI
+<code class="dfn">
+baseURI
+</code>
+—
+When
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-base">
+base
+production
+</a>
+is
+reached,
+the
+second
+rule
+argument,
+<code>
+IRIREF
+</code>,
+is
+the
+base
+URI
+used
+for
+relative
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">resolution
+(test:
+base1
+base2
+)
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">resolution.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li id="namespaces">
+Map[
+<a href="#prefix" class="type prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+-&gt;
+IRI]
+<code class="dfn">
+namespaces
+</code>
+—
+The
+second
+and
+third
+rule
+arguments
+(
+<code>
+PNAME_NS
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+IRIREF
+</code>
+)
+in
+the
+<a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">
+prefixID
+production
+</a>
+assign
+a
+namespace
+name
+(
+<code>
+IRIREF
+</code>
+)
+for
+the
+prefix
+(
+<code>
+PNAME_NS
+</code>
+).
+Outside
+of
+a
+<code>
+prefixID
+</code>
+production,
+any
+<code>
+PNAME_NS
+</code>
+is
+substituted
+with
+the
+<del class="diff-old">namespace
+(test:
+prefix1
+escapedNamespace1
+)
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">namespace.
+</ins>
+Note
+that
+the
+prefix
+may
+be
+an
+empty
+string,
+per
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">PNAME_NS,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">PNAME_NS
+</ins>
+</code>
+production:
+<code>
+(PN_PREFIX)?
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;:&quot;
+(test:
+default1
+)
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">":"
+</ins></code>.
+</li>
+<li id="bnodeLabels">
+<del class="diff-old">Map[
+string
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Map[string
+</ins>
+-&gt;
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+]
+<code class="dfn">
+bnodeLabels
+</code>
+—
+A
+mapping
+from
+string
+to
+blank
+node.
+</li>
+<li id="curSubject">
+RDF_Term
+<code class="dfn">
+curSubject
+</code>
+—
+The
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+is
+bound
+to
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+</code>
+production.
+</li>
+<li id="curPredicate">
+RDF_Term
+<code class="dfn">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+—
+The
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+is
+bound
+to
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-verb">
+verb
+</a>
+</code>
+production.
+If
+token
+matched
+was
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+a
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">",
+</ins>
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+is
+bound
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
+<del class="diff-old">(test:
+type
+)
+.
+</del>
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-parsing-terms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-terms">
+<span class="secno">
+7.2
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Term
+Constructors
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+table
+maps
+productions
+and
+lexical
+tokens
+to
+<code>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+terms
+</code>
+or
+components
+of
+<code>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+terms
+</code>
+listed
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sec-parsing">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">7
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title">
+Parsing
+</span>
+</a>:
+</p>
+<table class="separated">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+production
+</th>
+<th>
+type
+</th>
+<th>
+procedure
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr id="handle-IRIREF">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-IRIREF" class="type IRI">
+IRIREF
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+characters
+between
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&lt;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"&lt;"
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&gt;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"&gt;"
+</ins>
+are
+taken,
+with
+the
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+escape
+sequences
+</a>
+unescaped,
+to
+form
+the
+unicode
+string
+of
+the
+IRI.
+Relative
+IRI
+resolution
+is
+performed
+per
+<a class="sectionRef" href="#sec-iri-references">
+<del class="diff-old">section
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Section
+</ins>
+6.3
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+References
+</del>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-PNAME_NS">
+<td rowspan="2" style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_NS" class="type string">
+PNAME_NS
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="#prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+When
+used
+in
+a
+<a href="#grammar-production-prefixID">
+prefixID
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#grammar-production-sparqlPrefix">
+sparqlPrefix
+</a>
+production,
+the
+<code>
+prefix
+</code>
+is
+the
+potentially
+empty
+unicode
+string
+matching
+the
+first
+argument
+of
+the
+rule
+is
+a
+key
+into
+the
+<a href="#namespaces">
+namespaces
+map
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-PNAME_NS2">
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+When
+used
+in
+a
+<a href="#grammar-production-PrefixedName">
+PrefixedName
+</a>
+production,
+the
+<code>
+iri
+</code>
+is
+the
+value
+in
+the
+<a href="#namespaces">
+namespaces
+map
+</a>
+corresponding
+to
+the
+first
+argument
+of
+the
+rule.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-PNAME_LN">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-PNAME_LN" class="type IRI">
+PNAME_LN
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+potentially
+empty
+<a href="#prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+is
+identified
+by
+the
+first
+sequence,
+<code>
+PNAME_NS
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#namespaces">
+namespaces
+map
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119">
+<del class="diff-old">must
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+<ins class="diff-chg">MUST
+</ins>
+</em>
+</em>
+have
+a
+corresponding
+<code>
+namespace
+</code>.
+The
+unicode
+string
+of
+the
+IRI
+is
+formed
+by
+unescaping
+the
+<a href="#reserved">
+reserved
+characters
+</a>
+in
+the
+second
+argument,
+<code>
+PN_LOCAL
+</code>,
+and
+concatenating
+this
+onto
+the
+<code>
+namespace
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE" class="type lexicalForm">
+STRING_LITERAL_SINGLE_QUOTE
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+characters
+between
+the
+outermost
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;'&quot;s
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"'"s
+</ins>
+are
+taken,
+with
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#string">
+string
+</a>
+escape
+sequences
+unescaped,
+to
+form
+the
+unicode
+string
+of
+a
+lexical
+form.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE" class="type lexicalForm">
+STRING_LITERAL_QUOTE
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+characters
+between
+the
+outermost
+<del class="diff-old">'&quot;'s
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">'"'s
+</ins>
+are
+taken,
+with
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#string">
+string
+</a>
+escape
+sequences
+unescaped,
+to
+form
+the
+unicode
+string
+of
+a
+lexical
+form.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE" class="type lexicalForm">
+STRING_LITERAL_LONG_SINGLE_QUOTE
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+characters
+between
+the
+outermost
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;'''&quot;s
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"'''"s
+</ins>
+are
+taken,
+with
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#string">
+string
+</a>
+escape
+sequences
+unescaped,
+to
+form
+the
+unicode
+string
+of
+a
+lexical
+form.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE" class="type lexicalForm">
+STRING_LITERAL_LONG_QUOTE
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+characters
+between
+the
+outermost
+<del class="diff-old">'&quot;&quot;&quot;'s
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">'"""'s
+</ins>
+are
+taken,
+with
+<a href="#numeric">
+numeric
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#string">
+string
+</a>
+escape
+sequences
+unescaped,
+to
+form
+the
+unicode
+string
+of
+a
+lexical
+form.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-LANGTAG">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-LANGTAG" class="type langTag">
+LANGTAG
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tag">
+language
+tag
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+characters
+following
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+form
+the
+unicode
+string
+of
+the
+language
+tag.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-RDFLiteral">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-RDFLiteral" class="type literal">
+RDFLiteral
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+literal
+has
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+first
+rule
+argument,
+<code>
+String
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</code>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+'^^'
+iri
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+rule
+matched,
+the
+datatype
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+iri
+</ins></code>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">either
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+literal
+has
+no
+</ins>
+language
+<del class="diff-old">tag
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">tag.
+If
+the
+</ins>
+<code>
+LANGTAG
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">rule
+matched,
+the
+</ins>
+datatype
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">iri
+,
+depending
+on
+which
+rule
+matched
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">rdf:langString
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">input.
+if
+neither
+a
+</del>
+language
+tag
+<del class="diff-old">nor
+a
+datatype
+IRI
+</del>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">provided,
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">LANGTAG
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+neither
+matched,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+has
+a
+</del>
+datatype
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+</ins>
+<code>
+xsd:string
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+the
+literal
+has
+no
+language
+tag.
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-INTEGER">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-INTEGER" class="type integer">
+INTEGER
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+literal
+has
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+input
+string,
+and
+a
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-DECIMAL">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-DECIMAL" class="type decimal">
+DECIMAL
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+literal
+has
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+input
+string,
+and
+a
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+xsd:decimal
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-DOUBLE">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-DOUBLE" class="type double">
+DOUBLE
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+literal
+has
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+input
+string,
+and
+a
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+xsd:double
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-BooleanLiteral">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-BooleanLiteral" class="type boolean">
+BooleanLiteral
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+literal
+has
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+false
+</code>,
+depending
+on
+which
+matched
+the
+input,
+and
+a
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-BLANK_NODE_LABEL">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-BLANK_NODE_LABEL" class="type bNode">
+BLANK_NODE_LABEL
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+string
+matching
+the
+second
+argument,
+<code>
+PN_LOCAL
+</code>,
+is
+a
+key
+in
+<a href="#bnodeLabels">
+bnodeLabels
+</a>.
+If
+there
+is
+no
+corresponding
+blank
+node
+in
+the
+map,
+one
+is
+allocated.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-ANON">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-ANON" class="type bNode">
+ANON
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+blank
+node
+is
+generated.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-blankNodePropertyList">
+<td style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList" class="type bNode">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+blank
+node
+is
+generated.
+Note
+the
+rules
+for
+<code>
+blankNodePropertyList
+</code>
+in
+the
+next
+section.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-collection">
+<td rowspan="2" style="text-align:left;">
+<a href="#grammar-production-collection" class="type bNode">
+collection
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+For
+non-empty
+lists,
+a
+blank
+node
+is
+generated.
+Note
+the
+rules
+for
+<code>
+collection
+</code>
+in
+the
+next
+section.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr id="handle-collection2">
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+For
+empty
+lists,
+the
+resulting
+IRI
+is
+<code>
+rdf:nil
+</code>.
+Note
+the
+rules
+for
+<code>
+collection
+</code>
+in
+the
+next
+section.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</section>
+<section id="sec-parsing-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-triples">
+<span class="secno">
+7.3
+</span>
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+Triples
+Constructors
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+Turtle
+document
+defines
+an
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-graph">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+graph
+</a>
+composed
+of
+set
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple">
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple
+</a>
+s.
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+sets
+the
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>.
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-verb">
+verb
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+sets
+the
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>.
+Each
+<a href="#grammar-production-object" class="grammarRef" tabindex="30">
+object
+</a>
+<code>
+N
+</code>
+in
+the
+document
+produces
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+<code>
+N
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+</p>
+<h3 style="padding-bottom:0; margin-bottom:0;" id="propertyList">
+<span>
+Property
+Lists:
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p style="padding-top:0; margin-top:0;">
+Beginning
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+records
+the
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+and
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>,
+and
+sets
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+to
+a
+novel
+<code>
+blank
+node
+</code>
+<code>
+B
+</code>.
+Finishing
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+restores
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+and
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>.
+The
+node
+produced
+by
+matching
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-blankNodePropertyList">
+blankNodePropertyList
+</a>
+</code>
+is
+the
+blank
+node
+<code>
+B
+</code>.
+</p>
+<h3 style="padding-bottom:0; margin-bottom:0;" id="collection">
+<span>
+Collections:
+</span>
+</h3>
+<p style="padding-top:0; margin-top:0;">
+Beginning
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+records
+the
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+and
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>.
+Each
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+in
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+has
+a
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+set
+to
+a
+novel
+<code>
+blank
+node
+</code>
+<code>
+B
+</code>
+and
+a
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
+rdf:first
+</code>.
+For
+each
+object
+<code>
+object
+<sub>
+n
+</sub>
+</code>
+after
+the
+first
+produces
+a
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+object
+<sub>
+n-1
+</sub>
+</code>
+<code>
+rdf:rest
+</code>
+<code>
+object
+<sub>
+n
+</sub>
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+Finishing
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+</code>
+production
+creates
+an
+additional
+triple
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+curSubject
+rdf:rest
+rdf:nil
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+and
+restores
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+and
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+The
+node
+produced
+by
+matching
+<code>
+<a href="#grammar-production-collection">
+collection
+</a>
+</code>
+is
+the
+first
+blank
+node
+<code>
+B
+</code>
+for
+non-empty
+lists
+and
+<code>
+rdf:nil
+</code>
+for
+empty
+lists.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="sec-parsing-example" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sec-parsing-example">
+<span class="secno">
+7.4
+</span>
+Parsing
+Example
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+informative
+example
+shows
+the
+semantic
+actions
+performed
+when
+parsing
+this
+Turtle
+document
+with
+an
+LALR(1)
+parser:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+27
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><span>
[email protected] ericFoaf: &lt;http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/ericP-foaf.rdf#&gt; .
[email protected] : &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<del class="diff-old">ericFoaf:ericP :givenName &quot;Eric&quot; ;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ericFoaf:ericP :givenName "Eric" ;
+</ins>
+              :knows &lt;http://norman.walsh.name/knows/who/dan-brickley&gt; ,
+                      [ :mbox &lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt; ] ,
+                      &lt;http://getopenid.com/amyvdh&gt; .
+          </span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Map
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+ericFoaf
+</code>
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/ericP-foaf.rdf#
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Map
+the
+empty
+prefix
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Assign
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/People/Eric/ericP-foaf.rdf#ericP
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Assign
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Emit
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;.../givenName&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Eric&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Eric"
+</ins>
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+</li>
+<li>
+Assign
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Emit
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;.../knows&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;...who/dan-brickley&gt;
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+</li>
+<li>
+Emit
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;.../knows&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+_:1
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+</li>
+<li>
+Save
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+and
+reassign
+to
+the
+blank
+node
+<code>
+_:1
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Save
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Assign
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Emit
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+_:1
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;.../mbox&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt;
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+</li>
+<li>
+Restore
+<code class="curSubject">
+curSubject
+</code>
+and
+<code class="curPredicate">
+curPredicate
+</code>
+to
+their
+saved
+values
+(
+<code>
+&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;
+</code>,
+<code>
+&lt;.../knows&gt;
+</code>
+).
+</li>
+<li>
+Emit
+an
+<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">
+RDF
+</abbr>
+triple:
+<span class="ntriple">
+<code>
+&lt;...rdf#ericP&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;.../knows&gt;
+</code>
+<code>
+&lt;http://getopenid.com/amyvdh&gt;
+</code>
+.
+</span>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="appendix informative" id="in-html" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_in-html">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Embedding
+Turtle
+in
+HTML
+documents
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+HTML
+([
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML5">
+HTML5
+</a>
+</cite>
+])
+<code>
+script
+</code>
+<a href="http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#scripting-1">
+tags
+</a>
+can
+be
+used
+to
+embed
+data
+blocks
+in
+documents.
+Turtle
+can
+be
+easily
+embedded
+in
+HTML
+this
+way.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">        &lt;script type=&quot;text/turtle&quot;&gt;
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+28
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+&lt;script type="text/turtle"&gt;
+</ins>
[email protected] dc: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
[email protected] frbr: &lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#&gt; .
+&lt;http://books.example.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt; a frbr:Work ;
+<del class="diff-old">     dc:creator &quot;Wil Wheaton&quot;@en ;
+     dc:title &quot;Just a Geek&quot;@en ;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">     dc:creator "Wil Wheaton"@en ;
+     dc:title "Just a Geek"@en ;
+</ins>
+     frbr:realization &lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;,
+         &lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt; .
+&lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt; a frbr:Expression ;
+     dc:type &lt;http://books.example.com/product-types/BOOK&gt; .
+&lt;http://books.example.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt; a frbr:Expression ;
+     dc:type &lt;http://books.example.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt; .
+&lt;/script&gt;
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Turtle
+content
+should
+be
+placed
+in
+a
+<code>
+script
+</code>
+tag
+with
+the
+<code>
+type
+</code>
+attribute
+set
+to
+<code>
+text/turtle
+</code>.
+<code>
+&lt;
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+&gt;
+</code>
+symbols
+do
+not
+need
+to
+be
+escaped
+inside
+of
+script
+tags.
+The
+character
+encoding
+of
+the
+embedded
+Turtle
+will
+match
+the
+HTML
+documents
+encoding.
+</p>
+<section class="informative" id="xhtml">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_xhtml">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+XHTML
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+Like
+JavaScript,
+Turtle
+authored
+for
+HTML
+(
+<code>
+text/html
+</code>
+)
+can
+break
+when
+used
+in
+XHTML
+(
+<code>
+application/xhtml+xml
+</code>
+).
+The
+solution
+is
+the
+same
+one
+used
+for
+JavaScript.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">        &lt;script type=&quot;text/turtle&quot;&gt;
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+29
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+&lt;script type="text/turtle"&gt;
+</ins>
+<strong># &lt;![CDATA[</strong>
[email protected] frbr: &lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#&gt; .
+&lt;http://books.example.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt; a frbr:Work .
+<strong># ]]&gt;</strong>
+&lt;/script&gt;
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+When
+embedded
+in
+XHTML
+Turtle
+data
+blocks
+must
+be
+enclosed
+in
+CDATA
+sections.
+Those
+CDATA
+markers
+must
+be
+in
+Turtle
+comments.
+If
+the
+character
+sequence
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+]]&gt;
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+occurs
+in
+the
+document
+it
+must
+be
+escaped
+using
+strings
+escapes
+(
+<code>
+\u005d\u0054\u003e
+</code>
+).
+This
+will
+also
+make
+Turtle
+safe
+in
+polyglot
+documents
+served
+as
+both
+<code>
+text/html
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+application/xhtml+xml
+</code>.
+Failing
+to
+use
+CDATA
+sections
+or
+escape
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+<code>
+]]&gt;
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"
+</ins>
+may
+result
+in
+a
+non
+well-formed
+XML
+document.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="in-html-parsing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_in-html-parsing">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+Parsing
+Turtle
+in
+HTML
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+no
+syntactic
+or
+grammar
+differences
+between
+parsing
+Turtle
+that
+has
+been
+embedded
+and
+normal
+Turtle
+documents.
+A
+Turtle
+document
+parsed
+from
+an
+HTML
+DOM
+will
+be
+a
+stream
+of
+character
+data
+rather
+than
+a
+stream
+of
+UTF-8
+encoded
+bytes.
+No
+decoding
+is
+necessary
+if
+the
+HTML
+document
+has
+already
+been
+parsed
+into
+DOM.
+Each
+<code>
+script
+</code>
+data
+block
+is
+considered
+to
+be
+it's
+own
+Turtle
+document.
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+declarations
+in
+a
+Turtle
+data
+bloc
+are
+scoped
+to
+that
+data
+block
+and
+do
+not
+effect
+other
+data
+blocks.
+The
+HTML
+<code>
+lang
+</code>
+attribute
+or
+XHTML
+<code>
+xml:lang
+</code>
+attribute
+have
+no
+effect
+on
+the
+parsing
+of
+the
+data
+blocks.
+The
+base
+URI
+of
+the
+encapsulating
+HTML
+document
+provides
+a
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Base
+</ins>
+URI
+Embedded
+in
+<del class="diff-old">Content&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Content"
+</ins>
+per
+RFC3986
+section
+5.1.1.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="appendix" id="sec-mediaReg" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sec-mediaReg">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Internet
+Media
+Type,
+File
+Extension
+and
+Macintosh
+File
+Type
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Contact:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Ian
+Davis
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Eric
+Prud'hommeaux
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+See
+also:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype">
+How
+to
+Register
+a
+Media
+Type
+for
+a
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Specification
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2002/0129-mime">
+Internet
+Media
+Type
+registration,
+consistency
+of
+use
+</a>
+<br />
+TAG
+Finding
+3
+June
+2002
+(Revised
+4
+September
+2002)
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+The
+Internet
+Media
+Type
+/
+MIME
+Type
+for
+Turtle
+is
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;text/turtle&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"text/turtle".
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+recommended
+that
+Turtle
+files
+have
+the
+extension
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;.ttl&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">".ttl"
+</ins>
+(all
+lowercase)
+on
+all
+platforms.
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+recommended
+that
+Turtle
+files
+stored
+on
+Macintosh
+HFS
+file
+systems
+be
+given
+a
+file
+type
+of
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;TEXT&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"TEXT".
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+information
+that
+follows
+has
+been
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/mid/[email protected]">
+submitted
+to
+the
+IESG
+</a>
+for
+review,
+approval,
+and
+registration
+with
+IANA.
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Type
+name:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+text
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Subtype
+name:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+turtle
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Required
+parameters:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+None
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Optional
+parameters:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<code>
+charset
+</code>
+—
+this
+parameter
+is
+required
+when
+transferring
+non-ASCII
+data.
+If
+present,
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
+charset
+</code>
+is
+always
+<code>
+UTF-8
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Encoding
+considerations:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+of
+Turtle
+is
+expressed
+over
+code
+points
+in
+Unicode
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+encoding
+is
+always
+UTF-8
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UTF-8">
+UTF-8
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+<dd>
+Unicode
+code
+points
+may
+also
+be
+expressed
+using
+an
+\uXXXX
+(U+0000
+to
+U+FFFF)
+or
+\UXXXXXXXX
+syntax
+(for
+U+10000
+onwards)
+where
+X
+is
+a
+hexadecimal
+digit
+[0-9A-Fa-f]
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Security
+considerations:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Turtle
+is
+a
+general-purpose
+assertion
+language;
+applications
+may
+evaluate
+given
+data
+to
+infer
+more
+assertions
+or
+to
+dereference
+IRIs,
+invoking
+the
+security
+considerations
+of
+the
+scheme
+for
+that
+IRI.
+Note
+in
+particular,
+the
+privacy
+issues
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3023">
+RFC3023
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+section
+10
+for
+HTTP
+IRIs.
+Data
+obtained
+from
+an
+inaccurate
+or
+malicious
+data
+source
+may
+lead
+to
+inaccurate
+or
+misleading
+conclusions,
+as
+well
+as
+the
+dereferencing
+of
+unintended
+IRIs.
+Care
+must
+be
+taken
+to
+align
+the
+trust
+in