update
authorGuus Schreiber <guus.schreiber@vu.nl>
Sat, 15 Feb 2014 23:14:38 +0100
changeset 1902 7b6c38c79091
parent 1901 974523fa3586
child 1903 062c121e01df
update
REC-drafts/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/diff-PER.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/REC-drafts/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/diff-PER.html	Sat Feb 15 23:14:38 2014 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,8691 @@
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+}
+
[email protected] print {
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+        display: none;
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+}
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+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
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+div.example-title {
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+div.example-title span {
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+
+<style type="text/css">
+/*<![CDATA[*/
+/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
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+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
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+}
+
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+</style>
+<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-REC" type="text/css" /><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+<style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
+.diff-new { background-color: yellow; }
+.diff-chg { background-color: lime; }
+.diff-new:before,
+.diff-new:after
+    { content: "\2191" }
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+    { content: "\2195" }
+.diff-old { text-decoration: line-through; background-color: #FBB; }
+.diff-old:before,
+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+<body class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument">
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 property="dcterms:title" id="title" class="title p-name">
+RDF
+Schema
+1.1
+</h1>
+<h2 content="2014-02-24T23:00:00.000Z" datatype="xsd:dateTime" property="dcterms:issued" id="w3c-recommendation-25-february-2014">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+Edited
+</del>
+Recommendation
+<del class="diff-old">09
+January
+</del>
+<time datetime="2014-02-25" class="dt-published">
+<ins class="diff-chg">25
+February
+</ins>
+2014
+</time>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PER-rdf-schema-20140109/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/" class="u-url">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-schema/index.html
+</del>
+Previous
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PER-rdf-schema-20140109/" rel="dcterms:replaces">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PER-rdf-schema-20140109/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://danbri.org/" content="Dan Brickley" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Dan
+Brickley
+</a>,
+Google
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<span class="p-name fn" property="foaf:name">
+R.V.
+Guha
+</span>,
+Google
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Previous
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Brian
+McBride
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Please
+check
+the
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/2014/rdf1.1-errata"><strong><ins class="diff-new">
+errata
+</ins></strong></a><ins class="diff-new">
+for
+any
+errors
+or
+issues
+reported
+since
+publication.
+</ins></p><p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff.html" rel="alternate">
+diff
+w.r.t.
+2004
+Recommendation
+</a>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+English
+version
+of
+this
+specification
+is
+the
+only
+normative
+version.
+Non-normative
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Translation/"><ins class="diff-new">
+translations
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+also
+be
+available.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2004-2014
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+Beihang
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+(RDF)
+is
+a
+language
+for
+representing
+information
+about
+resources
+in
+the
+World
+Wide
+Web.
+</del>
+RDF
+Schema
+provides
+a
+data-modelling
+vocabulary
+for
+RDF
+data.
+RDF
+Schema
+is
+an
+extension
+of
+the
+basic
+RDF
+vocabulary.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="introductory" id="sotd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+edited
+version
+of
+the
+2004
+RDF
+Schema
+Recommendation.
+The
+purpose
+of
+this
+revision
+is
+to
+make
+this
+document
+available
+as
+part
+of
+the
+RDF
+1.1
+document
+set.
+Changes
+are
+limited
+to
+errata,
+revised
+references,
+terminology
+updates,
+and
+adaptations
+to
+the
+introduction.
+The
+title
+of
+the
+document
+was
+changed
+from
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"RDF
+</ins>
+Vocabulary
+Description
+Language
+1.0:
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">Schema&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Schema"
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"RDF
+</ins>
+Schema
+<del class="diff-old">1.1&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.1".
+</ins>
+The
+technical
+content
+of
+the
+document
+is
+unchanged.
+Details
+of
+the
+changes
+are
+listed
+in
+the
+<a href="#PER-changes">
+Changes
+</a>
+section.
+Since
+the
+edits
+to
+this
+document
+do
+not
+constitute
+a
+technical
+change
+the
+Director
+decided
+no
+new
+implementation
+report
+was
+required.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+Edited
+</del>
+Recommendation.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+W3C
+Recommendation.
+The
+W3C
+Membership
+and
+other
+interested
+parties
+are
+invited
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+you
+wish
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">review
+the
+document
+and
+send
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">make
+</ins>
+comments
+<ins class="diff-new">regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+</ins>
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">)
+through
+09
+February
+2014.
+Advisory
+Committee
+Representatives
+should
+consult
+their
+WBS
+questionnaires
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">).
+</ins>
+All
+comments
+are
+welcome.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Publication
+as
+a
+Proposed
+Edited
+Recommendation
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+document
+has
+been
+reviewed
+by
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+Members,
+by
+software
+developers,
+and
+by
+other
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+groups
+and
+interested
+parties,
+and
+is
+endorsed
+</ins>
+by
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">Director
+as
+a
+</ins>
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Membership.
+This
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation.
+It
+</ins>
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">draft
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">stable
+</ins>
+document
+and
+may
+be
+<del class="diff-old">updated,
+replaced
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+as
+reference
+material
+</ins>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">cited
+from
+another
+document.
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+'s
+role
+in
+making
+the
+Recommendation
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">inappropriate
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">draw
+attention
+to
+the
+specification
+and
+to
+promote
+its
+widespread
+deployment.
+This
+enhances
+the
+functionality
+and
+interoperability
+of
+the
+Web.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/" rel="w3p:patentRules" about="" id="sotd_patent">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a rel="disclosure" href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_classes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Classes
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_resource" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_class" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_literal" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+rdfs:Literal
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_datatype" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_langstring" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5
+</span>
+rdf:langString
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_html" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.6
+</span>
+rdf:HTML
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_xmlliteral" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.7
+</span>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_property" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.8
+</span>
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_properties" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Properties
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_range" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+rdfs:range
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_domain" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+rdfs:domain
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+rdf:type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_subclassof" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_subpropertyof" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_label" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+rdfs:label
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_comment" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+rdfs:comment
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_domainrange" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Using
+the
+Domain
+and
+Range
+vocabulary
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_othervocab" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Other
+vocabulary
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_containervocab" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+Container
+Classes
+and
+Properties
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_container" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.1
+</span>
+rdfs:Container
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_bag" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.2
+</span>
+rdf:Bag
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_seq" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.3
+</span>
+rdf:Seq
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_alt" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.4
+</span>
+rdf:Alt
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.5
+</span>
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_member" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.6
+</span>
+rdfs:member
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_collectionvocab" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+RDF
+Collections
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_list" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.1
+</span>
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_first" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.2
+</span>
+rdf:first
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_rest" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.3
+</span>
+rdf:rest
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_nil" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.4
+</span>
+rdf:nil
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_reificationvocab" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+Reification
+Vocabulary
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_statement" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.1
+</span>
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_subject" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.2
+</span>
+rdf:subject
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_predicate" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.3
+</span>
+rdf:predicate
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_object" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.4
+</span>
+rdf:object
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_utilvocab" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Utility
+Properties
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_seealso" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4.1
+</span>
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_isdefinedby" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4.2
+</span>
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_value" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4.3
+</span>
+rdf:value
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_summary" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+RDF
+Schema
+summary
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_sumclasses" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+RDF
+classes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_sumproperties" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+RDF
+properties
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#ch_acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Acknowledgments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#PER-changes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Change
+<del class="diff-old">history
+B.1
+Changes
+for
+Proposed
+Edited
+Recommendation
+in
+2013
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Log
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">B.2
+Changes
+history
+of
+the
+2004
+Recommendation
+</del>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_introduction">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+(RDF)
+is
+a
+general-purpose
+language
+for
+representing
+information
+in
+the
+Web.
+</del>
+RDF
+Schema
+provides
+a
+data-modelling
+vocabulary
+for
+RDF
+data.
+It
+is
+complemented
+by
+several
+companion
+documents
+which
+describe
+the
+basic
+concepts
+and
+abstract
+<del class="diff-old">stntax
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">syntax
+</ins>
+of
+RDF
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+the
+formal
+semantics
+of
+RDF
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+and
+various
+concrete
+syntaxes
+for
+RDF,
+such
+as
+Turtle
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">
+TURTLE
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+TriG,
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">
+TRIG
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+and
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+RDF
+Primer
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-PRIMER">
+RDF11-PRIMER
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+provides
+an
+informal
+introduction
+and
+examples
+of
+the
+use
+of
+the
+concepts
+specified
+in
+this
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+provide
+a
+clear
+specification
+of
+RDF
+Schema
+to
+those
+who
+find
+the
+formal
+semantics
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+daunting.
+Thus,
+this
+document
+duplicates
+material
+also
+specified
+in
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification.
+Where
+there
+is
+disagreement
+between
+this
+document
+and
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification,
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification
+should
+be
+taken
+to
+be
+correct.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+Schema
+is
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/#semantic-extensions-and-entailment-regimes">
+semantic
+extension
+</a>
+of
+RDF.
+It
+provides
+mechanisms
+for
+describing
+groups
+of
+related
+resources
+and
+the
+relationships
+between
+these
+resources.
+RDF
+Schema
+is
+written
+in
+RDF
+using
+the
+terms
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+These
+resources
+are
+used
+to
+determine
+characteristics
+of
+other
+resources,
+such
+as
+the
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+domains
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#ch_range">
+ranges
+</a>
+of
+properties.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+RDF
+Schema
+class
+and
+property
+system
+is
+similar
+to
+the
+type
+systems
+of
+object-oriented
+programming
+languages
+such
+as
+Java.
+RDF
+Schema
+differs
+from
+many
+such
+systems
+in
+that
+instead
+of
+defining
+a
+class
+in
+terms
+of
+the
+properties
+its
+instances
+may
+have,
+RDF
+Schema
+describes
+properties
+in
+terms
+of
+the
+classes
+of
+resource
+to
+which
+they
+apply.
+This
+is
+the
+role
+of
+the
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+domain
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#ch_range">
+range
+</a>
+mechanisms
+described
+in
+this
+specification.
+For
+example,
+we
+could
+define
+the
+<code>
+eg:author
+</code>
+property
+to
+have
+a
+domain
+of
+<code>
+eg:Document
+</code>
+and
+a
+range
+of
+<code>
+eg:Person
+</code>,
+whereas
+a
+classical
+object
+oriented
+system
+might
+typically
+define
+a
+class
+<code>
+eg:Book
+</code>
+with
+an
+attribute
+called
+<code>
+eg:author
+</code>
+of
+type
+<code>
+eg:Person
+</code>.
+Using
+the
+RDF
+approach,
+it
+is
+easy
+for
+others
+to
+subsequently
+define
+additional
+properties
+with
+a
+domain
+of
+eg:
+<code>
+Document
+</code>
+or
+a
+range
+of
+<code>
+eg:Person
+</code>.
+This
+can
+be
+done
+without
+the
+need
+to
+re-define
+the
+original
+description
+of
+these
+classes.
+One
+benefit
+of
+the
+RDF
+property-centric
+approach
+is
+that
+it
+allows
+anyone
+to
+extend
+the
+description
+of
+existing
+resources,
+one
+of
+the
+architectural
+principles
+of
+the
+Web
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BERNERS-LEE98">
+BERNERS-LEE98
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+attempt
+to
+enumerate
+all
+the
+possible
+forms
+of
+representing
+the
+meaning
+of
+RDF
+classes
+and
+properties.
+Instead,
+the
+RDF
+Schema
+strategy
+is
+to
+acknowledge
+that
+there
+are
+many
+techniques
+through
+which
+the
+meaning
+of
+classes
+and
+properties
+can
+be
+described.
+Richer
+vocabulary
+or
+'ontology'
+languages
+such
+as
+OWL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">
+OWL2-OVERVIEW
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+inference
+rule
+languages
+and
+other
+formalisms
+(for
+example
+temporal
+logics)
+will
+each
+contribute
+to
+our
+ability
+to
+capture
+meaningful
+generalizations
+about
+data
+in
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+language
+defined
+in
+this
+specification
+consists
+of
+a
+collection
+of
+RDF
+resources
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+describe
+other
+RDF
+resources
+in
+application-specific
+RDF
+vocabularies.
+The
+core
+vocabulary
+is
+defined
+in
+a
+namespace
+informally
+called
+<code>
+rdfs
+</code>
+here.
+That
+namespace
+is
+identified
+by
+the
+IRI
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+and
+is
+conventionally
+associated
+with
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+rdfs:
+</code>.
+This
+specification
+also
+uses
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+rdf:
+</code>
+to
+refer
+to
+the
+RDF
+namespace
+<p>
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+For
+convenience
+and
+readability,
+this
+specification
+uses
+an
+abbreviated
+form
+to
+represent
+IRIs.
+A
+name
+of
+the
+form
+prefix:suffix
+should
+be
+interpreted
+as
+a
+IRI
+consisting
+of
+the
+IRI
+associated
+with
+the
+prefix
+concatenated
+with
+the
+suffix.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_classes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_classes">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Classes
+</h2>
+<p>
+Resources
+may
+be
+divided
+into
+groups
+called
+classes.
+The
+members
+of
+a
+class
+are
+known
+as
+<em>
+instances
+</em>
+of
+the
+class.
+Classes
+are
+themselves
+resources.
+They
+are
+often
+identified
+by
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-IRIs">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+may
+be
+described
+using
+RDF
+properties.
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_type">
+rdf:type
+</a>
+</code>
+property
+may
+be
+used
+to
+state
+that
+a
+resource
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+a
+class.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+distinguishes
+between
+a
+class
+and
+the
+set
+of
+its
+instances.
+Associated
+with
+each
+class
+is
+a
+set,
+called
+the
+class
+extension
+of
+the
+class,
+which
+is
+the
+set
+of
+the
+instances
+of
+the
+class.
+Two
+classes
+may
+have
+the
+same
+set
+of
+instances
+but
+be
+different
+classes.
+For
+example,
+the
+tax
+office
+may
+define
+the
+class
+of
+people
+living
+at
+the
+same
+address
+as
+the
+editor
+of
+this
+document.
+The
+Post
+Office
+may
+define
+the
+class
+of
+people
+whose
+address
+has
+the
+same
+zip
+code
+as
+the
+address
+of
+the
+author.
+It
+is
+possible
+for
+these
+classes
+to
+have
+exactly
+the
+same
+instances,
+yet
+to
+have
+different
+properties.
+Only
+one
+of
+the
+classes
+has
+the
+property
+that
+it
+was
+defined
+by
+the
+tax
+office,
+and
+only
+the
+other
+has
+the
+property
+that
+it
+was
+defined
+by
+the
+Post
+Office.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+class
+may
+be
+a
+member
+of
+its
+own
+class
+extension
+and
+may
+be
+an
+instance
+of
+itself.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+group
+of
+resources
+that
+are
+RDF
+Schema
+classes
+is
+itself
+a
+class
+called
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p id="def-subclass">
+If
+a
+class
+C
+is
+a
+<em>
+subclass
+</em>
+of
+a
+class
+C',
+then
+all
+instances
+of
+C
+will
+also
+be
+instances
+of
+C'.
+The
+<a href="#ch_subclassof">
+<code>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</code>
+</a>
+property
+may
+be
+used
+to
+state
+that
+one
+class
+is
+a
+subclass
+of
+another.
+The
+term
+super-class
+is
+used
+as
+the
+inverse
+of
+subclass.
+If
+a
+class
+C'
+is
+a
+super-class
+of
+a
+class
+C,
+then
+all
+instances
+of
+C
+are
+also
+instances
+of
+C'.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+RDF
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+specification
+defines
+the
+RDF
+concept
+of
+an
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Datatypes">
+RDF
+datatype
+</a>.
+All
+datatypes
+are
+classes.
+The
+instances
+of
+a
+class
+that
+is
+a
+datatype
+are
+the
+members
+of
+the
+value
+space
+of
+the
+datatype.
+</p>
+<section id="ch_resource" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_resource">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+rdfs:Resource
+</h3>
+<p>
+All
+things
+described
+by
+RDF
+are
+called
+<em>
+resources
+</em>,
+and
+are
+instances
+of
+the
+class
+<code>
+rdfs:Resource
+</code>.
+This
+is
+the
+class
+of
+everything.
+All
+other
+classes
+are
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclasses
+</a>
+of
+this
+class.
+<code>
+rdfs:Resource
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_class" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_class">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+rdfs:Class
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+is
+the
+class
+of
+resources
+that
+are
+RDF
+classes.
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:Class.
+</code>
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_literal">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+rdfs:Literal
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+class
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Graph-Literal">
+literal
+</a>
+values
+such
+as
+strings
+and
+integers.
+Property
+values
+such
+as
+textual
+strings
+are
+examples
+of
+RDF
+literals.
+</p>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+rdfs:Literal
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_datatype" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_datatype">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+of
+datatypes.
+All
+instances
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+correspond
+to
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Datatypes">
+RDF
+model
+of
+a
+datatype
+</a>
+described
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+is
+both
+an
+instance
+of
+and
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+Each
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+rdfs:Literal.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_langstring" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_langstring">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5
+</span>
+rdf:langString
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+class
+<code>
+rdf:langString
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tagged-string">
+language-tagged
+string
+values
+</a>.
+<code>
+rdf:langString
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+and
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<a href="#ch_literal">
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="ch_html" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_html">
+<span class="secno">
+2.6
+</span>
+rdf:HTML
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+class
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-html">
+HTML
+literal
+values
+</a>.
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+and
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<a href="#ch_literal">
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="ch_xmlliteral" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_xmlliteral">
+<span class="secno">
+2.7
+</span>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+class
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-XMLLiteral">
+XML
+literal
+values
+</a>.
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:Datatype
+</code>
+and
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<a href="#ch_literal">
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_property" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_property">
+<span class="secno">
+2.8
+</span>
+rdf:Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+of
+RDF
+properties.
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_properties" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_properties">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Properties
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+RDF
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+describes
+the
+concept
+of
+an
+RDF
+property
+as
+a
+relation
+between
+subject
+resources
+and
+object
+resources.
+</p>
+<p id="def-subproperty">
+This
+specification
+defines
+the
+concept
+of
+subproperty.
+The
+<a href="#ch_subclassof">
+<code>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</code>
+</a>
+property
+may
+be
+used
+to
+state
+that
+one
+property
+is
+a
+subproperty
+of
+another.
+If
+a
+property
+P
+is
+a
+subproperty
+of
+property
+P',
+then
+all
+pairs
+of
+resources
+which
+are
+related
+by
+P
+are
+also
+related
+by
+P'.
+The
+term
+super-property
+is
+often
+used
+as
+the
+inverse
+of
+subproperty.
+If
+a
+property
+P'
+is
+a
+super-property
+of
+a
+property
+P,
+then
+all
+pairs
+of
+resources
+which
+are
+related
+by
+P
+are
+also
+related
+by
+P'.
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+define
+a
+top
+property
+that
+is
+the
+super-property
+of
+all
+properties.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_1">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+basic
+facilities
+provided
+by
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+do
+not
+provide
+any
+direct
+way
+to
+indicate
+property
+restrictions
+that
+are
+local
+to
+a
+class.
+Although
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+combine
+use
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+with
+sub-property
+hierarchies,
+direct
+support
+for
+such
+declarations
+are
+provided
+by
+richer
+Web
+Ontology
+languages
+such
+as
+OWL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">
+OWL2-OVERVIEW
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</div>
+<section id="ch_range" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_range">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+rdfs:range
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+that
+the
+values
+of
+a
+property
+are
+instances
+of
+one
+or
+more
+classes.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+triple
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+P
+rdfs:range
+C
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+P
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+the
+class
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>,
+that
+C
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+the
+class
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+that
+the
+resources
+denoted
+by
+the
+objects
+of
+triples
+whose
+predicate
+is
+P
+are
+instances
+of
+the
+class
+C.
+</p>
+<p>
+Where
+P
+has
+more
+than
+one
+rdfs:range
+property,
+then
+the
+resources
+denoted
+by
+the
+objects
+of
+triples
+with
+predicate
+P
+are
+instances
+of
+all
+the
+classes
+stated
+by
+the
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+properties.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+property
+can
+be
+applied
+to
+itself.
+The
+rdfs:range
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+This
+states
+that
+any
+resource
+that
+is
+the
+value
+of
+an
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+property
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+property
+is
+applied
+to
+properties.
+This
+can
+be
+represented
+in
+RDF
+using
+the
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+property.
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>.
+This
+states
+that
+any
+resource
+with
+an
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+property
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_domain" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_domain">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+rdfs:domain
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+that
+any
+resource
+that
+has
+a
+given
+property
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+one
+or
+more
+classes.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+P
+rdfs:domain
+C
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+P
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+the
+class
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>,
+that
+C
+is
+a
+instance
+of
+the
+class
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+that
+the
+resources
+denoted
+by
+the
+subjects
+of
+triples
+whose
+predicate
+is
+P
+are
+instances
+of
+the
+class
+C.
+</p>
+<p>
+Where
+a
+property
+P
+has
+more
+than
+one
+rdfs:domain
+property,
+then
+the
+resources
+denoted
+by
+subjects
+of
+triples
+with
+predicate
+P
+are
+instances
+of
+all
+the
+classes
+stated
+by
+the
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+properties.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+property
+may
+be
+applied
+to
+itself.
+The
+rdfs:domain
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>.
+This
+states
+that
+any
+resource
+with
+an
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+property
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+is
+the
+class
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</code>.
+This
+states
+that
+any
+resource
+that
+is
+the
+value
+of
+an
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+property
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_type" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_type">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+rdf:type
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+that
+a
+resource
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+a
+class.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+R
+rdf:type
+C
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+C
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+R
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+C.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+rdfs:domain
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+is
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+rdf:type
+is
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_subclassof" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_subclassof">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+property
+<code>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+that
+all
+the
+instances
+of
+one
+class
+are
+instances
+of
+another.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+C1
+rdfs:subClassOf
+C2
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+C1
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</code>,
+C2
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+C1
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+C2.
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</code>
+property
+is
+transitive.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</code>
+is
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_subpropertyof" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_subpropertyof">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+property
+<code>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+that
+all
+resources
+related
+by
+one
+property
+are
+also
+related
+by
+another.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+P1
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+P2
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+P1
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>,
+P2
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+P1
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subproperty">
+subproperty
+</a>
+of
+P2.
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</code>
+property
+is
+transitive.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+is
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_label" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_label">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+rdfs:label
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:label
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+provide
+a
+human-readable
+version
+of
+a
+resource's
+name.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+R
+rdfs:label
+L
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+L
+is
+a
+human
+readable
+label
+for
+R.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:label
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+rdfs:label
+is
+<a href="#ch_literal">
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Multilingual
+labels
+are
+supported
+using
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Graph-Literal">
+language
+tagging
+</a>
+facility
+of
+RDF
+literals.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_comment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_comment">
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+rdfs:comment
+</h3>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:comment
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+provide
+a
+human-readable
+description
+of
+a
+resource.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+R
+rdfs:comment
+L
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+L
+is
+a
+human
+readable
+description
+of
+R.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:comment
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+rdfs:comment
+is
+<a href="#ch_literal">
+<code>
+rdfs:Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+textual
+comment
+helps
+clarify
+the
+meaning
+of
+RDF
+classes
+and
+properties.
+Such
+in-line
+documentation
+complements
+the
+use
+of
+both
+formal
+techniques
+(Ontology
+and
+rule
+languages)
+and
+informal
+(prose
+documentation,
+examples,
+test
+cases).
+A
+variety
+of
+documentation
+forms
+can
+be
+combined
+to
+indicate
+the
+intended
+meaning
+of
+the
+classes
+and
+properties
+described
+in
+an
+RDF
+vocabulary.
+Since
+RDF
+vocabularies
+are
+expressed
+as
+RDF
+graphs,
+vocabularies
+defined
+in
+other
+namespaces
+may
+be
+used
+to
+provide
+richer
+documentation.
+</p>
+<p>
+Multilingual
+documentation
+is
+supported
+through
+use
+of
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Graph-Literal">
+language
+tagging
+</a>
+facility
+of
+RDF
+literals.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_domainrange" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_domainrange">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Using
+the
+Domain
+and
+Range
+vocabulary
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+introduces
+an
+RDF
+vocabulary
+for
+describing
+the
+meaningful
+use
+of
+properties
+and
+classes
+in
+RDF
+data.
+For
+example,
+an
+RDF
+vocabulary
+might
+describe
+limitations
+on
+the
+types
+of
+values
+that
+are
+appropriate
+for
+some
+property,
+or
+on
+the
+classes
+to
+which
+it
+makes
+sense
+to
+ascribe
+such
+properties.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+Schema
+provides
+a
+mechanism
+for
+describing
+this
+information,
+but
+does
+not
+say
+whether
+or
+how
+an
+application
+should
+use
+it.
+For
+example,
+while
+an
+RDF
+vocabulary
+can
+assert
+that
+an
+<code>
+author
+</code>
+property
+is
+used
+to
+indicate
+resources
+that
+are
+instances
+of
+the
+class
+<code>
+Person
+</code>,
+it
+does
+not
+say
+whether
+or
+how
+an
+application
+should
+act
+in
+processing
+that
+range
+information.
+Different
+applications
+will
+use
+this
+information
+in
+different
+ways.
+For
+example,
+data
+checking
+tools
+might
+use
+this
+to
+help
+discover
+errors
+in
+some
+data
+set,
+an
+interactive
+editor
+might
+suggest
+appropriate
+values,
+and
+a
+reasoning
+application
+might
+use
+it
+to
+infer
+additional
+information
+from
+instance
+data.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+vocabularies
+can
+describe
+relationships
+between
+vocabulary
+items
+from
+multiple
+independently
+developed
+vocabularies.
+Since
+IRIs
+are
+used
+to
+identify
+classes
+and
+properties
+on
+the
+Web,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+create
+new
+properties
+that
+have
+a
+<code>
+domain
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+range
+</code>
+whose
+value
+is
+a
+class
+defined
+in
+another
+namespace.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_othervocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_othervocab">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Other
+vocabulary
+</h2>
+<p>
+Additional
+classes
+and
+properties,
+including
+constructs
+for
+representing
+containers
+and
+RDF
+statements,
+and
+for
+deploying
+RDF
+vocabulary
+descriptions
+in
+the
+World
+Wide
+Web,
+are
+defined
+in
+this
+section.
+</p>
+<section class="informative" id="ch_containervocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_containervocab">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+Container
+Classes
+and
+Properties
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+containers
+are
+resources
+that
+are
+used
+to
+represent
+collections.
+The
+same
+resource
+may
+appear
+in
+a
+container
+more
+than
+once.
+Unlike
+containment
+in
+the
+physical
+world,
+a
+container
+may
+be
+contained
+in
+itself.
+</p>
+<p>
+Three
+different
+kinds
+of
+container
+are
+defined.
+Whilst
+the
+formal
+semantics
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+of
+all
+three
+classes
+of
+container
+are
+identical,
+different
+classes
+may
+be
+used
+to
+indicate
+informally
+further
+information.
+An
+rdf:Bag
+is
+used
+to
+indicate
+that
+the
+container
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+unordered.
+An
+rdf:Seq
+is
+used
+to
+indicate
+that
+the
+order
+indicated
+by
+the
+numerical
+order
+of
+the
+<a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">
+container
+membership
+properties
+</a>
+of
+the
+container
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+significant.
+An
+rdf:Alt
+container
+is
+used
+to
+indicate
+that
+typical
+processing
+of
+the
+container
+will
+be
+to
+select
+one
+of
+the
+members.
+</p>
+<p>
+Just
+as
+a
+hen
+house
+may
+have
+the
+property
+that
+it
+is
+made
+of
+wood,
+that
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+all
+the
+hens
+it
+contains
+are
+made
+of
+wood,
+a
+property
+of
+a
+container
+is
+not
+necessarily
+a
+property
+of
+all
+of
+its
+members.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+containers
+are
+defined
+by
+the
+following
+classes
+and
+properties.
+</p>
+<section id="ch_container" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_container">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.1
+</span>
+rdfs:Container
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:Container
+</code>
+class
+is
+a
+super-class
+of
+the
+RDF
+Container
+classes,
+i.e.
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_bag">
+rdf:Bag
+</a>
+</code>,
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_seq">
+rdf:Seq
+</a>
+</code>,
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_alt">
+rdf:Alt
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_bag" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_bag">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.2
+</span>
+rdf:Bag
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:Bag
+</code>
+class
+is
+the
+class
+of
+RDF
+'Bag'
+containers.
+It
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_container">
+rdfs:Container
+</a>
+</code>.
+Whilst
+formally
+it
+is
+no
+different
+from
+an
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_seq">
+rdf:Seq
+</a>
+</code>
+or
+an
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_alt">
+rdf:Alt
+</a>
+</code>,
+the
+<code>
+rdf:Bag
+</code>
+class
+is
+used
+conventionally
+to
+indicate
+to
+a
+human
+reader
+that
+the
+container
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+unordered.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_seq" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_seq">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.3
+</span>
+rdf:Seq
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:Seq
+</code>
+class
+is
+the
+class
+of
+RDF
+'Sequence'
+containers.
+It
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_container">
+rdfs:Container
+</a>
+</code>.
+Whilst
+formally
+it
+is
+no
+different
+from
+an
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_bag">
+rdf:Bag
+</a>
+</code>
+or
+an
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_alt">
+rdf:Alt
+</a>
+</code>,
+the
+<code>
+rdf:Seq
+</code>
+class
+is
+used
+conventionally
+to
+indicate
+to
+a
+human
+reader
+that
+the
+numerical
+ordering
+of
+the
+<a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">
+container
+membership
+properties
+</a>
+of
+the
+container
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+significant.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_alt" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_alt">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.4
+</span>
+rdf:Alt
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:Alt
+</code>
+class
+is
+the
+class
+of
+RDF
+'Alternative'
+containers.
+It
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_container">
+rdfs:Container
+</a>
+</code>.
+Whilst
+formally
+it
+is
+no
+different
+from
+an
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_seq">
+rdf:Seq
+</a>
+</code>
+or
+an
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_bag">
+rdf:Bag
+</a>
+</code>,
+the
+<code>
+rdf:Alt
+</code>
+class
+is
+used
+conventionally
+to
+indicate
+to
+a
+human
+reader
+that
+typical
+processing
+will
+be
+to
+select
+one
+of
+the
+members
+of
+the
+container.
+The
+first
+member
+of
+the
+container,
+i.e.
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">
+rdf:_1
+</a>
+</code>
+property,
+is
+the
+default
+choice.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_containermembershipproperty" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_containermembershipproperty">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.5
+</span>
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</code>
+class
+has
+as
+instances
+the
+properties
+<code>
+rdf:_1,
+rdf:_2,
+rdf:_3
+...
+</code>
+that
+are
+used
+to
+state
+that
+a
+resource
+is
+a
+member
+of
+a
+container.
+<code>
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</code>
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subclass">
+subclass
+</a>
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>.
+Each
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</code>
+is
+an
+<a href="#ch_subpropertyof">
+<code>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</code>
+</a>
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_member">
+rdfs:member
+</a>
+</code>
+property.
+</p>
+<p>
+Given
+a
+container
+C,
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+C
+rdf:_nnn
+O
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+where
+<code>
+nnn
+</code>
+is
+the
+decimal
+representation
+of
+an
+integer
+greater
+than
+0
+with
+no
+leading
+zeros,
+states
+that
+O
+is
+a
+member
+of
+the
+container
+C.
+</p>
+<p>
+Container
+membership
+properties
+may
+be
+applied
+to
+resources
+other
+than
+containers.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_member" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_member">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1.6
+</span>
+rdfs:member
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:member
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+that
+is
+a
+super-property
+of
+all
+the
+container
+membership
+properties
+i.e.
+each
+container
+membership
+property
+has
+an
+<a href="#ch_subpropertyof">
+<code>
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</code>
+</a>
+relationship
+to
+the
+property
+<code>
+rdfs:member
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:member
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:member
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="ch_collectionvocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_collectionvocab">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+RDF
+Collections
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+containers
+are
+open
+in
+the
+sense
+that
+the
+core
+RDF
+specifications
+define
+no
+mechanism
+to
+state
+that
+there
+are
+no
+more
+members.
+The
+RDF
+Collection
+vocabulary
+of
+classes
+and
+properties
+can
+describe
+a
+closed
+collection,
+i.e.
+one
+that
+can
+have
+no
+more
+members.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+collection
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+list
+of
+items,
+a
+representation
+that
+will
+be
+familiar
+to
+those
+with
+experience
+of
+Lisp
+and
+similar
+programming
+languages.
+There
+is
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/#collections">
+shorthand
+notation
+</a>
+in
+the
+Turtle
+syntax
+specification
+for
+representing
+collections.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+RDFS
+does
+not
+require
+that
+there
+be
+only
+one
+first
+element
+of
+a
+list-like
+structure,
+or
+even
+that
+a
+list-like
+structure
+have
+a
+first
+element.
+</p>
+</div>
+<section id="ch_list" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_list">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.1
+</span>
+rdf:List
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:List
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_class">
+<code>
+rdfs:Class
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+build
+descriptions
+of
+lists
+and
+other
+list-like
+structures.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_first" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_first">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.2
+</span>
+rdf:first
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:first
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+build
+descriptions
+of
+lists
+and
+other
+list-like
+structures.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+L
+rdf:first
+O
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+there
+is
+a
+first-element
+relationship
+between
+L
+and
+O.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:first
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_list">
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:first
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_rest" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_rest">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.3
+</span>
+rdf:rest
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:rest
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+build
+descriptions
+of
+lists
+and
+other
+list-like
+structures.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+L
+rdf:rest
+O
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+there
+is
+a
+rest-of-list
+relationship
+between
+L
+and
+O.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:rest
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_list">
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:rest
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_list">
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_nil" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_nil">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2.4
+</span>
+rdf:nil
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+resource
+<code>
+rdf:nil
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_list">
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</code>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+represent
+an
+empty
+list
+or
+other
+list-like
+structure.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+L
+rdf:rest
+rdf:nil
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+L
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_list">
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</code>
+that
+has
+one
+item;
+that
+item
+can
+be
+indicated
+using
+the
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_first">
+rdf:first
+</a>
+</code>
+property.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="ch_reificationvocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_reificationvocab">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+Reification
+Vocabulary
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<section id="ch_statement" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_statement">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.1
+</span>
+rdf:Statement
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:Statement
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class.
+</a>
+</code>
+It
+is
+intended
+to
+represent
+the
+class
+of
+RDF
+statements.
+An
+RDF
+statement
+is
+the
+statement
+made
+by
+a
+token
+of
+an
+RDF
+triple.
+The
+subject
+of
+an
+RDF
+statement
+is
+the
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>
+identified
+by
+the
+subject
+of
+the
+triple.
+The
+predicate
+of
+an
+RDF
+statement
+is
+the
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+identified
+by
+the
+predicate
+of
+the
+triple.
+The
+object
+of
+an
+RDF
+statement
+is
+the
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>
+identified
+by
+the
+object
+of
+the
+triple.
+<code>
+rdf:Statement
+</code>
+is
+in
+the
+domain
+of
+the
+properties
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_predicate">
+rdf:predicate
+</a>
+</code>,
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_subject">
+rdf:subject
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_object">
+rdf:object
+</a>
+</code>.
+Different
+individual
+<code>
+rdf:Statement
+</code>
+instances
+may
+have
+the
+same
+values
+for
+their
+<code>
+<a href= "#ch_predicate">
+rdf:predicate
+</a>
+</code>,
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_subject">
+rdf:subject
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_object">
+rdf:object
+</a>
+</code>
+properties.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_subject" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_subject">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.2
+</span>
+rdf:subject
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:subject
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+the
+subject
+of
+a
+statement.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+S
+rdf:subject
+R
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+S
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+that
+the
+subject
+of
+S
+is
+R.
+</p>
+<p class="schemacomment">
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:subject
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:subject
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_predicate" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_predicate">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.3
+</span>
+rdf:predicate
+</h4>
+<p>
+rdf:predicate
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+the
+predicate
+of
+a
+statement.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+S
+rdf:predicate
+P
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+S
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</code>,
+that
+P
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+that
+the
+predicate
+of
+S
+is
+P.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:predicate
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+the
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+<code>
+rdfs:Resource
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_object" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_object">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3.4
+</span>
+rdf:object
+</h4>
+<p>
+rdf:object
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+state
+the
+object
+of
+a
+statement.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+S
+rdf:object
+O
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+S
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+that
+the
+object
+of
+S
+is
+O.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+<code>
+rdfs:domain
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:object
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<a href="#ch_range">
+<code>
+rdfs:range
+</code>
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:object
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_utilvocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_utilvocab">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Utility
+Properties
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+following
+utility
+classes
+and
+properties
+are
+defined
+in
+the
+RDF
+core
+namespaces.
+</p>
+<section id="ch_seealso" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_seealso">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4.1
+</span>
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+indicate
+a
+resource
+that
+might
+provide
+additional
+information
+about
+the
+subject
+resource.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+S
+rdfs:seeAlso
+O
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+the
+resource
+O
+may
+provide
+additional
+information
+about
+S.
+It
+may
+be
+possible
+to
+retrieve
+representations
+of
+O
+from
+the
+Web,
+but
+this
+is
+not
+required.
+When
+such
+representations
+may
+be
+retrieved,
+no
+constraints
+are
+placed
+on
+the
+format
+of
+those
+representations.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+rdfs:domain
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_range">
+rdfs:range
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_isdefinedby" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_isdefinedby">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4.2
+</span>
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+is
+used
+to
+indicate
+a
+resource
+defining
+the
+subject
+resource.
+This
+property
+may
+be
+used
+to
+indicate
+an
+RDF
+vocabulary
+in
+which
+a
+resource
+is
+described.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+triple
+of
+the
+form:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+<code>
+S
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+O
+</code>
+</blockquote>
+<p>
+states
+that
+the
+resource
+O
+defines
+S.
+It
+may
+be
+possible
+to
+retrieve
+representations
+of
+O
+from
+the
+Web,
+but
+this
+is
+not
+required.
+When
+such
+representations
+may
+be
+retrieved,
+no
+constraints
+are
+placed
+on
+the
+format
+of
+those
+representations.
+<code>
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</code>
+is
+a
+<a href="#def-subproperty">
+subproperty
+</a>
+of
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_seealso">
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+rdfs:domain
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_range">
+rdfs:range
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_value" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_value">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4.3
+</span>
+rdf:value
+</h4>
+<p>
+<code>
+rdf:value
+</code>
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+<a href="#ch_property">
+<code>
+rdf:Property
+</code>
+</a>
+that
+may
+be
+used
+in
+describing
+structured
+values.
+</p>
+<p>
+rdf:value
+has
+no
+meaning
+on
+its
+own.
+It
+is
+provided
+as
+a
+piece
+of
+vocabulary
+that
+may
+be
+used
+in
+idioms
+such
+as
+illustrated
+in
+example
+below:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">          &lt;http://www.example.com/2002/04/products#item10245&gt;
+</del>
+<div class="example">
+<div class="example-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Example
+1
+</ins></span></div><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+&lt;http://www.example.com/2002/04/products#item10245&gt;
+</ins>
+    &lt;http://www.example.org/terms/weight&gt; [
+       rdf:value 2.4 ;
+       &lt;http://www.example.org/terms/units&gt; &lt;http://www.example.org/units/kilograms&gt;
+<del class="diff-old">]
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">       ] .
+</ins>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Despite
+the
+lack
+of
+formal
+specification
+of
+the
+meaning
+of
+this
+property,
+there
+is
+value
+in
+defining
+it
+to
+encourage
+the
+use
+of
+a
+common
+idiom
+in
+examples
+of
+this
+kind.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+rdfs:domain
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:value
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_range">
+rdfs:range
+</a>
+</code>
+of
+<code>
+rdf:value
+</code>
+is
+<code>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_summary" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_summary">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+RDF
+Schema
+summary
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+tables
+in
+this
+section
+provide
+an
+overview
+of
+the
+RDF
+Schema
+vocabulary.
+</p>
+<section id="ch_sumclasses" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_sumclasses">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+RDF
+classes
+</h3>
+<table>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Class
+name
+</th>
+<th>
+comment
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_resource">
+rdfs:Resource
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+resource,
+everything.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_literal">
+rdfs:Literal
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+literal
+values,
+e.g.
+textual
+strings
+and
+integers.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_langstring">
+rdf:langString
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+language-tagged
+string
+literal
+values.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_html">
+rdf:HTML
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+HTML
+literal
+values.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_xmlliteral">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+XML
+literal
+values.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_class">
+rdfs:Class
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+classes.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_property">
+rdf:Property
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+RDF
+properties.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_datatype">
+rdfs:Datatype
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+RDF
+datatypes.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_statement">
+rdf:Statement
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+RDF
+statements.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_bag">
+rdf:Bag
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+unordered
+containers.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_seq">
+rdf:Seq
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+ordered
+containers.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_alt">
+rdf:Alt
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+containers
+of
+alternatives.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_container">
+rdfs:Container
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+RDF
+containers.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+container
+membership
+properties,
+rdf:_1,
+rdf:_2,
+...,
+all
+of
+which
+are
+sub-properties
+of
+'member'.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_list">
+rdf:List
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+class
+of
+RDF
+Lists.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_sumproperties" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_sumproperties">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+RDF
+properties
+</h3>
+<table>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Property
+name
+</th>
+<th>
+comment
+</th>
+<th>
+domain
+</th>
+<th>
+range
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_type">
+rdf:type
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+subject
+is
+an
+instance
+of
+a
+class.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Class
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_subclassof">
+rdfs:subClassOf
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+subject
+is
+a
+subclass
+of
+a
+class.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Class
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Class
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_subpropertyof">
+rdfs:subPropertyOf
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+subject
+is
+a
+subproperty
+of
+a
+property.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Property
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Property
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_domain">
+rdfs:domain
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+domain
+of
+the
+subject
+property.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Property
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Class
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_range">
+rdfs:range
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+range
+of
+the
+subject
+property.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Property
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Class
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_label">
+rdfs:label
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+human-readable
+name
+for
+the
+subject.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Literal
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_comment">
+rdfs:comment
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+description
+of
+the
+subject
+resource.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Literal
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_member">
+rdfs:member
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+A
+member
+of
+the
+subject
+resource.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_first">
+rdf:first
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+first
+item
+in
+the
+subject
+RDF
+list.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:List
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_rest">
+rdf:rest
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+rest
+of
+the
+subject
+RDF
+list
+after
+the
+first
+item.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:List
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:List
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_seealso">
+rdfs:seeAlso
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Further
+information
+about
+the
+subject
+resource.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_isdefinedby">
+rdfs:isDefinedBy
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+definition
+of
+the
+subject
+resource.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_value">
+rdf:value
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Idiomatic
+property
+used
+for
+structured
+values.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_subject">
+rdf:subject
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+subject
+of
+the
+subject
+RDF
+statement.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Statement
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_predicate">
+rdf:predicate
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+predicate
+of
+the
+subject
+RDF
+statement.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Statement
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="#ch_object">
+rdf:object
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+object
+of
+the
+subject
+RDF
+statement.
+</td>
+<td>
+rdf:Statement
+</td>
+<td>
+rdfs:Resource
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+In
+addition
+to
+these
+classes
+and
+properties,
+RDF
+also
+uses
+properties
+called
+<code>
+rdf:_1
+</code>,
+<code>
+rdf:_2
+</code>,
+<code>
+rdf:_3
+</code>...
+etc.,
+each
+of
+which
+is
+both
+a
+sub-property
+of
+<code>
+rdfs:member
+</code>
+and
+an
+instance
+of
+the
+class
+<code>
+rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty
+</code>.
+There
+is
+also
+an
+instance
+of
+<code>
+rdf:List
+</code>
+called
+<code>
+rdf:nil
+</code>
+that
+is
+an
+empty
+<code>
+rdf:List
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="ch_acknowledgements" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_acknowledgements">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Acknowledgments
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+RDF
+Schema
+design
+was
+originally
+produced
+by
+the
+RDF
+Schema
+Working
+Group
+(1997-2000).
+The
+current
+specification
+is
+largely
+an
+editorial
+clarification
+of
+that
+design,
+and
+has
+benefited
+greatly
+from
+the
+hard
+work
+of
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/">
+RDF
+Core
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/#Membership">
+members
+</a>,
+and
+from
+implementation
+feedback
+from
+many
+members
+of
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/RDF/Interest/">
+RDF
+Interest
+Group
+</a>.
+In
+2013-2014
+Guus
+Schreiber
+edited
+this
+document
+on
+behalf
+of
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+to
+bring
+it
+in
+line
+with
+the
+RDF
+1.1
+specifications.
+</p>
+<p>
+David
+Singer
+of
+IBM
+was
+the
+chair
+of
+the
+original
+RDF
+Schema
+group
+throughout
+most
+of
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification;
+we
+thank
+David
+for
+his
+efforts
+and
+thank
+IBM
+for
+supporting
+him
+and
+us
+in
+this
+endeavor.
+Particular
+thanks
+are
+also
+due
+to
+Andrew
+Layman
+for
+his
+editorial
+work
+on
+early
+versions
+of
+this
+specification.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+original
+RDF
+Schema
+Working
+Group
+membership
+included:
+</p>
+<p>
+Nick
+Arnett
+(Verity),
+Dan
+Brickley
+(ILRT
+/
+University
+of
+Bristol),
+Walter
+Chang
+(Adobe),
+Sailesh
+Chutani
+(Oracle),
+Ron
+Daniel
+(DATAFUSION),
+Charles
+Frankston
+(Microsoft),
+Joe
+Lapp
+(webMethods
+Inc.),
+Patrick
+Gannon
+(CommerceNet),
+RV
+Guha
+(Epinions,
+previously
+of
+Netscape
+Communications),
+Tom
+Hill
+(Apple
+Computer),
+Renato
+Iannella
+(DSTC),
+Sandeep
+Jain
+(Oracle),
+Kevin
+Jones,
+(InterMind),
+Emiko
+Kezuka
+(Digital
+Vision
+Laboratories),
+Ora
+Lassila
+(Nokia
+Research
+Center),
+Andrew
+Layman
+(Microsoft),
+John
+McCarthy
+(Lawrence
+Berkeley
+National
+Laboratory),
+Michael
+Mealling
+(Network
+Solutions),
+Norbert
+Mikula
+(DataChannel),
+Eric
+Miller
+(OCLC),
+Frank
+Olken
+(Lawrence
+Berkeley
+National
+Laboratory),
+Sri
+Raghavan
+(Digital/Compaq),
+Lisa
+Rein
+(webMethods
+Inc.),
+Tsuyoshi
+Sakata
+(Digital
+Vision
+Laboratories),
+Leon
+Shklar
+(Pencom
+Web
+Works),
+David
+Singer
+(IBM),
+Wei
+(William)
+Song
+(SISU),
+Neel
+Sundaresan
+(IBM),
+Ralph
+Swick
+(
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+),
+Naohiko
+Uramoto
+(IBM),
+Charles
+Wicksteed
+(Reuters
+Ltd.),
+Misha
+Wolf
+(Reuters
+Ltd.)
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="PER-changes" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_PER-changes">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Change
+<del class="diff-old">history
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Log
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">B.1
+</del>
+<p>
+Changes
+for
+<ins class="diff-new">RDF
+1.1
+Recommendation
+</ins></p><ul><li><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+changes.
+</ins></li></ul><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Changes
+for
+RDF
+1.1
+</ins>
+Proposed
+Edited
+Recommendation
+<del class="diff-old">in
+2013
+</del>
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Conversion
+to
+<del class="diff-old">ResPec,
+inclduing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ReSpec,
+including
+</ins>
+formatting
+of
+examples
+and
+notes.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Refereces
+and
+anchors
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">References
+</ins>
+to
+RDF
+1.0
+documents
+where
+appropriate
+replaced
+by
+references
+<del class="diff-old">and
+anchors
+</del>
+to
+RDF
+1.1
+documents.
+</li>
+<li>
+Replaced
+the
+term
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;URI
+Reference&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"URI
+Reference"
+</ins>
+with
+the
+term
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;IRI&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"IRI".
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+Removed
+discussion
+about
+distinction
+between
+plain
+and
+typed
+literals,
+as
+this
+distinction
+is
+absent
+in
+RDF
+1.1
+and
+has
+no
+technical
+bearing
+on
+RDF
+Schema.
+</li>
+<li>
+Removed
+the
+introductory
+paragraph
+of
+Sec.
+<a href="#ch_reificationvocab">
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Reification
+Vocabulary&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Reification
+Vocabulary"
+</ins>
+</a>,
+as
+this
+discussion
+is
+not
+related
+to
+the
+technical
+content
+and
+is
+irrelevant
+and
+confusing
+now.
+</li>
+<li>
+Update
+of
+affiliation
+of
+the
+editors.
+</li>
+<li>
+Added
+RDF
+WG
+to
+the
+Acknowledgements
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+Renamed
+the
+document
+from
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"RDF
+</ins>
+Vocabulary
+Description
+Language
+1.0:
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">Schema&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Schema"
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"RDF
+</ins>
+Schema
+<del class="diff-old">1.1&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.1",
+</ins>
+as
+the
+term
+Vocabulary
+Description
+Language
+has
+led
+to
+confusion.
+</li>
+<li>
+Three
+paragraphs
+of
+the
+Introduction
+were
+left
+out.
+These
+paragraphs
+described
+the
+things
+that
+RDF
+Schema
+does
+not
+do
+and
+are
+now
+much
+less
+relevant
+than
+in
+2004.
+</li>
+<li>
+Added
+the
+datatypes
+<code>
+rdf:langString
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Removed
+Appendix
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"RDF
+</ins>
+Schema
+in
+<del class="diff-old">RDF/XML&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF/XML".
+</ins>
+It
+was
+informative,
+but
+now
+out
+of
+date,
+in
+terms
+of
+content
+and
+in
+terms
+of
+syntax.
+</li>
+<li>
+Marked
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+as
+non-normative.
+</li>
+<li>
+Removed
+references
+to
+2004
+Primer
+from
+Secs.
+5.1,
+5.2
+and
+5.4.3.
+In
+the
+latter
+case
+the
+example
+referred
+to
+was
+moved
+into
+this
+document
+for
+readability
+purposes.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<del class="diff-old">B.2
+Changes
+history
+of
+the
+2004
+Recommendation
+The
+following
+is
+an
+outline
+of
+the
+main
+changes
+made
+to
+the
+2004
+specification,
+latest
+first,
+since
+the
+Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+of
+23
+January
+2003
+.
+See
+the
+Last
+Call
+issue
+tracking
+document
+for
+details
+of
+the
+specific
+issues
+raised
+regarding
+this
+specification.
+Amended
+Appendix
+A
+to
+note
+that
+the
+RDF/XML
+description
+of
+RDF
+and
+RDFS
+terms
+is
+not
+directly
+published
+at
+the
+RDFS
+namespace,
+but
+split
+between
+the
+'rdf:'
+and
+'rdfs:'
+namespace
+documents.
+Also
+removed
+the
+pre-REC
+warning
+that
+the
+WG
+might
+choose
+to
+change
+the
+namespace
+URI
+prior
+to
+Recommendation.
+Amended
+rdfs:range
+specification
+for
+rdf:predicate
+for
+consistency
+with
+the
+Semantics
+document
+(previously
+rdf:Property;
+now,
+rdfs:Resource)
+Removed
+reference
+to
+RDF
+mimetypes
+doc,
+as
+the
+IETF
+draft
+has
+expired
+and
+is
+404
+missing
+on
+their
+site.
+Reification
+vocabulary
+redescribed
+(
+details
+).
+Reworded
+rdfs:comment
+for
+rdfs:member,
+changing
+&quot;container&quot;
+to
+&quot;resource&quot;
+Reworded
+lead-in
+to
+Appendix
+A
+per
+0170.html
+.
+OWL
+references
+now
+go
+to
+OWL
+specs
+rather
+than
+WebOnt
+homepage.
+Fixed
+minor
+typos
+per
+0373.html
+)
+Reworded
+rdf:nil
+to
+tone
+down
+the
+imperative
+style.
+Added
+note
+to
+Properties
+section
+warning
+about
+over-use
+of
+sub-property,
+and
+referencing
+OWL,
+an
+editorial
+suggestion
+from
+Bijan
+Parsia.
+(
+details
+).
+Regarding
+pfps-12
+,
+discussion
+led
+to
+rdf:first/rest/List/nil
+rewritten
+per
+Peter
+Patel-Schneider's
+suggestion.
+Change
+to
+description
+of
+subProperty
+and
+subClass,
+to
+match
+changes
+to
+RDF
+Semantics
+.
+See
+discussion
+for
+details.
+Edits
+closing
+'what
+is
+rdf
+schema'
+issue
+by
+clarifying
+that
+RDFS
+is
+a
+semantic
+extension
+of
+RDF,
+as
+defined
+in
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+document.
+This
+closes
+rdfcore
+last
+call
+issue
+pfps-24.
+</del>
+<section class="appendix" id="references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_references">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+References
+</h2>
+<section id="normative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_normative-references">
+<span class="secno">
+C.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</h3>
+<dl class="bibliography" about="">
+<dt id="bib-JSON-LD">
+[JSON-LD]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:requires">
+Manu
+Sporny,
+Gregg
+Kellogg,
+Markus
+<del class="diff-old">Lanthaler.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Lanthaler,
+Editors.
+</ins>
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+<del class="diff-old">.
+5
+November
+2013.
+</del>
+</a>
+</cite>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">16
+January
+2014.
+</ins>
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+</del>
+Recommendation.
+URL:
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-json-ld-20131105/
+.
+The
+latest
+edition
+is
+available
+at
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+[RDF11-CONCEPTS]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:requires">
+Richard
+Cyganiak,
+David
+Wood,
+Markus
+Lanthaler.
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/">
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax.
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">9
+January
+2014.
+</del>
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+Recommendation
+(work
+in
+progress).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation,
+25
+February
+2014.
+</ins>
+URL:
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-rdf11-concepts-20140109/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/
+</ins>
+</a>.
+The
+latest
+edition
+is
+available
+at
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-RDF11-MT">
+[RDF11-MT]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:requires">
+Patrick
+J.
+Hayes,
+Peter
+F.
+Patel-Schneider.
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/">
+RDF
+1.1
+Semantics.
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">9
+January
+2014.
+</del>
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+Recommendation
+(work
+in
+progress).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation,
+25
+February
+2014.
+</ins>
+URL:
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-rdf11-mt-20140109/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/
+</ins>
+</a>.
+The
+latest
+edition
+is
+available
+at
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-TRIG">
+[TRIG]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:requires">
+Gavin
+Carothers,
+Andy
+Seaborne.
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/">
+TriG:
+RDF
+Dataset
+Language
+</a>
+</cite>.
+<del class="diff-old">9
+January
+2014.
+</del>
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+Recommendation
+(work
+in
+progress).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation,
+25
+February
+2014.
+</ins>
+URL:
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-trig-20140109/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/
+</ins>
+</a>.
+The
+latest
+edition
+is
+available
+at
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/trig/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/trig/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-TURTLE">
+[TURTLE]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:requires">
+Eric
+Prud'hommeaux,
+Gavin
+Carothers.
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/">
+RDF
+1.1
+Turtle:
+Terse
+RDF
+Triple
+Language.
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">9
+January
+2014.
+</del>
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Proposed
+Recommendation
+(work
+in
+progress).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Recommendation,
+25
+February
+2014.
+</ins>
+URL:
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-turtle-20140109/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/
+</ins>
+</a>.
+The
+latest
+edition
+is
+available
+at
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_informative-references">
+<span class="secno">
+C.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</h3>
+<dl class="bibliography" about="">
+<dt id="bib-BERNERS-LEE98">
+[BERNERS-LEE98]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:references">
+Tim
+Berners-Lee.
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDFnot.html">
+What
+the
+Semantic
+Web
+can
+represent
+</a>
+</cite>.
+1998.
+URI:
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDFnot.html">
+http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDFnot.html
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">
+[OWL2-OVERVIEW]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:references">
+W3C
+OWL
+Working
+Group.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">
+<cite>
+OWL
+2
+Web
+Ontology
+Language
+Document
+Overview
+(Second
+Edition)
+</cite>
+</a>.
+11
+December
+2012.
+W3C
+Recommendation.
+URL:
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-RDF11-PRIMER">
+[RDF11-PRIMER]
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:references">
+Guus
+Schreiber,
+Yves
+Raimond.
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-primer-20140225/">
+RDF
+1.1
+Primer
+</a>
+</cite>.
+W3C
+Working
+<del class="diff-old">Draft
+(work
+in
+progress),
+17
+December
+2013.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Group
+Note,
+25
+February
+2014.
+</ins>
+The
+latest
+version
+is
+available
+at
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+</section>
+</body>
+</html>
+