update
authorGuus Schreiber <guus.schreiber@vu.nl>
Mon, 03 Feb 2014 14:06:14 +0100
changeset 1789 4c49737b3dfd
parent 1788 84161cd26f19
child 1790 8c6eee5aa641
update
REC-drafts/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/Overview.html
--- a/REC-drafts/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/Overview.html	Mon Feb 03 13:55:57 2014 +0100
+++ b/REC-drafts/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/Overview.html	Mon Feb 03 14:06:14 2014 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,1453 @@
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+<head>
+    <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    <title>RDF Schema 1.1</title>
+    
+    
+    
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+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
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[email protected] print {
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+
+
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-REC" />
+<!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+</head>
+  <body class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument"><div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" /></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 property="dcterms:title" id="title" class="title p-name">RDF Schema 1.1</h1>
+  
+  <h2 content="2014-02-24T23:00:00.000Z" datatype="xsd:dateTime" property="dcterms:issued" id="w3c-recommendation-25-february-2014"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation <time datetime="2014-02-25" class="dt-published">25 February 2014</time></h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/" class="u-url">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-schema-20140225/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Implementation report:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-testcases-20140225">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-testcases-20140225</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210/" rel="dcterms:replaces">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a href="http://danbri.org/" content="Dan Brickley" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">Dan Brickley</a>, Google</span>
+</dd>
+<dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><span class="p-name fn" property="foaf:name">R.V. Guha</span>, Google</span>
+</dd>
+
+    
+    
+      
+        
+          <dt>Previous Editors:</dt>
+          
+             
+                
+                  <dd>
+                    
+                      Brian McBride
+                    
+                  </dd>
+                
+             
+          
+        
+      
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+    <p>
+      Please check the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2014/rdf1.1-errata"><strong>errata</strong></a> for any errors or issues
+      reported since publication.
+    </p>
+  
+  
+    <p>
+      
+        This document is also available in this non-normative format:
+      
+      <a href="diff.html" rel="alternate">diff w.r.t. 2004 Recommendation</a>
+    </p>
+  
+  
+    <p>
+      The English version of this specification is the only normative version. Non-normative
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Translation/">translations</a> may also be available.
+    </p>
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> ©
+        2004-2014
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), 
+        
+        All Rights Reserved.
+        
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        
+          <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a>
+        
+        rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr />
+</div>
+      <section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">Abstract</h2>
+        <p>RDF
+          Schema provides a data-modelling vocabulary for RDF data. RDF Schema
+          is an extension of the basic RDF vocabulary. </p>
+      </section><section class="introductory" id="sotd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication.
+          Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the
+          latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports index</a> at
+          http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+      <p>This document is an edited version of the 2004 RDF
+        Schema Recommendation. The purpose of this revision is to make this
+        document available as part of the RDF 1.1 document set. Changes are
+        limited to errata, revised references, terminology updates, and adaptations to
+        the introduction. The title of the document was changed from &quot;RDF
+        Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema&quot; to &quot;RDF Schema 1.1&quot;.
+        The technical content of the document is unchanged. Details of the changes
+        are listed in the <a href="#PER-changes">Changes</a> section.
+        </p>
+      
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">RDF Working Group</a> as a Recommendation.
+          
+          
+            If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+            <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+            (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+            <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          
+          
+            All comments are welcome.
+          
+        </p>
+        
+          <p>
+            Please see the Working Group's  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-testcases-20140225">implementation
+            report</a>.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/" rel="w3p:patentRules" about="" id="sotd_patent">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent
+            Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a rel="disclosure" href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status">public list of any patent
+              disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes
+            instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent
+            which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential
+            Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_classes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Classes</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_resource" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>rdfs:Resource</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_class" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>rdfs:Class</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>rdfs:Literal</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_datatype" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>rdfs:Datatype</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_langstring" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>rdf:langString</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_html" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.6 </span>rdf:HTML</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_xmlliteral" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>rdf:XMLLiteral</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>rdf:Property</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_properties" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Properties</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_range" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>rdfs:range</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_domain" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>rdfs:domain</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>rdf:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_subclassof" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>rdfs:subClassOf</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_subpropertyof" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>rdfs:subPropertyOf</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>rdfs:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_comment" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>rdfs:comment</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_domainrange" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Using the Domain and Range vocabulary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_othervocab" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Other vocabulary</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_containervocab" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Container Classes and Properties</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_container" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>rdfs:Container</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_bag" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>rdf:Bag</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_seq" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>rdf:Seq</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_alt" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>rdf:Alt</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_member" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>rdfs:member</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_collectionvocab" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>RDF Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_list" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>rdf:List</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_first" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>rdf:first</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_rest" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>rdf:rest</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_nil" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>rdf:nil</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_reificationvocab" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Reification Vocabulary</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_statement" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>rdf:Statement</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_subject" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>rdf:subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_predicate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>rdf:predicate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_object" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>rdf:object</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_utilvocab" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Utility Properties</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_seealso" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>rdfs:seeAlso</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_isdefinedby" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>rdfs:isDefinedBy</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.3 </span>rdf:value</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_summary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>RDF Schema summary</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_sumclasses" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>RDF classes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_sumproperties" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>RDF properties</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ch_acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#PER-changes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes for RDF 1.1 Proposed Edited Recommendation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+      
+
+    <section id="ch_introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_introduction"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+    
+      <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a general-purpose language
+        for
+        representing information in the Web.</p>
+      <p>RDF Schema provides a data-modelling vocabulary for RDF data.
+        It is complemented by several companion documents which
+        describe the basic concepts and abstract stntax of RDF
+        [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>], the formal semantics of RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">RDF11-MT</a></cite>], and
+        various concrete syntaxes for RDF, such as Turtle [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>],
+        TriG, [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>], and JSON-LD [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>]. The RDF Primer
+        [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-PRIMER">RDF11-PRIMER</a></cite>] provides an informal introduction and
+        examples of the use of the concepts specified in this document.</p>
+      <p>This document is intended to provide a clear specification of RDF
+        Schema to those who find the formal semantics
+        specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">RDF11-MT</a></cite>]
+        daunting. Thus, this document duplicates material also specified in the
+        RDF
+        Semantics specification. Where there is disagreement between this
+        document
+        and the RDF Semantics specification, the RDF Semantics specification
+        should
+        be taken to be correct.</p>
+      
+<!--
+<p>RDF properties may be thought of as attributes of resources and inthis sense correspond to traditional attribute-value pairs. RDF
+properties also represent relationships between resources.</p> 
+<p>RDF however, provides no mechanisms for describing these properties, nordoes it provide any mechanisms for describing the relationships between these
+properties and other resources. That is the role of the RDF vocabularydescription language, RDF Schema. RDF Schema defines classes and properties
+that may be used to describe classes, properties and other resources.</p>
+<p>This document does not specify a vocabulary of descriptive properties suchas "author". Instead it specifies mechanisms that may be used to name and
+describe properties and the classes of resource they describe.</p>-->
+
+      <p>
+        RDF Schema is a <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/#semantic-extensions-and-entailment-regimes">semantic
+          extension</a> of RDF. It provides mechanisms for describing groups of
+        related resources and the relationships between these resources. RDF
+        Schema is written in RDF
+        using the terms described in this document. These resources are used to
+        determine characteristics of other resources, such as the <a href="#ch_domain">domains</a>
+        and <a href="#ch_range">ranges</a> of properties.
+      </p>
+      <p>The RDF Schema class and property system is similar to the type
+        systems of object-oriented programming languages such as Java. RDF
+        Schema differs from many such systems in that instead of defining a
+        class in
+        terms of the properties its instances may have, RDF Schema
+        describes properties in terms of the classes of
+        resource to which they apply. This is the role of the <a href="#ch_domain">domain</a>
+        and <a href="#ch_range">range</a>
+        mechanisms described in this specification. For example, we could
+        define the <code>eg:author</code> property to have a domain of <code>eg:Document</code>
+        and a range of
+        <code>eg:Person</code>, whereas a classical object oriented system might
+        typically define a class <code>eg:Book</code> with an attribute called
+        <code>eg:author</code> of type <code>eg:Person</code>. Using the RDF
+        approach, it is easy for others to subsequently define additional
+        properties with a domain of eg:<code>Document</code> or a range of
+        <code>eg:Person</code>. This can be done without the need to re-define
+        the original description of
+        these classes. One benefit of the RDF property-centric approach is that
+        it
+        allows anyone to extend the description of existing resources, one of
+        the
+        architectural principles of the Web [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-BERNERS-LEE98">BERNERS-LEE98</a></cite>].</p>
+      <p>This specification does not attempt to enumerate all the possible forms
+        of
+        representing the meaning of RDF
+        classes and properties. Instead, the RDF Schema strategy is
+        to acknowledge that there are many techniques through which the meaning
+        of
+        classes and properties can be described. Richer vocabulary or 'ontology'
+        languages such as OWL [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>], inference rule
+        languages and other formalisms (for example temporal logics) will each
+        contribute to our ability to capture meaningful generalizations about
+        data in
+        the Web.
+        
+<!--
+RDF vocabulary designers can create and deploy Semantic Webapplications using the RDF Schema facilities,
+while exploring richer languages that share thisgeneral approach.
+-->
+</p>
+      <p>The language defined in this specification consists of a collection of
+        RDF resources that can be used to describe other RDF resources in
+        application-specific RDF vocabularies. The core vocabulary is defined in
+        a namespace informally called <code>rdfs</code> here. That namespace is
+        identified by the IRI</p>
+      <blockquote>
+        <code>http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#</code>
+      </blockquote>
+      and is conventionally associated with the prefix <code>rdfs:</code>. This
+      specification also uses the prefix
+      <code>rdf:</code> to refer to the RDF namespace
+      <p></p>
+      <blockquote>
+        <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</code>
+      </blockquote>
+      <p>For convenience and readability, this specification uses an abbreviated
+        form to represent IRIs. A name of the form prefix:suffix should be
+        interpreted as a IRI consisting of the IRI associated
+        with the prefix concatenated with the suffix.</p>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ch_classes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_classes"><span class="secno">2. </span>Classes</h2>
+      <p>Resources may be divided into groups called classes. The members of a
+        class are known as <em>instances</em> of the class. Classes are
+        themselves
+        resources. They are often identified by <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-IRIs">IRIs</a>
+        and
+        may be described using RDF properties. The <code><a href="#ch_type">rdf:type</a></code>
+        property may be used to state that a
+        resource is an instance of a class.</p>
+      <p>RDF distinguishes between a class and the set of its instances.
+        Associated
+        with each class is a set, called the class extension of the class, which
+        is
+        the set of the instances of the class. Two classes may have the same set
+        of
+        instances but be different classes. For example, the tax office may
+        define
+        the class of people living at the same address as the editor of this
+        document. The Post Office may define the class of people whose address
+        has
+        the same zip code as the address of the author. It is possible for these
+        classes to have exactly the same instances, yet to have different
+        properties.
+        Only one of the classes has the property that it was defined by the tax
+        office, and only the other has the property that it was defined by the
+        Post
+        Office.</p>
+      <p>A class may be a member of its own class extension and may be an
+        instance of itself. </p>
+      <p>The group of resources that are RDF Schema classes is itself a class
+        called <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.</p>
+      <p id="def-subclass">
+        If a class C is a <em>subclass</em> of a class C', then all instances
+        of C will
+        also be instances of C'. The <a href="#ch_subclassof"><code>rdfs:subClassOf</code></a>
+        property may be used to state that one class is a subclass of another.
+        The term super-class is used as the inverse of subclass. If a class C'
+        is a super-class of a class C, then all instances of C are also
+        instances of C'.
+      </p>
+      <p>The RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>] specification
+        defines the RDF concept of an <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Datatypes">RDF
+          datatype</a>. All datatypes are classes. The instances of a class that
+        is a
+        datatype are the members of the value space of the datatype.</p>
+      <section id="ch_resource" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_resource"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>rdfs:Resource</h3>
+        <p>All things described by RDF are called <em>resources</em>, and are
+          instances of the class <code>rdfs:Resource</code>. This is the class
+          of
+          everything. All other classes are <a href="#def-subclass">subclasses</a>
+          of
+          this class. <code>rdfs:Resource</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_class" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_class"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>rdfs:Class</h3>
+        <p>This is the class of resources that are RDF classes.
+          <code>rdfs:Class</code> is an instance of <code>rdfs:Class.</code></p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_literal"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>rdfs:Literal</h3>
+        <p>The class <code>rdfs:Literal</code> is the class of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Graph-Literal">literal</a>
+          values such as strings and integers. Property values such as textual
+          strings are examples of RDF literals.</p>
+        <p><code>rdfs:Literal</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.
+          rdfs:Literal is a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of <a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_datatype" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_datatype"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>rdfs:Datatype</h3>
+        <p><code>rdfs:Datatype</code> is the class of datatypes. All instances
+          of
+          <code>rdfs:Datatype</code> correspond to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Datatypes">RDF
+model
+            of a datatype</a> described in the RDF Concepts specification
+          [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>].
+          <code>rdfs:Datatype</code> is
+          both an instance of and a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>. Each instance of <code>rdfs:Datatype</code>
+          is a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of rdfs:Literal.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_langstring" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_langstring"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>rdf:langString</h3>
+        <p>The class <code>rdf:langString</code> is the class of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tagged-string">language-tagged
+            string values</a>. <code>rdf:langString</code> is an instance of
+          <code>rdfs:Datatype</code> and a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a>
+          of <a href="#ch_literal"><code>rdfs:Literal</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section class="informative" id="ch_html" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_html"><span class="secno">2.6 </span>rdf:HTML</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <p>The class <code>rdf:HTML</code> is the class of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-html">HTML
+literal
+            values</a>. <code>rdf:HTML</code> is an instance of
+          <code>rdfs:Datatype</code> and a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a>
+          of <a href="#ch_literal"><code>rdfs:Literal</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section class="informative" id="ch_xmlliteral" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_xmlliteral"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>rdf:XMLLiteral</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <p>The class <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> is the class of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-XMLLiteral">XML
+literal
+            values</a>. <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> is an instance of
+          <code>rdfs:Datatype</code> and a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a>
+          of <a href="#ch_literal"><code>rdfs:Literal</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_property" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_property"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>rdf:Property</h3>
+        <p><code>rdf:Property</code> is the class of RDF properties.
+          <code>rdf:Property</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ch_properties" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_properties"><span class="secno">3. </span>Properties</h2>
+      <p>The RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]
+        describes the concept of an RDF property as a relation between subject
+        resources and object resources.</p>
+      <p id="def-subproperty">
+        This specification defines the concept of subproperty. The <a href="#ch_subclassof"><code>rdfs:subPropertyOf</code></a>
+        property may be used to state that one property is a subproperty of
+        another.
+        If a property P is a subproperty of property P', then all pairs of
+        resources which are related by P are also related by P'. The term
+        super-property is often
+        used as the inverse of subproperty. If a property P' is a super-property
+        of a property P, then all pairs of resources which are related by P are
+        also related by P'. This specification does not define a top
+        property that is the super-property of all properties.
+      </p>
+      <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_1"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">
+        The basic facilities provided by <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a>
+        and <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> do not provide any
+        direct way to indicate property restrictions that are local to a class.
+        Although it is possible to combine use <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a>
+        and <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> with sub-property
+        hierarchies, direct support for such declarations are provided by richer
+        Web Ontology languages such as OWL [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>].
+      </p></div>
+      <section id="ch_range" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_range"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>rdfs:range</h3>
+        <p><code>rdfs:range</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+          that is used to state that
+          the values of a property are instances of one or more classes.</p>
+        <p>The triple</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>P rdfs:range C</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that P is an instance of the class <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>,
+          that C is an instance of the class <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>
+          and that the resources denoted by the objects of triples whose
+          predicate is P are instances of the class C.</p>
+        <p>Where P has more than one rdfs:range property, then the resources
+          denoted by the objects of triples with predicate P are instances of
+          all the classes stated by the <code>rdfs:range</code> properties.</p>
+        <p>The <code>rdfs:range</code> property can be applied to itself. The
+          rdfs:range of <code>rdfs:range</code> is the class <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.
+          This states that any resource
+          that is the value of an <code>rdfs:range</code> property is an
+          instance of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.</p>
+        <p>The <code>rdfs:range</code> property is applied to properties. This
+          can be represented in RDF using the <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a>
+          property. The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of <code>rdfs:range</code>
+          is
+          the class <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>. This
+          states
+          that any resource with an <code>rdfs:range</code> property is an
+          instance of
+          <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_domain" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_domain"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>rdfs:domain</h3>
+        <p><code>rdfs:domain</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+          that is used to state that
+          any resource that has a given property is an instance of one or more
+          classes.</p>
+        <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>P rdfs:domain C</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that P is an instance of the class <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>,
+          that C is a instance of the class <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></code>
+          and that the resources denoted by the subjects of triples whose
+          predicate is P are instances of the class C.</p>
+        <p>Where a property P has more than one rdfs:domain property, then the
+          resources denoted by subjects of triples with predicate P are
+          instances of all the classes stated by the <code>rdfs:domain</code>
+          properties.</p>
+        <p>The <code>rdfs:domain</code> property may be applied to itself. The
+          rdfs:domain of <code>rdfs:domain</code> is the class <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>.
+          This states that any
+          resource with an <code>rdfs:domain</code> property is an instance of
+          <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>.</p>
+        <p>The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of
+          <code>rdfs:domain</code> is the class <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></code>.
+          This states that any resource that is the value of an <code>rdfs:domain</code>
+          property is an
+          instance of <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></code>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_type" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_type"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>rdf:type</h3>
+        <p><code>rdf:type</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+          that is used to
+          state that a resource is an instance of a class.</p>
+        <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>R rdf:type C</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that C is an instance of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>
+          and R is an instance of C.</p>
+        <p>The <code><a href="#ch_domain">rdfs:domain</a></code> of
+          <code>rdf:type</code> is <a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a>.
+          The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of rdf:type is <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_subclassof" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_subclassof"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>rdfs:subClassOf</h3>
+        <p>The property <code>rdfs:subClassOf</code> is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code> that is used to state
+          that all the instances of one class are instances of another.</p>
+        <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>C1 rdfs:subClassOf C2</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that C1 is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></code>,
+          C2 is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></code>
+          and C1 is a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of C2. The <code>rdfs:subClassOf</code>
+          property is transitive.</p>
+        <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+          <code>rdfs:subClassOf</code> is <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></code>.
+          The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of <code>rdfs:subClassOf</code>
+          is <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_subpropertyof" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_subpropertyof"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>rdfs:subPropertyOf</h3>
+        <p>The property <code>rdfs:subPropertyOf</code> is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code> that is used to state
+          that all resources related by one property are also related by
+          another.</p>
+        <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>P1 rdfs:subPropertyOf P2</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that P1 is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>,
+          P2 is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>
+          and P1 is a <a href="#def-subproperty">subproperty</a> of P2. The
+          <code>rdfs:subPropertyOf</code> property is transitive.</p>
+        <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+          <code>rdfs:subPropertyOf</code> is <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>.
+          The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of
+          rdfs:subPropertyOf is <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_label" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_label"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>rdfs:label</h3>
+        <p><code>rdfs:label</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+          that may be used to provide a human-readable version of a resource's
+          name.</p>
+        <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>R rdfs:label L</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that L is a human readable label for R.</p>
+        <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+          <code>rdfs:label</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+          The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of rdfs:label is
+          <a href="#ch_literal"><code>rdfs:Literal</code></a>.</p>
+        <p>Multilingual labels are supported using the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Graph-Literal">language
+            tagging</a> facility of RDF literals.</p>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_comment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_comment"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>rdfs:comment</h3>
+        <p><code>rdfs:comment</code> is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>
+          that may be used to provide a human-readable description of a
+          resource.</p>
+        <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+        <blockquote> <code>R rdfs:comment L</code>
+        </blockquote>
+        <p>states that L is a human readable description of R.</p>
+        <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+          <code>rdfs:comment</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+          The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of rdfs:comment
+          is <a href="#ch_literal"><code>rdfs:Literal</code></a>.</p>
+        <p>A textual comment helps clarify the meaning of RDF classes and
+          properties.
+          Such in-line documentation complements the use of both formal
+          techniques
+          (Ontology and rule languages) and informal (prose documentation,
+          examples,
+          test cases). A variety of documentation forms can be combined to
+          indicate the
+          intended meaning of the classes and properties described in an RDF
+          vocabulary. Since RDF vocabularies are expressed as RDF graphs,
+          vocabularies
+          defined in other namespaces may be used to provide richer
+          documentation.</p>
+        <p>Multilingual documentation is supported through use of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-Graph-Literal">language
+            tagging</a> facility of RDF literals.</p>
+      </section>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ch_domainrange" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_domainrange"><span class="secno">4. </span>Using the Domain and Range vocabulary</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>This specification introduces an RDF vocabulary for describing the
+        meaningful use of properties and classes in RDF data. For example, an
+        RDF
+        vocabulary might describe limitations on the types of values that are
+        appropriate for some property, or on the classes to which it makes sense
+        to
+        ascribe such properties.</p>
+      <p>RDF Schema provides a mechanism for describing this information, but
+        does not say whether or how an application should use it. For example,
+        while an RDF vocabulary can assert that an <code>author</code> property
+        is used to
+        indicate resources that are instances of the class <code>Person</code>,
+        it
+        does not say whether or how an application should act in processing that
+        range information. Different applications will use this information in
+        different ways. For example, data checking tools might use this to help
+        discover errors in some data set, an interactive editor might suggest
+        appropriate values, and a reasoning application might use it to infer
+        additional information from instance data.</p>
+      <p>RDF vocabularies can describe relationships between vocabulary items
+        from
+        multiple independently developed vocabularies. Since IRIs are used
+        to identify classes and properties on the Web, it is possible to create
+        new
+        properties that have a <code>domain</code> or <code>range</code> whose
+        value
+        is a class defined in another namespace.</p>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ch_othervocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_othervocab"><span class="secno">5. </span>Other vocabulary</h2>
+      <p>Additional classes and properties, including constructs for
+        representing
+        containers and RDF statements, and for deploying RDF vocabulary
+        descriptions
+        in the World Wide Web, are defined in this section.</p>
+      <section class="informative" id="ch_containervocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_containervocab"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Container Classes and Properties</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <p>RDF containers are resources that are used to represent collections.
+          The same resource may appear in a container more than
+          once. Unlike containment in the physical world, a container may be
+          contained in itself.</p>
+        <p>Three different kinds of container are defined. Whilst the formal
+          semantics [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">RDF11-MT</a></cite>] of all three classes of container are
+          identical,
+          different classes may be used to indicate informally further
+          information. An rdf:Bag is used to indicate that the container is
+          intended to be unordered. An rdf:Seq is used to indicate that the
+          order indicated by the numerical order of the <a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">container
+            membership properties</a>
+          of the container is intended to be significant. An rdf:Alt container
+          is used
+          to indicate that typical processing of the container will be to select
+          one of
+          the members.</p>
+        <p>Just as a hen house may have the property that it is made of wood,
+          that
+          does not mean that all the hens it contains are made of wood, a
+          property of a
+          container is not necessarily a property of all of its members.</p>
+        <p>RDF containers are defined by the following classes and properties.</p>
+        <section id="ch_container" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_container"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>rdfs:Container</h4>
+          <p>The <code>rdfs:Container</code> class is a super-class of the RDF
+            Container classes, i.e. <code><a href="#ch_bag">rdf:Bag</a></code>,
+            <code><a href="#ch_seq">rdf:Seq</a></code>, <code><a href="#ch_alt">rdf:Alt</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_bag" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_bag"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>rdf:Bag</h4>
+          <p>The <code>rdf:Bag</code> class is the class of RDF 'Bag'
+            containers. It is
+            a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of <code><a href="#ch_container">rdfs:Container</a></code>.
+            Whilst formally it is no
+            different from an <code><a href="#ch_seq">rdf:Seq</a></code> or an
+            <code><a href="#ch_alt">rdf:Alt</a></code>, the <code>rdf:Bag</code>
+            class is used
+            conventionally to indicate to a human reader that the container is
+            intended
+            to be unordered.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_seq" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_seq"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>rdf:Seq</h4>
+          <p>The <code>rdf:Seq</code> class is the class of RDF 'Sequence'
+            containers.
+            It is a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of <code><a href="#ch_container">rdfs:Container</a></code>.
+            Whilst formally it is no
+            different from an <code><a href="#ch_bag">rdf:Bag</a></code> or an
+            <code><a href="#ch_alt">rdf:Alt</a></code>, the <code>rdf:Seq</code>
+            class is used
+            conventionally to indicate to a human reader that the numerical
+            ordering of
+            the <a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">container membership
+              properties</a> of the container is intended to be significant.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_alt" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_alt"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>rdf:Alt</h4>
+          <p>The <code>rdf:Alt</code> class is the class of RDF 'Alternative'
+            containers. It is a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a> of <code><a href="#ch_container">rdfs:Container</a></code>. Whilst formally
+            it is no
+            different from an <code><a href="#ch_seq">rdf:Seq</a></code> or an
+            <code><a href="#ch_bag">rdf:Bag</a></code>, the <code>rdf:Alt</code>
+            class is used
+            conventionally to indicate to a human reader that typical processing
+            will be
+            to select one of the members of the container. The first member of
+            the
+            container, i.e. the value of the <code><a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">rdf:_1</a></code>
+            property, is the
+            default choice.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_containermembershipproperty" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_containermembershipproperty"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</h4>
+          <p>The <code>rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</code> class has as
+            instances
+            the properties <code>rdf:_1, rdf:_2, rdf:_3 ...</code> that are
+            used to state
+            that a resource is a member of a container.
+            <code>rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</code> is a <a href="#def-subclass">subclass</a>
+            of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>. Each
+            instance of
+            <code>rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</code> is an <a href="#ch_subpropertyof"><code>rdfs:subPropertyOf</code></a>
+            the <code><a href="#ch_member">rdfs:member</a></code> property.</p>
+          <p>Given a container C, a triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>C rdf:_nnn O</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>where <code>nnn</code> is the decimal representation of an integer
+            greater than 0 with
+            no leading zeros, states that O is a member of the container C.</p>
+          <p>Container membership properties may be applied to resources other
+            than containers.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_member" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_member"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>rdfs:member</h4>
+          <p><code>rdfs:member</code> is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>
+            that is a super-property of all
+            the container membership properties i.e. each container membership
+            property
+            has an <a href="#ch_subpropertyof"><code>rdfs:subPropertyOf</code></a>
+            relationship to the property <code>rdfs:member</code>.</p>
+          <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+            <code>rdfs:member</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+            The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of <code>rdfs:member</code>
+            is
+            <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+      </section>
+      <section class="informative" id="ch_collectionvocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_collectionvocab"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>RDF Collections</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <p>RDF containers are open in the sense that the core RDF specifications
+          define no mechanism to state that there are no more members. The RDF
+          Collection vocabulary of classes and properties can describe a closed
+          collection, i.e. one that can have no more members.</p>
+        <p>A collection is represented as a list of items, a representation that
+          will be familiar to those with experience of Lisp and similar
+          programming languages. There is a <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/#collections">shorthand
+            notation</a> in the Turtle syntax specification for representing
+          collections.</p>
+        <div class="note"><div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">
+          RDFS does not require that there be only one first element of a
+          list-like structure, or even that a list-like structure have a first
+          element.
+        </p></div>
+        <section id="ch_list" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_list"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>rdf:List</h4>
+          <p><code>rdf:List</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_class"><code>rdfs:Class</code></a>
+            that can be used to build descriptions of lists and other list-like
+            structures.
+          </p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_first" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_first"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>rdf:first</h4>
+          <p><code>rdf:first</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that can be used to build descriptions of lists and other list-like
+            structures.
+          </p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>L rdf:first O</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that there is a first-element relationship between L and O.</p>
+          <p>
+            The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of <code>rdf:first</code>
+            is <code><a href="#ch_list">rdf:List</a></code>. The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a>
+            of <code>rdf:first</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+          </p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_rest" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_rest"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>rdf:rest</h4>
+          <p><code>rdf:rest</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that can be used to build descriptions of lists and other list-like
+            structures.
+          </p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>L rdf:rest O</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that there is a rest-of-list relationship between L and O.</p>
+          <p>
+            The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of <code>rdf:rest</code>
+            is <code><a href="#ch_list">rdf:List</a></code>. The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a>
+            of <code>rdf:rest</code> is <code><a href="#ch_list">rdf:List</a></code>.
+          </p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_nil" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_nil"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>rdf:nil</h4>
+          <p>The resource <code>rdf:nil</code> is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_list">rdf:List</a></code>
+            that can be used to represent an empty list or other list-like
+            structure.</p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>L rdf:rest rdf:nil</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that L is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_list">rdf:List</a></code>
+            that has one item; that item can be indicated using the <code><a href="#ch_first">rdf:first</a></code>
+            property.</p>
+        </section>
+      </section>
+      <section class="informative" id="ch_reificationvocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_reificationvocab"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Reification Vocabulary</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        
+<!--
+<p>The 1999 RDF Model and Syntax Specification [[RDFMS]] defined a vocabulary for describing RDF statements without stating them. 
+The 2004 RDF specification did not assign a normative formal semantics to this vocabulary.  However, an intended meaning of 
+this vocabulary (which generally clarifies the intent of the RDFMS definition) is described here.
+An informal introduction to the reification vocabulary, with examples, may be found in the <a
+href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/#reification">RDF2004 primer</a>.
+</p>-->
+
+        <section id="ch_statement" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_statement"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>rdf:Statement</h4>
+          <p><code>rdf:Statement</code> is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class.</a></code>
+            It is intended to represent the class of RDF statements. An RDF
+            statement is the statement made by a token of an RDF triple. The
+            subject of an RDF statement is the instance of <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>
+            identified by the subject of the triple. The predicate of an RDF
+            statement is the instance of <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code>
+            identified by the predicate of the triple. The object of an RDF
+            statement is the instance of <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>
+            identified by the object of the triple.
+            <code>rdf:Statement</code> is in the domain of the properties <code><a href="#ch_predicate">rdf:predicate</a></code>, <code><a href="#ch_subject">rdf:subject</a></code>
+            and <code><a href="#ch_object">rdf:object</a></code>. Different
+            individual <code>rdf:Statement</code> instances may have the same
+            values for their <code><a href="#ch_predicate">rdf:predicate</a></code>,
+            <code><a href="#ch_subject">rdf:subject</a></code>
+            and <code><a href="#ch_object">rdf:object</a></code> properties.
+          </p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_subject" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_subject"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>rdf:subject</h4>
+          <p><code>rdf:subject</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that is used to state the
+            subject of a statement.</p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>S rdf:subject R</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that S is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></code>
+            and that the subject of S is
+            R.</p>
+          <p class="schemacomment">The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a>
+            of <code>rdf:subject</code> is
+            <code><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></code>. The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a>
+            of <code>rdf:subject</code> is
+            <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_predicate" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_predicate"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>rdf:predicate</h4>
+          <p>rdf:predicate is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that is used to state the
+            predicate of a statement.</p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>S rdf:predicate P</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that S is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></code>,
+            that P is an instance of
+            <code><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></code> and that the
+            predicate
+            of S is P.</p>
+          <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+            <code>rdf:predicate</code> is <code><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></code>
+            and the <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> is <a href="#ch_resource"><code>rdfs:Resource</code></a>.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_object" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_object"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>rdf:object</h4>
+          <p>rdf:object is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that is used to state the
+            object of a statement.</p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>S rdf:object O</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that S is an instance of <code><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></code>
+            and that the object of S is
+            O.</p>
+          <p>The <a href="#ch_domain"><code>rdfs:domain</code></a> of
+            <code>rdf:object</code> is <code><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></code>.
+            The <a href="#ch_range"><code>rdfs:range</code></a> of <code>rdf:object</code>
+            is
+            <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_utilvocab" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_utilvocab"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Utility Properties</h3>
+        <p>The following utility classes and properties are defined in the RDF
+          core
+          namespaces.</p>
+        <section id="ch_seealso" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_seealso"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>rdfs:seeAlso</h4>
+          <p><code>rdfs:seeAlso</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that is used to indicate a
+            resource that might provide additional information about the subject
+            resource.</p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>S rdfs:seeAlso O</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that the resource O may provide additional information about
+            S. It
+            may be possible to retrieve representations of O from the Web, but
+            this is
+            not required. When such representations may be retrieved, no
+            constraints are
+            placed on the format of those representations.</p>
+          <p>The <code><a href="#ch_domain">rdfs:domain</a></code> of
+            <code>rdfs:seeAlso</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+            The <code><a href="#ch_range">rdfs:range</a></code> of <code>rdfs:seeAlso</code>
+            is
+            <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_isdefinedby" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_isdefinedby"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>rdfs:isDefinedBy</h4>
+          <p><code>rdfs:isDefinedBy</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that is used to indicate a
+            resource defining the subject resource. This property may be used to
+            indicate
+            an RDF vocabulary in which a resource is described.</p>
+          <p>A triple of the form:</p>
+          <blockquote> <code>S rdfs:isDefinedBy O</code>
+          </blockquote>
+          <p>states that the resource O defines S. It may be possible to
+            retrieve
+            representations of O from the Web, but this is not required. When
+            such
+            representations may be retrieved, no constraints are placed on the
+            format of
+            those representations. <code>rdfs:isDefinedBy</code> is a <a href="#def-subproperty">subproperty</a>
+            of <code><a href="#ch_seealso">rdfs:seeAlso</a></code>.</p>
+          <p>The <code><a href="#ch_domain">rdfs:domain</a></code> of
+            <code>rdfs:isDefinedBy</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+            The <code><a href="#ch_range">rdfs:range</a></code> of <code>rdfs:isDefinedBy</code>
+            is
+            <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+        <section id="ch_value" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+          <h4 aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h4_ch_value"><span class="secno">5.4.3 </span>rdf:value</h4>
+          <p><code>rdf:value</code> is an instance of <a href="#ch_property"><code>rdf:Property</code></a>
+            that may be used in
+            describing structured values.</p>
+          <p>rdf:value has no meaning on its own. It is provided as a piece of
+            vocabulary that may be used in idioms such as illustrated
+            in example below:</p>
+          <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span></div><pre class="example">&lt;http://www.example.com/2002/04/products#item10245&gt;
+    &lt;http://www.example.org/terms/weight&gt; [
+       rdf:value 2.4 ;
+       &lt;http://www.example.org/terms/units&gt; &lt;http://www.example.org/units/kilograms&gt;
+       ] .</pre></div>
+            <p>Despite
+            the lack of formal specification of the meaning of this property,
+            there is
+            value in defining it to encourage the use of a common idiom in
+            examples of
+            this kind.</p>
+          <p>The <code><a href="#ch_domain">rdfs:domain</a></code> of
+            <code>rdf:value</code> is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.
+            The <code><a href="#ch_range">rdfs:range</a></code> of <code>rdf:value</code>
+            is <code><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></code>.</p>
+        </section>
+      </section>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ch_summary" class="informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_summary"><span class="secno">6. </span>RDF Schema summary</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>The tables in this section provide an overview of the RDF Schema vocabulary.</p>
+      
+<!-- of RDF, drawing together
+        vocabulary originally defined in the RDF Model and Syntax
+        specification [[RDFMS]] with
+        classes and properties that originate with RDF Schema.
+      -->
+
+      <section id="ch_sumclasses" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_sumclasses"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>RDF classes</h3>
+        <table border="1">
+          <tbody>
+            <tr>
+              <th>Class name</th>
+              <th>comment</th>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_resource">rdfs:Resource</a></td>
+              <td>The class resource, everything.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_literal">rdfs:Literal</a></td>
+              <td>The class of literal values, e.g. textual strings and
+                integers.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_langstring">rdf:langString</a></td>
+              <td>The class of language-tagged string literal values.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_html">rdf:HTML</a></td>
+              <td>The class of HTML literal values.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></td>
+              <td>The class of XML literal values.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_class">rdfs:Class</a></td>
+              <td>The class of classes.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_property">rdf:Property</a></td>
+              <td>The class of RDF properties.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_datatype">rdfs:Datatype</a></td>
+              <td>The class of RDF datatypes.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_statement">rdf:Statement</a></td>
+              <td>The class of RDF statements.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_bag">rdf:Bag</a></td>
+              <td>The class of unordered containers.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_seq">rdf:Seq</a></td>
+              <td>The class of ordered containers.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_alt">rdf:Alt</a></td>
+              <td>The class of containers of alternatives.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_container">rdfs:Container</a></td>
+              <td>The class of RDF containers.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_containermembershipproperty">rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</a></td>
+              <td>The class of container membership properties, rdf:_1, rdf:_2,
+                ..., all of which are sub-properties of 'member'.</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_list">rdf:List</a></td>
+              <td>The class of RDF Lists.</td>
+            </tr>
+          </tbody>
+        </table>
+      </section>
+      <section id="ch_sumproperties" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_ch_sumproperties"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>RDF properties</h3>
+        <table border="1">
+          <tbody>
+            <tr>
+              <th>Property name</th>
+              <th>comment</th>
+              <th>domain</th>
+              <th>range</th>
+            </tr> <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_type">rdf:type</a></td>
+              <td>The subject is an instance of a class.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Class</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_subclassof">rdfs:subClassOf</a></td>
+              <td>The subject is a subclass of a class.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Class</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Class</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_subpropertyof">rdfs:subPropertyOf</a></td>
+              <td>The subject is a subproperty of a property.</td>
+              <td>rdf:Property</td>
+              <td>rdf:Property</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_domain">rdfs:domain</a></td>
+              <td>A domain of the subject property.</td>
+              <td>rdf:Property</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Class</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_range">rdfs:range</a></td>
+              <td>A range of the subject property.</td>
+              <td>rdf:Property</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Class</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_label">rdfs:label</a></td>
+              <td>A human-readable name for the subject.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Literal</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_comment">rdfs:comment</a></td>
+              <td>A description of the subject resource.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Literal</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_member">rdfs:member</a></td>
+              <td>A member of the subject resource.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_first">rdf:first</a></td>
+              <td>The first item in the subject RDF list.</td>
+              <td>rdf:List</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_rest">rdf:rest</a></td>
+              <td>The rest of the subject RDF list after the first item.</td>
+              <td>rdf:List</td>
+              <td>rdf:List</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_seealso">rdfs:seeAlso</a></td>
+              <td>Further information about the subject resource.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_isdefinedby">rdfs:isDefinedBy</a></td>
+              <td>The definition of the subject resource.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_value">rdf:value</a></td>
+              <td>Idiomatic property used for structured values.</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_subject">rdf:subject</a></td>
+              <td>The subject of the subject RDF statement.</td>
+              <td>rdf:Statement</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_predicate">rdf:predicate</a></td>
+              <td>The predicate of the subject RDF statement.</td>
+              <td>rdf:Statement</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+            <tr>
+              <td><a href="#ch_object">rdf:object</a></td>
+              <td>The object of the subject RDF statement.</td>
+              <td>rdf:Statement</td>
+              <td>rdfs:Resource</td>
+            </tr>
+          </tbody>
+        </table>
+        <p>In addition to these classes and properties, RDF also uses properties
+          called <code>rdf:_1</code>, <code>rdf:_2</code>, <code>rdf:_3</code>...
+          etc.,
+          each of which is both a sub-property of <code>rdfs:member</code> and
+          an
+          instance of the class <code>rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty</code>.
+          There is
+          also an instance of <code>rdf:List</code> called <code>rdf:nil</code>
+          that is
+          an empty <code>rdf:List</code>.</p>
+      </section>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ch_acknowledgements" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+      
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_ch_acknowledgements"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgments</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+      <p>The RDF Schema design was originally produced by the RDF Schema Working
+        Group (1997-2000). The current specification is largely an editorial
+        clarification of that design, and has benefited greatly from the hard
+        work of
+        the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/">RDF Core Working Group</a>
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/#Membership">members</a>, and
+        from
+        implementation feedback from many members of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/RDF/Interest/">RDF
+          Interest Group</a>. In
+        2013-2014 Guus Schreiber edited this document on behalf of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">RDF
+          Working Group</a>
+        to bring it in line with the RDF 1.1 specifications. </p>
+      <p>David Singer of IBM was the chair of the original RDF Schema group
+        throughout most of the development of this specification; we thank David
+        for
+        his efforts and thank IBM for supporting him and us in this endeavor.
+        Particular thanks are also due to Andrew Layman for his editorial work
+        on
+        early versions of this specification.</p>
+      <p>The original RDF Schema Working Group membership included:</p>
+      <p>Nick Arnett (Verity), Dan Brickley (ILRT / University of Bristol),
+        Walter
+        Chang (Adobe), Sailesh Chutani (Oracle), Ron Daniel (DATAFUSION),
+        Charles
+        Frankston (Microsoft), Joe Lapp (webMethods Inc.), Patrick Gannon
+        (CommerceNet), RV Guha (Epinions, previously of Netscape
+        Communications), Tom
+        Hill (Apple Computer), Renato Iannella (DSTC), Sandeep Jain (Oracle),
+        Kevin
+        Jones, (InterMind), Emiko Kezuka (Digital Vision Laboratories), Ora
+        Lassila
+        (Nokia Research Center), Andrew Layman (Microsoft), John McCarthy
+        (Lawrence
+        Berkeley National Laboratory), Michael Mealling (Network Solutions),
+        Norbert
+        Mikula (DataChannel), Eric Miller (OCLC), Frank Olken (Lawrence Berkeley
+        National Laboratory), Sri Raghavan (Digital/Compaq), Lisa Rein
+        (webMethods
+        Inc.), Tsuyoshi Sakata (Digital Vision Laboratories), Leon Shklar
+        (Pencom Web
+        Works), David Singer (IBM), Wei (William) Song (SISU), Neel Sundaresan
+        (IBM),
+        Ralph Swick (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>), Naohiko Uramoto (IBM), Charles Wicksteed (Reuters
+        Ltd.),
+        Misha Wolf (Reuters Ltd.)</p>
+    </section>
+    <section id="PER-changes" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+        
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_PER-changes"><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes for RDF 1.1 Proposed Edited Recommendation</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+        <ul>
+          <li>Conversion to ResPec, inclduing formatting of examples and notes.</li>
+          <li>Refereces and anchors to RDF 1.0 documents where appropriate
+            replaced by references and anchors to RDF 1.1 documents.</li>
+          <li>Replaced the term &quot;URI Reference&quot; with the term &quot;IRI&quot;. </li>
+          <li>Removed discussion about distinction between plain and typed
+            literals, as this distinction is absent in RDF 1.1 and has no
+            technical bearing on RDF Schema.</li>
+          <li>Removed the introductory paragraph of Sec. <a href="#ch_reificationvocab">&quot;Reification
+              Vocabulary&quot;</a>, as this discussion is not related to the
+            technical content and is irrelevant and confusing now. </li>
+          <li>Update of affiliation of the editors. </li>
+          <li>Added RDF WG to the Acknowledgements section.</li>
+          <li>Renamed the document from &quot;RDF Vocabulary Description Language
+            1.0: RDF Schema&quot; to &quot;RDF Schema 1.1&quot;, as the term Vocabulary
+            Description Language has led to confusion.</li>
+          <li>Three paragraphs of the Introduction were left out. These
+            paragraphs described the things that RDF Schema does not do and are
+            now much less relevant than in 2004. </li>
+          <li>Added the datatypes <code>rdf:langString</code> and <code>rdf:HTML</code>.
+          </li>
+          <li>Removed Appendix &quot;RDF Schema in RDF/XML&quot;. It was informative, but
+            now out of date, in terms of content and in terms of
+        syntax.</li>
+	  <li>Marked <code>rdf:HTML</code> and <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code>
+        as non-normative.</li>
+	  <li>Removed references to 2004 Primer from Secs. 5.1, 5.2
+        and 5.4.3. In the latter case the example referred to was
+        moved into this document for readability purposes. </li> 
+        </ul>
+    </section>
+
+  
+
+<section class="appendix" id="references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<!--OddPage-->
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_references"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_normative-references"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler, Editors. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">JSON-LD 1.0</a></cite>. 16 January 2014. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">[RDF11-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Richard Cyganiak, David Wood, Markus Lanthaler. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</a></cite> W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-MT">[RDF11-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Patrick J. Hayes, Peter F. Patel-Schneider. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Semantics.</a></cite> W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TRIG">[TRIG]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Gavin Carothers, Andy Seaborne. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/">TriG: RDF Dataset Language</a></cite>. W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/trig/">http://www.w3.org/TR/trig/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language.</a></cite> W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/</a>
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_informative-references"><span class="secno">C.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-BERNERS-LEE98">[BERNERS-LEE98]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Tim Berners-Lee. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDFnot.html">What the Semantic Web can represent</a></cite>. 1998. URI: <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDFnot.html">http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDFnot.html</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">[OWL2-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">W3C OWL Working Group. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/"><cite>OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview (Second Edition)</cite></a>. 11 December 2012. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-PRIMER">[RDF11-PRIMER]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Guus Schreiber, Yves Raimond. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-primer-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Primer</a></cite>. W3C Working Group Note, 25 February 2014. The latest version is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/</a>.
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
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