update
authorGuus Schreiber <guus.schreiber@vu.nl>
Fri, 03 Jan 2014 13:33:52 +0100
changeset 1710 2b7fb41d2aca
parent 1709 05d11c05dc8e
child 1711 7ff85897c227
update
PR-drafts/PR-rdf11-concepts-20140109/diff-20131105.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/PR-drafts/PR-rdf11-concepts-20140109/diff-20131105.html	Fri Jan 03 13:33:52 2014 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,14360 @@
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+<style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
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+</head>
+<body class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument">
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 property="dcterms:title" id="title" class="title p-name">
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</h1>
+<h2 content="2014-01-08T23:00:00.000Z" datatype="xsd:dateTime" property="dcterms:issued" id="w3c-proposed-recommendation-09-january-2014">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation
+<del class="diff-old">05
+November
+2013
+</del>
+<time datetime="2014-01-09" class="dt-published">
+<ins class="diff-chg">09
+January
+2014
+</ins>
+</time>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-rdf11-concepts-20140109/" class="u-url">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/PR-rdf11-concepts-20140109/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html">
+https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Implementation
+report:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/reports/index.html">
+https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/reports/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Previous
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-rdf11-concepts-20130723/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/" rel="dcterms:replaces">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+Recommendation:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/" content="Richard Cyganiak" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Richard
+Cyganiak
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.deri.ie/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+DERI,
+NUI
+Galway
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://about.me/david_wood" content="David Wood" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+David
+Wood
+</a>,
+<a href="http://3roundstones.com/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+3
+Round
+Stones
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd inlist="" rel="bibo:editor" class="p-author h-card vcard">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/" content="Markus Lanthaler" property="foaf:name" rel="foaf:homepage" class="u-url url p-name fn">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.tugraz.at/" class="p-org org h-org h-card" rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Previous
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Graham
+Klyne
+</dd>
+<dd>
+Jeremy
+J.
+Carroll
+</dd>
+<dd>
+Brian
+McBride
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20131105.html" rel="alternate">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+<del class="diff-old">2004-2013
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2004-2014
+</ins>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+Beihang
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+(RDF)
+is
+a
+framework
+for
+representing
+information
+in
+the
+Web.
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+document
+</ins>
+defines
+an
+abstract
+syntax
+(a
+data
+model)
+which
+serves
+to
+link
+all
+RDF-based
+languages
+and
+specifications.
+The
+abstract
+syntax
+has
+two
+key
+data
+structures:
+RDF
+graphs
+are
+sets
+of
+subject-predicate-object
+triples,
+where
+the
+elements
+may
+be
+IRIs,
+blank
+nodes,
+or
+datatyped
+literals.
+They
+are
+used
+to
+express
+descriptions
+of
+resources.
+RDF
+datasets
+are
+used
+to
+organize
+collections
+of
+RDF
+graphs,
+and
+comprise
+a
+default
+graph
+and
+zero
+or
+more
+named
+graphs.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF&#160;1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</ins>
+also
+introduces
+key
+concepts
+and
+terminology,
+and
+discusses
+datatyping
+and
+the
+handling
+of
+fragment
+identifiers
+in
+IRIs
+within
+RDF
+graphs.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="introductory" id="sotd" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+following
+features
+are
+at
+risk
+and
+may
+be
+changed
+from
+normative
+to
+non-normative:
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+rdf:HTML
+datatype
+may
+be
+made
+non-normative
+The
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+datatype
+may
+be
+made
+non-normative
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+part
+of
+the
+RDF
+1.1
+document
+suite.
+The
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+welcomes
+comments
+and
+reports
+of
+implementations
+in
+general,
+but
+given
+the
+nature
+of
+this
+document
+(as
+a
+conceptual
+overview),
+the
+group
+<ins class="diff-new">is
+</ins>
+not
+expecting
+to
+track
+implementations
+of
+this
+document
+on
+its
+own.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation.
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Recommendation.
+<del class="diff-old">If
+you
+wish
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+Membership
+and
+other
+interested
+parties
+are
+invited
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">review
+the
+document
+and
+</ins>
+send
+<del class="diff-old">them
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">comments
+</ins>
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="discussion">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+W3C
+publishes
+a
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+to
+indicate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">)
+through
+09
+February
+2014.
+Advisory
+Committee
+Representatives
+should
+consult
+their
+</ins><a href="https://www.w3.org/2002/09/wbs/myQuestionnaires"><ins class="diff-chg">
+WBS
+questionnaires
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">the
+document
+is
+believed
+to
+be
+stable
+and
+to
+encourage
+implementation
+by
+the
+developer
+community.
+This
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">substantive
+technical
+comments
+were
+</ins>
+expected
+<del class="diff-old">to
+advance
+to
+Proposed
+Recommendation
+no
+earlier
+than
+26
+November
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">during
+the
+Last
+Call
+review
+period
+that
+ended
+06
+September
+</ins>
+2013.
+<del class="diff-old">All
+comments
+are
+welcome.
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+Please
+see
+the
+Working
+Group's
+<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/reports/index.html">
+implementation
+report
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/" rel="w3p:patentRules" about="" id="sotd_patent">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a rel="disclosure" href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-model" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Graph-based
+Data
+Model
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#resources-and-statements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Resources
+and
+Statements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#referents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+The
+Referent
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#vocabularies" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.4
+</span>
+RDF
+Vocabularies
+and
+Namespace
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#change-over-time" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.5
+</span>
+RDF
+and
+Change
+<del class="diff-old">Over
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">over
+</ins>
+Time
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#managing-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.6
+</span>
+Working
+with
+Multiple
+RDF
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#entailment" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.7
+</span>
+Equivalence,
+Entailment
+and
+Inconsistency
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-documents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.8
+</span>
+RDF
+Documents
+and
+Syntaxes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformance" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-rdf-graph" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+RDF
+Graphs
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-triples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Triples
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-IRIs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Graph-Literal" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Literals
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-blank-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-skolemization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+Replacing
+Blank
+Nodes
+with
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#graph-isomorphism" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Graph
+Comparison
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-dataset" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+RDF
+Datasets
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-dataset-isomorphism" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+RDF
+Dataset
+Comparison
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-dataset-conneg" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Content
+Negotiation
+of
+RDF
+Datasets
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Datatypes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Datatypes
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#xsd-datatypes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+XML
+Schema
+Built-in
+Datatypes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-html" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+Datatype
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-XMLLiteral" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+Datatype
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#datatype-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Datatype
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-fragID" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Fragment
+Identifiers
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-generalized-rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.
+</span>
+Generalized
+RDF
+Triples,
+Graphs,
+and
+Datasets
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#section-Acknowledgments" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.
+</span>
+Acknowledgments
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#changes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Changes
+between
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">2004
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+and
+RDF
+1.1
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#change-log" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Change
+Log
+B.1
+</del>
+Changes
+<del class="diff-old">from
+23
+July
+2013
+LC
+to
+this
+version
+B.2
+Changes
+from
+15
+January
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">since
+the
+5
+November
+</ins>
+2013
+<del class="diff-old">WD
+to
+this
+version
+B.3
+Changes
+from
+05
+June
+2012
+WD
+to
+this
+version
+B.4
+Changes
+from
+FPWD
+to
+05
+June
+2012
+WD
+B.5
+Changes
+from
+RDF
+2004
+to
+FPWD
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-Introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Introduction">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+</em>
+(RDF)
+is
+a
+framework
+for
+representing
+information
+in
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+defines
+an
+abstract
+syntax
+(a
+data
+model)
+which
+serves
+to
+link
+all
+RDF-based
+languages
+and
+specifications,
+including:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">
+formal
+model-theoretic
+semantics
+for
+RDF
+and
+RDFS
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</li>
+<li>
+serialization
+syntaxes
+for
+storing
+and
+exchanging
+RDF
+(e.g.,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">
+Turtle
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">
+TURTLE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+<del class="diff-old">RDF/XML
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">
+SPARQL
+Query
+Language
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-SPARQL11-OVERVIEW">
+<ins class="diff-chg">SPARQL11-OVERVIEW
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">
+RDF
+Vocabulary
+Description
+Language
+</a>
+(RDFS)
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SCHEMA
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-SCHEMA">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-SCHEMA
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+</li>
+</ul>
+<section id="data-model" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_data-model">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Graph-based
+Data
+Model
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+core
+structure
+of
+the
+abstract
+syntax
+is
+a
+set
+of
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+triples
+</a>,
+each
+consisting
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">
+predicate
+</a>
+and
+an
+<a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">
+object
+</a>.
+A
+set
+of
+such
+triples
+is
+called
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+An
+RDF
+graph
+can
+be
+visualized
+as
+a
+node
+and
+directed-arc
+diagram,
+in
+which
+each
+triple
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+node-arc-node
+link.
+</p>
+<figure id="fig-an-rdf-graph-with-two-nodes-subject-and-object-and-a-triple-connecting-them-predicate">
+<a href="rdf-graph.svg">
+<img alt="An RDF graph with two nodes (Subject and Object) and a triple connecting them (Predicate)" src="rdf-graph.svg" />
+</a>
+<figcaption>
+Fig.
+<span class="figno">
+1
+</span>
+<span class="fig-title">
+An
+RDF
+graph
+with
+two
+nodes
+(Subject
+and
+Object)
+and
+a
+triple
+connecting
+them
+(Predicate)
+</span>
+</figcaption>
+</figure>
+<p>
+There
+can
+be
+three
+kinds
+of
+<a title="node" href="#dfn-node" class="internalDFN">
+nodes
+</a>
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>:
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>,
+and
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="resources-and-statements" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_resources-and-statements">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Resources
+and
+Statements
+</h3>
+<p>
+Any
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+<dfn title="denote" id="dfn-denote">
+denotes
+</dfn>
+something
+in
+the
+world
+(the
+"universe
+of
+discourse").
+These
+things
+are
+called
+<dfn title="resource" id="dfn-resource">
+resources
+</dfn>.
+Anything
+can
+be
+a
+resource,
+including
+physical
+things,
+documents,
+abstract
+concepts,
+numbers
+and
+strings;
+the
+term
+is
+synonymous
+with
+"entity"
+as
+it
+is
+used
+in
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+resource
+denoted
+by
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+called
+its
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>,
+and
+the
+resource
+denoted
+by
+a
+literal
+is
+called
+its
+<a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+value
+</a>.
+Literals
+have
+<a title="datatype" href="#dfn-datatype" class= "internalDFN">
+datatypes
+</a>
+that
+define
+the
+range
+of
+possible
+values,
+such
+as
+strings,
+numbers,
+and
+dates.
+<del class="diff-old">A
+special
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Special
+</ins>
+kind
+of
+literals,
+<a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">
+language-tagged
+strings
+</a>,
+denote
+plain-text
+strings
+in
+a
+natural
+language.
+</p>
+<p>
+Asserting
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+says
+that
+<em>
+some
+relationship,
+indicated
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">
+predicate
+</a>,
+holds
+between
+the
+<a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resources
+</a>
+<a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denoted
+</a>
+by
+the
+<a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">
+object
+</a>
+</em>.
+This
+statement
+corresponding
+to
+an
+RDF
+triple
+is
+known
+as
+an
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-statement">
+RDF
+statement
+</dfn>.
+The
+predicate
+itself
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+and
+denotes
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>,
+that
+is,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+thought
+of
+as
+a
+binary
+relation.
+(Relations
+that
+involve
+more
+than
+two
+entities
+can
+only
+be
+<a href= "http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-n-aryRelations/">
+indirectly
+expressed
+in
+RDF
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS">
+SWBP-N-ARYRELATIONS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].)
+</p>
+<p>
+Unlike
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>,
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+do
+not
+<del class="diff-old">denote
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">identify
+</ins>
+specific
+<a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resources
+</a>.
+<a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">
+Statements
+</a>
+involving
+blank
+nodes
+say
+that
+something
+with
+the
+given
+relationships
+exists,
+without
+explicitly
+naming
+it.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="referents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_referents">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+The
+Referent
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+<a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denoted
+</a>
+by
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+also
+called
+its
+<dfn id="dfn-referent">
+referent
+</dfn>.
+For
+some
+IRIs
+with
+particular
+meanings,
+such
+as
+those
+identifying
+XSD
+datatypes,
+the
+referent
+is
+fixed
+by
+this
+specification.
+For
+all
+other
+IRIs,
+what
+exactly
+is
+denoted
+by
+any
+given
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+not
+defined
+by
+this
+specification.
+Other
+specifications
+may
+fix
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+referents,
+or
+apply
+other
+constraints
+on
+what
+may
+be
+the
+referent
+of
+any
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Guidelines
+for
+determining
+the
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>
+of
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+are
+provided
+in
+other
+documents,
+like
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/">
+Architecture
+of
+the
+World
+Wide
+Web,
+Volume
+One
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">
+Cool
+URIs
+for
+the
+Semantic
+Web
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-COOLURIS">
+COOLURIS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+A
+very
+brief,
+<del class="diff-old">informal
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">informal,
+</ins>
+and
+partial
+account
+follows:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">By
+design,
+</ins>
+IRIs
+have
+global
+<del class="diff-old">scope:
+Two
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">scope.
+Thus,
+two
+</ins>
+different
+appearances
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denote
+</a>
+the
+same
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-new">Violating
+this
+principle
+constitutes
+an
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#URI-collision"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+collision
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH"><ins class="diff-new">
+WEBARCH
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+].
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+social
+convention,
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-ownership">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+owner
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+gets
+to
+say
+what
+the
+intended
+(or
+usual)
+referent
+of
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is.
+Applications
+and
+users
+need
+not
+abide
+by
+this
+intended
+denotation,
+but
+there
+may
+be
+a
+loss
+of
+interoperability
+with
+other
+applications
+and
+users
+if
+they
+do
+not
+do
+so.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+owner
+can
+establish
+the
+intended
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>
+by
+means
+of
+a
+specification
+or
+other
+document
+that
+explains
+what
+is
+denoted.
+For
+example,
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">
+Organization
+Ontology
+document
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-VOCAB-ORG">
+VOCAB-ORG
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+specifies
+the
+intended
+referents
+of
+various
+IRIs
+that
+start
+with
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/org#
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+good
+way
+of
+communicating
+the
+intended
+referent
+is
+to
+set
+up
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+so
+that
+it
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-dereference">
+dereferences
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+to
+such
+a
+document.
+</li>
+<li>
+Such
+a
+document
+can,
+in
+fact,
+be
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-document" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+document
+</a>
+that
+describes
+the
+denoted
+resource
+by
+means
+of
+<a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+statements
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Perhaps
+the
+most
+important
+characteristic
+of
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+in
+web
+architecture
+is
+that
+they
+can
+be
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#uri-dereference">
+dereferenced
+</a>,
+and
+hence
+serve
+as
+starting
+points
+for
+interactions
+with
+a
+remote
+server.
+This
+specification
+is
+not
+concerned
+with
+such
+interactions.
+It
+does
+not
+define
+an
+interaction
+model.
+It
+only
+treats
+IRIs
+as
+globally
+unique
+identifiers
+in
+a
+graph
+data
+model
+that
+describes
+resources.
+However,
+those
+interactions
+are
+critical
+to
+the
+concept
+of
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-LINKED-DATA">
+LINKED-DATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+makes
+use
+of
+the
+RDF
+data
+model
+and
+serialization
+formats.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="vocabularies" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_vocabularies">
+<span class="secno">
+1.4
+</span>
+RDF
+Vocabularies
+and
+Namespace
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-vocabulary">
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+collection
+of
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+intended
+for
+use
+in
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+For
+example,
+the
+IRIs
+documented
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SCHEMA
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-SCHEMA">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-SCHEMA
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+are
+the
+RDF
+Schema
+vocabulary.
+RDF
+Schema
+can
+itself
+be
+used
+to
+define
+and
+document
+additional
+RDF
+vocabularies.
+Some
+such
+vocabularies
+are
+mentioned
+in
+the
+Primer
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-PRIMER
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-PRIMER">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-PRIMER
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</a>
+often
+begin
+with
+a
+common
+substring
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-namespace-iri">
+namespace
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>.
+Some
+namespace
+IRIs
+are
+associated
+by
+convention
+with
+a
+short
+name
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-namespace-prefix">
+namespace
+prefix
+</dfn>.
+Some
+examples:
+</p>
+<table class="simple">
+<caption>
+Some
+example
+namespace
+prefixes
+and
+IRIs
+</caption>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Namespace
+prefix
+</th>
+<th>
+Namespace
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</th>
+<th>
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+rdf
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+RDF
+built-in
+vocabulary
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SCHEMA
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-SCHEMA">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-SCHEMA
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+rdfs
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#">
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+RDF
+Schema
+vocabulary
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SCHEMA
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-SCHEMA">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-SCHEMA
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+xsd
+</td>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+The
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types" class="internalDFN">
+RDF-compatible
+XSD
+types
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+In
+some
+serialization
+formats
+it
+is
+common
+to
+abbreviate
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+that
+start
+with
+<a title="namespace IRI" href="#dfn-namespace-iri" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+IRIs
+</a>
+by
+using
+a
+<a href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+prefix
+</a>
+in
+order
+to
+assist
+readability.
+For
+example,
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral
+</code>
+would
+be
+abbreviated
+as
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>.
+Note
+however
+that
+these
+abbreviations
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+valid
+IRIs,
+and
+must
+not
+be
+used
+in
+contexts
+where
+IRIs
+are
+expected.
+Namespace
+IRIs
+and
+namespace
+prefixes
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+a
+formal
+part
+of
+the
+RDF
+data
+model.
+They
+are
+merely
+a
+syntactic
+convenience
+for
+abbreviating
+IRIs.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+term
+“
+<dfn id="dfn-namespace">
+namespace
+</dfn>
+”
+on
+its
+own
+does
+not
+have
+a
+well-defined
+meaning
+in
+the
+context
+of
+RDF,
+but
+is
+sometimes
+informally
+used
+to
+mean
+“
+<a href="#dfn-namespace-iri" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+”
+or
+“
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+vocabulary
+</a>
+”.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="change-over-time" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_change-over-time">
+<span class="secno">
+1.5
+</span>
+RDF
+and
+Change
+<del class="diff-old">Over
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">over
+</ins>
+Time
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+RDF
+data
+model
+is
+<em>
+atemporal
+</em>:
+<del class="diff-old">It
+does
+not
+deal
+with
+time,
+and
+does
+not
+have
+a
+built-in
+notion
+of
+temporal
+validity
+of
+information.
+</del>
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+are
+static
+snapshots
+of
+information.
+</p>
+<p>
+However,
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+can
+express
+information
+about
+events
+and
+about
+temporal
+aspects
+of
+other
+entities,
+given
+appropriate
+<a title="RDF vocabulary" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+terms.
+</p>
+<p>
+Since
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+are
+defined
+as
+mathematical
+sets,
+adding
+or
+removing
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+triples
+</a>
+from
+an
+RDF
+graph
+yields
+a
+different
+RDF
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+informally
+use
+the
+term
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-source">
+RDF
+source
+</dfn>
+to
+refer
+to
+a
+persistent
+yet
+mutable
+source
+or
+container
+of
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+An
+RDF
+source
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+that
+may
+be
+said
+to
+have
+a
+state
+that
+can
+change
+over
+time.
+A
+snapshot
+of
+the
+state
+can
+be
+expressed
+as
+an
+RDF
+graph.
+For
+example,
+any
+web
+document
+that
+has
+an
+RDF-bearing
+representation
+may
+be
+considered
+an
+RDF
+source.
+Like
+all
+resources,
+RDF
+sources
+may
+be
+named
+with
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+therefore
+described
+in
+other
+RDF
+graphs.
+</p>
+<p>
+Intuitively
+speaking,
+changes
+in
+the
+universe
+of
+discourse
+can
+be
+reflected
+in
+the
+following
+ways:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+An
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+once
+minted,
+should
+never
+change
+its
+intended
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>.
+(See
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#URI-persistence">
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+persistence
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+].)
+</li>
+<li>
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+Literals
+</a>,
+by
+design,
+are
+constants
+and
+never
+change
+their
+<a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+value
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Some
+properties
+may
+change
+over
+time.
+</del>
+A
+relationship
+that
+holds
+between
+two
+<a title="resource" href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resources
+</a>
+at
+one
+time
+may
+not
+hold
+at
+another
+time.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+sources
+</a>
+may
+change
+their
+state
+over
+time.
+That
+is,
+they
+may
+provide
+different
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+at
+different
+times.
+</li>
+<li>
+Some
+<a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+sources
+</a>
+may,
+however,
+be
+immutable
+snapshots
+of
+another
+RDF
+source,
+archiving
+its
+state
+at
+some
+point
+in
+time.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section id="managing-graphs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_managing-graphs">
+<span class="secno">
+1.6
+</span>
+Working
+with
+Multiple
+RDF
+Graphs
+</h3>
+<p>
+As
+RDF
+graphs
+are
+sets
+of
+triples,
+they
+can
+be
+combined
+easily,
+supporting
+the
+use
+of
+data
+from
+multiple
+sources.
+Nevertheless,
+it
+is
+sometimes
+desirable
+to
+work
+with
+multiple
+RDF
+graphs
+while
+keeping
+their
+contents
+separate.
+<a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>
+support
+this
+requirement.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+is
+a
+collection
+of
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+All
+but
+one
+of
+these
+graphs
+have
+an
+associated
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+blank
+node.
+They
+are
+called
+<a title="named graph" href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">
+named
+graphs
+</a>,
+and
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+or
+blank
+node
+is
+called
+the
+<a href="#dfn-graph-name" class="internalDFN">
+graph
+name
+</a>.
+The
+remaining
+graph
+does
+not
+have
+an
+associated
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+and
+is
+called
+the
+<a href="#dfn-default-graph" class="internalDFN">
+default
+graph
+</a>
+of
+the
+RDF
+dataset.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+many
+possible
+uses
+for
+<a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>.
+One
+such
+use
+is
+to
+hold
+snapshots
+of
+multiple
+<a title="RDF source" href="#dfn-rdf-source" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+sources
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="entailment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_entailment">
+<span class="secno">
+1.7
+</span>
+Equivalence,
+Entailment
+and
+Inconsistency
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+encodes
+a
+<a title="RDF statement" href="#dfn-rdf-statement" class="internalDFN">
+statement
+</a>
+—a
+simple
+<dfn id="dfn-logical-expression">
+logical
+expression
+</dfn>,
+or
+claim
+about
+the
+world.
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+is
+the
+conjunction
+(logical
+<em>
+AND
+</em>
+)
+of
+its
+triples.
+The
+precise
+details
+of
+this
+meaning
+of
+RDF
+triples
+and
+graphs
+are
+the
+subject
+of
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+yields
+the
+following
+relationships
+between
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-entailment">
+Entailment
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+entails
+another
+RDF
+graph
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+if
+every
+possible
+arrangement
+of
+the
+world
+that
+makes
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+true
+also
+makes
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+true.
+When
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+entails
+<em>
+B
+</em>,
+if
+the
+truth
+of
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+is
+presumed
+or
+demonstrated
+then
+the
+truth
+of
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+is
+established.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-equivalence">
+Equivalence
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Two
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+are
+equivalent
+if
+they
+make
+the
+same
+claim
+about
+the
+world.
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+is
+equivalent
+to
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+<a title="entailment" href="#dfn-entailment" class="internalDFN">
+entails
+</a>
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+entails
+<em>
+A
+</em>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-inconsistency">
+Inconsistency
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+is
+inconsistent
+if
+it
+contains
+an
+internal
+contradiction.
+There
+is
+no
+possible
+arrangement
+of
+the
+world
+that
+would
+make
+the
+expression
+true.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-entailment-regime">
+entailment
+regime
+</dfn>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+is
+a
+specification
+that
+defines
+precise
+conditions
+that
+make
+these
+relationships
+hold.
+RDF
+itself
+recognizes
+only
+some
+basic
+cases
+of
+entailment,
+equivalence
+and
+inconsistency.
+Other
+specifications,
+such
+as
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">
+RDF
+Schema
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SCHEMA
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-SCHEMA">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-SCHEMA
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">
+OWL
+2
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">
+OWL2-OVERVIEW
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+add
+more
+powerful
+entailment
+regimes,
+as
+do
+some
+domain-specific
+<a title="RDF vocabulary" href="#dfn-rdf-vocabulary" class="internalDFN">
+vocabularies
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+constrain
+how
+implementations
+use
+the
+logical
+relationships
+defined
+by
+<a title="entailment regime" href="#dfn-entailment-regime" class="internalDFN">
+entailment
+regimes
+</a>.
+Implementations
+may
+or
+may
+not
+detect
+<a title="inconsistency" href="#dfn-inconsistency" class="internalDFN">
+inconsistencies
+</a>,
+and
+may
+make
+all,
+some
+or
+no
+<a title="entailment" href="#dfn-entailment" class="internalDFN">
+entailed
+</a>
+information
+available
+to
+users.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="rdf-documents" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_rdf-documents">
+<span class="secno">
+1.8
+</span>
+RDF
+Documents
+and
+Syntaxes
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-document">
+RDF
+document
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+document
+that
+encodes
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+in
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntax
+</dfn>,
+such
+as
+Turtle
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">
+TURTLE
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFA-PRIMER">
+RDFA-PRIMER
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+<del class="diff-old">RDF/XML
+[
+RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR
+],
+</del>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">N-Triples
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">TriG
+</ins>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">N-TRIPLES
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">
+<ins class="diff-chg">TRIG
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+RDF
+documents
+enable
+the
+exchange
+of
+RDF
+graphs
+and
+RDF
+datasets
+between
+systems.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntax
+</a>
+may
+offer
+many
+different
+ways
+to
+encode
+the
+same
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>,
+for
+example
+through
+the
+use
+of
+<a title="namespace prefix" href="#dfn-namespace-prefix" class="internalDFN">
+namespace
+prefixes
+</a>,
+relative
+IRIs,
+<a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+</a>,
+and
+different
+ordering
+of
+statements.
+While
+these
+aspects
+can
+have
+great
+effect
+on
+the
+convenience
+of
+working
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-document" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+document
+</a>,
+they
+are
+not
+significant
+for
+its
+meaning.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_conformance">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</h2>
+<p>
+As
+well
+as
+sections
+marked
+as
+non-normative,
+all
+authoring
+guidelines,
+diagrams,
+examples,
+and
+notes
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+non-normative.
+Everything
+else
+in
+this
+specification
+is
+normative.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+key
+words
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+MUST
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED">
+REQUIRED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">
+SHOULD
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">
+RECOMMENDED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL">
+OPTIONAL
+</em>
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">
+RFC2119
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+specification,
+<em>
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</em>,
+defines
+a
+data
+model
+and
+related
+terminology
+for
+use
+in
+other
+specifications,
+such
+as
+<a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+</a>,
+API
+specifications,
+and
+query
+languages.
+Implementations
+cannot
+directly
+conform
+to
+<em>
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+</em>,
+but
+can
+conform
+to
+such
+other
+specifications
+that
+normatively
+reference
+terms
+defined
+here.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="section-rdf-graph" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-rdf-graph">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+RDF
+Graphs
+</h2>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-graph">
+RDF
+graph
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triples
+</a>.
+</p>
+<section id="section-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-triples">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Triples
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-triple">
+RDF
+triple
+</dfn>
+consists
+of
+three
+components:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-subject">
+subject
+</dfn>,
+which
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-predicate">
+predicate
+</dfn>,
+which
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>,
+which
+is
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+An
+RDF
+triple
+is
+conventionally
+written
+in
+the
+order
+subject,
+predicate,
+object.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+set
+of
+<dfn title="node" id="dfn-node">
+nodes
+</dfn>
+of
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+is
+the
+set
+of
+subjects
+and
+objects
+of
+triples
+in
+the
+graph.
+It
+is
+possible
+for
+a
+predicate
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+also
+occur
+as
+a
+node
+in
+the
+same
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+and
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+are
+collectively
+known
+as
+<dfn title="RDF term" id="dfn-rdf-term">
+RDF
+terms
+</dfn>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+and
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+are
+distinct
+and
+distinguishable.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+http://example.org/
+</code>
+as
+a
+string
+literal
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">neither
+</ins>
+equal
+to
+<code>
+http://example.org/
+</code>
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+nor
+to
+a
+blank
+node
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</a>
+<code>
+http://example.org/
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="section-IRIs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-IRIs">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="IRI" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier)
+within
+an
+RDF
+graph
+is
+a
+Unicode
+string
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+that
+conforms
+to
+the
+syntax
+defined
+in
+RFC
+3987
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+in
+the
+RDF
+abstract
+syntax
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+absolute,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+contain
+a
+fragment
+identifier.
+</p>
+<p>
+<dfn id="dfn-iri-equality">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+equality
+</dfn>:
+Two
+IRIs
+are
+equal
+if
+and
+only
+if
+they
+are
+equivalent
+under
+Simple
+String
+Comparison
+according
+to
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5.1">
+section
+5.1
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Further
+normalization
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+MUST
+NOT
+</em>
+be
+performed
+when
+comparing
+IRIs
+for
+equality.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_1">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<div id="note-iris" class="">
+<p>
+<strong>
+URIs
+and
+IRIs:
+</strong>
+IRIs
+are
+a
+generalization
+of
+<dfn title="URI" id="dfn-uri">
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+s
+</dfn>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+that
+permits
+a
+wider
+range
+of
+Unicode
+characters.
+Every
+absolute
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+and
+URL
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+but
+not
+every
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>.
+When
+IRIs
+are
+used
+in
+operations
+that
+are
+only
+defined
+for
+URIs,
+they
+must
+first
+be
+converted
+according
+to
+the
+mapping
+defined
+in
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-3.1">
+section
+3.1
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+A
+notable
+example
+is
+retrieval
+over
+the
+HTTP
+protocol.
+The
+mapping
+involves
+UTF-8
+encoding
+of
+non-ASCII
+characters,
+%-encoding
+of
+octets
+not
+allowed
+in
+URIs,
+and
+Punycode-encoding
+of
+domain
+names.
+</p>
+<p>
+<strong>
+Relative
+IRIs:
+</strong>
+Some
+<a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+</a>
+permit
+<dfn title="relative IRI" id="dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</dfn>
+as
+a
+convenient
+shorthand
+that
+allows
+authoring
+of
+documents
+independently
+from
+their
+final
+publishing
+location.
+Relative
+IRIs
+must
+be
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.2">
+resolved
+against
+</a>
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-base-iri">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+to
+make
+them
+absolute.
+Therefore,
+the
+RDF
+graph
+serialized
+in
+such
+syntaxes
+is
+well-defined
+only
+if
+a
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+can
+be
+established
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+<strong>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+normalization:
+</strong>
+Interoperability
+problems
+can
+be
+avoided
+by
+minting
+only
+IRIs
+that
+are
+normalized
+according
+to
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5">
+Section
+5
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Non-normalized
+forms
+that
+are
+best
+avoided
+include:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Uppercase
+characters
+in
+scheme
+names
+and
+domain
+names
+</li>
+<li>
+Percent-encoding
+of
+characters
+where
+it
+is
+not
+required
+by
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+syntax
+</li>
+<li>
+Explicitly
+stated
+HTTP
+default
+port
+(
+<code>
+http://example.com:80/
+</code>
+);
+<code>
+http://example.com/
+</code>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">preferrable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">preferable
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+Completely
+empty
+path
+in
+HTTP
+IRIs
+(
+<code>
+http://example.com
+</code>
+);
+<code>
+http://example.com/
+</code>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">preferrable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">preferable
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+“
+<code>
+/./
+</code>
+”
+or
+“
+<code>
+/../
+</code>
+”
+in
+the
+path
+component
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</li>
+<li>
+Lowercase
+hexadecimal
+letters
+within
+percent-encoding
+triplets
+(“
+<code>
+%3F
+</code>
+”
+is
+preferable
+over
+“
+<code>
+%3f
+</code>
+”)
+</li>
+<li>
+Punycode-encoding
+of
+Internationalized
+Domain
+Names
+in
+IRIs
+</li>
+<li>
+IRIs
+that
+are
+not
+in
+Unicode
+Normalization
+Form
+C
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-NFC">
+NFC
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="section-Graph-Literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-Graph-Literal">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Literals
+</h3>
+<p>
+Literals
+are
+used
+for
+values
+such
+as
+strings,
+<del class="diff-old">numbers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">numbers,
+</ins>
+and
+dates.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn id="dfn-literal">
+literal
+</dfn>
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+consists
+of
+two
+or
+three
+elements:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-lexical-form">
+lexical
+form
+</dfn>,
+being
+a
+Unicode
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+string,
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>
+be
+in
+Normal
+<del class="diff-old">Form
+C
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Form&#160;C
+</ins>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-NFC">
+NFC
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-datatype-iri">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>,
+being
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+identifying
+a
+datatype
+that
+determines
+how
+the
+lexical
+form
+maps
+to
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+value
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+</ins>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+literal
+is
+a
+language-tagged
+string
+</del>
+<li>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+<del class="diff-old">its
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString
+</code>,
+<del class="diff-old">and
+only
+in
+this
+case
+the
+third
+element
+is
+present:
+</del>
+a
+non-empty
+<dfn id="dfn-language-tag">
+language
+tag
+</dfn>
+as
+defined
+by
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+language
+tag
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+well-formed
+according
+to
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">
+section
+2.2.9
+</a>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">A
+literal
+is
+a
+</ins><dfn id="dfn-language-tagged-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+language-tagged
+string
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+if
+the
+third
+element
+is
+present.
+</ins>
+Lexical
+representations
+of
+language
+tags
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+converted
+to
+lower
+case.
+The
+value
+space
+of
+language
+tags
+is
+always
+in
+lower
+case.
+<del class="diff-old">A
+badly
+formed
+language
+tag
+MUST
+be
+treated
+as
+a
+syntax
+error.
+Note
+Implementors
+might
+wish
+to
+note
+that
+language
+tags
+conform
+to
+the
+regular
+expression
+’@’
+[a-zA-Z]{1,8}
+(’-’
+[a-zA-Z0-9]{1,8})*
+before
+normalizing
+to
+lowercase.
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Multiple
+literals
+may
+have
+the
+same
+lexical
+form.
+Concrete
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Please
+note
+that
+concrete
+</ins>
+syntaxes
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+support
+<dfn title="simple literal" id="dfn-simple-literal">
+simple
+literals
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</dfn>
+consisting
+of
+only
+a
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+without
+any
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">
+language
+<del class="diff-old">tag.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">tag
+</ins></a>.
+Simple
+literals
+<del class="diff-old">only
+exist
+in
+concrete
+syntaxes,
+and
+</del>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">treated
+as
+</del>
+syntactic
+sugar
+for
+abstract
+syntax
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string
+</code>.
+<del class="diff-old">Literal
+term
+equality
+:
+Two
+literals
+are
+term-equal
+(the
+same
+RDF
+literal)
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+two
+lexical
+forms
+,
+the
+two
+datatype
+IRIs
+,
+and
+the
+two
+language
+tags
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Similarly,
+most
+concrete
+syntaxes
+represent
+</ins><a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+language-tagged
+strings
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">(if
+any)
+compare
+equal,
+character
+by
+character.
+Two
+literals
+can
+have
+the
+same
+value
+</del>
+without
+<del class="diff-old">being
+the
+same
+RDF
+term
+.
+For
+example:
+        "1"^^xs:integer
+    "01"^^xs:integer
+denote
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+value,
+but
+are
+not
+the
+same
+literal
+RDF
+terms
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">datatype
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+are
+not
+term-equals.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">because
+it
+always
+equals
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString
+</ins></code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-literal-value">
+literal
+value
+</dfn>
+associated
+with
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+If
+the
+literal
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">
+language-tagged
+string
+</a>,
+then
+the
+literal
+value
+is
+a
+pair
+consisting
+of
+its
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+and
+its
+<a href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">
+language
+tag
+</a>,
+in
+that
+order.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+literal's
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+recognized
+by
+an
+implementation,
+then
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+value
+is
+not
+defined
+by
+this
+specification.
+Let
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+of
+</ins><a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+let
+</ins>
+<var>
+d
+</var>
+be
+the
+<a href="#dfn-referent" class="internalDFN">
+referent
+</a>
+of
+the
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">in
+the
+set
+of
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+.
+</del>
+</abbr>.
+<ol>
+<li>
+If
+the
+literal's
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+is
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>
+of
+<var>
+d
+</var>,
+then
+the
+literal
+value
+is
+the
+result
+of
+applying
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</a>
+of
+<var>
+d
+</var>
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+form
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Otherwise
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Otherwise,
+</ins>
+the
+literal
+is
+<del class="diff-old">ill-typed,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ill-typed
+</ins>
+and
+no
+literal
+value
+can
+be
+associated
+with
+the
+literal.
+Such
+a
+case
+produces
+a
+semantic
+inconsistency
+but
+is
+not
+<em>
+syntactically
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">ill-formed
+and
+implementations
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ill-formed.
+Implementations
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+accept
+ill-typed
+literals
+and
+produce
+RDF
+graphs
+from
+them.
+Implementations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+produce
+warnings
+when
+encountering
+ill-typed
+literals.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">If
+the
+literal's
+</ins><a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+datatype
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+not
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+in
+the
+set
+of
+</ins><a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+then
+the
+literal
+value
+is
+not
+defined
+by
+this
+specification.
+</ins></li></ol><p><dfn id="dfn-literal-term-equality"><ins class="diff-new">
+Literal
+term
+equality
+</ins></dfn>:<ins class="diff-new">
+Two
+literals
+are
+term-equal
+(the
+same
+RDF
+literal)
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+two
+</ins><a title="lexical form" href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+lexical
+forms
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+the
+two
+</ins><a title="datatype IRI" href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+datatype
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+and
+the
+two
+</ins><a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+language
+tags
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(if
+any)
+compare
+equal,
+character
+by
+character.
+Thus,
+two
+literals
+can
+have
+the
+same
+value
+without
+being
+the
+same
+RDF
+term.
+For
+example:
+</ins></p><pre><ins class="diff-new">
+      "1"^^xs:integer
+      "01"^^xs:integer
+    
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+denote
+the
+same
+</ins><a title="literal value" href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+but
+are
+not
+the
+same
+literal
+</ins><a title="RDF Term" href="#dfn-rdf-term" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+are
+not
+</ins><a title="literal term equality" href="#dfn-literal-term-equality" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+term-equal
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+because
+their
+</ins><a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+lexical
+form
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+differs.
+</ins></p>
+</section>
+<section id="section-blank-nodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-blank-nodes">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</h3>
+<p>
+<dfn title="blank node" id="dfn-blank-node">
+Blank
+nodes
+</dfn>
+are
+disjoint
+from
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>.
+Otherwise,
+the
+set
+of
+possible
+blank
+nodes
+is
+arbitrary.
+RDF
+makes
+no
+reference
+to
+any
+internal
+structure
+of
+blank
+nodes.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p id="note-bnode-id" class="">
+<dfn title="blank node identifier" id="dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+Blank
+node
+identifiers
+</dfn>
+are
+local
+identifiers
+that
+are
+used
+in
+some
+<a title="concrete RDF syntax" href="#dfn-concrete-rdf-syntax" class="internalDFN">
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+</a>
+or
+RDF
+store
+implementations.
+They
+are
+always
+locally
+scoped
+to
+the
+file
+or
+RDF
+store,
+and
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+persistent
+or
+portable
+identifiers
+for
+blank
+nodes.
+Blank
+node
+identifiers
+are
+<em>
+not
+</em>
+part
+of
+the
+RDF
+abstract
+syntax,
+but
+are
+entirely
+dependent
+on
+the
+concrete
+syntax
+or
+implementation.
+The
+syntactic
+restrictions
+on
+blank
+node
+identifiers,
+if
+any,
+therefore
+also
+depend
+on
+the
+concrete
+RDF
+syntax
+or
+implementation.
+Implementations
+that
+handle
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+in
+concrete
+syntaxes
+need
+to
+be
+careful
+not
+to
+create
+the
+same
+blank
+node
+from
+multiple
+<del class="diff-old">occurences
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">occurrences
+</ins>
+of
+the
+same
+blank
+node
+identifier
+except
+in
+situations
+where
+this
+is
+supported
+by
+the
+syntax.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="section-skolemization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-skolemization">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+Replacing
+Blank
+Nodes
+with
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Blank
+nodes
+do
+not
+have
+identifiers
+in
+the
+RDF
+abstract
+syntax.
+The
+<a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+</a>
+introduced
+by
+some
+concrete
+syntaxes
+have
+only
+local
+scope
+and
+are
+purely
+an
+artifact
+of
+the
+serialization.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+situations
+where
+stronger
+identification
+is
+needed,
+systems
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+systematically
+replace
+some
+or
+all
+of
+the
+blank
+nodes
+in
+an
+RDF
+graph
+with
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+Systems
+wishing
+to
+do
+this
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>
+mint
+a
+new,
+globally
+unique
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(a
+<dfn id="dfn-skolem-iri">
+Skolem
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+)
+for
+each
+blank
+node
+so
+replaced.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+transformation
+does
+not
+appreciably
+change
+the
+meaning
+of
+an
+RDF
+graph,
+provided
+that
+the
+Skolem
+IRIs
+do
+not
+occur
+anywhere
+else.
+It
+does
+however
+permit
+the
+possibility
+of
+other
+graphs
+subsequently
+using
+the
+Skolem
+IRIs,
+which
+is
+not
+possible
+for
+blank
+nodes.
+</p>
+<p>
+Systems
+may
+wish
+to
+mint
+Skolem
+IRIs
+in
+such
+a
+way
+that
+they
+can
+recognize
+the
+IRIs
+as
+having
+been
+introduced
+solely
+to
+replace
+blank
+nodes.
+This
+allows
+a
+system
+to
+map
+IRIs
+back
+to
+blank
+nodes
+if
+needed.
+</p>
+<p>
+Systems
+that
+want
+Skolem
+IRIs
+to
+be
+recognizable
+outside
+of
+the
+system
+boundaries
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>
+use
+a
+well-known
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5785">
+RFC5785
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+with
+the
+registered
+name
+<code>
+genid
+</code>.
+This
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+uses
+the
+HTTP
+or
+HTTPS
+scheme,
+or
+another
+scheme
+that
+has
+been
+specified
+to
+use
+well-known
+IRIs;
+and
+whose
+path
+component
+starts
+with
+<code>
+/.well-known/genid/
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+the
+authority
+responsible
+for
+the
+domain
+<code>
+example.com
+</code>
+could
+mint
+the
+following
+recognizable
+Skolem
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>:
+</p>
+<pre>
+http://example.com/.well-known/genid/d26a2d0e98334696f4ad70a677abc1f6
+</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_3">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+RFC
+5785
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5785">
+RFC5785
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+only
+specifies
+well-known
+URIs,
+not
+IRIs.
+For
+the
+purpose
+of
+this
+document,
+a
+well-known
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+any
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+results
+in
+a
+well-known
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+after
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+-to-
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="graph-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_graph-isomorphism">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Graph
+Comparison
+</h3>
+<p id="section-graph-equality">
+Two
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+and
+<var>
+G'
+</var>
+are
+<dfn title="graph isomorphism" id="dfn-graph-isomorphism">
+isomorphic
+</dfn>
+(that
+is,
+they
+have
+an
+identical
+form)
+if
+there
+is
+a
+bijection
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+between
+the
+sets
+of
+nodes
+of
+the
+two
+graphs,
+such
+that:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+maps
+blank
+nodes
+to
+blank
+nodes.
+</li>
+<li>
+<var>
+M(lit)=lit
+</var>
+for
+all
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+literals
+</a>
+<var>
+lit
+</var>
+which
+are
+nodes
+of
+<var>
+G
+</var>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">M(uri)=uri
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">M(iri)=iri
+</ins>
+</var>
+for
+all
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<var>
+<del class="diff-old">uri
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">iri
+</ins>
+</var>
+which
+are
+nodes
+of
+<var>
+G
+</var>.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+triple
+<var>
+(
+s,
+p,
+o
+)
+</var>
+is
+in
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+triple
+<var>
+(
+M(s),
+p,
+M(o)
+)
+</var>
+is
+in
+<var>
+G'
+</var>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+See
+also:
+<a href="#dfn-iri-equality" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+equality
+</a>,
+<a href="#dfn-literal-term-equality" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+term
+equality
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+With
+this
+definition,
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+shows
+how
+each
+blank
+node
+in
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+can
+be
+replaced
+with
+a
+new
+blank
+node
+to
+give
+<var>
+G'
+</var>.
+Graph
+isomorphism
+is
+needed
+to
+support
+the
+RDF
+Test
+Cases
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-TESTCASES
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-TESTCASES">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-TESTCASES
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+specification.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="section-dataset" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-dataset">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+RDF
+Datasets
+</h2>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-dataset">
+RDF
+dataset
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+collection
+of
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>,
+and
+comprises:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Exactly
+one
+<dfn id="dfn-default-graph">
+default
+graph
+</dfn>,
+being
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+The
+default
+graph
+does
+not
+have
+a
+name
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+empty.
+</li>
+<li>
+Zero
+or
+more
+<dfn title="named graph" id="dfn-named-graph">
+named
+graphs
+</dfn>.
+Each
+named
+graph
+is
+a
+pair
+consisting
+of
+an
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+blank
+node
+(the
+<dfn id="dfn-graph-name">
+graph
+name
+</dfn>
+),
+and
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+Graph
+names
+are
+unique
+within
+an
+RDF
+dataset.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+Blank
+nodes
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">MAY
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+</ins>
+be
+shared
+between
+graphs
+in
+an
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_4">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<div id="note-datasets" class="">
+<p>
+Despite
+the
+use
+of
+the
+word
+“name”
+in
+“
+<a href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">
+named
+graph
+</a>
+”,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-graph-name" class="internalDFN">
+graph
+name
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">does
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+</ins>
+not
+<del class="diff-old">formally
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">required
+to
+</ins><a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denote
+</a>
+the
+graph.
+It
+is
+merely
+syntactically
+paired
+with
+the
+graph.
+RDF
+does
+not
+place
+any
+formal
+restrictions
+on
+what
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+the
+graph
+name
+may
+denote,
+nor
+on
+the
+relationship
+between
+that
+resource
+and
+the
+graph.
+<ins class="diff-new">A
+discussion
+of
+different
+RDF
+dataset
+semantics
+can
+be
+found
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-DATASETS"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF11-DATASETS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+].
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Some
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+implementations
+do
+not
+track
+empty
+<a title="named graph" href="#dfn-named-graph" class="internalDFN">
+named
+graphs
+</a>.
+Applications
+can
+avoid
+interoperability
+issues
+by
+not
+ascribing
+importance
+to
+the
+presence
+or
+absence
+of
+empty
+named
+graphs.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Blank
+nodes
+as
+graph
+names
+are
+new.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">SPARQL
+1.1
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SPARQL11-OVERVIEW"><ins class="diff-chg">
+SPARQL11-OVERVIEW
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+also
+defines
+the
+concept
+of
+an
+RDF
+Dataset.
+The
+definition
+of
+an
+RDF
+Dataset
+in
+SPARQL
+1.1
+and
+this
+specification
+differ
+slightly
+in
+that
+this
+specification
+allows
+RDF
+Graphs
+to
+be
+identified
+using
+either
+an
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+a
+blank
+node.
+SPARQL
+1.1
+Query
+Language
+only
+allows
+RDF
+Graphs
+to
+be
+identified
+using
+an
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>.
+Existing
+SPARQL
+implementations
+might
+not
+<del class="diff-old">accept
+this
+new
+feature
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allow
+blank
+nodes
+to
+be
+used
+to
+identify
+RDF
+Graphs
+</ins>
+for
+some
+time,
+so
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">their
+</ins>
+use
+<del class="diff-old">of
+blank
+nodes
+as
+graph
+names
+</del>
+can
+cause
+interoperability
+problems.
+<a href="#section-skolemization">
+Skolemizing
+</a>
+blank
+nodes
+used
+as
+graph
+names
+can
+be
+used
+to
+overcome
+these
+interoperability
+problems.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<section id="section-dataset-isomorphism" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-dataset-isomorphism">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+RDF
+Dataset
+Comparison
+</h3>
+<p id="section-dataset-equality">
+Two
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>
+(the
+RDF
+dataset
+<var>
+D1
+</var>
+with
+default
+graph
+<var>
+DG1
+</var>
+and
+any
+named
+graph
+<var>
+NG1
+</var>
+and
+the
+RDF
+dataset
+<var>
+D2
+</var>
+with
+default
+graph
+<var>
+DG2
+</var>
+and
+any
+named
+graph
+<var>
+NG2
+</var>
+)
+are
+<dfn title="dataset isomorphism" id="dfn-dataset-isomorphism">
+dataset-isomorphic
+</dfn>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+there
+is
+a
+bijection
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+between
+the
+nodes,
+triples
+and
+graphs
+in
+<var>
+D1
+</var>
+and
+those
+in
+<var>
+D2
+</var>
+such
+that:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+maps
+blank
+nodes
+to
+blank
+nodes;
+</li>
+<li>
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+is
+the
+identity
+map
+on
+literals
+and
+URIs;
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+every
+triple
+&lt;s
+p
+o&gt;,
+<var>
+M
+</var>
+(&lt;s,
+p,
+o&gt;)=
+&lt;
+<var>
+M(s)
+</var>,
+<var>
+M(p)
+</var>,
+<var>
+M(o)
+</var>
+&gt;;
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+every
+graph
+<var>
+G
+</var>
+={t1,
+...,
+tn},
+<var>
+M(G)
+</var>
+={
+<var>
+M(t1)
+</var>,
+...,
+<var>
+M(tn)
+</var>
+};
+</li>
+<li>
+<var>
+DG2
+</var>
+=
+<var>
+M(DG1)
+</var>
+;
+and
+</li>
+<li>
+&lt;n,
+G&gt;
+is
+in
+<var>
+NG1
+</var>
+if
+and
+only
+if
+&lt;
+<var>
+M(n)
+</var>,
+<var>
+M(G)
+</var>
+&gt;
+is
+in
+<var>
+NG2
+</var>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-dataset-conneg" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-dataset-conneg">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Content
+Negotiation
+of
+RDF
+Datasets
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Primary
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Web
+</ins>
+resources
+may
+have
+multiple
+representations
+that
+are
+made
+available
+via
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#frag-coneg">
+content
+negotiation
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+A
+representation
+may
+be
+returned
+in
+an
+RDF
+serialization
+format
+that
+supports
+the
+expression
+of
+both
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+datasets
+</a>
+and
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+If
+an
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset
+</a>
+is
+returned
+and
+the
+consumer
+is
+expecting
+an
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>,
+the
+consumer
+is
+expected
+to
+use
+the
+<a title="RDF Dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+dataset's
+</a>
+default
+graph.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="section-Datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Datatypes">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Datatypes
+</h2>
+<p>
+Datatypes
+are
+used
+with
+RDF
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+to
+represent
+values
+such
+as
+strings,
+numbers
+and
+dates.
+The
+datatype
+abstraction
+used
+in
+RDF
+is
+compatible
+with
+XML
+Schema
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">
+XMLSCHEMA11-2
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Any
+datatype
+definition
+that
+conforms
+to
+this
+abstraction
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+be
+used
+in
+RDF,
+even
+if
+not
+defined
+in
+terms
+of
+XML
+Schema.
+RDF
+re-uses
+many
+of
+the
+XML
+Schema
+built-in
+datatypes,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">provides
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">defines
+</ins>
+two
+additional
+<del class="diff-old">built-in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative
+</ins>
+datatypes,
+<code>
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-html" class="internalDFN">
+rdf:HTML
+</a>
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</a>
+</code>.
+The
+list
+of
+datatypes
+supported
+by
+an
+implementation
+is
+determined
+by
+its
+<a href="#dfn-recognized-datatype-iris" class="internalDFN">
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn id="dfn-datatype">
+datatype
+</dfn>
+consists
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</a>,
+and
+is
+denoted
+by
+one
+or
+more
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-lexical-space">
+lexical
+space
+</dfn>
+of
+a
+datatype
+is
+a
+set
+of
+Unicode
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+strings.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</dfn>
+of
+a
+datatype
+is
+a
+set
+of
+pairs
+whose
+first
+element
+belongs
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>,
+and
+the
+second
+element
+belongs
+to
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-value-space">
+value
+space
+</dfn>
+of
+the
+datatype.
+Each
+member
+of
+the
+lexical
+space
+is
+paired
+with
+exactly
+one
+value,
+and
+is
+a
+<em>
+lexical
+representation
+</em>
+of
+that
+value.
+The
+mapping
+can
+be
+seen
+as
+a
+function
+from
+the
+lexical
+space
+to
+the
+value
+space.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_5">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+<a title="language-tagged string" href="#dfn-language-tagged-string" class="internalDFN">
+Language-tagged
+strings
+</a>
+have
+the
+<a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString
+</code>.
+No
+datatype
+is
+formally
+defined
+for
+this
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+because
+the
+definition
+of
+<a title="datatype" href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">
+datatypes
+</a>
+does
+not
+accommodate
+<a title="language tag" href="#dfn-language-tag" class="internalDFN">
+language
+tags
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>.
+The
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+associated
+with
+this
+datatype
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+the
+set
+of
+all
+pairs
+of
+strings
+and
+language
+tags.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+the
+XML
+Schema
+datatype
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>,
+where
+each
+member
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+has
+two
+lexical
+representations,
+is
+defined
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Lexical
+space:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+{“
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+”,
+“
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+”,
+“
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+”,
+“
+<code>
+0
+</code>
+”}
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Value
+space:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+{
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>,
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+}
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</dt>
+<dd>
+{
+&lt;“
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+&lt;“
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+&lt;“
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+&lt;“
+<code>
+0
+</code>
+”,
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+&gt;,
+}
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+The
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+defined
+using
+this
+datatype
+are:
+</p>
+<table class="simple">
+<caption>
+This
+table
+lists
+the
+literals
+of
+type
+xsd:boolean.
+</caption>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Literal
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+true
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+&lt;“
+<code>
+0
+</code>
+”,
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+&gt;
+</td>
+<td>
+<em>
+<strong>
+false
+</strong>
+</em>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<section id="xsd-datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_xsd-datatypes">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+XML
+Schema
+Built-in
+Datatypes
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+of
+the
+form
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
+<em>
+xxx
+</em>
+</code>,
+where
+<code>
+<em>
+xxx
+</em>
+</code>
+is
+the
+name
+of
+a
+datatype,
+denote
+the
+built-in
+datatypes
+defined
+in
+<em>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/">
+XML
+Schema
+1.1
+Part
+2:
+Datatypes
+</a>
+</em>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">
+XMLSCHEMA11-2
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+XML
+Schema
+built-in
+types
+listed
+in
+the
+following
+table
+are
+the
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-compatible-xsd-types">
+RDF-compatible
+XSD
+types
+</dfn>.
+Their
+use
+is
+<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">
+RECOMMENDED
+</em>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Readers
+might
+note
+that
+the
+xsd:hexBinary
+and
+xsd:base64Binary
+datatypes
+are
+the
+only
+safe
+datatypes
+for
+transferring
+binary
+information.
+</p>
+<table class="simple">
+<caption>
+A
+list
+of
+the
+RDF-compatible
+XSD
+types,
+with
+short
+descriptions"
+</caption>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<th>
+</th>
+<th>
+Datatype
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+space
+(informative)
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="4">
+Core
+types
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string">
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Character
+strings
+(but
+not
+all
+Unicode
+character
+strings)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#boolean">
+<code>
+xsd:boolean
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+true,
+false
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#decimal">
+<code>
+xsd:decimal
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Arbitrary-precision
+decimal
+numbers
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#integer">
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Arbitrary-size
+integer
+numbers
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="2">
+IEEE
+floating-point
+<br />
+numbers
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#double">
+<code>
+xsd:double
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+64-bit
+floating
+point
+numbers
+incl.
+±Inf,
+±0,
+NaN
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#float">
+<code>
+xsd:float
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+32-bit
+floating
+point
+numbers
+incl.
+±Inf,
+±0,
+NaN
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="4">
+Time
+and
+date
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#date">
+<code>
+xsd:date
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Dates
+(yyyy-mm-dd)
+with
+or
+without
+timezone
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#time">
+<code>
+xsd:time
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Times
+(hh:mm:ss.sss…)
+with
+or
+without
+timezone
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTime">
+<code>
+xsd:dateTime
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Date
+and
+time
+with
+or
+without
+timezone
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTimeStamp">
+<code>
+xsd:dateTimeStamp
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Date
+and
+time
+with
+required
+timezone
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="8">
+Recurring
+and
+<br />
+partial
+dates
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gYear">
+<code>
+xsd:gYear
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Gregorian
+calendar
+year
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gMonth">
+<code>
+xsd:gMonth
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Gregorian
+calendar
+month
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gDay">
+<code>
+xsd:gDay
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Gregorian
+calendar
+day
+of
+the
+month
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gYearMonth">
+<code>
+xsd:gYearMonth
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Gregorian
+calendar
+year
+and
+month
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gMonthDay">
+<code>
+xsd:gMonthDay
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Gregorian
+calendar
+month
+and
+day
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#duration">
+<code>
+xsd:duration
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Duration
+of
+time
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#yearMonthDuration">
+<code>
+xsd:yearMonthDuration
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Duration
+of
+time
+(months
+and
+years
+only)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dayTimeDuration">
+<code>
+xsd:dayTimeDuration
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Duration
+of
+time
+(days,
+hours,
+minutes,
+seconds
+only)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="12">
+Limited-range
+<br />
+integer
+numbers
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#byte">
+<code>
+xsd:byte
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+-128…+127
+(8
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#short">
+<code>
+xsd:short
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+-32768…+32767
+(16
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int">
+<code>
+xsd:int
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+-2147483648…+2147483647
+(32
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#long">
+<code>
+xsd:long
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+-9223372036854775808…+9223372036854775807
+(64
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedByte">
+<code>
+xsd:unsignedByte
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+0…255
+(8
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedShort">
+<code>
+xsd:unsignedShort
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+0…65535
+(16
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedInt">
+<code>
+xsd:unsignedInt
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+0…4294967295
+(32
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedLong">
+<code>
+xsd:unsignedLong
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+0…18446744073709551615
+(64
+bit)
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#positiveInteger">
+<code>
+xsd:positiveInteger
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Integer
+numbers
+&gt;0
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nonNegativeInteger">
+<code>
+xsd:nonNegativeInteger
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Integer
+numbers
+≥0
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#negativeInteger">
+<code>
+xsd:negativeInteger
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Integer
+numbers
+&lt;0
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nonPositiveInteger">
+<code>
+xsd:nonPositiveInteger
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Integer
+numbers
+≤0
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="2">
+Encoded
+binary
+data
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#hexBinary">
+<code>
+xsd:hexBinary
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Hex-encoded
+binary
+data
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#base64Binary">
+<code>
+xsd:base64Binary
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Base64-encoded
+binary
+data
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th rowspan="7">
+Miscellaneous
+<br />
+XSD
+types
+</th>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#anyURI">
+<code>
+xsd:anyURI
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Absolute
+or
+relative
+URIs
+and
+IRIs
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#language">
+<code>
+xsd:language
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Language
+tags
+per
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#normalizedString">
+<code>
+xsd:normalizedString
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Whitespace-normalized
+strings
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#token">
+<code>
+xsd:token
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+Tokenized
+strings
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKEN">
+<code>
+xsd:NMTOKEN
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+XML
+NMTOKENs
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#Name">
+<code>
+xsd:Name
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+XML
+Names
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NCName">
+<code>
+xsd:NCName
+</code>
+</a>
+</td>
+<td>
+XML
+NCNames
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+The
+other
+built-in
+XML
+Schema
+datatypes
+are
+unsuitable
+for
+various
+<del class="diff-old">reasons,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">reasons
+</ins>
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">
+SHOULD
+NOT
+</em>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#QName">
+<code>
+xsd:QName
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ENTITY">
+<code>
+xsd:ENTITY
+</code>
+</a>
+require
+an
+enclosing
+XML
+document
+context.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ID">
+<code>
+xsd:ID
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#IDREF">
+<code>
+xsd:IDREF
+</code>
+</a>
+are
+for
+cross
+references
+within
+an
+XML
+document.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NOTATION">
+<code>
+xsd:NOTATION
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+not
+intended
+for
+direct
+use.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#IDREFS">
+<code>
+xsd:IDREFS
+</code>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#ENTITIES">
+<code>
+xsd:ENTITIES
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKENS">
+<code>
+xsd:NMTOKENS
+</code>
+</a>
+are
+sequence-valued
+datatypes
+which
+do
+not
+fit
+the
+RDF
+<a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+</a>
+model.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-html" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-html">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+Datatype
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">Feature
+at
+Risk
+1
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+rdf:HTML
+datatype
+is
+at
+risk
+of
+being
+changed
+from
+normative
+to
+non-normative
+because
+the
+definitions
+in
+[
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">DOM4
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins></em>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+and
+thus
+the
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+are
+not
+yet
+stable.
+Consequently
+interoperability
+can
+not
+be
+guaranteed
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time.
+Please
+send
+feedback
+to
[email protected]
+.
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+provides
+for
+HTML
+content
+as
+a
+possible
+<a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+value
+</a>.
+This
+allows
+markup
+in
+literal
+values.
+Such
+content
+is
+indicated
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+using
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+whose
+<a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+special
+built-in
+datatype
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+to
+</ins>
+<code>
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-html">
+rdf:HTML
+</dfn>
+</code>.
+This
+datatype
+is
+defined
+as
+<ins class="diff-new">non-normative
+because
+it
+depends
+on
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4"><ins class="diff-new">
+DOM4
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+],
+a
+specification
+that
+has
+not
+yet
+reached
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+Recommendation
+status.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+rdf:HTML
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+datatype
+is
+defined
+as
+</ins>
+follows:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+denoting
+this
+datatype
+</dt>
+<dd>
+is
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+The
+lexical
+space
+</dt>
+<dd>
+is
+the
+set
+of
+Unicode
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+strings.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+The
+value
+space
+</dt>
+<dd>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+DOM
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment">
+<code>
+DocumentFragment
+</code>
+</a>
+nodes
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">
+DOM4
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Two
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment">
+<code>
+DocumentFragment
+</code>
+</a>
+nodes
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+are
+considered
+equal
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+DOM
+method
+<code>
+<em>
+A
+</em>.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-isequalnode">
+isEqualNode
+</a>
+(
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+)
+</code>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">
+DOM4
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+returns
+<code>
+true
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+The
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>
+Each
+member
+of
+the
+lexical
+space
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+result
+of
+applying
+the
+following
+algorithm:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Let
+<code>
+domnodes
+</code>
+be
+the
+list
+of
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#node">
+DOM
+nodes
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">
+DOM4
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+that
+result
+from
+applying
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/syntax.html#parsing-html-fragments">
+HTML
+fragment
+parsing
+algorithm
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML5">
+HTML5
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+to
+the
+input
+string,
+without
+a
+context
+element.
+</li>
+<li>
+Let
+<code>
+domfrag
+</code>
+be
+a
+DOM
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment">
+<code>
+DocumentFragment
+</code>
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">
+DOM4
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+whose
+<code>
+childNodes
+</code>
+attribute
+is
+equal
+to
+<code>
+domnodes
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+Return
+<code>
+domfrag.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-normalize">
+normalize
+</a>
+()
+</code>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_6">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p id="note-html" class="">
+Any
+language
+annotation
+(
+<code>
+lang="…"
+</code>
+)
+or
+XML
+namespaces
+(
+<code>
+xmlns
+</code>
+)
+desired
+in
+the
+HTML
+content
+must
+be
+included
+explicitly
+in
+the
+HTML
+literal.
+Relative
+URLs
+in
+attributes
+such
+as
+<code>
+href
+</code>
+do
+not
+have
+a
+well-defined
+base
+URL
+and
+are
+best
+avoided.
+RDF
+applications
+may
+use
+additional
+equivalence
+relations,
+such
+as
+that
+which
+relates
+an
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>
+with
+an
+<code>
+rdf:HTML
+</code>
+literal
+corresponding
+to
+a
+single
+text
+node
+of
+the
+same
+string.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-XMLLiteral" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_section-XMLLiteral">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+The
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+Datatype
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">Feature
+at
+Risk
+2
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+datatype
+is
+at
+risk
+of
+being
+changed
+from
+normative
+to
+non-normative
+because
+the
+definitions
+in
+[
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">DOM4
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins></em>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+and
+thus
+the
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+are
+not
+yet
+stable.
+Consequently
+interoperability
+can
+not
+be
+guaranteed
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time.
+Please
+send
+feedback
+to
[email protected]
+.
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+provides
+for
+XML
+content
+as
+a
+possible
+<a href="#dfn-literal-value" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+value
+</a>.
+Such
+content
+is
+indicated
+in
+an
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+using
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>
+whose
+<a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+special
+built-in
+datatype
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+to
+</ins>
+<code>
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">,
+which
+</del>
+</code>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+datatype
+is
+defined
+as
+non-normative
+because
+it
+depends
+on
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4"><ins class="diff-chg">
+DOM4
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+],
+a
+specification
+that
+has
+not
+yet
+reached
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+Recommendation
+status.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+datatype
+</ins>
+is
+defined
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt id="XMLLiteral-uri">
+<del class="diff-old">An
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+denoting
+this
+<a href="#dfn-datatype" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+</a>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+is
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="XMLLiteral-lexical-space">
+The
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">
+lexical
+space
+</a>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+is
+the
+set
+of
+all
+strings
+which
+are
+well-balanced,
+self-contained
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#NT-content">
+XML
+content
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML10">
+XML10
+</a>
+</cite>
+];
+and
+for
+which
+embedding
+between
+an
+arbitrary
+XML
+start
+tag
+and
+an
+end
+tag
+yields
+a
+document
+conforming
+to
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114/">
+XML
+Namespaces
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">
+XML-NAMES
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+<dt id="XMLLiteral-value-space">
+The
+<a href="#dfn-value-space" class="internalDFN">
+value
+space
+</a>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+DOM
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment">
+<code>
+DocumentFragment
+</code>
+</a>
+nodes
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">
+DOM4
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Two
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment">
+<code>
+DocumentFragment
+</code>
+</a>
+nodes
+<em>
+A
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+are
+considered
+equal
+if
+and
+only
+if
+the
+DOM
+method
+<code>
+<em>
+A
+</em>.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-isequalnode">
+isEqualNode
+</a>
+(
+<em>
+B
+</em>
+)
+</code>
+returns
+<code>
+true
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="XMLLiteral-mapping">
+The
+<a href="#dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping" class="internalDFN">
+lexical-to-value
+mapping
+</a>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>
+Each
+member
+of
+the
+lexical
+space
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+result
+of
+applying
+the
+following
+algorithm:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Let
+<code>
+domfrag
+</code>
+be
+a
+DOM
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#interface-documentfragment">
+<code>
+DocumentFragment
+</code>
+</a>
+node
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-DOM4">
+DOM4
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+corresponding
+to
+the
+input
+string
+</li>
+<li>
+Return
+<code>
+domfrag.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/#dom-node-normalize">
+normalize
+</a>
+()
+</code>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+<dt id="XMLLiteral-canonical">
+The
+canonical
+mapping
+</dt>
+<dd>
+defines
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dt-canonical-mapping">
+canonical
+lexical
+form
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">
+XMLSCHEMA11-2
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+for
+each
+member
+of
+the
+value
+space.
+The
+<code>
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</code>
+canonical
+mapping
+is
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-exclusive-XML-canonicalization-method">
+exclusive
+XML
+canonicalization
+method
+</a>
+(
+<em>
+with
+comments,
+with
+empty
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-InclusiveNamespaces-PrefixList">
+InclusiveNamespaces
+PrefixList
+</a>
+</em>
+)
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML-EXC-C14N">
+XML-EXC-C14N
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_7">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Any
+XML
+namespace
+declarations
+(
+<code>
+xmlns
+</code>
+),
+language
+annotation
+(
+<code>
+xml:lang
+</code>
+)
+or
+base
+<abbr title="Uniform Resource Identifier">
+URI
+</abbr>
+declarations
+(
+<code>
+xml:base
+</code>
+)
+desired
+in
+the
+XML
+content
+must
+be
+included
+explicitly
+in
+the
+XML
+literal.
+Note
+that
+some
+concrete
+RDF
+syntaxes
+may
+define
+mechanisms
+for
+inheriting
+them
+from
+the
+context
+(e.g.,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/#parseTypeLiteralPropertyElt">
+<code>
[email protected]="literal"
+</code>
+</a>
+in
+RDF/XML
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-XML">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-XML
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]).
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="datatype-iris">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_datatype-iris">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Datatype
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Datatypes
+are
+identified
+by
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+If
+<var>
+D
+</var>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+IRIs
+which
+are
+used
+to
+refer
+to
+datatypes,
+then
+the
+elements
+of
+<var>
+D
+</var>
+are
+called
+<dfn id="dfn-recognized-datatype-iris">
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+</dfn>.
+Recognized
+IRIs
+have
+fixed
+<a href="#referents">
+referents
+<del class="diff-old">,
+which
+MUST
+satisfy
+these
+conditions:
+</del>
+</a>.
+If
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">any
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+the
+form
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#xxx
+</ins>
+</code>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">recognized
+then
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">recognized,
+</ins>
+it
+<del class="diff-old">refers
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+<ins class="diff-chg">MUST
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+refer
+</ins>
+to
+the
+<del class="diff-old">datatype
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF-compatible
+XSD
+type
+named
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">rdf:XMLLiteral
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">xsd:xxx
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">;
+If
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">for
+every
+XSD
+type
+listed
+in
+</ins><a href="#xsd-datatypes"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+5.1
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Furthermore,
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">following
+IRIs
+are
+allocated
+for
+non-normative
+datatypes:
+</ins></p><ul><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+recognized
+then
+it
+</del>
+refers
+to
+the
+datatype
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">rdf:HTML
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">rdf:XMLLiteral
+</ins></a>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">;
+</del>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">If
+any
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">of
+the
+form
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#xxx
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+recognized
+then
+it
+</del>
+refers
+to
+the
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-compatible
+XSD
+type
+named
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">datatype
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">xsd:xxx
+,
+for
+every
+XSD
+type
+listed
+in
+section
+5.1
+.
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-html" class="internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">rdf:HTML
+</ins></a></code>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_8">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Semantic
+extensions
+of
+RDF
+might
+choose
+to
+recognize
+other
+datatype
+IRIs
+and
+require
+them
+to
+refer
+to
+a
+fixed
+datatype.
+See
+the
+RDF
+Semantics
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+RDF11-MT
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+for
+more
+information
+on
+semantic
+extensions.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+RDF
+processors
+are
+not
+required
+to
+recognize
+datatype
+IRIs.
+Any
+literal
+typed
+with
+an
+unrecognized
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+treated
+just
+like
+an
+unknown
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+i.e.
+as
+referring
+to
+an
+unknown
+thing.
+Applications
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+give
+a
+warning
+message
+if
+they
+are
+unable
+to
+determine
+the
+referent
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+used
+in
+a
+typed
+literal,
+but
+they
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">
+SHOULD
+NOT
+</em>
+reject
+such
+RDF
+as
+either
+a
+syntactic
+or
+semantic
+error.
+</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<p>
+Other
+specifications
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>
+impose
+additional
+constraints
+on
+<a title="datatype IRI" href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">
+datatype
+IRIs
+</a>,
+for
+example,
+require
+support
+for
+certain
+datatypes.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_9">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p id="note-custom-datatypes" class="">
+The
+Web
+Ontology
+Language
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">
+OWL2-OVERVIEW
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+offers
+facilities
+for
+formally
+defining
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Datatype_Definitions">
+custom
+datatypes
+</a>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+with
+RDF.
+Furthermore,
+a
+practice
+for
+identifying
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-xsch-datatypes/#sec-userDefined">
+user-defined
+simple
+XML
+Schema
+datatypes
+</a>
+is
+suggested
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES">
+SWBP-XSCH-DATATYPES
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+RDF
+implementations
+are
+not
+required
+to
+support
+either
+of
+these
+facilities.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-fragID" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-fragID">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Fragment
+Identifiers
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF
+uses
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+which
+may
+include
+<dfn id="dfn-fragment-identifiers">
+fragment
+identifiers
+</dfn>,
+as
+resource
+identifiers.
+The
+semantics
+of
+fragment
+identifiers
+is
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.5">
+defined
+in
+RFC
+3986
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]:
+They
+identify
+a
+secondary
+resource
+that
+is
+usually
+a
+part
+of,
+view
+of,
+defined
+in,
+or
+described
+in
+the
+primary
+resource,
+and
+the
+precise
+semantics
+depend
+on
+the
+set
+of
+representations
+that
+might
+result
+from
+a
+retrieval
+action
+on
+the
+primary
+resource.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+section
+discusses
+the
+handling
+of
+fragment
+identifiers
+in
+representations
+that
+encode
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graphs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+RDF-bearing
+representations
+of
+a
+primary
+resource
+<code>
+&lt;foo&gt;
+</code>,
+the
+secondary
+resource
+identified
+by
+a
+fragment
+<code>
+bar
+</code>
+is
+the
+<a href="#dfn-resource" class="internalDFN">
+resource
+</a>
+<a title="denote" href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denoted
+</a>
+by
+the
+full
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+&lt;foo#bar&gt;
+</code>
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>.
+Since
+IRIs
+in
+RDF
+graphs
+can
+denote
+anything,
+this
+can
+be
+something
+external
+to
+the
+representation,
+or
+even
+external
+to
+the
+web.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+this
+way,
+the
+RDF-bearing
+representation
+acts
+as
+an
+intermediary
+between
+the
+web-accessible
+primary
+resource,
+and
+some
+set
+of
+possibly
+non-web
+or
+abstract
+entities
+that
+the
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+may
+describe.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+cases
+where
+other
+specifications
+constrain
+the
+semantics
+of
+fragment
+identifiers
+in
+RDF-bearing
+representations,
+the
+encoded
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+graph
+</a>
+should
+use
+fragment
+identifiers
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+consistent
+with
+these
+constraints.
+For
+example,
+in
+an
+HTML+RDFa
+document
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-HTML-RDFA">
+HTML-RDFA
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+the
+fragment
+<code>
+chapter1
+</code>
+may
+identify
+a
+document
+section
+via
+the
+semantics
+of
+HTML's
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+attributes.
+The
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+&lt;#chapter1&gt;
+</code>
+should
+then
+be
+taken
+to
+<a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denote
+</a>
+that
+same
+section
+in
+any
+RDFa-encoded
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+triples
+</a>
+within
+the
+same
+document.
+Similarly,
+<del class="diff-old">if
+the
[email protected]:id
+attribute
+[
+XML-ID
+]
+is
+used
+in
+an
+RDF/XML
+document,
+then
+the
+corresponding
+IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">fragment
+identifiers
+</ins>
+should
+be
+<del class="diff-old">taken
+to
+denote
+an
+XML
+element.
+Primary
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+consistently
+in
+</ins>
+resources
+<del class="diff-old">may
+have
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+</ins>
+multiple
+representations
+that
+are
+made
+available
+via
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/#frag-coneg">
+content
+negotiation
+</a>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-WEBARCH">
+WEBARCH
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+<del class="diff-old">Fragments
+in
+RDF-bearing
+representations
+should
+be
+used
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+consistent
+with
+the
+semantics
+imposed
+by
+any
+non-RDF
+representations.
+</del>
+For
+example,
+if
+the
+fragment
+<code>
+chapter1
+</code>
+identifies
+a
+document
+section
+in
+an
+HTML
+representation
+of
+the
+primary
+resource,
+then
+the
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+&lt;#chapter1&gt;
+</code>
+should
+be
+taken
+to
+<a href="#dfn-denote" class="internalDFN">
+denote
+</a>
+that
+same
+section
+in
+all
+RDF-bearing
+representations
+of
+the
+same
+primary
+resource.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-generalized-rdf" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-generalized-rdf">
+<span class="secno">
+7.
+</span>
+Generalized
+RDF
+Triples,
+Graphs,
+and
+Datasets
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+sometimes
+convenient
+to
+loosen
+the
+requirements
+on
+<a href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+s.
+For
+example,
+the
+completeness
+of
+the
+RDFS
+entailment
+rules
+is
+easier
+to
+show
+with
+a
+generalization
+of
+RDF
+triples.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn title="generalized RDF triple" id="dfn-generalized-rdf-triple">
+generalized
+RDF
+triple
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+triple
+having
+a
+subject,
+a
+predicate,
+and
+object,
+where
+each
+can
+be
+an
+<a title="iri" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literal
+</a>.
+A
+<dfn title="generalized RDF graph" id="dfn-generalized-rdf-graph">
+generalized
+RDF
+graph
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+generalized
+RDF
+triples.
+A
+<dfn title="generalized RDF dataset" id="dfn-generalized-rdf-dataset">
+generalized
+RDF
+dataset
+</dfn>
+comprises
+a
+distinguished
+generalized
+RDF
+graph,
+and
+zero
+or
+more
+pairs
+each
+associating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+a
+blank
+node
+or
+a
+literal
+to
+a
+generalized
+RDF
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+Generalized
+RDF
+triples,
+graphs,
+and
+datasets
+differ
+from
+normative
+RDF
+<a title="RDF triple" href="#dfn-rdf-triple" class="internalDFN">
+triples
+</a>,
+<a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">
+graphs
+</a>,
+and
+<a title="RDF dataset" href="#dfn-rdf-dataset" class="internalDFN">
+datasets
+</a>
+only
+by
+allowing
+<a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+<a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">
+blank
+nodes
+</a>
+and
+<a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">
+literals
+</a>
+to
+appear
+in
+any
+position,
+i.e.,
+as
+subject,
+predicate,
+object
+or
+graph
+names.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h_note_10">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p id="note-generalized-rdf" class="">
+Any
+users
+of
+generalized
+RDF
+triples,
+graphs
+or
+datasets
+need
+to
+be
+aware
+that
+these
+notions
+are
+non-standard
+extensions
+of
+RDF
+and
+their
+use
+may
+cause
+interoperability
+problems.
+There
+is
+no
+requirement
+on
+the
+part
+of
+any
+RDF
+tool
+to
+accept,
+process,
+or
+produce
+anything
+beyond
+standard
+RDF
+triples,
+graphs,
+and
+datasets.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="section-Acknowledgments" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_section-Acknowledgments">
+<span class="secno">
+8.
+</span>
+Acknowledgments
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+1.1
+</del>
+editors
+acknowledge
+valuable
+contributions
+from
+Thomas
+Baker,
+<ins class="diff-new">Tim
+Berners-Lee,
+David
+Booth,
+</ins>
+Dan
+Brickley,
+Gavin
+Carothers,
+Jeremy
+Carroll,
+Pierre-Antoine
+Champin,
+Dan
+Connolly,
+<del class="diff-old">Tim
+Berners-Lee,
+</del>
+John
+Cowan,
+Martin
+J.
+Dürst,
+Alex
+Hall,
+Steve
+Harris,
+<ins class="diff-new">Sandro
+Hawke,
+</ins>
+Pat
+Hayes,
+Ivan
+Herman,
+Peter
+F.
+Patel-Schneider,
+Addison
+Phillips,
+Eric
+Prud'hommeaux,
+<ins class="diff-new">Nathan
+Rixham,
+</ins>
+Andy
+Seaborne,
+Leif
+Halvard
+Silli,
+<del class="diff-old">Nathan
+Rixham,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Guus
+Schreiber,
+</ins>
+Dominik
+<del class="diff-old">Tomaszuk
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Tomaszuk,
+</ins>
+and
+Antoine
+Zimmermann.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+2004
+editors
+acknowledge
+valuable
+contributions
+from
+Frank
+Manola,
+Pat
+Hayes,
+Dan
+Brickley,
+Jos
+de
+Roo,
+Sergey
+Melnik,
+Dave
+Beckett,
+Patrick
+Stickler,
+Peter
+F.
+Patel-Schneider,
+Jerome
+Euzenat,
+Massimo
+Marchiori,
+Tim
+Berners-Lee,
+Dave
+Reynolds
+and
+Dan
+Connolly.
+Editors
+of
+the
+2004
+version
+of
+this
+specification
+were
+Graham
+Klyne
+and
+Jeremy
+J.
+Carroll.
+Brian
+McBride
+served
+as
+series
+editor
+for
+the
+2004
+RDF
+specifications.
+This
+specification
+is
+a
+product
+of
+extended
+deliberations
+by
+the
+members
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">membership
+</ins>
+of
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+<del class="diff-old">.
+It
+draws
+upon
+two
+earlier
+specifications,
+RDF
+Model
+and
+Syntax
+,
+edited
+by
+Ora
+Lassilla
+and
+Ralph
+Swick,
+and
+RDF
+Schema
+,
+edited
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">included
+Thomas
+Baker,
+Scott
+Bauer,
+</ins>
+Dan
+<del class="diff-old">Brickley
+and
+R.
+V.
+Guha,
+which
+were
+produced
+by
+members
+of
+the
+RDFcore
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Brickley,
+Gavin
+Carothers,
+Pierre-Antoine
+Champin,
+Olivier
+Corby,
+Richard
+Cyganiak,
+Souripriya
+Das,
+Ian
+Davis,
+Lee
+Feigenbaum,
+Fabien
+Gandon,
+Charles
+Greer,
+Alex
+Hall,
+Steve
+Harris,
+Sandro
+Hawke,
+Pat
+Hayes,
+Ivan
+Herman,
+Nicholas
+Humfrey,
+Kingsley
+Idehen,
+Gregg
+Kellogg,
+Markus
+Lanthaler,
+Arnaud
+Le
+Hors,
+Peter
+F.
+Patel-Schneider,
+Eric
+Prud'hommeaux,
+Yves
+Raimond,
+Nathan
+Rixham,
+Guus
+Schreiber,
+Andy
+Seaborne,
+Manu
+Sporny,
+Thomas
+Steiner,
+Ted
+Thibodeau,
+Mischa
+Tuffield,
+William
+Waites,
+Jan
+Wielemaker,
+David
+Wood,
+Zhe
+Wu,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">Schema
+Working
+Groups
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Antoine
+Zimmermann.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="changes" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_changes">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Changes
+between
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">2004
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+and
+RDF
+1.1
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+section
+discusses
+changes
+between
+the
+2004
+Recommendation
+of
+RDF
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+and
+the
+RDF
+1.1
+versions
+of
+this
+specification.
+Previous
+versions
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+detailed
+overview
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+used
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">term
+“
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">differences
+between
+</ins>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">URI
+Reference
+”
+instead
+of
+“
+IRI
+”
+and
+allowed
+additional
+characters:
+“
+&lt;
+”,
+“
+&gt;
+”,
+“
+{
+”,
+“
+}
+”,
+“
+|
+”,
+“
+\
+”,
+“
+^
+”,
+“
+`
+”,
+‘
+“
+’
+(double
+quote),
+and
+“
+”
+(space).
+In
+IRIs,
+these
+characters
+must
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">versions&#160;1.0
+and&#160;1.1
+can
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">percent-encoded
+as
+described
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">found
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">section
+2.1
+of
+[
+RFC3986
+].
+In
+earlier
+versions
+of
+RDF,
+literals
+with
+a
+language
+tag
+did
+not
+have
+a
+datatype
+IRI
+,
+and
+simple
+literals
+could
+appear
+directly
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-new/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">What’s
+New
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+abstract
+syntax.
+Simple
+literals
+and
+literals
+with
+a
+language
+tag
+were
+collectively
+known
+as
+plain
+literals
+.
+Earlier
+versions
+of
+RDF
+permitted
+language
+tags
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF&#160;1.1
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">that
+adhered
+to
+the
+generic
+tag/subtag
+syntax
+of
+language
+tags,
+but
+were
+not
+well-formed
+according
+to
+</del>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">BCP47
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-NEW">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-NEW
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+<del class="diff-old">Such
+language
+tags
+do
+not
+conform
+to
+RDF
+1.1.
+The
+xsd:string
+datatype
+does
+not
+permit
+the
+#x0
+character,
+and
+implementations
+might
+not
+permit
+control
+codes
+in
+the
+#x1-#x1F
+range.
+Earlier
+versions
+of
+RDF
+allowed
+these
+characters
+in
+simple
+literals
+,
+although
+they
+could
+never
+be
+serialized
+in
+a
+W3C
+-recommended
+concrete
+syntax.
+Currently
+a
+literal
+with
+type
+xsd:string
+containing
+the
+#x0
+character
+is
+an
+ill-typed
+literal.
+</del>
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="change-log" class="appendix informative" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_change-log">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Change
+Log
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Changes
+since
+the
+5
+November
+2013
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">B.1
+Changes
+from
+23
+July
+2013
+LC
+to
+this
+version
+</del>
+<p>
+This
+section
+lists
+changes
+<del class="diff-old">from
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">since
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">23
+July
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-rdf11-concepts-20131105/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5
+November
+</ins>
+2013
+<del class="diff-old">Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+(LC)
+to
+this
+</del>
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+<del class="diff-old">of
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+.
+2013-10-30:
+Mark
+rdf:rdf:HTML
+and
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+as
+at
+risk.
+2013010-21:
+Added
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+as
+editor.
+Minor
+editorial
+updates
+(e.g.
+repair
+of
+broken
+links).
+Updates
+to
+sections
+1.2,
+1.3,
+3.1,
+3.2,
+3.3,
+4.1
+and
+5.4
+to
+address
+comments
+from
+Michael
+Schneider
+(
+ISSUE-161
+)
+2013-10-16:
+Fixed
+ReSpec
+issue
+regarding
+previous
+editor
+attributions
+and
+added
+previous
+editors
+to
+acknowledgements
+to
+address
+ISSUE-150
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(CR)
+</ins>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">2013-10-16:
+Update
+to
+Section
+7
+in
+accordance
+with
+ISSUE-147
+(
+ACTION-309
+,
+assignment
+of
+action
+)
+2013-09-10:
+Update
+to
+Section
+7
+in
+accordance
+with
+ISSUE-139
+(
+resolution
+)
+2013-08-26:
+Update
+to
+Section
+4.1
+to
+satisfy
+ACTION-283
+and
+ISSUE-140
+(
+resolution
+)
+B.2
+Changes
+from
+15
+January
+2013
+WD
+to
+this
+version
+This
+section
+lists
+changes
+from
+the
+15
+January
+2013
+Working
+Draft
+(LC)
+to
+the
+Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+of
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+.
+</del>
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-07-15:
+Editorial
+change
+to
+the
+first
+paragraph
+of
+Section
+1.7
+in
+an
+attempt
+to
+clarify
+the
+relationship
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-18:
+Make
+reference
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-MT
+following
+the
+review
+by
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+and
+suggested
+changes
+by
+Peter
+Patel-Schneider
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">[
+</ins><cite>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-07-03:
+Editorial
+changes
+in
+response
+to
+a
+review
+by
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+and
+a
+related
+request
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF11-MT
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-new">]
+non-normative
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-06-27:
+Added
+informative
+section
+on
+generalized
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-18:
+Update
+RDF/XML,
+</ins>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">triples,
+graphs,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Schema,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">datasets.
+2013-06-27:
+Added
+caution
+on
+the
+use
+of
+graph
+names
+as
+blank
+nodes.
+2013-06-19:
+Noted
+that
+</del>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">Dataset
+graph
+names
+may
+be
+blank
+nodes
+(
+ACTION-274
+,
+resolution
+)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Primer
+references
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-06-19:
+Changes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-17:
+Minor
+editorial
+changes
+</ins>
+in
+response
+to
+a
+review
+by
+<del class="diff-old">Peter
+Patel-Schneider
+</del>
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Dec/0225.html">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Pat
+Hayes
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-06-05:
+Minor
+change
+to
+note
+to
+specify
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-17:
+Update
+SPARQL
+reference
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+space
+and
+lexical
+space
+of
+language
+tags
+(
+ACTION-265
+,
+resolution
+)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">introduction
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-05-08:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-16:
+</ins>
+Minor
+<del class="diff-old">change
+to
+note
+that
+a
+badly
+formed
+language
+tag
+is
+a
+syntax
+error
+(
+ACTION-262
+)
+2013-05-08:
+Migrated
+language
+related
+to
+datatype
+maps
+to
+recognized
+datatype
+IRIs
+(
+ISSUE-118
+)
+2013-05-08:
+Editorial
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">editorial
+</ins>
+changes
+<del class="diff-old">in
+response
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">a
+discussion
+</del>
+<a href="#referents" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.3
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Referent
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+equality
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+IRI
+</ins></span>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-05-08:
+Editorial
+changes
+</del>
+</a>
+in
+response
+to
+a
+review
+by
+<del class="diff-old">Sandro
+Hawke
+</del>
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/2013Oct/0008.html">
+<ins class="diff-chg">David
+Booth
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-05-07:
+Revised
+the
+definition
+of
+blank
+nodes
+(
+ISSUE-107
+)
+2013-05-07:
+Defined
+the
+consequence
+of
+a
+literal
+being
+ill-typed
+(
+ISSUE-109
+)
+2013-05-07:
+Clarified
+the
+existence
+of
+null
+control
+characters
+in
+xsd:strings
+(
+ISSUE-126
+)
+2013-05-07:
+Added
+a
+definition
+of
+RDF
+Dataset
+isomorphism
+(
+ISSUE-111
+)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-16:
+Make
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+rdf:HTML
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+non-normative
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-05-07:
+Addressed
+content
+negotiation
+as
+it
+relates
+to
+graphs
+and
+datasets
+(
+ISSUE-105
+)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-16:
+Update
+acknowledgments
+</ins>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">B.3
+Changes
+from
+05
+June
+2012
+WD
+to
+this
+version
+This
+section
+lists
+changes
+from
+the
+05
+June
+2012
+Working
+Draft
+(WD)
+to
+this
+Editor's
+Draft
+of
+RDF
+1.1
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax
+.
+</del>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2013-01-14:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-12:
+</ins>
+Editorial
+changes
+in
+response
+to
+<del class="diff-old">reviews
+from
+Antoine
+Zimmermann
+and
+Peter
+Patel-Schneider
+2012-11-21:
+Replaced
+the
+placeholder
+term
+“g-box”
+with
+“
+RDF
+source
+”
+(
+ISSUE-110
+)
+2012-11-21:
+Removed
+various
+Notes
+(as
+listed
+here
+),
+and
+refactored
+others
+(
+ISSUE-104
+)
+2012-11-17:
+Many
+changes
+to
+Introduction,
+including
+mostly
+new
+subsections
+on
+Working
+with
+Multiple
+RDF
+Graphs
+and
+G-Boxes
+,
+Equivalence,
+Entailment
+and
+Inconsistencies
+,
+and
+RDF
+Documents
+and
+Syntaxes
+2012-11-17:
+Reverted
+section
+on
+Blank
+Nodes
+to
+earlier
+state
+2012-11-17:
+Changes,
+mostly
+but
+not
+exclusively
+editorial,
+to
+section
+on
+Fragment
+Identifiers
+2012-11-13:
+Remove
+the
+notion
+of
+other
+specs
+conforming
+to
+this
+spec
+from
+the
+Conformance
+section.
+This
+spec
+simply
+provides
+definitions
+that
+other
+specs
+can
+use.
+2012-11-09:
+Updated
+the
+section
+on
+RDF
+datasets
+to
+reflect
+various
+WG
+resolutions
+around
+named
+graphs
+2012-11-09:
+Re-wrote
+the
+section
+on
+Blank
+Nodes
+,
+including
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">definition
+of
+“fresh
+blank
+nodes”
+and
+an
+extended
+Note
+on
+standardizing
+apart
+blank
+node
+IDs
+2012-11-09:
+Moved
+all
+informative
+material
+about
+changes
+between
+RDF
+2004
+and
+RDF
+1.1
+to
+a
+new
+appendix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">review
+by
+</ins><a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-wg/2013Dec/0084.html"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Thomas
+Baker
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">2012-11-07:
+Add
+new
+informative
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2013-12-12:
+Replace
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#changes">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">on
+Change
+Over
+Time
+2012-11-07:
+New
+abstract
+,
+based
+on
+comments
+from
+Dan
+Connolly
+2012-11-06:
+Tweak
+definition
+of
+literals
+to
+avoid
+apparent
+contradiction
+(
+ISSUE-94
+)
+2012-11-06:
+Add
+a
+note
+on
+the
+use
+of
+OWL2
+custom
+datatypes
+and
+simple
+user-defined
+XML
+Schema
+datatypes
+(
+ISSUE-96
+)
+2012-11-06:
+Add
+a
+note
+on
+empty
+named
+graphs
+(
+ISSUE-22
+)
+2012-11-06:
+Modify
+the
+Note
+on
+relative
+IRIs
+to
+stress
+their
+usefulness
+and
+to
+clarify
+the
+role
+of
+RFC
+3986
+in
+the
+resolution
+process
+2012-11-06:
+Informatively
+explain
+that
+IRIs
+in
+this
+spec
+are
+treated
+only
+as
+nodes
+in
+a
+graph
+data
+model,
+and
+no
+interaction
+model
+is
+implied
+2012-08-09:
+Clarify
+that
+all
+datatypes
+are
+optional,
+but
+RDF-conformant
+specifications
+MAY
+require
+specific
+datatype
+maps
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Changes
+<del class="diff-old">from
+FPWD
+to
+05
+June
+2012
+WD
+This
+section
+lists
+changes
+from
+the
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+(FPWD)
+to
+the
+05
+June
+2012
+Working
+Draft
+(WD)
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">between
+</ins>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">1.1
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">Abstract
+Syntax
+.
+2012-05-31:
+Update
+Acknowledgements
+for
+</del>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">1.1;
+added
+RDFa
+</del>
+1.1
+<del class="diff-old">markup
+2012-05-24:
+Moved
+the
+multigraph
+section
+to
+an
+earlier
+position
+and
+renamed
+it
+to
+“
+RDF
+Datasets
+”
+2012-05-17:
+Changed
+normative
+reference
+for
+DOM
+in
+rdf:XMLLiteral
+from
+[DOM3CORE]
+to
+[DOM4]
+as
+we
+need
+DOM4
+anyways
+for
+rdf:HTML
+2012-05-17:
+Added
+rdf:HTML
+datatype
+(
+ISSUE-63
+)
+2012-05-17: