save HTML from the ReSpec source rdf-concepts-FPWD
authorRichard Cyganiak <richard@cyganiak.de>
Wed, 17 Aug 2011 16:19:12 +0100
branchrdf-concepts-FPWD
changeset 131 1fd0162b0821
parent 130 a209041ccbda
child 139 29fa7711f8b6
save HTML from the ReSpec source
rdf-concepts/Overview.html
rdf-concepts/index.html
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+++ b/rdf-concepts/Overview.html	Wed Aug 17 16:19:12 2011 +0100
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+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head><body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 property="dcterms:title" class="title" id="title">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</h1><h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2011-08-22T23:00:00+0000" id="w3c-working-draft-23-august-2011">W3C Working Draft 23 August 2011</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdf11-concepts-20110823/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdf11-concepts-20110823/</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-concepts/index.html</a></dd><dt>Latest recommendation:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd rel="bibo:editor"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Richard Cyganiak" href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/">Richard Cyganiak</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.deri.ie/">DERI, NUI Galway</a></span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor"><span typeof="foaf:Person"><span property="foaf:name">David Wood</span>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.talis.com/">Talis</a></span>
+</dd>
+<dt>Previous editors:</dt><dd><span><a content="Graham Klyne" href="http://www.ninebynine.org/">Graham Klyne</a>, Nine by Nine</span>
+</dd>
+<dd><span><span>Jeremy J. Carroll</span>, Hewlett Packard Labs</span>
+</dd>
+<dd><span><span>Brian McBride</span>, Hewlett Packard Labs (RDF 2004 Series Editor)</span>
+</dd>
+</dl><p class="copyright"><a rel="license" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2004-2011 <span rel="dcterms:publisher"><span typeof="foaf:Organization"><a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="World Wide Web Consotrium" href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup></span></span> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. W3C <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div>
+
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#abstract"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+    <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
+    representing information in the Web.</p>
+    <p>RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax defines an abstract syntax
+    on which RDF is based, and which serves to link its concrete
+    syntax to its formal semantics. It also includes discussion of
+    key concepts, datatyping, character normalization
+    and handling of IRIs.</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#sotd"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">W3C technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
+  <p>This document is work in progress towards a revision of the
+  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/"><em>RDF Concepts
+  and Abstract Syntax</em></a> Recommendation,
+  and is intended to eventually replace that document.
+  It is part of a larger effort to revise the
+  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/#section-Introduction">RDF specifications as published in 2004</a>.
+  The most significant changes from the 2004 edition are:
+  modified <a href="#section-Graph-Literal">string literals</a>,
+  a <a href="#section-skolemization">section on skolemization
+  of blank nodes</a>, and many updated
+  <a href="#references">references</a> to other specifications
+  (including a change in terminology from
+  “URI references” to “IRIs”). A fuller list of changes that
+  have been made to date is provided in <a href="#changes">Appendix A</a>.
+  Various areas of work to be tackled in upcoming
+  working drafts are highlighted throughout the document, but
+  should not yet be understood as an exhaustive list.</p>
+<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">RDF Working Group</a> as a First Public Working Draft. This document is intended to become a W3C Recommendation. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy</a>. W3C maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conformance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Conformance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>RDF Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-data-model" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Graph Data Model</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-IRI-Vocabulary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>IRI-based Vocabulary and Node Identification</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#datatypes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Datatypes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Entailment" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Entailment</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-URIspaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>RDF Vocabulary IRI and Namespace</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#datatypes-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Datatypes</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-XMLLiteral" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>XML Content within an RDF Graph</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Graph-syntax" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Abstract Syntax</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-triples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>RDF Triples</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-rdf-graph" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>RDF Graph</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-graph-equality" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.3 </span>Graph Equivalence</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-IRIs" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.4 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Graph-Literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.5 </span>RDF Literals</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Literal-Equality" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.5.1 </span>Literal Equality</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Literal-Value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.5.2 </span>The Value Corresponding to a Typed Literal</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-blank-nodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.6 </span>Blank Nodes</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-skolemization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.6.1 </span>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-multigraph" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.7 </span>Abstract Syntax for Working with Multiple Graphs</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-fragID" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Fragment Identifiers</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-Acknowledgments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">8. </span>Acknowledgments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Changes from RDF 2004</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div id="section-Introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Introduction" class="section">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+    <p class="issue">This document reflects current progress of the RDF Working
+      Group towards updating the
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">2004
+      version of <em>RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em></a>. The
+      editors expect to work on a number of issues, some of which are
+      listed in boxes like this throughout the document.</p>
+
+    <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
+    representing information in the Web.</p>
+
+    <p>This document defines an abstract syntax (a data model)
+    on which RDF is based,
+    and which serves to link concrete syntaxes to its formal
+    semantics. It also includes discussion of
+    key concepts, datatyping, character normalization
+    and handling of IRIs.</p>
+
+    <p>Normative documentation of RDF falls into the following
+    areas:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>Serialization syntaxes (Turtle [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TURTLE-TR">TURTLE-TR</a></cite>], RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-PRIMER">RDFA-PRIMER</a></cite>], RDF/XML [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>], N-Triples [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES">N-TRIPLES</a></cite>]),</li>
+
+      <li>the RDF Vocabulary Description Language ([<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]),</li>
+
+      <li>a formal model-theoretic semantics [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>], and</li>
+
+      <li>this document.</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>The framework is designed so that vocabularies can be layered.  
+    The terms defined in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>] are the first such vocabulary.
+    Several other vocabularies for RDF are
+    mentioned in the Primer [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER">RDF-PRIMER</a></cite>].</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="conformance" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#conformance" class="section"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Conformance</h2><p>As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.</p>
+<p>The key words <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>, <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>, and <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-Concepts" class="informative section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Concepts">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>RDF Concepts</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+    <p class="issue">This section is quite redundant with later
+    normative sections and the RDF Primer. Its removal has been
+    proposed. This is
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/68">ISSUE-68</a>.</p>
+
+    <p>RDF uses the following key concepts:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>Graph data model</li>
+
+      <li>IRI-based vocabulary</li>
+
+      <li>Datatypes</li>
+
+      <li>Literals</li>
+
+      <li>Entailment</li>
+    </ul>
+
+
+<div id="section-data-model" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-data-model" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Graph Data Model</h3>
+
+    <p>The underlying structure of any expression in RDF is a
+    collection of triples, each consisting of a subject, a
+    predicate and an object. A set of such triples is called an RDF
+    graph (defined more formally in 
+<a href="#section-Graph-syntax">section 6</a>). This can be
+    illustrated by a node and directed-arc diagram, in which each
+    triple is represented as a node-arc-node link (hence the term
+    “graph”).</p>
+
+    <div class="figure">
+      <img src="Graph-ex.gif" alt="image of the RDF triple comprising (subject, predicate, object)">
+    </div>
+
+    <p>Each triple represents a statement of a relationship between
+    the things denoted by the nodes that it links. Each triple has
+    three parts:</p>
+    <ol>
+      <li>a <a href="#dfn-subject" class="internalDFN">subject</a>,</li>
+      <li>an <a href="#dfn-object" class="internalDFN">object</a>, and</li>
+      <li>a <a href="#dfn-predicate" class="internalDFN">predicate</a> (also called a
+      <a href="#dfn-property" class="internalDFN">property</a>) that denotes a
+      relationship.</li>
+    </ol>
+    <p>The direction of the arc is significant: it always points
+    toward the object.</p>
+    <p>The <a title="node" href="#dfn-node" class="internalDFN">nodes</a> of an RDF graph
+    are its subjects and objects.</p>
+    <p>The assertion of an RDF triple says that some relationship,
+    indicated by the predicate, holds between the things denoted by
+    subject and object of the triple. The assertion of an RDF graph
+    amounts to asserting all the triples in it, so the meaning of
+    an RDF graph is the conjunction (logical AND) of the statements
+    corresponding to all the triples it contains. A formal account
+    of the meaning of RDF graphs is given in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>].</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-IRI-Vocabulary" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-IRI-Vocabulary" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>IRI-based Vocabulary and Node Identification</h3>
+
+    <p>A <a href="#dfn-node" class="internalDFN">node</a> may be an <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a>, a <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a>,
+    or <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank</a> (having no separate form of identification).
+    Properties are <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>.</p>
+    <p>An <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a> or <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a> used as a node identifies what
+    that node represents. An IRI used as a predicate
+    identifies a relationship between the things represented by the nodes it connects. A
+    predicate IRI may also be a node in the graph.</p>
+    <p>A <a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank node</a> is a node that is
+    not an IRI or a literal. In the RDF abstract syntax, a
+    blank node is just a unique node that can be used in one or
+    more RDF statements.</p>
+    <p>A convention used by some linear representations of an RDF
+    graph to allow several statements to use the same
+    blank node is to use a <dfn id="dfn-blank-node-identifier">blank node
+    identifier</dfn>, which is a local identifier that can be
+    distinguished from all IRIs and literals. When graphs are
+    merged, their blank nodes must be kept distinct if meaning is
+    to be preserved; this may call for re-allocation of blank node
+    identifiers. Note that such blank node identifiers are not part
+    of the RDF abstract syntax, and the representation of triples
+    containing blank nodes is entirely dependent on the particular
+    concrete syntax used.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div name="section-Datatypes-intro" id="datatypes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#datatypes" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Datatypes</h3>
+
+    <p>Datatypes are used by RDF in the representation of values such
+    as integers, floating point numbers and dates.</p>
+
+ <p>
+A datatype consists of a lexical space, a value space and a lexical-to-value 
+mapping, see <a href="#section-Datatypes">section 5</a>.
+</p>
+
+    <p>For example, the lexical-to-value mapping for the XML Schema datatype
+    <var>xsd:boolean</var>, where each member of the value space
+    (represented here as 'T' and 'F') has two lexical representations,
+    is as follows:</p>
+
+    <table border="1" cellpadding="5" summary="A table detailing the xsd:boolean datatype.">
+      <tbody><tr>
+        <th align="left">Value Space</th>
+
+        <td>{T, F}</td>
+      </tr>
+
+      <tr>
+        <th align="left">Lexical Space</th>
+
+        <td>{"0", "1", "true", "false"}</td>
+      </tr>
+
+      <tr>
+        <th align="left">Lexical-to-Value Mapping</th>
+
+        <td>{&lt;"true", T&gt;, &lt;"1", T&gt;, &lt;"0", F&gt;,
+        &lt;"false", F&gt;}</td>
+      </tr>
+    </tbody></table>
+
+    <p>RDF predefines just one datatype <code><a href="#dfn-rdf-xmlliteral" class="internalDFN">rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code>, used for
+    embedding XML in RDF (see <a href="#section-XMLLiteral">section
+    5.1</a>).</p>
+
+    <p>There is no built-in concept of numbers or dates or other common
+    values. Rather, RDF defers to datatypes that are defined
+    separately, and identified with <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>.
+    The predefined XML Schema
+    datatypes [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA-2">XMLSCHEMA-2</a></cite>] are expected
+    to be widely used for this purpose.</p>
+
+
+    <p>RDF provides no mechanism for defining new datatypes. XML Schema
+    Datatypes [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA-2">XMLSCHEMA-2</a></cite>] provides an
+    extensibility framework suitable for defining new datatypes for use
+    in RDF.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div name="section-Literals" id="literals" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#literals" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Literals</h3>
+
+    <p><a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">Literals</a> are used to identify values such as numbers and dates
+    by means of a lexical representation. Anything represented by a
+    literal could also be represented by an <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a>, but it is often more
+    convenient or intuitive to use literals.</p>
+
+    <p>A literal may be the object of an RDF statement, but not the
+    subject or the predicate.</p>
+
+    <p>Literals may be <cite>typed</cite> or <cite>language-tagged</cite>:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>A <a href="#dfn-typed-literal" class="internalDFN">typed literal</a> is a string combined with a
+      <a href="#dfn-datatype-iri" class="internalDFN">datatype IRI</a>. It denotes the
+      member of the identified datatype's value space obtained by
+      applying the lexical-to-value mapping to the literal string.</li>
+
+      <li>A <a href="#dfn-language-tagged-literal" class="internalDFN">language-tagged literal</a> is a string combined
+      with a language tag. This may be used for
+      plain text in a natural language. Language-tagged literals
+      are self-denoting.</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>Continuing the example from <a href="#section-Datatypes-intro">section
+    3.3</a>, the typed literals that can be defined using the XML
+    Schema datatype <var>xsd:boolean</var> are:</p>
+
+    <table border="1" cellpadding="5" summary="This table lists the literals of type xsd:boolean.">
+      <tbody><tr>
+        <th>Typed Literal</th>
+
+        <th>Lexical-to-Value Mapping</th>
+
+        <th>Value</th>
+      </tr>
+
+      <tr>
+        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "true"&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">&lt;"true", T&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">T</td>
+      </tr>
+
+      <tr>
+        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "1"&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">&lt;"1", T&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">T</td>
+      </tr>
+
+      <tr>
+        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "false"&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">&lt;"false", F&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">F</td>
+      </tr>
+
+      <tr>
+        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "0"&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">&lt;"0", F&gt;</td>
+
+        <td align="center">F</td>
+      </tr>
+    </tbody></table>
+
+    <p>For text that may contain 
+    markup, use typed literals
+with type <a href="#section-XMLLiteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a>.
+If language annotation is required, 
+it    must be explicitly included as markup, usually by means of an 
+<code>xml:lang</code> attribute. 
+XHTML [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XHTML10">XHTML10</a></cite>] may be included within RDF
+in this way. Sometimes, in this latter case, 
+ an additional <code>span</code> or <code>div</code> 
+    element is needed to carry an
+<code>xml:lang</code> or <code>lang</code> attribute. 
+    </p>
+
+<p class="issue">Update the XHTML 1.0 reference to something more recent?</p>
+
+<p>
+The string in both plain and typed literals is recommended to
+be in Unicode Normal Form C [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-NFC">NFC</a></cite>]. This is motivated
+by [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-CHARMOD">CHARMOD</a></cite>] particularly 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/WD-charmod-20030822/#sec-Normalization">section 4 
+Early Uniform Normalization</a>.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-Entailment" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Entailment" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Entailment</h3>
+
+    <p>The ideas on meaning and inference in RDF are underpinned by the
+    formal concept of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210/#entail">
+<cite>entailment</cite></a>, as 
+      discussed in the RDF
+    semantics document [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>].
+In brief,  an RDF expression A is said to
+<dfn title="entailment" id="dfn-entailment">entail</dfn> another RDF&nbsp;expression B
+if every possible
+arrangement of things in the world that makes A true also makes B
+true. On this basis, if the truth of A is presumed or demonstrated
+then the truth of B can be inferred . 
+</p>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-URIspaces" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-URIspaces" class="section">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>RDF Vocabulary IRI and Namespace</h2>
+
+    <p>RDF uses <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> to identify resources
+    and properties. Certain
+    IRIs with the following leading substring are defined by the
+    RDF specifications to denote specific concepts:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li><code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</code>
+      (conventionally associated with namespace prefix <code>rdf:</code>)</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>Vocabulary terms in the <code>rdf:</code>
+    namespace are listed and described in detail in the
+    RDF Schema specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>].</p>
+
+    <p class="note">The RDF namespace is also used as an
+    XML namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>] to define a number of additional
+    element and attribute names for purely syntactic purposes within
+    the RDF/XML syntax ([<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR</a></cite>],
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20040210/#section-Namespace">section 5.1</a>).
+    These terms (e.g., <code>rdf:about</code> and <code>rdf:ID</code>)
+    do not denote concepts.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div name="section-Datatypes" id="datatypes-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#datatypes-1" class="section">
+   <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Datatypes</h2>
+
+    <p class="issue">This section perhaps should discuss
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/#dtype_interp">the XSD datatype map</a>
+    and <code><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/">rdf:PlainLiteral</a></code>.
+    This is <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/70">ISSUE-70</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+The datatype abstraction used in RDF is compatible with 
+the abstraction used in
+XML Schema Part 2:
+    Datatypes [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA-2">XMLSCHEMA-2</a></cite>].</p>
+<p>
+A datatype consists of a lexical space, a value space and a lexical-to-value 
+mapping.
+</p>
+<p>The <dfn id="dfn-lexical-space">lexical space</dfn> of a datatype is a set of Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] strings.</p>
+<p>
+The <dfn id="dfn-lexical-to-value-mapping">lexical-to-value mapping</dfn> of a datatype is a set of pairs whose 
+first element belongs to 
+the <a href="#dfn-lexical-space" class="internalDFN">lexical space</a> of the datatype, 
+and the second element belongs to the 
+ <dfn id="dfn-value-space">value space</dfn> of the datatype:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Each member of the lexical space is paired with (maps to) exactly one member 
+of the value space.
+</li>
+<li>
+Each member of the value space may be paired with any number (including 
+zero) of members of the lexical space (lexical representations for that 
+value).
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+A datatype is identified by one or more IRIs.
+</p>
+<p>
+RDF may be used with any datatype definition that conforms to this
+abstraction, even if not defined in terms of XML Schema.
+</p>
+   <p>Certain XML Schema built-in datatypes are not suitable for use 
+    within RDF. For example, the 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#QName">QName</a> 
+datatype  requires a namespace declaration to be in scope during
+    the mapping, and is not recommended for use in RDF.
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>] contains a 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210/#dtype_interp">more detailed discussion</a>
+ of specific XML Schema built-in datatypes. </p>
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>When the datatype is defined using XML Schema:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+All values correspond to some lexical form, either using
+the lexical-to-value mapping of the datatype or if it is a union
+datatype with a lexical mapping associated with one of the member
+datatypes.
+</li>
+<li>
+XML Schema facets remain part of the datatype and are used by the XML 
+Schema mechanisms that control the lexical space and the value space; 
+however, RDF does not define a standard mechanism to access these facets.</li>
+
+<li>In [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA-1">XMLSCHEMA-1</a></cite>],
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-1-20010502/#section-White-Space-Normalization-during-Validation">
+white space normalization</a> occurs
+during 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-1-20010502/#key-vn">validation</a> 
+according to the value of the 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#rf-whiteSpace">whiteSpace
+facet</a>. The lexical-to-value mapping used in RDF datatyping
+occurs after this, so that the whiteSpace facet has no
+effect in RDF datatyping.
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-XMLLiteral" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-XMLLiteral" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>XML Content within an RDF Graph</h3>
+
+    <p class="issue">The canonicalization rules required for XML literals
+    are quite complicated. Increasingly, RDF is produced and consumed in
+    environments where no XML parser and canonicalization engine is
+    available. A possible change to relax the requirements for the
+    lexical space, while retaining the value space, is under discussion.
+    This is <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/13">ISSUE-13</a>.</p>
+
+    <p>RDF provides for XML content as a possible literal value.
+    Such content is indicated in an RDF graph using a typed literal
+    whose datatype is a special built-in datatype
+    <dfn id="dfn-rdf-xmlliteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</dfn>,
+    defined as follows.</p>
+
+   
+    <dl>
+      <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-uri" id="XMLLiteral-uri">An IRI for
+identifying this datatype</a></dt>
+
+      <dd>is
+      <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral</code>.</dd>
+
+      
+ 
+
+      <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-lexical-space" id="XMLLiteral-lexical-space">The lexical space</a></dt>
+
+<dd>is the set of all
+strings:
+<ul>
+<li>which are well-balanced, self-contained 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#NT-content">
+XML content</a> 
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML10">XML10</a></cite>];
+</li>
+<li>for which encoding as UTF-8 
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UTF-8">UTF-8</a></cite>] yields 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-exclusive-canonical-XML">
+exclusive
+Canonical XML </a> (with comments, with empty  
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-InclusiveNamespaces-PrefixList">
+InclusiveNamespaces PrefixList
+</a>) [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-EXC-C14N">XML-EXC-C14N</a></cite>];
+</li>
+<li>for which embedding between an arbitrary XML start tag and an end tag
+yields a document conforming to <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114/">XML
+      Namespaces</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>]</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+
+
+   <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-value-space" id="XMLLiteral-value-space">The value space</a></dt>
+
+      <dd>is a set of entities, called XML values, which is:
+<ul>
+<li>disjoint from the lexical space;</li>
+<li>disjoint from the value space of any other datatype that is not explicitly defined as a sub- or supertype of this datatype;</li>
+<li>disjoint from the set of Unicode character strings [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>];</li>
+<li>and in 1:1 correspondence with the lexical space.</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+
+      <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-mapping" id="XMLLiteral-mapping">The lexical-to-value mapping</a></dt>
+
+      <dd>
+is a one-one mapping from the lexical space onto the value space,
+    i.e. it is both injective and surjective.
+</dd> 
+
+
+
+    </dl>
+
+      <p class="note">Not all values of this datatype are compliant
+      with XML 1.1 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML11">XML11</a></cite>]. If compliance
+      with XML 1.1 is desired, then only those values that are
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/CR-xml11-20021015/#sec2.13">fully
+      normalized</a> according to XML 1.1 should be used.</p>
+
+      <p class="note">XML values can be thought of as the 
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-INFOSET">XML-INFOSET</a></cite>] or the [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XPATH">XPATH</a></cite>]
+nodeset corresponding to the lexical form, with an appropriate equality
+function.</p>
+
+      <p class="note">RDF applications may use additional equivalence relations, such as
+that which relates an 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#string"><code>xsd:string</code></a>
+ 
+with an <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> corresponding to
+a single text node of the same string.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-Graph-syntax" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Graph-syntax" class="section">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">6. </span>Abstract Syntax</h2>
+
+    <p>This section defines the RDF abstract syntax. The RDF abstract
+    syntax is a set of triples, called the RDF graph.</p>
+
+    <p>This section also defines equivalence between RDF graphs. A
+    definition of equivalence is needed to support the RDF Test Cases
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-TESTCASES">RDF-TESTCASES</a></cite>] specification.</p>
+
+<p class="note">This <em>abstract</em> syntax is the
+syntax over which the formal semantics are defined.
+Implementations are free to represent RDF graphs in
+any other equivalent form.  As an example:
+in an RDF graph,
+literals with datatype <tt>rdf:XMLLiteral</tt> can be represented
+in a non-canonical
+format, and canonicalization performed during the comparison between two
+such literals. In this example the comparisons may be
+being performed either between syntactic structures or
+between their denotations in the domain of discourse.
+Implementations that do not require any such comparisons can
+hence be optimized.
+</p>
+
+
+<div id="section-triples" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-triples" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">6.1 </span>RDF Triples</h3>
+
+    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-triple">RDF triple</dfn> contains three components:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-subject">subject</dfn>, which is an
+      <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a> or a <a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank node</a></li>
+
+      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-predicate">predicate</dfn>, which is an <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a></li>
+
+      <li>the <dfn id="dfn-object">object</dfn>, which is an <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a>,
+      a <a href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literal</a> or a <a href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank node</a></li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>An RDF triple is conventionally written in the order subject,
+    predicate, object.</p>
+    
+    <p>The predicate is also known as the <dfn id="dfn-property">property</dfn> of the triple.</p>
+
+    <p><a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>, <a title="blank node" href="#dfn-blank-node" class="internalDFN">blank nodes</a> and
+    <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> are collectively known as
+    <dfn title="RDF term" id="dfn-rdf-term">RDF terms</dfn>.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-rdf-graph" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-rdf-graph" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">6.2 </span>RDF Graph</h3>
+
+    <p>An <dfn id="dfn-rdf-graph">RDF graph</dfn> is a set of RDF triples.</p>
+
+    <p>The set of <dfn title="node" id="dfn-node">nodes</dfn> of an RDF graph is the set of subjects and objects of
+    triples in the graph.</p>
+</div>
+
+    
+<div id="section-graph-equality" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-graph-equality" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">6.3 </span>Graph Equivalence</h3>
+
+    <p>Two <a title="RDF graph" href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graphs</a> <var>G</var> and <var>G'</var> are equivalent if there
+    is a bijection <var>M</var> between the sets of nodes of the two graphs,
+    such that:</p>
+
+    <ol>
+      <li><var>M</var> maps blank nodes to blank nodes.</li>
+      <li><var>M(lit)=lit</var> for all <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">RDF literals</a> <var>lit</var> which
+      are nodes of <var>G</var>.</li>
+
+      <li><var>M(uri)=uri</var> for all <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a> <var>uri</var>
+      which are nodes of <var>G</var>.</li>
+
+      <li>The triple <var>( s, p, o )</var> is in <var>G</var> if and
+      only if the triple <var>( M(s), p, M(o) )</var> is in
+      <var>G'</var></li>
+    </ol>
+    <p>With this definition, <var>M</var> shows how each blank node 
+   in <var>G</var> can be replaced with
+   a new blank node to give  <var>G'</var>.</p>
+</div>
+    
+
+<div id="section-IRIs" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-IRIs" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">6.4 </span>IRIs</h3>
+
+    <p>An <dfn title="IRI" id="dfn-iri"><acronym title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</acronym></dfn>
+    (Internationalized Resource Identifier) within an RDF graph
+    is a Unicode string [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] that conforms to the syntax
+    defined in RFC 3987 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]. IRIs are a generalization of
+    <dfn title="URI" id="dfn-uri"><acronym title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</acronym>s</dfn>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>]. Every absolute URI and URL is an IRI.</p>
+
+    <p>IRIs in the RDF abstract syntax <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be absolute, and <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>
+    contain a fragment identifier.</p>
+
+    <p>Two IRIs are equal if and only if they are equivalent
+    under Simple String Comparison according to
+    <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5.1">section 5.1</a>
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]. Further normalization <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be performed when
+    comparing IRIs for equality.</p>
+
+    <p class="note">When IRIs are used in operations that are only
+    defined for URIs, they must first be converted according to
+    the mapping defined in
+    <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-3.1">section 3.1</a>
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]. A notable example is retrieval over the HTTP
+    protocol. The mapping involves UTF-8 encoding of non-ASCII
+    characters, %-encoding of octets not allowed in URIs, and
+    Punycode-encoding of domain names.</p>
+
+    <p class="note">Some concrete syntaxes permit relative IRIs
+    as a shorthand for absolute IRIs, and define how to resolve
+    the relative IRIs against a base IRI.</p>
+
+    <p class="note">Previous versions of RDF used the term
+    “<dfn id="dfn-rdf-uri-reference">RDF URI Reference</dfn>” instead of “IRI” and allowed
+    additional characters:
+    “<code>&lt;</code>”, “<code>&gt;</code>”,
+    “<code>{</code>”, “<code>}</code>”,
+    “<code>|</code>”, “<code>\</code>”,
+    “<code>^</code>”, “<code>`</code>”,
+    ‘<code>“</code>’ (double quote), and “<code> </code>” (space).
+    In IRIs, these characters must be percent-encoded as
+    described in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.1">section 2.1</a>
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>].</p>
+
+    <div class="note">
+      <p>Interoperability problems can be avoided by minting
+      only IRIs that are normalized according to
+      <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5">Section 5</a>
+      of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]. Non-normalized forms that should be avoided
+      include:</p>
+
+      <ul>
+        <li>Uppercase characters in scheme names and domain names</li>
+        <li>Percent-encoding of characters where it is not
+          required by IRI syntax</li>
+        <li>Explicitly stated HTTP default port
+          (<code>http://example.com:80/</code>);
+          <code>http://example.com/</code> is preferrable</li>
+        <li>Completely empty path in HTTP IRIs
+          (<code>http://example.com</code>);
+          <code>http://example.com/</code> is preferrable</li>
+        <li>“<code>/./</code>” or “<code>/../</code>” in the path
+          component of an IRI</li>
+        <li>Lowercase hexadecimal letters within percent-encoding
+          triplets (“<code>%3F</code>” is preferable over
+          “<code>%3f</code>”)</li>
+        <li>Punycode-encoding of Internationalized Domain Names
+          in IRIs</li>
+        <li>IRIs that are not in Unicode Normalization
+          Form C [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-NFC">NFC</a></cite>]</li>
+      </ul>
+    </div>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-Graph-Literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Graph-Literal" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">6.5 </span>RDF Literals</h3>
+
+    <p class="issue">This section is a major departure from RDF 2004
+    as <a title="simple literal" href="#dfn-simple-literal" class="internalDFN">simple literals</a> are now treated
+    as syntactic sugar for <code>xsd:string</code>
+    <a title="typed literal" href="#dfn-typed-literal" class="internalDFN">typed literals</a>. Further changes
+    to RDF's literal design are under consideration:
+    <a title="language-tagged literal" href="#dfn-language-tagged-literal" class="internalDFN">Language-tagged literals</a>
+    may receive a datatype, and
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/"><code>rdf:PlainLiteral</code>s</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-PLAINLITERAL">RDF-PLAINLITERAL</a></cite>]
+    may be folded into the design somehow. This is
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/71">ISSUE-71</a>.</p>
+
+    <p>A <dfn id="dfn-literal">literal</dfn> in an <a href="#dfn-rdf-graph" class="internalDFN">RDF graph</a> is either a
+    <a href="#dfn-typed-literal" class="internalDFN">typed literal</a> or a <a href="#dfn-language-tagged-literal" class="internalDFN">language-tagged literal</a>.</p>
+
+    <p>All literals have a <dfn id="dfn-lexical-form">lexical form</dfn> being a Unicode
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE">UNICODE</a></cite>] string, which <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be in Normal Form C [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-NFC">NFC</a></cite>].</p>
+
+    <p><dfn title="language-tagged literal" id="dfn-language-tagged-literal">Language-tagged literals</dfn> have
+    a <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a> and a non-empty <dfn id="dfn-language-tag">language tag</dfn> as
+    defined by [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>]. The language tag <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be well-formed according to
+    <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">section 2.2.9</a>
+    of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>], and <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be normalized to lowercase.</p>
+
+    <p><dfn title="typed literal" id="dfn-typed-literal">Typed literals</dfn> have a <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a>
+    and a <dfn id="dfn-datatype-iri">datatype IRI</dfn> being an <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a>.</p>
+ 
+    <p>Concrete syntaxes <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> support <dfn title="simple literal" id="dfn-simple-literal">simple
+    literals</dfn>, consisting of only a <a href="#dfn-lexical-form" class="internalDFN">lexical form</a>
+    without any language tag or datatype IRI. Simple literals only
+    exist in concrete syntaxes, and are treated as
+    syntactic sugar for abstract syntax
+    <a title="plain literal" href="#dfn-plain-literal" class="internalDFN">typed literals</a> with the datatype IRI
+    <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string</code>.
+    Simple literals and <a>language-tagged literals</a> are
+    collectively known as <dfn title="plain literal" id="dfn-plain-literal">plain literals</dfn>.</p>
+
+    <p class="note">Earlier versions of RDF allowed
+    <a title="simple literal" href="#dfn-simple-literal" class="internalDFN">simple literals</a> in the abstract syntax.</p>
+
+      <p class="note">Literals in which the lexical form begins with a
+      composing character (as defined by [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-CHARMOD">CHARMOD</a></cite>]) are allowed however they may cause
+      interoperability problems, particularly with XML version 1.1 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML11">XML11</a></cite>].</p>
+
+    <p class="note">Earlier versions of RDF permitted tags that
+    adhered to the generic tag/subtag syntax of language tags,
+    but were not well-formed according to [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>]. Such
+    language tags do not conform to RDF 1.1.</p>
+
+      <p class="note">When using the language tag, care must be
+      taken not to confuse language with locale. The language
+      tag relates only to human language text. Presentational
+      issues should
+      be addressed in end-user applications.</p>
+
+      <p class="note">The case normalization of 
+language tags is part of
+ the description of the abstract syntax, and consequently the abstract
+ behaviour of RDF applications. It does not constrain an
+ RDF implementation to actually normalize the case. Crucially, the result
+ of comparing two language tags should not be sensitive to the case of
+ the original input.</p>
+
+
+<div id="section-Literal-Equality" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Literal-Equality" class="section">
+    <h4><span class="secno">6.5.1 </span>Literal Equality</h4>
+
+    <p>Two literals are equal if and only if all of the following
+    hold:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>The strings of the two lexical forms compare equal, character
+      by character.</li>
+
+      <li>Either both or neither have language tags.</li>
+
+      <li>The language tags, if any, compare
+      equal.</li>
+
+      <li>Either both or neither have datatype IRIs.</li>
+
+      <li>The two datatype IRIs, if any, compare equal, character by
+      character.</li>
+    </ul>
+
+      <p class="note">RDF Literals are distinct and distinguishable
+      from <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>; e.g. <code>http://example.org/</code> as an RDF
+      Literal (untyped, without a language tag) is not equal to
+      <code>http://example.org/</code> as an IRI.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-Literal-Value" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Literal-Value" class="section">
+    <h4><span class="secno">6.5.2 </span>The Value Corresponding to a Typed Literal</h4>
+
+    <p>The datatype IRI refers to a <a href="#section-Datatypes">datatype</a>. For XML Schema <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#built-in-datatypes">
+    built-in</a> datatypes, IRIs such as
+    <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#int</code> are used. The IRI
+    of the datatype <a href="#section-XMLLiteral"><tt>rdf:XMLLiteral</tt></a> may be used.
+    There may be other, implementation dependent, mechanisms by which
+    IRIs refer to datatypes.</p>
+
+    <p>The <em>value</em> associated with a typed literal is found by
+    applying the lexical-to-value mapping associated with the datatype IRI to
+    the lexical form.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+ If the lexical form is not in
+    the lexical space of the datatype associated with the datatype IRI,
+then no literal value can be associated with the typed literal.
+Such a case, while in error, is not  <em>syntactically</em> ill-formed.</p>
+<!--
+    <p>A typed literal for which the datatype does not map the lexical
+    form to a value is not syntactically ill-formed.</p>
+-->
+    
+
+      <p class="note">
+In application contexts, comparing the values of typed literals (see 
+<a href="#section-Literal-Value">
+section
+6.5.2</a>)
+is usually more helpful than comparing their syntactic forms (see 
+<a href="#section-Literal-Equality">
+section
+6.5.1</a>).
+Similarly, for comparing RDF Graphs,
+semantic notions of entailment (see 
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-MT">RDF-MT</a></cite>]) are usually
+more helpful than syntactic equality (see 
+<a href="#section-graph-equality">
+section
+6.3</a>).</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-blank-nodes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-blank-nodes" class="section">
+   <h3><span class="secno">6.6 </span>Blank Nodes</h3>
+
+<p>
+The <dfn title="blank node" id="dfn-blank-node">blank nodes</dfn> in an RDF graph 
+are drawn from an infinite set.
+This set of blank nodes, the set of all <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>
+and the set of all <a title="literal" href="#dfn-literal" class="internalDFN">literals</a> are pairwise disjoint.
+</p>
+<p>
+Otherwise, this set of blank nodes is arbitrary.
+</p>
+<p>RDF makes no reference to any internal structure of blank nodes.
+Given two blank nodes, it is 
+possible to determine whether or not they are the same.</p>
+
+
+<div id="section-skolemization" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-skolemization" class="section">
+    <h4><span class="secno">6.6.1 </span>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</h4>
+
+    <p>Blank nodes do not have identifiers in the RDF abstract syntax. The
+    <a title="blank node identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier" class="internalDFN">blank node identifiers</a> introduced
+    by some concrete syntaxes have only
+    local scope and are purely an artifact of the serialization.</p>
+
+    <p>In situations where stronger identification is needed, systems <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>
+    systematically transform some or all of the blank nodes in an RDF graph
+    into IRIs [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>].  Systems wishing to do this <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> mint a new, globally
+    unique IRI (a <dfn id="dfn-skolem-iri">Skolem IRI</dfn>) for each blank node so transformed.</p>
+
+    <p>This transformation does not change the meaning of an RDF graph,
+    provided that the Skolem IRIs do not occur anywhere else.</p>
+
+    <p>Systems may wish to mint Skolem IRIs in such a way that they can
+    recognize the IRIs as having been introduced solely to replace a blank
+    node, and map back to the source blank node where possible.</p>
+
+    <p>Systems that want Skolem IRIs to be recognizable outside of the system
+    boundaries <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> use a well-known IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WELL-KNOWN">WELL-KNOWN</a></cite>] with the registered
+    name <code>genid</code>. This is an IRI that uses the HTTP or HTTPS scheme,
+    or another scheme that has been specified to use well-known IRIs; and whose
+    path component starts with <code>/.well-known/genid/</code>.
+
+    </p><p>For example, the authority responsible for the domain
+    <code>example.com</code> could mint the following recognizable Skolem IRI:</p>
+
+    <pre>http://example.com/.well-known/genid/d26a2d0e98334696f4ad70a677abc1f6</pre>
+
+    <p class="issue">IETF registration of the <code>genid</code> name is
+    currently in progress.</p>
+
+    <p class="note">RFC 5785 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WELL-KNOWN">WELL-KNOWN</a></cite>] only specifies well-known URIs,
+    not IRIs. For the purpose of this document, a well-known IRI is any
+    IRI that results in a well-known URI after IRI-to-URI mapping [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>].</p>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-multigraph" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-multigraph" class="section">
+    <h3><span class="secno">6.7 </span>Abstract Syntax for Working with Multiple Graphs</h3>
+
+    <div class="issue">
+        <p>The Working Group will standardize a model and semantics for
+        multiple graphs and graphs stores. The
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/01/rdf-wg-charter">charter</a> notes:</p>
+
+        <blockquote>The RDF Community has used the
+        term “named graphs” for a number of years in various settings,
+        but this term is ambiguous, and often refers to what could rather
+        be referred as quoted graphs, graph literals, IRIs for graphs,
+        knowledge bases, graph stores, etc. The term “Support for Multiple
+        Graphs and Graph Stores” is used as a neutral term in this charter;
+        this term is not and should not be considered as definitive.
+        The Working Group will have to define the right term(s).</blockquote>
+
+        <p>Progress on the design for this feature is tracked under multiple
+        issues:</p>
+
+        <ul>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/5">ISSUE-5: Should we define Graph Literal datatypes?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/14">ISSUE-14: What is a named graph and what should we call it?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/15">ISSUE-15: What is the relationship between the IRI and the triples in a dataset/quad-syntax/etc</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/17">ISSUE-17: How are RDF datasets to be merged?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/22">ISSUE-22: Does multigraph syntax need to support empty graphs?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/28">ISSUE-28: Do we need syntactic nesting of graphs (g-texts) as in N3?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/29">ISSUE-29: Do we support SPARQL's notion of "default graph"?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/30">ISSUE-30: How does SPARQL's notion of RDF dataset relate our notion of multiple graphs?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/32">ISSUE-32: Can we identify both g-boxes and g-snaps?</a></li>
+            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/33">ISSUE-33: Do we provide a way to refer to sub-graphs and/or individual triples?</a></li>
+        </ul>
+    </div>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-fragID" class="informative section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-fragID">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Fragment Identifiers</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+    <p class="issue">This section does not address the case where RDF is
+    embedded in other document formats, such as in RDFa or when an RDF/XML
+    fragment is embedded in SVG. It has been suggested that this may be
+    a general issue for the TAG about the treatment of
+    fragment identifiers when one language is embedded in another. This is
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/37">ISSUE-37</a>.</p>
+
+    <p class="issue">This section treats the RDF/XML media type as
+    canonical for establishing the referent of IRIs that include
+    fragment identifier. Today we have many different media types
+    that can carry RDF graphs, and HTTP content negotiation is more
+    common. Also, the problem addressed in the section
+    (context-dependence of fragment identifiers) has to some extent
+    gone away when RFC 2396 was replaced by RFC 3986. The latter
+    states that the same fragment should be used for the same thing
+    in resources that have multiple representations
+    (Section 3.5 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>]). This is
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/69">ISSUE-69</a>.</p>
+
+    <p>RDF uses <a title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRIs</a>,
+    which may include fragment identifiers, as
+    context free identifiers for resources. RFC 2396 states
+    that the meaning of a fragment
+    identifier depends on the MIME content-type of a document, i.e.
+    is context dependent.</p>
+    <p>These apparently conflicting views are reconciled by
+    considering that an <a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">IRI</a> in an RDF graph is treated
+    with respect to the MIME type <code>application/rdf+xml</code>
+    [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-MIME-TYPE">RDF-MIME-TYPE</a></cite>]. Given an IRI that includes a fragment identifier,
+    the fragment identifer identifies the same thing
+    that it does in an <code>application/rdf+xml</code> representation of the
+    resource identified by the IRI excluding the fragment identifier. Thus:</p>
+    <ul>
+      <li>we assume that the IRI excluding fragment
+      identifier identifies a resource, which is presumed to have
+      an RDF representation. So when <code>eg:someurl#frag</code> is used in an RDF
+      document, <code>eg:someurl</code> is taken to
+      designate some RDF document (even when no such document can
+      be retrieved).</li>
+      <li><code>eg:someurl#frag</code> means the thing
+      that is indicated, according to the rules of the
+      <code>application/rdf+xml</code> MIME content-type as
+      a “fragment” or “view” of the RDF document at
+      <code>eg:someurl</code>. If the document does not
+      exist, or cannot be retrieved, or is available only in
+      formats other than <code>application/rdf+xml</code>, then exactly what
+      that view may be is somewhat undetermined, but that does not
+      prevent use of RDF to say things about it.</li>
+      <li>the RDF treatment of a fragment identifier allows it to
+      indicate a thing that is entirely external to the document,
+      or even to the “shared information space” known as the Web.
+      That is, it can be a more general idea, like some particular
+      car or a mythical Unicorn.</li>
+      <li>in this way, an <code>application/rdf+xml</code> document acts as an
+      intermediary between some Web retrievable documents (itself,
+      at least, also any other Web retrievable IRIs that it may
+      use, possibly including schema IRIs and references to other
+      RDF documents), and some set of possibly abstract or non-Web
+      entities that the RDF may describe.</li>
+    </ul>
+    <p>This provides a handling of IRIs and their
+    denotation that is consistent with the RDF model theory and
+    usage, and also with conventional Web behavior. Note that
+    nothing here requires that an RDF application be able to
+    retrieve any representation of resources identified by the IRIs
+    in an RDF graph.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="section-Acknowledgments" class="informative section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#section-Acknowledgments">
+    <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">8. </span>Acknowledgments</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+    <p class="issue">This section does not yet list those who made
+    contributions to the RDF 1.1 version, nor does it list the
+    current RDF WG members.</p>
+
+    <p>The RDF 2004 editors acknowledge valuable contributions from
+    Frank Manola, Pat Hayes, Dan Brickley, Jos de Roo, 
+    Dave Beckett, Patrick Stickler, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Jerome Euzenat, 
+    Massimo Marchiori, Tim Berners-Lee, Dave Reynolds and Dan Connolly.</p>
+
+    <p>This specification contains a significant contribution from the
+    designers of the RDF typed literal mechanism, Pat
+    Hayes, Sergey Melnik and Patrick Stickler. The document draws upon an earlier
+    RDF Model and Syntax document edited by Ora Lassilla and Ralph Swick,
+    and RDF Schema edited by Dan Brickley and R. V. Guha.</p>
+
+    <p>This specification is a product of extended deliberations by the
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/#section-Acknowledgments">members
+    of the RDFcore Working Group and the RDF and RDF Schema Working Group</a>.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="appendix informative section" id="changes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#changes">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Changes from RDF 2004</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+  <ul>
+    <li>2011-08-13: Updated Turtle reference to Turtle FPWD</li>
+    <li>2011-07-21: Condensed the 2004 acknowledgements</li>
+    <li>2011-07-21: Updated the two sections on literals to reflect the <a href="">ISSUE-12 resolution</a> that simple literals are no longer part of the abstract syntax. Formally introduced the terms “language-tagged literal”, “simple literal”.</li>
+    <li>2011-07-21: Updated the introduction, and removed many mentions of RDF/XML. Changed the normative reference for the terms in the RDF namespace from the RDF/XML spec to the RDF Schema spec. Removed any mention of the 1999 version of RDF.</li>
+    <li>2011-07-21: Replaced RFC 2279 reference (UTF-8) with RFC 3629</li>
+    <li>2011-07-20: Removed informative sections “Motivations and Goals” (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/#section-Overview">RDF 2004 version</a>) and “RDF Expression of Simple Facts” (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/#section-SimpleFacts">RDF 2004 version</a>)</li>
+    <li>2011-06-01: Replaced the URI References section with <a href="#section-IRIs">new section on IRIs</a>, and changed “RDF URI Reference” to “IRI” throughout the document.</li>
+    <li>2011-06-01: Changed language tag definition to require well-formedness according to BCP47; added a note that this invalidates some RDF</li>
+    <li>2011-05-25: Added boxes for known WG issues throught the document</li>
+    <li>2011-05-25: Deleted “Structure of this Document” section, it added no value beyond the TOC</li>
+    <li>2011-05-25: Implemented resolution of <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/40">ISSUE-40: Skolemization advice in the RDF dcocument</a> by adding a section on <a href="#section-skolemization">Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</a></li>
+    <li>2011-05-25: rdf:XMLLiteral is disjoint from any datatype not explicitly related to it, per erratum <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/errata#concept-xmlliteral">[concept-xmlliteral]</a></li>
+    <li>2011-05-25: Added Conformance section with RFC2119 reference</li>
+    <li>2011-05-25: Updated all W3C references to latest editions, and Unicode from v3 to v4</li>
+    <li>2011-05-24: Converted to ReSpec, changed metadata to reflect RDF 1.1</li>
+  </ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+  
+
+
+<div id="references" class="appendix section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#references"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-BCP47">[BCP47]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">A. Phillips; M. Davis. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a> September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47">http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-IRI">[IRI]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">M. Duerst, M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-NFC">[NFC]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">M. Davis, Ken Whistler. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/"><cite>TR15, Unicode Normalization Forms.</cite></a>. 17 September 2010, URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/">http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-MT">[RDF-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Patrick Hayes. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210"><cite>RDF Semantics.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SCHEMA">[RDF-SCHEMA]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Dan Brickley; Ramanathan V. Guha. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210"><cite>RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE">[UNICODE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">The Unicode Consortium. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html"><cite>The Unicode Standard.</cite></a> 2003. Defined by: The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (Boston, MA, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-321-18578-1), as updated from time to time by the publication of new versions URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html">http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-UTF-8">[UTF-8]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">F. Yergeau. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt"><cite>UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</cite></a>. IETF RFC 3629. November 2003. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML-EXC-C14N">[XML-EXC-C14N]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Donald E. Eastlake 3rd; Joseph Reagle; John Boyer. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/"><cite>Exclusive XML Canonicalization Version 1.0.</cite></a> 18 July 2002. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML-NAMES">[XML-NAMES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Richard Tobin; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/"><cite>Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition).</cite></a> 8 December 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML10">[XML10]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">C. M. Sperberg-McQueen; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/"><cite>Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition).</cite></a> 26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA-2">[XMLSCHEMA-2]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Paul V. Biron; Ashok Malhotra. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/"><cite>XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.</cite></a> 28 October 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/</a> 
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" about="#informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-CHARMOD">[CHARMOD]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Martin J. Dürst; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-charmod-20050215"><cite>Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals.</cite></a> 15 February 2005. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-charmod-20050215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-charmod-20050215</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-N-TRIPLES">[N-TRIPLES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Jan Grant; Dave Beckett. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases/#ntriples"><cite>N-Triples</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL:  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases/#ntriples">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases/#ntriples</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-MIME-TYPE">[RDF-MIME-TYPE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references"><a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/"><cite>MIME Media Types</cite></a>, The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). This document is http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/ .  The <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/mediatype-registration">registration for <code>application/rdf+xml</code></a> is archived at http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/mediatype-registration .
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-PLAINLITERAL">[RDF-PLAINLITERAL]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Jie Bao; Sandro Hawke; Boris Motik; Peter F. Patel-Schneider; Axel Polleres. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-rdf-plain-literal-20091027/"><cite>rdf:PlainLiteral: A Datatype for RDF Plain Literals.</cite></a> 27 October 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-rdf-plain-literal-20091027/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-rdf-plain-literal-20091027/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-PRIMER">[RDF-PRIMER]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Frank Manola; Eric Miller. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/"><cite>RDF Primer.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR">[RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Dave Beckett. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20040210"><cite>RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised).</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-TESTCASES">[RDF-TESTCASES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Jan Grant; Dave Beckett. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-testcases-20040210"><cite>RDF Test Cases.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-testcases-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-testcases-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-PRIMER">[RDFA-PRIMER]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Mark Birbeck; Ben Adida. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/NOTE-xhtml-rdfa-primer-20081014"><cite>RDFa Primer.</cite></a> 14 October 2008. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/NOTE-xhtml-rdfa-primer-20081014">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/NOTE-xhtml-rdfa-primer-20081014</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE-TR">[TURTLE-TR]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/"><cite>Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language.</cite></a> 09 August 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-URI">[URI]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): generic syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-WELL-KNOWN">[WELL-KNOWN]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">M. Nottingham; E. Hammer-Lahav. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5785"><cite>Defining Well-Known Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).</cite></a> April 2010. Internet RFC 5785. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5785">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5785</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XHTML10">[XHTML10]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Steven Pemberton. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801/"><cite>XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition).</cite></a> 1 August 2002. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML-INFOSET">[XML-INFOSET]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">John Cowan; Richard Tobin. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-infoset-20040204/"><cite>XML Information Set (Second Edition).</cite></a> 4 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-infoset-20040204/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-infoset-20040204/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML11">[XML11]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eve Maler; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><cite>Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 (Second Edition).</cite></a> 16 August 2006. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816">http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA-1">[XMLSCHEMA-1]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Henry S. Thompson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-1-20041028/"><cite>XML Schema Part 1: Structures Second Edition.</cite></a> 28 October 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-1-20041028/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-1-20041028/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XPATH">[XPATH]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">James Clark; Steven DeRose. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116/"><cite>XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0.</cite></a> 16 November 1999. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116/">http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116/</a> 
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
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-
-  <body>
-
-<section id="abstract">
-    <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
-    representing information in the Web.</p>
-    <p>RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax defines an abstract syntax
-    on which RDF is based, and which serves to link its concrete
-    syntax to its formal semantics. It also includes discussion of
-    key concepts, datatyping, character normalization
-    and handling of IRIs.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="sotd">
-  <p>This document is work in progress towards a revision of the
-  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/"><em>RDF Concepts
-  and Abstract Syntax</em></a> Recommendation,
-  and is intended to eventually replace that document.
-  It is part of a larger effort to revise the
-  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/#section-Introduction">RDF specifications as published in 2004</a>.
-  The most significant changes from the 2004 edition are:
-  modified <a href="#section-Graph-Literal">string literals</a>,
-  a <a href="#section-skolemization">section on skolemization
-  of blank nodes</a>, and many updated
-  <a href="#references">references</a> to other specifications
-  (including a change in terminology from
-  “URI references” to “IRIs”). A fuller list of changes that
-  have been made to date is provided in <a href="#changes">Appendix A</a>.
-  Various areas of work to be tackled in upcoming
-  working drafts are highlighted throughout the document, but
-  should not yet be understood as an exhaustive list.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Introduction">
-    <h2>Introduction</h2>
-
-    <p class="issue">This document reflects current progress of the RDF Working
-      Group towards updating the
-      <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">2004
-      version of <em>RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax</em></a>. The
-      editors expect to work on a number of issues, some of which are
-      listed in boxes like this throughout the document.</p>
-
-    <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
-    representing information in the Web.</p>
-
-    <p>This document defines an abstract syntax (a data model)
-    on which RDF is based,
-    and which serves to link concrete syntaxes to its formal
-    semantics. It also includes discussion of
-    key concepts, datatyping, character normalization
-    and handling of IRIs.</p>
-
-    <p>Normative documentation of RDF falls into the following
-    areas:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>Serialization syntaxes (Turtle [[TURTLE-TR]], RDFa [[RDFA-PRIMER]], RDF/XML [[RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR]], N-Triples [[N-TRIPLES]]),</li>
-
-      <li>the RDF Vocabulary Description Language ([[RDF-SCHEMA]]),</li>
-
-      <li>a formal model-theoretic semantics [[!RDF-MT]], and</li>
-
-      <li>this document.</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>The framework is designed so that vocabularies can be layered.  
-    The terms defined in [[RDF-SCHEMA]] are the first such vocabulary.
-    Several other vocabularies for RDF are
-    mentioned in the Primer [[RDF-PRIMER]].</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="conformance"></section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Concepts" class="informative">
-    <h2>RDF Concepts</h2>
-
-    <p class="issue">This section is quite redundant with later
-    normative sections and the RDF Primer. Its removal has been
-    proposed. This is
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/68">ISSUE-68</a>.</p>
-
-    <p>RDF uses the following key concepts:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>Graph data model</li>
-
-      <li>IRI-based vocabulary</li>
-
-      <li>Datatypes</li>
-
-      <li>Literals</li>
-
-      <li>Entailment</li>
-    </ul>
-
-
-<section id="section-data-model">
-    <h3>Graph Data Model</h3>
-
-    <p>The underlying structure of any expression in RDF is a
-    collection of triples, each consisting of a subject, a
-    predicate and an object. A set of such triples is called an RDF
-    graph (defined more formally in 
-<a href="#section-Graph-syntax">section 6</a>). This can be
-    illustrated by a node and directed-arc diagram, in which each
-    triple is represented as a node-arc-node link (hence the term
-    “graph”).</p>
-
-    <div class="figure">
-      <img src="Graph-ex.gif" alt="image of the RDF triple comprising (subject, predicate, object)" />
-    </div>
-
-    <p>Each triple represents a statement of a relationship between
-    the things denoted by the nodes that it links. Each triple has
-    three parts:</p>
-    <ol>
-      <li>a <a>subject</a>,</li>
-      <li>an <a>object</a>, and</li>
-      <li>a <a>predicate</a> (also called a
-      <a>property</a>) that denotes a
-      relationship.</li>
-    </ol>
-    <p>The direction of the arc is significant: it always points
-    toward the object.</p>
-    <p>The <a title="node">nodes</a> of an RDF graph
-    are its subjects and objects.</p>
-    <p>The assertion of an RDF triple says that some relationship,
-    indicated by the predicate, holds between the things denoted by
-    subject and object of the triple. The assertion of an RDF graph
-    amounts to asserting all the triples in it, so the meaning of
-    an RDF graph is the conjunction (logical AND) of the statements
-    corresponding to all the triples it contains. A formal account
-    of the meaning of RDF graphs is given in [[!RDF-MT]].</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-IRI-Vocabulary">
-    <h3>IRI-based Vocabulary and Node Identification</h3>
-
-    <p>A <a>node</a> may be an <a>IRI</a>, a <a>literal</a>,
-    or <a title="blank node">blank</a> (having no separate form of identification).
-    Properties are <a title="IRI">IRIs</a>.</p>
-    <p>An <a>IRI</a> or <a>literal</a> used as a node identifies what
-    that node represents. An IRI used as a predicate
-    identifies a relationship between the things represented by the nodes it connects. A
-    predicate IRI may also be a node in the graph.</p>
-    <p>A <a>blank node</a> is a node that is
-    not an IRI or a literal. In the RDF abstract syntax, a
-    blank node is just a unique node that can be used in one or
-    more RDF statements.</p>
-    <p>A convention used by some linear representations of an RDF
-    graph to allow several statements to use the same
-    blank node is to use a <dfn>blank node
-    identifier</dfn>, which is a local identifier that can be
-    distinguished from all IRIs and literals. When graphs are
-    merged, their blank nodes must be kept distinct if meaning is
-    to be preserved; this may call for re-allocation of blank node
-    identifiers. Note that such blank node identifiers are not part
-    of the RDF abstract syntax, and the representation of triples
-    containing blank nodes is entirely dependent on the particular
-    concrete syntax used.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section name="section-Datatypes-intro">
-    <h3>Datatypes</h3>
-
-    <p>Datatypes are used by RDF in the representation of values such
-    as integers, floating point numbers and dates.</p>
-
- <p>
-A datatype consists of a lexical space, a value space and a lexical-to-value 
-mapping, see <a href="#section-Datatypes">section 5</a>.
-</p>
-
-    <p>For example, the lexical-to-value mapping for the XML Schema datatype
-    <var>xsd:boolean</var>, where each member of the value space
-    (represented here as 'T' and 'F') has two lexical representations,
-    is as follows:</p>
-
-    <table border="1" cellpadding="5" summary=
-    "A table detailing the xsd:boolean datatype.">
-      <tr>
-        <th align="left">Value Space</th>
-
-        <td>{T, F}</td>
-      </tr>
-
-      <tr>
-        <th align="left">Lexical Space</th>
-
-        <td>{"0", "1", "true", "false"}</td>
-      </tr>
-
-      <tr>
-        <th align="left">Lexical-to-Value Mapping</th>
-
-        <td>{&lt;"true", T&gt;, &lt;"1", T&gt;, &lt;"0", F&gt;,
-        &lt;"false", F&gt;}</td>
-      </tr>
-    </table>
-
-    <p>RDF predefines just one datatype <code><a>rdf:XMLLiteral</a></code>, used for
-    embedding XML in RDF (see <a href="#section-XMLLiteral">section
-    5.1</a>).</p>
-
-    <p>There is no built-in concept of numbers or dates or other common
-    values. Rather, RDF defers to datatypes that are defined
-    separately, and identified with <a title="IRI">IRIs</a>.
-    The predefined XML Schema
-    datatypes [[!XMLSCHEMA-2]] are expected
-    to be widely used for this purpose.</p>
-
-
-    <p>RDF provides no mechanism for defining new datatypes. XML Schema
-    Datatypes [[!XMLSCHEMA-2]] provides an
-    extensibility framework suitable for defining new datatypes for use
-    in RDF.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section name="section-Literals">
-    <h3>Literals</h3>
-
-    <p><a title="literal">Literals</a> are used to identify values such as numbers and dates
-    by means of a lexical representation. Anything represented by a
-    literal could also be represented by an <a>IRI</a>, but it is often more
-    convenient or intuitive to use literals.</p>
-
-    <p>A literal may be the object of an RDF statement, but not the
-    subject or the predicate.</p>
-
-    <p>Literals may be <cite>typed</cite> or <cite>language-tagged</cite>:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>A <a>typed literal</a> is a string combined with a
-      <a>datatype IRI</a>. It denotes the
-      member of the identified datatype's value space obtained by
-      applying the lexical-to-value mapping to the literal string.</li>
-
-      <li>A <a>language-tagged literal</a> is a string combined
-      with a language tag. This may be used for
-      plain text in a natural language. Language-tagged literals
-      are self-denoting.</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>Continuing the example from <a href="#section-Datatypes-intro">section
-    3.3</a>, the typed literals that can be defined using the XML
-    Schema datatype <var>xsd:boolean</var> are:</p>
-
-    <table border="1" cellpadding="5" summary=
-    "This table lists the literals of type xsd:boolean.">
-      <tr>
-        <th>Typed Literal</th>
-
-        <th>Lexical-to-Value Mapping</th>
-
-        <th>Value</th>
-      </tr>
-
-      <tr>
-        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "true"&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">&lt;"true", T&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">T</td>
-      </tr>
-
-      <tr>
-        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "1"&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">&lt;"1", T&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">T</td>
-      </tr>
-
-      <tr>
-        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "false"&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">&lt;"false", F&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">F</td>
-      </tr>
-
-      <tr>
-        <td align="center">&lt;xsd:boolean, "0"&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">&lt;"0", F&gt;</td>
-
-        <td align="center">F</td>
-      </tr>
-    </table>
-
-    <p>For text that may contain 
-    markup, use typed literals
-with type <a href="#section-XMLLiteral">rdf:XMLLiteral</a>.
-If language annotation is required, 
-it    must be explicitly included as markup, usually by means of an 
-<code>xml:lang</code> attribute. 
-XHTML [[XHTML10]] may be included within RDF
-in this way. Sometimes, in this latter case, 
- an additional <code>span</code> or <code>div</code> 
-    element is needed to carry an
-<code>xml:lang</code> or <code>lang</code> attribute. 
-    </p>
-
-<p class="issue">Update the XHTML 1.0 reference to something more recent?</p>
-
-<p>
-The string in both plain and typed literals is recommended to
-be in Unicode Normal Form C [[!NFC]]. This is motivated
-by [[CHARMOD]] particularly 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/WD-charmod-20030822/#sec-Normalization">section 4 
-Early Uniform Normalization</a>.
-</p>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Entailment">
-    <h3>Entailment</h3>
-
-    <p>The ideas on meaning and inference in RDF are underpinned by the
-    formal concept of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210/#entail">
-<cite>entailment</cite></a>, as 
-      discussed in the RDF
-    semantics document [[!RDF-MT]].
-In brief,  an RDF expression A is said to
-<dfn title="entailment">entail</dfn> another RDF&nbsp;expression B
-if every possible
-arrangement of things in the world that makes A true also makes B
-true. On this basis, if the truth of A is presumed or demonstrated
-then the truth of B can be inferred . 
-</p>
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-URIspaces">
-    <h2>RDF Vocabulary IRI and Namespace</h2>
-
-    <p>RDF uses <a title="IRI">IRIs</a> to identify resources
-    and properties. Certain
-    IRIs with the following leading substring are defined by the
-    RDF specifications to denote specific concepts:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li><code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</code>
-      (conventionally associated with namespace prefix <code>rdf:</code>)</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>Vocabulary terms in the <code>rdf:</code>
-    namespace are listed and described in detail in the
-    RDF Schema specification [[!RDF-SCHEMA]].</p>
-
-    <p class="note">The RDF namespace is also used as an
-    XML namespace [[XML-NAMES]] to define a number of additional
-    element and attribute names for purely syntactic purposes within
-    the RDF/XML syntax ([[RDF-SYNTAX-GRAMMAR]],
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20040210/#section-Namespace">section 5.1</a>).
-    These terms (e.g., <code>rdf:about</code> and <code>rdf:ID</code>)
-    do not denote concepts.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section name="section-Datatypes">
-   <h2>Datatypes</h2>
-
-    <p class="issue">This section perhaps should discuss
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/#dtype_interp">the XSD datatype map</a>
-    and <code><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/">rdf:PlainLiteral</a></code>.
-    This is <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/70">ISSUE-70</a>.</p>
-
-<p>
-The datatype abstraction used in RDF is compatible with 
-the abstraction used in
-XML Schema Part 2:
-    Datatypes [[!XMLSCHEMA-2]].</p>
-<p>
-A datatype consists of a lexical space, a value space and a lexical-to-value 
-mapping.
-</p>
-<p>The <dfn>lexical space</dfn> of a datatype is a set of Unicode [[!UNICODE]] strings.</p>
-<p>
-The <dfn>lexical-to-value mapping</dfn> of a datatype is a set of pairs whose 
-first element belongs to 
-the <a>lexical space</a> of the datatype, 
-and the second element belongs to the 
- <dfn>value space</dfn> of the datatype:
-</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-Each member of the lexical space is paired with (maps to) exactly one member 
-of the value space.
-</li>
-<li>
-Each member of the value space may be paired with any number (including 
-zero) of members of the lexical space (lexical representations for that 
-value).
-</li>
-</ul>
-<p>
-A datatype is identified by one or more IRIs.
-</p>
-<p>
-RDF may be used with any datatype definition that conforms to this
-abstraction, even if not defined in terms of XML Schema.
-</p>
-   <p>Certain XML Schema built-in datatypes are not suitable for use 
-    within RDF. For example, the 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#QName">QName</a> 
-datatype  requires a namespace declaration to be in scope during
-    the mapping, and is not recommended for use in RDF.
-    [[!RDF-MT]] contains a 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210/#dtype_interp">more detailed discussion</a>
- of specific XML Schema built-in datatypes. </p>
-
-<div class="note">
-<p>When the datatype is defined using XML Schema:
-</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-All values correspond to some lexical form, either using
-the lexical-to-value mapping of the datatype or if it is a union
-datatype with a lexical mapping associated with one of the member
-datatypes.
-</li>
-<li>
-XML Schema facets remain part of the datatype and are used by the XML 
-Schema mechanisms that control the lexical space and the value space; 
-however, RDF does not define a standard mechanism to access these facets.</li>
-
-<li>In [[XMLSCHEMA-1]],
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-1-20010502/#section-White-Space-Normalization-during-Validation">
-white space normalization</a> occurs
-during 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-1-20010502/#key-vn">validation</a> 
-according to the value of the 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#rf-whiteSpace">whiteSpace
-facet</a>. The lexical-to-value mapping used in RDF datatyping
-occurs after this, so that the whiteSpace facet has no
-effect in RDF datatyping.
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-</div>
-
-
-<section id="section-XMLLiteral">
-    <h3>XML Content within an RDF Graph</h3>
-
-    <p class="issue">The canonicalization rules required for XML literals
-    are quite complicated. Increasingly, RDF is produced and consumed in
-    environments where no XML parser and canonicalization engine is
-    available. A possible change to relax the requirements for the
-    lexical space, while retaining the value space, is under discussion.
-    This is <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/13">ISSUE-13</a>.</p>
-
-    <p>RDF provides for XML content as a possible literal value.
-    Such content is indicated in an RDF graph using a typed literal
-    whose datatype is a special built-in datatype
-    <dfn>rdf:XMLLiteral</dfn>,
-    defined as follows.</p>
-
-   
-    <dl>
-      <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-uri" id="XMLLiteral-uri">An IRI for
-identifying this datatype</a></dt>
-
-      <dd>is
-      <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral</code>.</dd>
-
-      
- 
-
-      <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-lexical-space" id="XMLLiteral-lexical-space">The lexical space</a></dt>
-
-<dd>is the set of all
-strings:
-<ul>
-<li>which are well-balanced, self-contained 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#NT-content">
-XML content</a> 
-[[!XML10]];
-</li>
-<li>for which encoding as UTF-8 
-[[!UTF-8]] yields 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-exclusive-canonical-XML">
-exclusive
-Canonical XML </a> (with comments, with empty  
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xml-exc-c14n-20020718/#def-InclusiveNamespaces-PrefixList">
-InclusiveNamespaces PrefixList
-</a>) [[!XML-EXC-C14N]];
-</li>
-<li>for which embedding between an arbitrary XML start tag and an end tag
-yields a document conforming to <a href=
-      "http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114/">XML
-      Namespaces</a> [[!XML-NAMES]]</li>
-</ul>
-</dd>
-
-
-   <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-value-space" id="XMLLiteral-value-space">The value space</a></dt>
-
-      <dd>is a set of entities, called XML values, which is:
-<ul>
-<li>disjoint from the lexical space;</li>
-<li>disjoint from the value space of any other datatype that is not explicitly defined as a sub- or supertype of this datatype;</li>
-<li>disjoint from the set of Unicode character strings [[!UNICODE]];</li>
-<li>and in 1:1 correspondence with the lexical space.</li>
-</ul>
-</dd>
-
-      <dt><a name="XMLLiteral-mapping" id="XMLLiteral-mapping">The lexical-to-value mapping</a></dt>
-
-      <dd>
-is a one-one mapping from the lexical space onto the value space,
-    i.e. it is both injective and surjective.
-</dd> 
-
-
-
-    </dl>
-
-      <p class="note">Not all values of this datatype are compliant
-      with XML 1.1 [[XML11]]. If compliance
-      with XML 1.1 is desired, then only those values that are
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/CR-xml11-20021015/#sec2.13">fully
-      normalized</a> according to XML 1.1 should be used.</p>
-
-      <p class="note">XML values can be thought of as the 
-[[XML-INFOSET]] or the [[XPATH]]
-nodeset corresponding to the lexical form, with an appropriate equality
-function.</p>
-
-      <p class="note">RDF applications may use additional equivalence relations, such as
-that which relates an 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#string"><code>xsd:string</code></a>
- 
-with an <code>rdf:XMLLiteral</code> corresponding to
-a single text node of the same string.</p>
-
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Graph-syntax">
-    <h2>Abstract Syntax</h2>
-
-    <p>This section defines the RDF abstract syntax. The RDF abstract
-    syntax is a set of triples, called the RDF graph.</p>
-
-    <p>This section also defines equivalence between RDF graphs. A
-    definition of equivalence is needed to support the RDF Test Cases
-    [[RDF-TESTCASES]] specification.</p>
-
-<p class="note">This <em>abstract</em> syntax is the
-syntax over which the formal semantics are defined.
-Implementations are free to represent RDF graphs in
-any other equivalent form.  As an example:
-in an RDF graph,
-literals with datatype <tt>rdf:XMLLiteral</tt> can be represented
-in a non-canonical
-format, and canonicalization performed during the comparison between two
-such literals. In this example the comparisons may be
-being performed either between syntactic structures or
-between their denotations in the domain of discourse.
-Implementations that do not require any such comparisons can
-hence be optimized.
-</p>
-
-
-<section id="section-triples">
-    <h3>RDF Triples</h3>
-
-    <p>An <dfn>RDF triple</dfn> contains three components:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>the <dfn>subject</dfn>, which is an
-      <a>IRI</a> or a <a>blank node</a></li>
-
-      <li>the <dfn>predicate</dfn>, which is an <a>IRI</a></li>
-
-      <li>the <dfn>object</dfn>, which is an <a>IRI</a>,
-      a <a>literal</a> or a <a>blank node</a></li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>An RDF triple is conventionally written in the order subject,
-    predicate, object.</p>
-    
-    <p>The predicate is also known as the <dfn>property</dfn> of the triple.</p>
-
-    <p><a title="IRI">IRIs</a>, <a title="blank node">blank nodes</a> and
-    <a title="literal">literals</a> are collectively known as
-    <dfn title="RDF term">RDF terms</dfn>.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-rdf-graph">
-    <h3>RDF Graph</h3>
-
-    <p>An <dfn>RDF graph</dfn> is a set of RDF triples.</p>
-
-    <p>The set of <dfn title="node">nodes</dfn> of an RDF graph is the set of subjects and objects of
-    triples in the graph.</p>
-</section>
-
-    
-<section id="section-graph-equality">
-    <h3>Graph Equivalence</h3>
-
-    <p>Two <a title="RDF graph">RDF graphs</a> <var>G</var> and <var>G'</var> are equivalent if there
-    is a bijection <var>M</var> between the sets of nodes of the two graphs,
-    such that:</p>
-
-    <ol>
-      <li><var>M</var> maps blank nodes to blank nodes.</li>
-      <li><var>M(lit)=lit</var> for all <a title="literal">RDF literals</a> <var>lit</var> which
-      are nodes of <var>G</var>.</li>
-
-      <li><var>M(uri)=uri</var> for all <a title="IRI">IRIs</a> <var>uri</var>
-      which are nodes of <var>G</var>.</li>
-
-      <li>The triple <var>( s, p, o )</var> is in <var>G</var> if and
-      only if the triple <var>( M(s), p, M(o) )</var> is in
-      <var>G'</var></li>
-    </ol>
-    <p>With this definition, <var>M</var> shows how each blank node 
-   in <var>G</var> can be replaced with
-   a new blank node to give  <var>G'</var>.</p>
-</section>
-    
-
-<section id="section-IRIs">
-    <h3>IRIs</h3>
-
-    <p>An <dfn title="IRI"><acronym title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</acronym></dfn>
-    (Internationalized Resource Identifier) within an RDF graph
-    is a Unicode string [[!UNICODE]] that conforms to the syntax
-    defined in RFC 3987 [[!IRI]]. IRIs are a generalization of
-    <dfn title="URI"><acronym title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</acronym>s</dfn>
-    [[URI]]. Every absolute URI and URL is an IRI.</p>
-
-    <p>IRIs in the RDF abstract syntax MUST be absolute, and MAY
-    contain a fragment identifier.</p>
-
-    <p>Two IRIs are equal if and only if they are equivalent
-    under Simple String Comparison according to
-    <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5.1">section 5.1</a>
-    of [[!IRI]]. Further normalization MUST NOT be performed when
-    comparing IRIs for equality.</p>
-
-    <p class="note">When IRIs are used in operations that are only
-    defined for URIs, they must first be converted according to
-    the mapping defined in
-    <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-3.1">section 3.1</a>
-    of [[!IRI]]. A notable example is retrieval over the HTTP
-    protocol. The mapping involves UTF-8 encoding of non-ASCII
-    characters, %-encoding of octets not allowed in URIs, and
-    Punycode-encoding of domain names.</p>
-
-    <p class="note">Some concrete syntaxes permit relative IRIs
-    as a shorthand for absolute IRIs, and define how to resolve
-    the relative IRIs against a base IRI.</p>
-
-    <p class="note">Previous versions of RDF used the term
-    “<dfn>RDF URI Reference</dfn>” instead of “IRI” and allowed
-    additional characters:
-    “<code>&lt;</code>”, “<code>&gt;</code>”,
-    “<code>{</code>”, “<code>}</code>”,
-    “<code>|</code>”, “<code>\</code>”,
-    “<code>^</code>”, “<code>`</code>”,
-    ‘<code>“</code>’ (double quote), and “<code> </code>” (space).
-    In IRIs, these characters must be percent-encoded as
-    described in <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-2.1">section 2.1</a>
-    of [[URI]].</p>
-
-    <div class="note">
-      <p>Interoperability problems can be avoided by minting
-      only IRIs that are normalized according to
-      <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3987#section-5">Section 5</a>
-      of [[!IRI]]. Non-normalized forms that should be avoided
-      include:</p>
-
-      <ul>
-        <li>Uppercase characters in scheme names and domain names</li>
-        <li>Percent-encoding of characters where it is not
-          required by IRI syntax</li>
-        <li>Explicitly stated HTTP default port
-          (<code>http://example.com:80/</code>);
-          <code>http://example.com/</code> is preferrable</li>
-        <li>Completely empty path in HTTP IRIs
-          (<code>http://example.com</code>);
-          <code>http://example.com/</code> is preferrable</li>
-        <li>“<code>/./</code>” or “<code>/../</code>” in the path
-          component of an IRI</li>
-        <li>Lowercase hexadecimal letters within percent-encoding
-          triplets (“<code>%3F</code>” is preferable over
-          “<code>%3f</code>”)</li>
-        <li>Punycode-encoding of Internationalized Domain Names
-          in IRIs</li>
-        <li>IRIs that are not in Unicode Normalization
-          Form C [[!NFC]]</li>
-      </ul>
-    </div>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Graph-Literal">
-    <h3>RDF Literals</h3>
-
-    <p class="issue">This section is a major departure from RDF 2004
-    as <a title="simple literal">simple literals</a> are now treated
-    as syntactic sugar for <code>xsd:string</code>
-    <a title="typed literal">typed literals</a>. Further changes
-    to RDF's literal design are under consideration:
-    <a title="language-tagged literal">Language-tagged literals</a>
-    may receive a datatype, and
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-plain-literal/"><code>rdf:PlainLiteral</code>s</a> [[RDF-PLAINLITERAL]]
-    may be folded into the design somehow. This is
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/71">ISSUE-71</a>.</p>
-
-    <p>A <dfn>literal</dfn> in an <a>RDF graph</a> is either a
-    <a>typed literal</a> or a <a>language-tagged literal</a>.</p>
-
-    <p>All literals have a <dfn>lexical form</dfn> being a Unicode
-    [[!UNICODE]] string, which SHOULD be in Normal Form C [[!NFC]].</p>
-
-    <p><dfn title="language-tagged literal">Language-tagged literals</dfn> have
-    a <a>lexical form</a> and a non-empty <dfn>language tag</dfn> as
-    defined by [[!BCP47]]. The language tag MUST be well-formed according to
-    <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">section 2.2.9</a>
-    of [[!BCP47]], and MUST be normalized to lowercase.</p>
-
-    <p><dfn title="typed literal">Typed literals</dfn> have a <a>lexical form</a>
-    and a <dfn>datatype IRI</dfn> being an <a>IRI</a>.</p>
- 
-    <p>Concrete syntaxes MAY support <dfn title="simple literal">simple
-    literals</dfn>, consisting of only a <a>lexical form</a>
-    without any language tag or datatype IRI. Simple literals only
-    exist in concrete syntaxes, and are treated as
-    syntactic sugar for abstract syntax
-    <a title="plain literal">typed literals</a> with the datatype IRI
-    <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string</code>.
-    Simple literals and <a>language-tagged literals</a> are
-    collectively known as <dfn title="plain literal">plain literals</dfn>.</p>
-
-    <p class="note">Earlier versions of RDF allowed
-    <a title="simple literal">simple literals</a> in the abstract syntax.</p>
-
-      <p class="note">Literals in which the lexical form begins with a
-      composing character (as defined by [[CHARMOD]]) are allowed however they may cause
-      interoperability problems, particularly with XML version 1.1 [[XML11]].</p>
-
-    <p class="note">Earlier versions of RDF permitted tags that
-    adhered to the generic tag/subtag syntax of language tags,
-    but were not well-formed according to [[!BCP47]]. Such
-    language tags do not conform to RDF 1.1.</p>
-
-      <p class="note">When using the language tag, care must be
-      taken not to confuse language with locale. The language
-      tag relates only to human language text. Presentational
-      issues should
-      be addressed in end-user applications.</p>
-
-      <p class="note">The case normalization of 
-language tags is part of
- the description of the abstract syntax, and consequently the abstract
- behaviour of RDF applications. It does not constrain an
- RDF implementation to actually normalize the case. Crucially, the result
- of comparing two language tags should not be sensitive to the case of
- the original input.</p>
-
-
-<section id="section-Literal-Equality">
-    <h4>Literal Equality</h4>
-
-    <p>Two literals are equal if and only if all of the following
-    hold:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>The strings of the two lexical forms compare equal, character
-      by character.</li>
-
-      <li>Either both or neither have language tags.</li>
-
-      <li>The language tags, if any, compare
-      equal.</li>
-
-      <li>Either both or neither have datatype IRIs.</li>
-
-      <li>The two datatype IRIs, if any, compare equal, character by
-      character.</li>
-    </ul>
-
-      <p class="note">RDF Literals are distinct and distinguishable
-      from <a title="IRI">IRIs</a>; e.g. <code>http://example.org/</code> as an RDF
-      Literal (untyped, without a language tag) is not equal to
-      <code>http://example.org/</code> as an IRI.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Literal-Value">
-    <h4>The Value Corresponding to a Typed Literal</h4>
-
-    <p>The datatype IRI refers to a <a href=
-    "#section-Datatypes">datatype</a>. For XML Schema <a href=
-    "http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/#built-in-datatypes">
-    built-in</a> datatypes, IRIs such as
-    <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#int</code> are used. The IRI
-    of the datatype <a href="#section-XMLLiteral"><tt>rdf:XMLLiteral</tt></a> may be used.
-    There may be other, implementation dependent, mechanisms by which
-    IRIs refer to datatypes.</p>
-
-    <p>The <em>value</em> associated with a typed literal is found by
-    applying the lexical-to-value mapping associated with the datatype IRI to
-    the lexical form.
-    </p>
-
-    <p>
- If the lexical form is not in
-    the lexical space of the datatype associated with the datatype IRI,
-then no literal value can be associated with the typed literal.
-Such a case, while in error, is not  <em>syntactically</em> ill-formed.</p>
-<!--
-    <p>A typed literal for which the datatype does not map the lexical
-    form to a value is not syntactically ill-formed.</p>
--->
-    
-
-      <p class="note">
-In application contexts, comparing the values of typed literals (see 
-<a href="#section-Literal-Value">
-section
-6.5.2</a>)
-is usually more helpful than comparing their syntactic forms (see 
-<a href="#section-Literal-Equality">
-section
-6.5.1</a>).
-Similarly, for comparing RDF Graphs,
-semantic notions of entailment (see 
-[[!RDF-MT]]) are usually
-more helpful than syntactic equality (see 
-<a href="#section-graph-equality">
-section
-6.3</a>).</p>
-
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-blank-nodes">
-   <h3>Blank Nodes</h3>
-
-<p>
-The <dfn title="blank node">blank nodes</dfn> in an RDF graph 
-are drawn from an infinite set.
-This set of blank nodes, the set of all <a title="IRI">IRIs</a>
-and the set of all <a title="literal">literals</a> are pairwise disjoint.
-</p>
-<p>
-Otherwise, this set of blank nodes is arbitrary.
-</p>
-<p>RDF makes no reference to any internal structure of blank nodes.
-Given two blank nodes, it is 
-possible to determine whether or not they are the same.</p>
-
-
-<section id="section-skolemization">
-    <h4>Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</h4>
-
-    <p>Blank nodes do not have identifiers in the RDF abstract syntax. The
-    <a title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</a> introduced
-    by some concrete syntaxes have only
-    local scope and are purely an artifact of the serialization.</p>
-
-    <p>In situations where stronger identification is needed, systems MAY
-    systematically transform some or all of the blank nodes in an RDF graph
-    into IRIs [[!IRI]].  Systems wishing to do this SHOULD mint a new, globally
-    unique IRI (a <dfn>Skolem IRI</dfn>) for each blank node so transformed.</p>
-
-    <p>This transformation does not change the meaning of an RDF graph,
-    provided that the Skolem IRIs do not occur anywhere else.</p>
-
-    <p>Systems may wish to mint Skolem IRIs in such a way that they can
-    recognize the IRIs as having been introduced solely to replace a blank
-    node, and map back to the source blank node where possible.</p>
-
-    <p>Systems that want Skolem IRIs to be recognizable outside of the system
-    boundaries SHOULD use a well-known IRI [[WELL-KNOWN]] with the registered
-    name <code>genid</code>. This is an IRI that uses the HTTP or HTTPS scheme,
-    or another scheme that has been specified to use well-known IRIs; and whose
-    path component starts with <code>/.well-known/genid/</code>.
-
-    <p>For example, the authority responsible for the domain
-    <code>example.com</code> could mint the following recognizable Skolem IRI:</p>
-
-    <pre>http://example.com/.well-known/genid/d26a2d0e98334696f4ad70a677abc1f6</pre>
-
-    <p class="issue">IETF registration of the <code>genid</code> name is
-    currently in progress.</p>
-
-    <p class="note">RFC 5785 [[WELL-KNOWN]] only specifies well-known URIs,
-    not IRIs. For the purpose of this document, a well-known IRI is any
-    IRI that results in a well-known URI after IRI-to-URI mapping [[!IRI]].</p>
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-multigraph">
-    <h2>Abstract Syntax for Working with Multiple Graphs</h2>
-
-    <div class="issue">
-        <p>The Working Group will standardize a model and semantics for
-        multiple graphs and graphs stores. The
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/01/rdf-wg-charter">charter</a> notes:</p>
-
-        <blockquote>The RDF Community has used the
-        term “named graphs” for a number of years in various settings,
-        but this term is ambiguous, and often refers to what could rather
-        be referred as quoted graphs, graph literals, IRIs for graphs,
-        knowledge bases, graph stores, etc. The term “Support for Multiple
-        Graphs and Graph Stores” is used as a neutral term in this charter;
-        this term is not and should not be considered as definitive.
-        The Working Group will have to define the right term(s).</blockquote>
-
-        <p>Progress on the design for this feature is tracked under multiple
-        issues:</p>
-
-        <ul>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/5">ISSUE-5: Should we define Graph Literal datatypes?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/14">ISSUE-14: What is a named graph and what should we call it?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/15">ISSUE-15: What is the relationship between the IRI and the triples in a dataset/quad-syntax/etc</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/17">ISSUE-17: How are RDF datasets to be merged?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/22">ISSUE-22: Does multigraph syntax need to support empty graphs?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/28">ISSUE-28: Do we need syntactic nesting of graphs (g-texts) as in N3?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/29">ISSUE-29: Do we support SPARQL's notion of "default graph"?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/30">ISSUE-30: How does SPARQL's notion of RDF dataset relate our notion of multiple graphs?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/32">ISSUE-32: Can we identify both g-boxes and g-snaps?</a></li>
-            <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/33">ISSUE-33: Do we provide a way to refer to sub-graphs and/or individual triples?</a></li>
-        </ul>
-    </div>
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-fragID" class="informative">
-    <h2>Fragment Identifiers</h2>
-
-    <p class="issue">This section does not address the case where RDF is
-    embedded in other document formats, such as in RDFa or when an RDF/XML
-    fragment is embedded in SVG. It has been suggested that this may be
-    a general issue for the TAG about the treatment of
-    fragment identifiers when one language is embedded in another. This is
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/37">ISSUE-37</a>.</p>
-
-    <p class="issue">This section treats the RDF/XML media type as
-    canonical for establishing the referent of IRIs that include
-    fragment identifier. Today we have many different media types
-    that can carry RDF graphs, and HTTP content negotiation is more
-    common. Also, the problem addressed in the section
-    (context-dependence of fragment identifiers) has to some extent
-    gone away when RFC 2396 was replaced by RFC 3986. The latter
-    states that the same fragment should be used for the same thing
-    in resources that have multiple representations
-    (Section 3.5 [[URI]]). This is
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/69">ISSUE-69</a>.</p>
-
-    <p>RDF uses <a title="IRI">IRIs</a>,
-    which may include fragment identifiers, as
-    context free identifiers for resources. RFC 2396 states
-    that the meaning of a fragment
-    identifier depends on the MIME content-type of a document, i.e.
-    is context dependent.</p>
-    <p>These apparently conflicting views are reconciled by
-    considering that an <a>IRI</a> in an RDF graph is treated
-    with respect to the MIME type <code>application/rdf+xml</code>
-    [[RDF-MIME-TYPE]]. Given an IRI that includes a fragment identifier,
-    the fragment identifer identifies the same thing
-    that it does in an <code>application/rdf+xml</code> representation of the
-    resource identified by the IRI excluding the fragment identifier. Thus:</p>
-    <ul>
-      <li>we assume that the IRI excluding fragment
-      identifier identifies a resource, which is presumed to have
-      an RDF representation. So when <code>eg:someurl#frag</code> is used in an RDF
-      document, <code>eg:someurl</code> is taken to
-      designate some RDF document (even when no such document can
-      be retrieved).</li>
-      <li><code>eg:someurl#frag</code> means the thing
-      that is indicated, according to the rules of the
-      <code>application/rdf+xml</code> MIME content-type as
-      a “fragment” or “view” of the RDF document at
-      <code>eg:someurl</code>. If the document does not
-      exist, or cannot be retrieved, or is available only in
-      formats other than <code>application/rdf+xml</code>, then exactly what
-      that view may be is somewhat undetermined, but that does not
-      prevent use of RDF to say things about it.</li>
-      <li>the RDF treatment of a fragment identifier allows it to
-      indicate a thing that is entirely external to the document,
-      or even to the “shared information space” known as the Web.
-      That is, it can be a more general idea, like some particular
-      car or a mythical Unicorn.</li>
-      <li>in this way, an <code>application/rdf+xml</code> document acts as an
-      intermediary between some Web retrievable documents (itself,
-      at least, also any other Web retrievable IRIs that it may
-      use, possibly including schema IRIs and references to other
-      RDF documents), and some set of possibly abstract or non-Web
-      entities that the RDF may describe.</li>
-    </ul>
-    <p>This provides a handling of IRIs and their
-    denotation that is consistent with the RDF model theory and
-    usage, and also with conventional Web behavior. Note that
-    nothing here requires that an RDF application be able to
-    retrieve any representation of resources identified by the IRIs
-    in an RDF graph.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-Acknowledgments" class="informative">
-    <h2>Acknowledgments</h2>
-
-    <p class="issue">This section does not yet list those who made
-    contributions to the RDF 1.1 version, nor does it list the
-    current RDF WG members.</p>
-
-    <p>The RDF 2004 editors acknowledge valuable contributions from
-    Frank Manola, Pat Hayes, Dan Brickley, Jos de Roo, 
-    Dave Beckett, Patrick Stickler, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Jerome Euzenat, 
-    Massimo Marchiori, Tim Berners-Lee, Dave Reynolds and Dan Connolly.</p>
-
-    <p>This specification contains a significant contribution from the
-    designers of the RDF typed literal mechanism, Pat
-    Hayes, Sergey Melnik and Patrick Stickler. The document draws upon an earlier
-    RDF Model and Syntax document edited by Ora Lassilla and Ralph Swick,
-    and RDF Schema edited by Dan Brickley and R. V. Guha.</p>
-
-    <p>This specification is a product of extended deliberations by the
-    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/#section-Acknowledgments">members
-    of the RDFcore Working Group and the RDF and RDF Schema Working Group</a>.</p>
-</section>
-
-
-<section class="appendix informative" id="changes">
-  <h2>Changes from RDF 2004</h2>
-
-  <ul>
-    <li>2011-08-13: Updated Turtle reference to Turtle FPWD</li>
-    <li>2011-07-21: Condensed the 2004 acknowledgements</li>
-    <li>2011-07-21: Updated the two sections on literals to reflect the <a href="">ISSUE-12 resolution</a> that simple literals are no longer part of the abstract syntax. Formally introduced the terms “language-tagged literal”, “simple literal”.</li>
-    <li>2011-07-21: Updated the introduction, and removed many mentions of RDF/XML. Changed the normative reference for the terms in the RDF namespace from the RDF/XML spec to the RDF Schema spec. Removed any mention of the 1999 version of RDF.</li>
-    <li>2011-07-21: Replaced RFC 2279 reference (UTF-8) with RFC 3629</li>
-    <li>2011-07-20: Removed informative sections “Motivations and Goals” (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/#section-Overview">RDF 2004 version</a>) and “RDF Expression of Simple Facts” (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/#section-SimpleFacts">RDF 2004 version</a>)</li>
-    <li>2011-06-01: Replaced the URI References section with <a href="#section-IRIs">new section on IRIs</a>, and changed “RDF URI Reference” to “IRI” throughout the document.</li>
-    <li>2011-06-01: Changed language tag definition to require well-formedness according to BCP47; added a note that this invalidates some RDF</li>
-    <li>2011-05-25: Added boxes for known WG issues throught the document</li>
-    <li>2011-05-25: Deleted “Structure of this Document” section, it added no value beyond the TOC</li>
-    <li>2011-05-25: Implemented resolution of <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/track/issues/40">ISSUE-40: Skolemization advice in the RDF dcocument</a> by adding a section on <a href="#section-skolemization">Replacing Blank Nodes with IRIs</a></li>
-    <li>2011-05-25: rdf:XMLLiteral is disjoint from any datatype not explicitly related to it, per erratum <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/errata#concept-xmlliteral">[concept-xmlliteral]</a></li>
-    <li>2011-05-25: Added Conformance section with RFC2119 reference</li>
-    <li>2011-05-25: Updated all W3C references to latest editions, and Unicode from v3 to v4</li>
-    <li>2011-05-24: Converted to ReSpec, changed metadata to reflect RDF 1.1</li>
-  </ul>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="references"></section>
-
-  </body>
-</html>
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