* document/endDocument
authorJames Cheney <jcheney@inf.ed.ac.uk>
Thu, 01 Nov 2012 10:16:39 +0000
changeset 4597 eaae00388db2
parent 4596 7fc141666660
child 4598 c58b3f8a05ae
* document/endDocument
model/diff-c.html
model/prov-constraints.html
--- a/model/diff-c.html	Thu Nov 01 08:47:07 2012 +0000
+++ b/model/diff-c.html	Thu Nov 01 10:16:39 2012 +0000
@@ -486,12 +486,9 @@
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 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_section { color: black; font-weight: bold; }
 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_paren { color: red; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }
-
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-</style><style type="text/css">
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }<span class="delete">
+
+
 /* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
 .pending {
     padding:    1em;
@@ -1008,16 +1005,16 @@
 	padding: 2px;
 	border-style: solid;
 	border-color: gray;
-}
-
-</style><link charset="utf-8" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED"></head> 
-  <body style="display: inherit;"><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" height="48" width="72"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">Constraints of the Provenance Data Model</h1><h2 id="subtitle"><a href="diff-c.html"><span class="insert">Changes</span></a><span class="insert"> since Last Call Working Draft  (LC)</span></h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-31-october-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Working</span><span class="insert">Editor's</span> Draft <span class="delete">11 September</span><span class="insert">31 October</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-constraints-20120911/</span><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html</span></a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-constraints-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-constraints-20120503/</a><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">color-coded diffs</span><span class="delete">)</span></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney">James Cheney</a>, University of Edinburgh</dd>
+}</span>
+
+</style><link href="./extra.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">Constraints of the Provenance Data Model</h1><h2 id="subtitle"><a href="diff-c.html"><span class="insert">Changes</span></a><span class="insert"> since Last Call Working Draft  (LC)</span></h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-01-november-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Working</span><span class="insert">Editor's</span> Draft <span class="delete">11 September</span><span class="insert">01 November</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-constraints-20120911/</span><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html</span></a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-constraints.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-constraints-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-constraints-20120503/</a><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">color-coded diffs</span><span class="delete">)</span></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney">James Cheney</a>, University of Edinburgh</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
 <dt>Author:</dt><dd><a href="http://users.ugent.be/~tdenies/">Tom De Nies</a>, IBBT - Ghent University</dd>
 </dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2012-2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div> 
 
-    <div class="introductory section" id="abstract"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+    <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
 <p>
 Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
 involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to
@@ -1029,7 +1026,7 @@
 
 
 <p> This document defines a subset of PROV instances called
-<i><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a></i> PROV <span class="delete">instances.  
+<i><a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a></i> PROV <span class="delete">instances.  
 </span><span class="insert">instances, by analogy with notions of
 validity for other Web standards.
 </span>The intent of validation is ensure that a PROV instance represents a<span class="insert">
@@ -1039,10 +1036,10 @@
 certain <a>definitions</a>, <a>inferences</a>, and
 <a>constraints</a>. These definitions, inferences, and constraints
 provide a measure of consistency checking for provenance and reasoning
-over provenance.  They can also be used to <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form" title="normal
-form">normalize</a> PROV instances to forms that can easily be
+over provenance.  They can also be used to <a title="normal
+form" href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normalize</a> PROV instances to forms that can easily be
 compared in order to determine whether two PROV instances are
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-equivalent">equivalent</a>.  Validity and equivalence are also defined for PROV
+<a href="#dfn-equivalent" class="internalDFN">equivalent</a>.  Validity and equivalence are also defined for PROV
 bundles (that is, named instances) and documents (that is, a toplevel
 instance together with zero or more bundles).</p>
 
@@ -1052,7 +1049,7 @@
 This is a Last Call Working Draft. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review.</p>
 
 <p>This specification identifies  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">features at
-risk</a> related to the at-risk Mention feature of [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>]:
+risk</a> related to the at-risk Mention feature of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]:
 <a class="rule-text" href="#mention-specialization-inference_text"><span>Inference 22 (mention-specialization-inference)</span></a> and
 <a class="rule-text" href="#unique-mention_text"><span>Constraint 31 (unique-mention)</span></a>.
 These might be removed from PROV-CONSTRAINTS.</p>
@@ -1082,42 +1079,42 @@
 <li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
 should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O and PROV-N offer 
 examples of mapping to RDF and text, respectively.</li>
-<li><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a href="#bib-PROV-SEM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">PROV-SEM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] provides a mathematical semantics and a collection of
+<li><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM"><span class="insert">PROV-SEM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] provides a mathematical semantics and a collection of
 axioms that provide a (non-normative, but equivalent) declarative specification, aimed
 at readers with a mathematical logic or formal background.  This can
 serve as a starting point for alternative implementations. </span></li>
 </ul>
 
-<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as <span class="delete">a Last Call Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft.<span class="delete"> This document is intended to become a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Recommendation.</span> If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="delete"> The Last Call period ends 10 October 2012.</span> All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as <span class="delete">a Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This <span class="delete">is a Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this document has satisfied the relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to advance through the Technical Recommendation process.</span><span class="delete">This </span>document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div class="section" id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#introduction"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#conventions"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#purpose"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Purpose of this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#structure-of-this-document"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Structure of this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#audience"><span class="secno">1.4 </span> Audience </a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rationale"><span class="secno">2. </span>Rationale</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#entities--activities-and-agents"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities, Activities and Agents</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#events"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Events</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#typing-section"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Types</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#validation-process-overview-1"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Validation Process Overview</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#summary-of-inferences-and-constraints"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Summary of inferences and constraints</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#compliance"><span class="secno">3. </span>Compliance with this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#inferences"><span class="secno">4. </span>Definitions and Inferences</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#optional-identifiers-and-attributes"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Optional Identifiers and Attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#entities-and-activities"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Entities and Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#derivations"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Derivations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#agents"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Agents</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#alternate-and-specialized-entities"><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Alternate and Specialized Entities</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#constraints"><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#uniqueness-constraints"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Uniqueness Constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#event-ordering-constraints"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Event Ordering Constraints</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#activity-constraints"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Activity constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#entity-constraints"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span> Entity constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#agent-constraints"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span> Agent constraints</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#type-constraints"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Type Constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#impossibility-constraints"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Impossibility constraints</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#normalization-validity-equivalence"><span class="secno">6. </span>Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#instance"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>Instances</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#bundle-constraints"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Bundles and Documents</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#glossary"><span class="secno">7. </span>Glossary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#termination"><span class="secno">A. </span>Termination of normalization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#changes-since-last-version"><span class="secno">B. </span><span class="delete">Acknowledgements</span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#acknowledgements"><span class="secno">C. </span><span class="insert">Acknowledgements</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#references"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">D. </span></span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#normative-references"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.1</span><span class="insert">D.1</span> </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#informative-references"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.2</span><span class="insert">D.2</span> </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-    <div class="section" id="introduction"> 
+<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as <span class="delete">a Last Call Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft.<span class="delete"> This document is intended to become a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Recommendation.</span> If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="delete"> The Last Call period ends 10 October 2012.</span> All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as <span class="delete">a Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.<span class="delete">This is a Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this document has satisfied the relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to advance through the Technical Recommendation process.</span></p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
+</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#purpose" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Purpose of this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Structure of this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#audience" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.4 </span> Audience </a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rationale" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Rationale</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities--activities-and-agents" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities, Activities and Agents</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#events" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Events</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#typing-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Types</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#validation-process-overview-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Validation Process Overview</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#summary-of-inferences-and-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Summary of inferences and constraints</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#compliance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Compliance with this document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#inferences" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Definitions and Inferences</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#optional-identifiers-and-attributes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Optional Identifiers and Attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities-and-activities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Entities and Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Derivations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Agents</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-and-specialized-entities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Alternate and Specialized Entities</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#uniqueness-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Uniqueness Constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#event-ordering-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Event Ordering Constraints</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#activity-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Activity constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#entity-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span> Entity constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agent-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span> Agent constraints</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#type-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Type Constraints</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#impossibility-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Impossibility constraints</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#normalization-validity-equivalence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#instance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>Instances</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#bundle-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Bundles and Documents</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#glossary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Glossary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#termination" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Termination of normalization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-last-version" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">B. </span></span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">B.</span><span class="insert">C.</span> </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.</span><span class="insert">D.</span> </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.1</span><span class="insert">D.1</span> </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.2</span><span class="insert">D.2</span> </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+    <div id="introduction" class="section"> 
       <h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
 </h2> 
 
 <p>
 Provenance is a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.
 This document complements
-  the PROV-DM specification [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>] that defines a data model for
+  the PROV-DM specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] that defines a data model for
   provenance on the Web.  </p>
 
 
 
-    <div class="section" id="conventions"> 
+    <div id="conventions" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Conventions</h3>
 
 
 
-<p>The key words "<em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em>", "<em title="must not" class="rfc2119">must not</em>", "<em title="required" class="rfc2119">required</em>", "<em title="shall" class="rfc2119">shall</em>", "<em title="shall
-      not" class="rfc2119">shall
-      not</em>", "<em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em>", "<em title="should not" class="rfc2119">should not</em>", "<em title="recommended" class="rfc2119">recommended</em>",  "<em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em>", and
-      "<em title="optional" class="rfc2119">optional</em>" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
-      [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC2119" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
+<p>The key words "<em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall
+      not">shall
+      not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>",  "<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>", and
+      "<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
 
 <p>In this document, logical formulas contain variables written as
     lower-case identifiers.  Some of these variables are written
@@ -1128,7 +1125,7 @@
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="section" id="purpose">
+<div id="purpose" class="section">
 
 <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Purpose of this document</h3>
 
@@ -1141,14 +1138,14 @@
 of a query, a triple store containing PROV statements in RDF, etc.
 A PROV <dfn id="dfn-instance">instance</dfn> is a set of PROV statements.
 The
-PROV-DM specification [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>] imposes minimal requirements upon
-PROV instances. A <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> PROV instance corresponds to a
+PROV-DM specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] imposes minimal requirements upon
+PROV instances. A <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> PROV instance corresponds to a
 consistent history of objects and interactions to which logical
 reasoning can be safely applied. <span class="delete">By default, </span>PROV instances need not
-be <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.  
+be <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.  
 </p>
 <p><span class="insert">
-The term </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid"><span class="insert">valid</span></a><span class="insert"> is chosen by analogy with
+The term </span><a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">valid</span></a><span class="insert"> is chosen by analogy with
 notions of validity in other </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> specifications. Unfortunately, this
 terminology is incompatible with the usual meaning of "validity" in logic;
 our notion of validity of a PROV instance/document is closer to
@@ -1157,48 +1154,48 @@
 
 <p> This document specifies <em>definitions</em> of some
 provenance statements in terms of others, <em>inferences</em> over PROV instances
-that applications <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> employ, and also defines a class of
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> PROV instances by specifying <em>constraints</em> that
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> PROV instances must satisfy. There are four kinds of
+that applications <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> employ, and also defines a class of
+<a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> PROV instances by specifying <em>constraints</em> that
+<a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> PROV instances must satisfy. There are four kinds of
 constraints: <em>uniqueness constraints</em>, <em>event ordering
 constraints</em>, <em>impossibility constraints</em>, and <em>type
 constraints</em>.
 Further discussion
 of the semantics of PROV statements, which justifies the definitions, inferences
-and constraints, <span class="insert">and relates the procedural specification approach
-taken here to a declarative specification, </span>can be found in the formal semantics [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-SEM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-SEM</a></cite>].
+and constraints,<span class="insert"> and relates the procedural specification approach
+taken here to a declarative specification,</span> can be found in the formal semantics [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>].
 </p>
 
 <p>We define validity and equivalence in terms of a
-concept called <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form" title="normal form">normalization</a>.  Definitions, inferences,
-and uniqueness constraints can be applied to <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form" title="normal
-form">normalize</a> PROV instances, and event ordering, typing, and
+concept called <a title="normal form" href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normalization</a>.  Definitions, inferences,
+and uniqueness constraints can be applied to <a title="normal
+form" href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normalize</a> PROV instances, and event ordering, typing, and
 impossibility constraints can be checked on the normal form to determine
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid" title="valid">validity</a>.  Equivalence of two PROV 
+<a title="valid" href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">validity</a>.  Equivalence of two PROV 
 instances can be determined by comparing their normal forms.  For PROV
 documents, validity and equivalence amount to checking the validity or
 pairwise equivalence of their respective <span class="delete">documents.</span><span class="insert">instances.</span>
 </p>
 <p>
 This <span class="delete">document outlines</span><span class="insert">specification defines
-validity and equivalence procedurally, via</span> an algorithm <span class="delete">for validity checking </span>based on
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form" title="normal form">normalization</a>.  Applications <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> implement
+validity and equivalence procedurally, via</span> an algorithm<span class="delete"> for validity checking</span> based on
+<a title="normal form" href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normalization</a>.  Applications <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> implement
 validity and equivalence checking using normalization, as <span class="delete">suggested
 here, or</span><span class="insert">outlined
-here.  Applications </span><em title="may" class="rfc2119"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> also implement validation and equivalence
+here.  Applications </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> also implement validation and equivalence
 checking</span> in
 any other way as long as the same instances or documents are considered valid or
 equivalent, respectively.
 </p>
 
-<p> Checking validity or equivalence are <em title="recommended" class="rfc2119">recommended</em>, but not required, for
+<p> Checking validity or equivalence are <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>, but not required, for
 applications compliant with PROV.<span class="delete">  This specification defines how
 validity and equivalence are to be checked, if an application elects
 to support them at all.</span>  
-Applications producing provenance <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em> ensure that it is
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>, and similarly applications consuming provenance <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> reject provenance that is not <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.  Applications
+Applications producing provenance <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> ensure that it is
+<a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>, and similarly applications consuming provenance <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> reject provenance that is not <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.  Applications
 which are determining whether PROV instances or documents convey the same
-information <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em> check equivalence as specified here, and <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em>
+information <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> check equivalence as specified here, and <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>
 treat equivalent instances or documents in the same way.<span class="insert">  This is a
 guideline only, because meaning of "in the same way" is
 application-specific.  For example, applications that manipulate the syntax of
@@ -1207,7 +1204,7 @@
 different, but equivalent, documents differently.</span>
 </p>
 </div>
-<div class="section" id="structure-of-this-document">
+<div id="structure-of-this-document" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Structure of this document</h3>
 
 <p><a href="#rationale">Section 2</a> gives a brief rationale
@@ -1218,7 +1215,7 @@
 requirements for compliance with this document, which are specified in
 detail in the rest of the document.  </p>
 
-<p> <a href="#inferences">Section 4</a> presents definitions and inferences.  Definitions allow replacing shorthand notation in [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-N" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-N</a></cite>]
+<p> <a href="#inferences">Section 4</a> presents definitions and inferences.  Definitions allow replacing shorthand notation in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>]
 with more explicit and complete statements; inferences allow adding
 new facts representing implicit knowledge about the structure of
 provenance.  </p>
@@ -1227,7 +1224,7 @@
 <em>uniqueness</em> constraints that prescribe that certain statements
 must be unique within PROV <a>instances</a>,
 <em>event ordering</em> constraints that require that the records in a
-PROV <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-instance">instance</a> are consistent with a sensible ordering of events
+PROV <a href="#dfn-instance" class="internalDFN">instance</a> are consistent with a sensible ordering of events
 relating the activities, entities and agents involved, 
 <em>impossibility</em> constraints that forbid certain patterns of
 statements in valid PROV instances, and <em>type</em> constraints that
@@ -1241,20 +1238,20 @@
 
 
 </div>
-<div class="section" id="audience">
+<div id="audience" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">1.4 </span> Audience </h3>
 
-<p> The audience for this document is the same as for [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>]: developers
+<p> The audience for this document is the same as for [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]: developers
 and users who wish to create, process, share or integrate provenance
 records on the (Semantic) Web.  Not all PROV-compliant applications
 need to perform inferences or check validity when processing provenance.
-However, applications that create or transform provenance <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em>
+However, applications that create or transform provenance <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>
 attempt to produce valid provenance, to make it more useful to other
 applications by ruling out nonsensical or inconsistent information.
 </p>
 
-<p>This document assumes familiarity with [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and employs the
-[<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-N" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-N</a></cite>] notation.
+<p>This document assumes familiarity with [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and employs the
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] notation.
 </p>
 
 </div>
@@ -1266,7 +1263,7 @@
   further background for the constraints, but does not affect the
 technical content of the rest of the specification.</p>
 
-<div class="section" id="entities--activities-and-agents">
+<div id="entities--activities-and-agents" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities, Activities and Agents</h3>
 <p>
 One of the central challenges in representing provenance information
@@ -1283,8 +1280,8 @@
 and whose situation in the world is described by some fixed
 attributes. An entity has a <dfn id="lifetime">lifetime</dfn>,
 defined as the period
-between its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-generation-event" title="entity generation event">generation event</a>
-and its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-invalidation-event" title="entity invalidation event">invalidation event</a>.
+between its <a title="entity generation event" href="#dfn-generation-event" class="internalDFN">generation event</a>
+and its <a title="entity invalidation event" href="#dfn-invalidation-event" class="internalDFN">invalidation event</a>.
 An entity's attributes are established when the entity is
 created and (partially) describe the entity's situation and state
 during the entirety of the entity's lifetime.</p>
@@ -1315,8 +1312,8 @@
 In order to describe the provenance of something during an interval
   over which relevant attributes of the thing are not fixed, a PROV
   instance would describe multiple entities, each with its own
-  identifier, <a class="internalDFN" href="#lifetime">lifetime</a>, and fixed attributes, and express dependencies between
-  the various entities using <i><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">events</a></i>.  For example, in order to
+  identifier, <a href="#lifetime" class="internalDFN">lifetime</a>, and fixed attributes, and express dependencies between
+  the various entities using <i><a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">events</a></i>.  For example, in order to
   describe the provenance of several versions of a document, involving
   attributes such as authorship that change over time, one can use
   different entities for the versions linked by appropriate
@@ -1332,10 +1329,10 @@
 attributes; this leads to potential ambiguity, which is mitigated through the
 use of identifiers.</p>
 
-<p>An <a>activity</a>'s lifetime is delimited by its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-start-event" title="activity start
-event">start</a> and its <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-end-event" title="activity end event">end</a>
+<p>An <a>activity</a>'s lifetime is delimited by its <a title="activity start
+event" href="#dfn-start-event" class="internalDFN">start</a> and its <a title="activity end event" href="#dfn-end-event" class="internalDFN">end</a>
 events.  It occurs over
-an interval delimited by two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous
+an interval delimited by two <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous
 events</a>. However, an activity statement need not mention start or end time information, because they may not be known.
 An activity's attribute-value pairs are expected to describe the activity's situation during its lifetime.
 </p>
@@ -1348,11 +1345,11 @@
 contrast, an activity is something that occurs, happens, unfolds, or
 develops through time.  This
 distinction is similar to the distinction between 'continuant' and
-'occurrent' in logic [<cite><a href="#bib-Logic" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">Logic</a></cite>].</p>
+'occurrent' in logic [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>].</p>
 
 
 </div>
-<div class="section" id="events">
+<div id="events" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Events</h3>
 
 <p> Although time is important for provenance, provenance can be used
@@ -1364,50 +1361,50 @@
 assumptions about time.  Instead, PROV talks about (identified)
 events. </p>
 
-<p>The PROV data model is implicitly based on a notion of <dfn id="dfn-event">instantaneous event</dfn>s (or just <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">event</a>s), that mark
+<p>The PROV data model is implicitly based on a notion of <dfn id="dfn-event">instantaneous event</dfn>s (or just <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">event</a>s), that mark
 transitions in the world.  Events include generation, usage, or
 invalidation of entities, as well as start or end of activities.  This
 notion of event is not first-class in the data model, but it is useful
-for explaining its other concepts and its semantics [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-SEM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-SEM</a></cite>].
+for explaining its other concepts and its semantics [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>].
 Thus, events help justify  <i>inferences</i> on provenance as well as
 <i>validity</i> constraints indicating when provenance is
   self-consistent.
 
 
 
-</p><p>Five kinds of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous
+</p><p>Five kinds of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous
 events</a> are used in PROV. The <strong>activity start</strong>
 and <strong>activity end</strong> events delimit the beginning and the
 end of activities, respectively. The 
 <strong>entity generation</strong>, <strong>entity usage</strong>, and <strong>entity
 invalidation</strong> events apply to entities, and the generation and
-invalidation events delimit the <a class="internalDFN" href="#lifetime">lifetime</a> of an entity. More
+invalidation events delimit the <a href="#lifetime" class="internalDFN">lifetime</a> of an entity. More
 precisely:
 </p>
 
-<p>An <dfn id="dfn-start-event">activity start event</dfn> is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity starts.</p>
-
-<p>An <dfn id="dfn-end-event">activity end event</dfn> is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity ends.</p>
-
-<p>An <dfn id="dfn-generation-event">entity generation event</dfn> is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that marks the  final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which
+<p>An <dfn id="dfn-start-event">activity start event</dfn> is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity starts.</p>
+
+<p>An <dfn id="dfn-end-event">activity end event</dfn> is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity ends.</p>
+
+<p>An <dfn id="dfn-generation-event">entity generation event</dfn> is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that marks the  final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which
 it is available for use.  The entity did not exist before this event.</p>
 
 
-<p>An <dfn id="dfn-usage-event">entity usage event</dfn> is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that marks the first instant of
+<p>An <dfn id="dfn-usage-event">entity usage event</dfn> is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that marks the first instant of
 an entity's consumption timespan by an activity.  The described usage
 had not started before this instant, although the activity could
 potentially have used the same entity at a different time.</p>
 
 
 <p>An <dfn id="dfn-invalidation-event">entity invalidation event</dfn>
-is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that
+is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that
 marks the  initial instant of the destruction, invalidation, or
 cessation of an entity, after which the entity is  no longer available
 for use.  The entity no longer exists after this event.</p>
 
 </div>
 
-<div class="section" id="typing-section">
+<div id="typing-section" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Types</h3>
 
 <p> As set out in other specifications, the identifiers used in PROV
@@ -1426,7 +1423,7 @@
 </p>
 
 <div id="typing-table-fig">
-    <table id="typing-table" class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; border-color: black;" border="1">
+    <table id="typing-table" border="1" class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; border-color: black;">
 <caption id="typing-table-caption">Table 1: Summary of Typing Constraints</caption>
       <tbody><tr>
 	<th>In relation...</th>
@@ -1610,15 +1607,15 @@
     </div>
 
 </div>
-<div class="section" id="validation-process-overview-1">
+<div id="validation-process-overview-1" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Validation Process Overview</h3>
 
 
     <p>
   This section collects common concepts and operations that are used
   throughout the specification, and relates them to background
-  terminology and ideas from logic [<cite><a href="#bib-Logic" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">Logic</a></cite>], constraint programming
-  [<cite><a href="#bib-CHR" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">CHR</a></cite>], and database constraints [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  This section
+  terminology and ideas from logic [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>], constraint programming
+  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-CHR">CHR</a></cite>], and database constraints [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  This section
   does not attempt to provide a complete introduction to these topics,
   but it is provided in order to aid readers familiar with one or more
   of these topics in understanding the specification, and to clarify
@@ -1639,7 +1636,7 @@
 implementers, while a procedural approach immediately demonstrates
 implementability and provides an adequate (polynomial-time) default implementation.  In
 this section we relate the declarative meaning of formulas to their
-procedural meaning.  [</span><cite><a href="#bib-PROV-SEM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">PROV-SEM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] will provide an alternative,
+procedural meaning.  [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM"><span class="insert">PROV-SEM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] will provide an alternative,
 declarative characterization of validity and equivalence which could
 be used as a starting point for other implementation strategies.  </span></p>
 
@@ -1648,12 +1645,12 @@
  <h4 id="constants--variables-and-placeholders">Constants, Variables and Placeholders</h4>
   <p>
   PROV statements involve identifiers, literals, 
-  placeholders, and attribute lists.  Identifiers are, according to PROV-N, expressed as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">qualified names</a> which can be mapped to URIs [<cite><a href="#bib-IRI" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">IRI</a></cite>].
+  placeholders, and attribute lists.  Identifiers are, according to PROV-N, expressed as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">qualified names</a> which can be mapped to URIs [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>].
   However, in order to specify
   constraints over PROV instances, we also need <em>variables</em>
   that represent unknown identifiers, literals, or placeholders.
   These variables are similar to those in first-order
-  logic [<cite><a href="#bib-Logic" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">Logic</a></cite>].  A variable is a symbol that can be replaced by
+  logic [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>].  A variable is a symbol that can be replaced by
   other symbols, including either other variables or constant
   identifiers, literals, or placeholders.  In a few special cases, we
   also use variables for unknown attribute lists. 
@@ -1736,7 +1733,7 @@
   specification can also be viewed as logical formulas, built up out
   of atomic formulas, logical connectives "and" (∧), "implies" (⇒),
   and quantifiers "for all" (∀) and "there exists" (∃).  For more
-  background on logical formulas, see a logic textbook such as [<cite><a href="#bib-Logic" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">Logic</a></cite>].</p>
+  background on logical formulas, see a logic textbook such as [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>].</p>
 <ul>
   <li>
   A definition of the form <span class="name">A</span> <span class="conditional">IF AND ONLY IF</span> there
@@ -1880,8 +1877,8 @@
   The process of applying definitions, inferences, and constraints
   to a PROV instance until all of them are satisfied is similar to
   what is sometimes 
-  called <em>chasing</em> [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] or <em>saturation</em>
-  [<cite><a href="#bib-CHR" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">CHR</a></cite>].  We call this process <em>normalization</em>.
+  called <em>chasing</em> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] or <em>saturation</em>
+  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-CHR">CHR</a></cite>].  We call this process <em>normalization</em>.
   </p>
   <p><span class="insert">
   Although this specification outlines one particular way of
@@ -1889,7 +1886,7 @@
   normalization, implementations can use any other equivalent
   algorithm.  The logical formulas corresponding to the definitions,
   inferences, and constraints outlined above (and further elaborated
-  in [</span><cite><a href="#bib-PROV-SEM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">PROV-SEM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]) provides an equivalent specification, and any
+  in [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM"><span class="insert">PROV-SEM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]) provides an equivalent specification, and any
   implementation that correctly checks validity and equivalence (whether it performs normalization or not) complies
   with this specification.</span>
   </p>
@@ -1909,7 +1906,7 @@
   guaranteed because the definitions, inferences and uniqueness/key
   constraints correspond to a <em>weakly acyclic</em> set of
   tuple-generating and equality-generating dependencies, in the
-  terminology of [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  The termination of the remaining
+  terminology of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  The termination of the remaining
   ordering, typing, and impossibility constraints is easy to show.  <a href="#termination">Appendix
   C</a> gives a proof that the definitions, inferences, and uniqueness
   and key constraints are weakly acyclic and therefore terminating.
@@ -1953,7 +1950,7 @@
 <span class="figure">
 <img src="images/constraints/prov-c.graffle.svg/overview.svg" alt="validation process overview">
 <br>
-<span id="validation-process-overview" class="figcaption">Figure 1<sup><a href="#validation-process-overview" class="internalDFN"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Overview of the Validation Process</span>
+<span class="figcaption" id="validation-process-overview">Figure 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#validation-process-overview"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Overview of the Validation Process</span>
 </span> 
 </div>
 
@@ -2012,7 +2009,7 @@
   A normalized instance that <span class="delete">satisfies</span><span class="insert">passes</span> all of the <span class="delete">checked constraints
   </span><span class="insert">ordering, typing,
   and impossibility constraint checks 
-  </span>is called <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.  Validity can be, but is not required to be,
+  </span>is called <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.  Validity can be, but is not required to be,
   checked by normalizing and then checking constraints.  Any other
   algorithm that provides equivalent behavior (that is, accepts the
   same valid instances and rejects the same invalid instances) is allowed.
@@ -2066,8 +2063,8 @@
 that:
 </span></p>
 <ul>
-  <li><span class="insert">instance equivalence is </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive"><span class="insert">reflexive</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-symmetric"><span class="insert">symmetric</span></a><span class="insert"> and
-  </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive"><span class="insert">transitive</span></a><span class="insert"> on all instances</span></li>
+  <li><span class="insert">instance equivalence is </span><a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">reflexive</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#dfn-symmetric" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">symmetric</span></a><span class="insert"> and
+  </span><a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">transitive</span></a><span class="insert"> on all instances</span></li>
   <li><span class="insert"> no valid instance is equivalent to an invalid instance.</span></li>
   </ul>
 <p><span class="insert">
@@ -2108,7 +2105,7 @@
 </p>
 </div>
 
-<div class="section" id="summary-of-inferences-and-constraints">
+<div id="summary-of-inferences-and-constraints" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Summary of inferences and constraints</h3>
 
 <p><a href="">Table 2</a> summarizes the inferences, and
@@ -2384,7 +2381,7 @@
 
 </div>
 
-<div class="section" id="compliance">
+<div id="compliance" class="section">
 <h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Compliance with this document</h2>
 
 <p>
@@ -2394,22 +2391,22 @@
 
  To be compliant:
   </p><ol><li>When processing provenance, an
-    application <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> apply the inferences and definitions in <a href="#inferences" class="sectionRef">section 4. Definitions and Inferences</a>.</li>
-   <li>If determining whether a PROV instance or document is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>, an
-    application <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> <span class="delete">check that</span><span class="insert">determine whether</span> all of the
+    application <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> apply the inferences and definitions in <a href="#inferences" class="sectionRef">section 4. Definitions and Inferences</a>.</li>
+   <li>If determining whether a PROV instance or document is <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>, an
+    application <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> <span class="delete">check that</span><span class="insert">determine whether</span> all of the
     constraints of <a href="#constraints" class="sectionRef">section 5. Constraints</a> are
-  satisfied   on<span class="delete"> the </span><span class="insert">
-  the </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form">normal form</a> of the instance or document.  </li>
+  satisfied   on 
+  the <a href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normal form</a> of the instance or document.  </li>
    <li> If producing provenance meant for other applications to
-    use, the application <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em> produce <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> provenance, as specified in <a href="#normalization-validity-equivalence" class="sectionRef">section 6. Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</a>. </li>
+    use, the application <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> produce <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> provenance, as specified in <a href="#normalization-validity-equivalence" class="sectionRef">section 6. Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</a>. </li>
     <li>If determining whether two PROV instances or documents are
-  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-equivalent">equivalent</a>, an application <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> determine whether their
+  <a href="#dfn-equivalent" class="internalDFN">equivalent</a>, an application <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> determine whether their
   normal forms are equal, as specified in <a href="#normalization-validity-equivalence" class="sectionRef">section 6. Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</a>.
   </li></ol>
 
   <p><span class="delete">Compliant </span><span class="insert">This specification defines validity and equivalence procedurally
   via reduction to normal forms.  If checking validity or equivalence, the
-  results </span><em title="must" class="rfc2119"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be the same as would be obtained by computing normal
+  results </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be the same as would be obtained by computing normal
   forms as defined in this specification.  Applications that explicitly compute
   normal forms, following the implementation strategy suggested by
   this specification, are by definition compliant.  However,
@@ -2436,11 +2433,11 @@
 
  
 
-<div class="section" id="inferences">
+<div id="inferences" class="section">
 <h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Definitions and Inferences</h2>
 <p>
-This section  describes <a class="internalDFN" href="#definition" title="definition">definitions</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#inference" title="inference">inferences</a> that <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be used on
-  provenance data, and preserve <a>equivalence</a> on <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>
+This section  describes <a title="definition" href="#definition" class="internalDFN">definitions</a> and <a title="inference" href="#inference" class="internalDFN">inferences</a> that <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be used on
+  provenance data, and preserve <a>equivalence</a> on <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>
 PROV instances (as detailed in <a href="#normalization-validity-equivalence" class="sectionRef">section 6. Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</a>).
 A <dfn id="definition">definition</dfn> is a rule that can be applied to
   PROV instances to replace defined expressions with definitions. An  <dfn id="inference">inference</dfn> is a rule that can be applied
@@ -2453,7 +2450,7 @@
 
 <p> Definitions have the following general form:</p>
 
-<div class="definition-example" id="definition-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#definition-example" class="internalDFN">Definition-example NNN (definition-example)</a></div>
+<div class="definition-example" id="definition-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#definition-example">Definition-example NNN (definition-example)</a></div>
 <p>
   <span class="name">defined_stmt</span> <span class="conditional">IF AND ONLY IF</span>
   there exists <span class="name">a<sub>1</sub></span>,..., <span class="name">a<sub>m</sub></span> such that <span class="name">defining_stmt<sub>1</sub></span> and  ... and <span class="name">defining_stmt<sub>n</sub></span>.</p>
@@ -2482,7 +2479,7 @@
   </span></div>
 
   <p> Inferences have the following general form:</p>
-<div class="inference-example" id="inference-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#inference-example" class="internalDFN">Inference-example NNN (inference-example)</a></div>
+<div class="inference-example" id="inference-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#inference-example">Inference-example NNN (inference-example)</a></div>
 <p>
   <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">hyp<sub>1</sub></span> and ... and
 <span class="name">hyp<sub>k</sub></span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
@@ -2500,17 +2497,17 @@
   identifiers might later be found to be equal to known identifiers;
   they play a similar role in PROV constraints to existential
   variables in logic, to "labeled nulls" in database theory
-  [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="delete">],  or</span><span class="insert">].
+  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="delete">],  or</span><span class="insert">].
   
   In general, omitted optional parameters</span> to<span class="delete"> blank nodes in </span>
-  [<cite><span class="delete">RDF</span><a href="#bib-PROV-N" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] statements, or explicit </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">
+  [<cite><span class="delete">RDF</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] statements, or explicit </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">
   markers, are placeholders for existentially quantified variables;
   that is, they denote unknown values.  There are a few exceptions to
   this general rule, which are specified in </span><a class="rule-ref" href="#optional-placeholders"><span><span class="insert">Definition 4 (optional-placeholders)</span></span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
 
 <p><span class="insert"> Definitions and inferences can be viewed as logical formulas;
-  similar formalisms are often used in rule-based reasoning [</span><cite><a href="#bib-CHR" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">CHR</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]
-  and in databases [</span><cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">DBCONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite>].  In <span class="delete">general, omitted optional parameters to
+  similar formalisms are often used in rule-based reasoning [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-CHR"><span class="insert">CHR</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]
+  and in databases [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">DBCONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite>].  In <span class="delete">general, omitted optional parameters to
   [</span><span class="delete">PROV-N</span><span class="delete">] statements, or explicit </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete">
   markers, are placeholders for existentially quantified variables;
   that is, they denote unknown values.  There are a few exceptions to
@@ -2540,21 +2537,21 @@
 	as an ordered list, the scope of the variables in each rule is at the level of list elements, and so reuse of 
 	variable names in different rules does not affect the meaning.
 </p>
-<div class="section" id="optional-identifiers-and-attributes">
+<div id="optional-identifiers-and-attributes" class="section">
   <h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Optional Identifiers and Attributes</h3>
 
   <p>Many PROV relation statements have an identifier, identifying a
   link between two or more related objects.  Identifiers can sometimes
-  be omitted in [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-O" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-O</a></cite>] notation.  For the purpose of inference and
+  be omitted in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] notation.  For the purpose of inference and
   validity checking, we generate special identifiers called
   <dfn id="dfn-existential-variables">existential variables</dfn> denoting the unknown values.
 </p>
 <p>
-Existential variables can be <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-substitution" title="substitution">substituted</a>
+Existential variables can be <a title="substitution" href="#dfn-substitution" class="internalDFN">substituted</a>
   with other terms.  Specifically, a
   <dfn id="dfn-substitution">substitution</dfn> is a function from a set of existential
   variables to identifiers, literals, the placeholder <span class="name">-</span>,
-  or other <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-existential-variables">existential variables</a>.  A substitution <span class="math">S</span> can be
+  or other <a href="#dfn-existential-variables" class="internalDFN">existential variables</a>.  A substitution <span class="math">S</span> can be
   applied to an instance <span class="math">I</span> by replacing all occurrences of existential
   variables <span class="math">x</span> in the instance with <span class="math">S(x)</span>.  
 </p>
@@ -2566,11 +2563,11 @@
 <a class="rule-ref" href="#definition-short-forms"><span>Definition 3 (definition-short-forms)</span></a>,
  explain how to expand the compact forms of PROV-N notation into a
   normal form.  <a class="rule-ref" href="#optional-placeholders"><span>Definition 4 (optional-placeholders)</span></a> indicates when
-  other optional parameters can be replaced by <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-existential-variables">existential
+  other optional parameters can be replaced by <a href="#dfn-existential-variables" class="internalDFN">existential
   variables</a>.  
 </p>
 
-  <div class="definition" id="optional-identifiers"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#optional-identifiers" class="internalDFN">Definition 1 (optional-identifiers)</a></div>
+  <div class="definition" id="optional-identifiers"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#optional-identifiers">Definition 1 (optional-identifiers)</a></div>
 <p>For each  <span class="name">r</span> in { 
 <span class="name">used</span>,
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy</span>,
@@ -2595,7 +2592,7 @@
     <p>Likewise, many PROV-N statements allow for an optional attribute
    list.  If it is omitted, this is the same as specifying an empty
    attribute list:</p>
-   <div class="definition" id="optional-attributes"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#optional-attributes" class="internalDFN">Definition 2 (optional-attributes)</a></div>
+   <div class="definition" id="optional-attributes"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#optional-attributes">Definition 2 (optional-attributes)</a></div>
 <ol>
   <li>
   For each  <span class="name">p</span> in {<span class="name">entity</span>, <span class="name">activity</span>,
@@ -2636,7 +2633,7 @@
   used if none of the optional arguments is present.  These are
   handled by specific rules listed below.  </p>
 
-<div class="definition" id="definition-short-forms"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#definition-short-forms" class="internalDFN">Definition 3 (definition-short-forms)</a></div>
+<div class="definition" id="definition-short-forms"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#definition-short-forms">Definition 3 (definition-short-forms)</a></div>
  <p>
   
   </p><ol>
@@ -2674,7 +2671,7 @@
 
 
 <p id="optional-placeholders_text">Finally,  most optional parameters (written <span class="name">-</span>) are, for the purpose of this document,
-  considered to be distinct, fresh existential variables.  Optional parameters are defined in  [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and in [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-N" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-N</a></cite>] for each type of PROV statement.
+  considered to be distinct, fresh existential variables.  Optional parameters are defined in  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] for each type of PROV statement.
   Thus,
   before proceeding to apply other definitions or inferences, most
   occurrences of <span class="name">-</span> are to be replaced
@@ -2692,13 +2689,13 @@
    expandable parameter is one that can be omitted using the
    placeholder <span class="name">-</span>, and if so, it is
    to be replaced by a fresh existential identifier.
-  <a href="#expandable-parameters-fig">Table 3</a> defines the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-expandable-parameter">expandable
+  <a href="#expandable-parameters-fig">Table 3</a> defines the <a href="#dfn-expandable-parameter" class="internalDFN">expandable
     parameter</a>s of the properties of PROV, needed in <a class="rule-ref" href="#optional-placeholders"><span>Definition 4 (optional-placeholders)</span></a>.  For emphasis, the four optional parameters
-    that are not <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-expandable-parameter" title="expandable parameter">expandable</a> are
+    that are not <a title="expandable parameter" href="#dfn-expandable-parameter" class="internalDFN">expandable</a> are
     also listed.  Parameters that cannot have value <span class="name">-</span>, and identifiers that are 
    expanded by <a class="rule-ref" href="#optional-identifiers"><span>Definition 1 (optional-identifiers)</span></a>, are not listed.</p>
   <div id="expandable-parameters-fig">
-    <table id="expandable-parameters_table" class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; border-color: black;" border="1">
+    <table id="expandable-parameters_table" border="1" class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; border-color: black;">
 <caption id="expandable-parameters">Table 3: Expandable and
     Non-Expandable Parameters</caption>
 <tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
@@ -2774,13 +2771,13 @@
   forbids specifying generation and use parameters when the activity
   is unspecified.</p>
     
-  <div class="definition" id="optional-placeholders"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#optional-placeholders" class="internalDFN">Definition 4 (optional-placeholders)</a></div>
+  <div class="definition" id="optional-placeholders"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#optional-placeholders">Definition 4 (optional-placeholders)</a></div>
     <ol><li>
       <span class="name">activity(id,-,t2,attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">IF AND ONLY
-   IF</span> there exists <span class="name">t1</span> such that <span class="name">activity(id,t1,t2,attrs)</span>. Here, <span class="name">t2</span> <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be a placeholder.
+   IF</span> there exists <span class="name">t1</span> such that <span class="name">activity(id,t1,t2,attrs)</span>. Here, <span class="name">t2</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be a placeholder.
   </li>
 <li>  <span class="name">activity(id,t1,-,attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">IF AND ONLY
-   IF</span> there exists <span class="name">t2</span> such that <span class="name">activity(id,t1,t2,attrs)</span>. Here, <span class="name">t1</span> <em title="must not" class="rfc2119">must not</em> be a placeholder.
+   IF</span> there exists <span class="name">t2</span> such that <span class="name">activity(id,t1,t2,attrs)</span>. Here, <span class="name">t1</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be a placeholder.
 </li>
 
     <li>For each  <span class="name">r</span> in { 
@@ -2796,7 +2793,7 @@
 <span class="name">actedOnBehalfOf</span>
    
     }, if the <span class="name">i</span>th parameter
-    of <span class="name">r</span> is an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-expandable-parameter">expandable parameter</a>
+    of <span class="name">r</span> is an <a href="#dfn-expandable-parameter" class="internalDFN">expandable parameter</a>
     of <span class="name">r</span>
     as specified in <a href="#expandable-parameters-fig">Table 3</a>
 then the following definition holds:
@@ -2831,16 +2828,16 @@
     </div>
 </div>
     
-<div class="section" id="entities-and-activities">
+<div id="entities-and-activities" class="section">
   <h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Entities and Activities</h3>
 
 
   
 
-<p id="communication-generation-use-inference_text">Communication between activities <a class="internalDFN" href="#definition" title="definition">implies</a> the existence of an underlying
+<p id="communication-generation-use-inference_text">Communication between activities <a title="definition" href="#definition" class="internalDFN">implies</a> the existence of an underlying
 entity generated by one activity and used by the other, and vice versa.</p>
 
-<div class="inference" id="communication-generation-use-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#communication-generation-use-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 5 (communication-generation-use-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="communication-generation-use-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#communication-generation-use-inference">Inference 5 (communication-generation-use-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> 
 <span class="name">wasInformedBy(_id; a2,a1,_attrs)</span>
@@ -2852,7 +2849,7 @@
 
 <p id="generation-use-communication-inference_text">
 
- </p><div class="inference" id="generation-use-communication-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#generation-use-communication-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 6 (generation-use-communication-inference)</a></div>
+ </p><div class="inference" id="generation-use-communication-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-use-communication-inference">Inference 6 (generation-use-communication-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>  <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(_gen; e,a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span>
    and <span class="name">used(_id2; a2,e,_t2,_attrs2)</span> hold
@@ -2864,7 +2861,7 @@
 
   <div class="remark">
 <p>The relationship <span class="name">wasInformedBy</span> is not
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>. Indeed, consider the following statements.</p>
+<a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>. Indeed, consider the following statements.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(a2,a1)
 wasInformedBy(a3,a2)
 </pre>
@@ -2883,7 +2880,7 @@
 <span class="figure">
 <img src="images/constraints/informedByNonTransitive.png" alt="non transitivity of wasInformedBy">
 <br>
-<span id="counterexample-wasInformedBy" class="figcaption">Figure 2<sup><a href="#counterexample-wasInformedBy" class="internalDFN"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Counter-example for transitivity of wasInformedBy</span>
+<span class="figcaption" id="counterexample-wasInformedBy">Figure 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#counterexample-wasInformedBy"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Counter-example for transitivity of wasInformedBy</span>
 </span> 
 </div>
 </div>
@@ -2898,7 +2895,7 @@
 From an entity statement, we can infer the existence of
 generation and invalidation events.
 </p>
-<div class="inference" id="entity-generation-invalidation-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#entity-generation-invalidation-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 7 (entity-generation-invalidation-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="entity-generation-invalidation-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-generation-invalidation-inference">Inference 7 (entity-generation-invalidation-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">entity(e,_attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> there exist 
 <span class="name">_gen</span>, <span class="name">_a1</span>, <span class="name">_t1</span>,
@@ -2915,7 +2912,7 @@
 start and end events whose times match the start and end times of
 the activity, respectively.
 </p>
-<div class="inference" id="activity-start-end-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#activity-start-end-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 8 (activity-start-end-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="activity-start-end-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#activity-start-end-inference">Inference 8 (activity-start-end-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">activity(a,t1,t2,_attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> there exist <span class="name">_start</span>, <span class="name">_e1</span>, <span class="name">_a1</span>, <span class="name">_end</span>, <span class="name">_a2</span>, 
   and <span class="name">_e2</span> such that
@@ -2930,7 +2927,7 @@
 implies that 
 <span class="name">e1</span> was generated by the starting activity <span class="name">a1</span>.</p>
 
-<div class="inference" id="wasStartedBy-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasStartedBy-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 9 (wasStartedBy-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="wasStartedBy-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasStartedBy-inference">Inference 9 (wasStartedBy-inference)</a></div>
 <p><span class="conditional">IF</span>
  <span class="name">wasStartedBy(_id; a,e1,a1,_t,_attrs)</span>,
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span> there exist <span class="name">_gen</span> and  <span class="name">_t1</span>
@@ -2946,7 +2943,7 @@
 <span class="name">e1</span> was generated by the ending activity <span class="name">a1</span>.
 </p>
 
-<div class="inference" id="wasEndedBy-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasEndedBy-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 10 (wasEndedBy-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="wasEndedBy-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasEndedBy-inference">Inference 10 (wasEndedBy-inference)</a></div>
 <p><span class="conditional">IF</span>
  <span class="name">wasEndedBy(_id; a,e1,a1,_t,_attrs)</span>,
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span> there exist <span class="name">_gen</span> and <span class="name">_t1</span> such that 
@@ -2958,7 +2955,7 @@
 
 </div>
 
- <div class="section" id="derivations"> 
+ <div id="derivations" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Derivations</h3>
 
 
@@ -2966,7 +2963,7 @@
 <p id="derivation-generation-use-inference_text">Derivations with explicit
 activity, generation, and usage admit the  following inference: </p>
 
-<div class="inference" id="derivation-generation-use-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#derivation-generation-use-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 11 (derivation-generation-use-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="derivation-generation-use-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-generation-use-inference">Inference 11 (derivation-generation-use-inference)</a></div>
 <p> In this inference, none of <span class="name">a</span>, <span class="name">gen2</span> or <span class="name">use1</span> can be
   placeholders <span class="name">-</span>.
   </p><p>
@@ -2983,8 +2980,8 @@
 <p id="revision-is-alternate-inference_text">A revision admits the following inference, stating that  the two entities
 linked  by a revision are also alternates.</p>
  
-<div class="inference" id="revision-is-alternate-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#revision-is-alternate-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 12 (revision-is-alternate-inference)</a></div>
-  <p>In this inference, any of <span class="name">_a</span>, <span class="name">_g</span> or <span class="name">_u</span> <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be placeholders.</p>
+<div class="inference" id="revision-is-alternate-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#revision-is-alternate-inference">Inference 12 (revision-is-alternate-inference)</a></div>
+  <p>In this inference, any of <span class="name">_a</span>, <span class="name">_g</span> or <span class="name">_u</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be placeholders.</p>
 <p>
   <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasDerivedFrom(_id; e2,e1,_a,_g,_u,[prov:type='prov:Revision'])</span>, <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">alternateOf(e2,e1)</span>.  
 </p>
@@ -3001,7 +2998,7 @@
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="section" id="agents">
+<div id="agents" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Agents</h3>
 
 <p id="attribution-inference_text"> Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.  An
@@ -3010,7 +3007,7 @@
 and association events are not explicit in the instance, they can
 be inferred.</p>
 
-<div class="inference" id="attribution-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#attribution-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 13 (attribution-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="attribution-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#attribution-inference">Inference 13 (attribution-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasAttributedTo(_att; e,ag,_attrs)</span>
@@ -3033,7 +3030,7 @@
   merged </span><span class="insert"> unified
 </span>with a constant identifier, another existential variable, or a
   placeholder <span class="name">-</span>, as explained
-  in the definition of <span class="delete">merging</span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unification"><span class="insert">unification</span></a>.
+  in the definition of <span class="delete">merging</span><a href="#dfn-unification" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unification</span></a>.
   </div>
 <hr>
 <p id="delegation-inference_text"> Delegation relates agents where one agent acts on behalf of
@@ -3043,7 +3040,7 @@
 activity.  Both agents are associated with this activity.</p>
 
 
-<div class="inference" id="delegation-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#delegation-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 14 (delegation-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="delegation-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegation-inference">Inference 14 (delegation-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">actedOnBehalfOf(_id; ag1, ag2, a, _attrs)</span>
@@ -3063,7 +3060,7 @@
   <span class="name">_pl1</span> and <span class="name">_pl2</span>
   can be replaced with constant identifiers, existential variables, or
   placeholders <span class="name">-</span> independently, as explained
-  in the definition of <span class="delete">merging</span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unification"><span class="insert">unification</span></a>.
+  in the definition of <span class="delete">merging</span><a href="#dfn-unification" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unification</span></a>.
   </div>
 
 <hr>
@@ -3073,7 +3070,7 @@
 derivation, attribution, association, and delegation.  To capture this
 explicitly, we allow the following inferences:
 </p>
-<div class="inference" id="influence-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#influence-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 15 (influence-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="influence-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#influence-inference">Inference 15 (influence-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
   </p><ol>
   <li>
@@ -3096,14 +3093,14 @@
   </li>
  <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasDerivedFrom(id;  e2, e1, a, g, u, attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">wasInfluencedBy(id;  e2, e1, attrs)</span>.  Here,
-  <span class="name">a</span>, <span class="name">g</span>, <span class="name">u</span> <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be placeholders <span class="name">-</span>.
+  <span class="name">a</span>, <span class="name">g</span>, <span class="name">u</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be placeholders <span class="name">-</span>.
   </li>
 <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasAttributedTo(id; e,ag,attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">wasInfluencedBy(id; e, ag, attrs)</span>.
   </li>
   <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith(id; a,ag,_pl,attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">wasInfluencedBy(id;  a, ag, attrs)</span>.  Here,
-  <span class="name">_pl</span> <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be a placeholder <span class="name">-</span>.
+  <span class="name">_pl</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be a placeholder <span class="name">-</span>.
   </li>
   <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">actedOnBehalfOf(id; ag2,ag1,_a,attrs)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">wasInfluencedBy(id;  ag2, ag1, attrs)</span>.
@@ -3121,20 +3118,20 @@
 
 
 
- <div class="section" id="alternate-and-specialized-entities"> 
+ <div id="alternate-and-specialized-entities" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Alternate and Specialized Entities</h3>
 
 
 
   
 <hr>
-  <p id="alternate-reflexive_text">The relation <span class="name">alternateOf</span> is an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-equivalence-relation">equivalence relation</a>: that is,
-  it is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a>,
-  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-symmetric">symmetric</a>.  As a consequence, the
+  <p id="alternate-reflexive_text">The relation <span class="name">alternateOf</span> is an <a href="#dfn-equivalence-relation" class="internalDFN">equivalence relation</a>: that is,
+  it is <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a>,
+  <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a> and <a href="#dfn-symmetric" class="internalDFN">symmetric</a>.  As a consequence, the
   following inferences can be applied:</p>
 
  
-<div class="inference" id="alternate-reflexive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#alternate-reflexive" class="internalDFN">Inference 16 (alternate-reflexive)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="alternate-reflexive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#alternate-reflexive">Inference 16 (alternate-reflexive)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>  <span class="name">entity(e)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">alternateOf(e,e)</span>.
@@ -3146,7 +3143,7 @@
 </p><hr>
   <p id="alternate-transitive_text">
 
-       </p><div class="inference" id="alternate-transitive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#alternate-transitive" class="internalDFN">Inference 17 (alternate-transitive)</a></div>
+       </p><div class="inference" id="alternate-transitive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#alternate-transitive">Inference 17 (alternate-transitive)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">alternateOf(e1,e2)</span> and
    <span class="name">alternateOf(e2,e3)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">alternateOf(e1,e3)</span>.</p>
@@ -3157,7 +3154,7 @@
 </p><hr>
   <p id="alternate-symmetric_text">
 
-   </p><div class="inference" id="alternate-symmetric"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#alternate-symmetric" class="internalDFN">Inference 18 (alternate-symmetric)</a></div>
+   </p><div class="inference" id="alternate-symmetric"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#alternate-symmetric">Inference 18 (alternate-symmetric)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>  <span class="name">alternateOf(e1,e2)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">alternateOf(e2,e1)</span>.</p>
     </div>
@@ -3168,10 +3165,10 @@
 </p><hr>
 <p id="specialization-transitive_text">
 Similarly, specialization is a
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strict-partial-order">strict partial order</a>: it is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</a> and
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.  Irreflexivity is handled later as <a class="rule-ref" href="#impossible-specialization-reflexive"><span>Constraint 54 (impossible-specialization-reflexive)</span></a>
+    <a href="#dfn-strict-partial-order" class="internalDFN">strict partial order</a>: it is <a href="#dfn-irreflexive" class="internalDFN">irreflexive</a> and
+    <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.  Irreflexivity is handled later as <a class="rule-ref" href="#impossible-specialization-reflexive"><span>Constraint 54 (impossible-specialization-reflexive)</span></a>
     </p>
-       <div class="inference" id="specialization-transitive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#specialization-transitive" class="internalDFN">Inference 19 (specialization-transitive)</a></div>
+       <div class="inference" id="specialization-transitive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#specialization-transitive">Inference 19 (specialization-transitive)</a></div>
 <p>
 
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e1,e2)</span>
@@ -3186,7 +3183,7 @@
     <p id="specialization-alternate-inference_text">If one entity specializes another, then they are also
     alternates:</p>
     
-       <div class="inference" id="specialization-alternate-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#specialization-alternate-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 20 (specialization-alternate-inference)</a></div>
+       <div class="inference" id="specialization-alternate-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#specialization-alternate-inference">Inference 20 (specialization-alternate-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e1,e2)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">alternateOf(e1,e2)</span>.</p>
@@ -3197,7 +3194,7 @@
     If one entity specializes another then all attributes of the more
     general entity are also attributes of the more specific one.
     </p>
-<div class="inference" id="specialization-attributes-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#specialization-attributes-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 21 (specialization-attributes-inference)</a></div>
+<div class="inference" id="specialization-attributes-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#specialization-attributes-inference">Inference 21 (specialization-attributes-inference)</a></div>
   <p>
 
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">entity(e1, attrs)</span>  and <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span>, <span class="conditional">THEN </span>
@@ -3215,7 +3212,7 @@
 
     <p id="mention-specialization-inference_text">If one entity is a mention of another in a bundle, then the former is also a specialization of the latter:</p>
     
-       <div class="inference" id="mention-specialization-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#mention-specialization-inference" class="internalDFN">Inference 22 (mention-specialization-inference)</a></div>
+       <div class="inference" id="mention-specialization-inference"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#mention-specialization-inference">Inference 22 (mention-specialization-inference)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">mentionOf(e2,e1,b)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span>.</p>
     </div> 
@@ -3231,7 +3228,7 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="section" id="constraints">
+<div id="constraints" class="section">
 <h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints</h2>
 
 
@@ -3249,12 +3246,12 @@
     <li> <em>event ordering constraints</em> that say that it
   should be possible to arrange the 
   events (generation, usage, invalidation, start, end) described in a
-  PROV instance into a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-preorder">preorder</a> that corresponds to a sensible
+  PROV instance into a <a href="#dfn-preorder" class="internalDFN">preorder</a> that corresponds to a sensible
   "history" (for example, an entity should not be generated after it
   is used); and
     </li>
     <li><em>impossibility constraints</em>, which forbid certain
-    patterns of statements in <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> PROV instances.
+    patterns of statements in <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> PROV instances.
     </li></ul>
   
   <p>As in a [definition|inference], term symbols such as <span class="name">id</span>, 
@@ -3266,7 +3263,7 @@
 	as an ordered list, the scope of the variables in each rule is at the level of list elements, and so reuse of 
 	variable names in different rules does not affect the meaning.
 </p>
-  <div class="section" id="uniqueness-constraints">
+  <div id="uniqueness-constraints" class="section">
 
 
  
@@ -3280,7 +3277,7 @@
     existential variables, we need to be more careful to combine
     partial information that might be present in multiple compatible
     statements, due to inferences.  Uniqueness constraints are
-    enforced through <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-merging">merging</a> pairs of statements subject to
+    enforced through <a href="#dfn-merging" class="internalDFN">merging</a> pairs of statements subject to
     equalities.  For example, suppose we have two activity statements
     <span class="name">activity(a,2011-11-16T16:00:00,_t1,[a=1])</span> and <span class="name">activity(a,_t2,2011-11-16T18:00:00,[b=2])</span>, with existential variables <span class="name">_t1</span> and <span class="name">_t2</span>.  The <a>merge</a> of
     these two statements (describing the same activity <span class="name">a</span>) is <span class="name">activity(a,2011-11-16T16:00:00,2011-11-16T18:00:00,[a=1,b=2])</span>.  </p>
@@ -3291,14 +3288,14 @@
    a </span>substitution <span class="delete">(mapping</span><span class="math"><span class="insert">S</span></span><span class="insert"> such that </span><span class="math"><span class="insert">S(t)</span>
    <span class="delete">existentially quantified variables to terms)</span><span class="insert">= S(t')</span></span><span class="insert">,</span> or failure, indicating 
    that <span class="delete">the merge
-   cannot be performed.  Merging</span><span class="insert">there is no </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unifier"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a><span class="insert">. Unification</span> of pairs of <span class="delete">terms, attribute lists,
+   cannot be performed.  Merging</span><span class="insert">there is no </span><a href="#dfn-unifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a><span class="insert">. Unification</span> of pairs of <span class="delete">terms, attribute lists,
    or statements</span><span class="insert">terms</span> is defined as follows.</p>
 
     <ul>
       <li> If <span class="name">t</span> and <span class="name">t'</span> are constant identifiers or values
       (including the placeholder <span class="name">-</span>), then
    <span class="insert">
-      there are two cases.  If </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">t = t'</span></span><span class="insert"> then </span>their <span class="delete">merge</span><span class="delete"> exists only if they are equal,</span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unifier"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a><span class="insert"> is the
+      there are two cases.  If </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">t = t'</span></span><span class="insert"> then </span>their <span class="delete">merge</span><span class="delete"> exists only if they are equal,</span><a href="#dfn-unifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a><span class="insert"> is the
       empty substitution,</span> otherwise <span class="delete">merging</span><span class="insert">unification</span>
 fails.  </li>
    <li> If <span class="name">x</span> is an existential variable
@@ -3306,15 +3303,15 @@
    <span class="name">t'</span> is any term (identifier, constant,
       placeholder <span class="name">-</span>, or
       existential variable), then their
-   <span class="delete">merge</span><span class="delete"> is </span><span class="delete">t'</span><span class="delete">, and the resulting substitution</span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unifier"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> is
+   <span class="delete">merge</span><span class="delete"> is </span><span class="delete">t'</span><span class="delete">, and the resulting substitution</span><a href="#dfn-unifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> is
       <span class="name">[x=t']</span>.  In the special case where 
-      <span class="name">t'=x</span>, the<span class="delete"> merge</span>  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unifier"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> is
+      <span class="name">t'=x</span>, the<span class="delete"> merge</span>  <a href="#dfn-unifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> is
       <span class="delete">x</span><span class="delete"> and the resulting substitution is empty.</span><span class="insert"> the empty substitution.</span></li>
          <li> If <span class="name">t</span> is any term (identifier, constant,
       placeholder <span class="name">-</span>, or
       existential variable) and
    <span class="name">x'</span> is an existential variable, then their
-      <span class="delete">merge</span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unifier"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> is the same as the <span class="delete">merge</span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unifier"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> of <span class="name">x</span> 
+      <span class="delete">merge</span><a href="#dfn-unifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> is the same as the <span class="delete">merge</span><a href="#dfn-unifier" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifier</span></a> of <span class="name">x</span> 
       and <span class="name">t</span>.</li>
   <span class="delete"> The </span><span class="delete">merge</span><span class="delete"> of two attribute lists  </span><span class="delete">attrs1</span><span class="delete"> and  </span><span class="delete">attrs2</span>
    
@@ -3338,7 +3335,7 @@
   <p>
 A typical uniqueness constraint is as follows:
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint-example" id="uniqueness-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#uniqueness-example" class="internalDFN">Constraint-example NNN (uniqueness-example)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint-example" id="uniqueness-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#uniqueness-example">Constraint-example NNN (uniqueness-example)</a></div>
 <p>    <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">hyp<sub>1</sub></span> and ... and <span class="name">hyp<sub>n</sub></span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">t<sub>1</sub></span> = <span class="name">u<sub>1</sub></span> and ... and <span class="name">t<sub>n</sub></span> = <span class="name">u<sub>n</sub></span>.</p>
   </div>
 
@@ -3363,7 +3360,7 @@
   determines the other parameters.  Key constraints are written as follows:
   </p>
 
-  <div class="constraint-example" id="key-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#key-example" class="internalDFN">Constraint-example NNN (key-example)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint-example" id="key-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#key-example">Constraint-example NNN (key-example)</a></div>
     <p>The <span class="name">a<sub>k</sub></span> field is a <span class="conditional">KEY</span> for relation <span class="name">r(a<sub>0</sub>; a<sub>1</sub>,...,a<sub>n</sub>)</span>.  </p></div>
 
  <p> Because of the presence of attributes, key constraints do not
@@ -3403,12 +3400,12 @@
 <p>
 </p><hr>
 
-  <p id="key-object_text">The various identified objects of PROV <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> have
+  <p id="key-object_text">The various identified objects of PROV <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have
   unique statements describing them within a valid PROV instance.
   This is enforced through
   the following key constraints:
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint" id="key-object"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#key-object" class="internalDFN">Constraint 23 (key-object)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint" id="key-object"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#key-object">Constraint 23 (key-object)</a></div>
 <p></p><ol>
   <li>The identifier field <span class="name"><span class="delete">e</span><span class="insert">id</span></span> is a <span class="conditional">KEY</span> for
   the <span class="name"><span class="delete">entity(e,attrs)</span><span class="insert">entity(id,attrs)</span></span> statement.
@@ -3429,7 +3426,7 @@
    constraints require that all of the information about each identified
    statement can be merged into a single, consistent statement:
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint" id="key-properties"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#key-properties" class="internalDFN">Constraint 24 (key-properties)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint" id="key-properties"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#key-properties">Constraint 24 (key-properties)</a></div>
 <p></p><ol>
   <li>The identifier field <span class="name">id</span> is a <span class="conditional">KEY</span> for
   the <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(id; e,a,t,attrs)</span> statement.
@@ -3487,7 +3484,7 @@
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="unique-generation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-generation" class="internalDFN">Constraint 25 (unique-generation)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="unique-generation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-generation">Constraint 25 (unique-generation)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen1; e,a,_t1,_attrs1)</span> and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen2; e,a,_t2,_attrs2)</span>,
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">gen1</span> = <span class="name">gen2</span>.</p>
@@ -3498,7 +3495,7 @@
 </p><hr>
 <p id="unique-invalidation_text">
 
-</p><div class="constraint" id="unique-invalidation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Constraint 26 (unique-invalidation)</a></div>
+</p><div class="constraint" id="unique-invalidation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-invalidation">Constraint 26 (unique-invalidation)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv1; e,a,_t1,_attrs1)</span> and <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv2; e,a,_t2,_attrs2)</span>,
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">inv1</span> = <span class="name">inv2</span>.</p>
@@ -3515,7 +3512,7 @@
 wasGeneratedBy(-; e,a,-,[color="Red"])
 </pre>
 <p>  When the uniqueness and key constraints are applied, the instance is
-  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form" title="normal form">normalized</a> to the following form:</p>
+  <a title="normal form" href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normalized</a> to the following form:</p>
   <pre>wasGeneratedBy(id1; e,a,_t,[prov:location="Paris",color="Red"])
 </pre>
 <p>
@@ -3537,14 +3534,14 @@
 and <a class="rule-ref" href="#end-end-ordering"><span>Constraint 34 (end-end-ordering)</span></a>.
 </p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="unique-wasStartedBy"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-wasStartedBy" class="internalDFN">Constraint 27 (unique-wasStartedBy)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="unique-wasStartedBy"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-wasStartedBy">Constraint 27 (unique-wasStartedBy)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasStartedBy(start1; a,_e1,a0,_t1,_attrs1)</span> and <span class="name">wasStartedBy(start2; a,_e2,a0,_t2,_attrs2)</span>,  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">start1</span> = <span class="name">start2</span>.</p>
 </div> 
 
 <p id="unique-wasEndedBy_text">
 
-</p><div class="constraint" id="unique-wasEndedBy"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-wasEndedBy" class="internalDFN">Constraint 28 (unique-wasEndedBy)</a></div>
+</p><div class="constraint" id="unique-wasEndedBy"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-wasEndedBy">Constraint 28 (unique-wasEndedBy)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end1; a,_e1,a0,_t1,_attrs1)</span> and <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end2; a,_e2,a0,_t2,_attrs2)</span>,  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">end1</span> = <span class="name">end2</span>.</p>
 </div> 
@@ -3556,20 +3553,20 @@
 
 
 
- <p id="unique-startTime_text">An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-start-event">activity start event</a> is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity starts. It allows for an optional time attribute.  <span id="optional-start-time">Activities also allow for an optional start time attribute.  If both are specified, they <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> be the same, as expressed by the following constraint.</span>
+ <p id="unique-startTime_text">An <a href="#dfn-start-event" class="internalDFN">activity start event</a> is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity starts. It allows for an optional time attribute.  <span id="optional-start-time">Activities also allow for an optional start time attribute.  If both are specified, they <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be the same, as expressed by the following constraint.</span>
 </p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="unique-startTime"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-startTime" class="internalDFN">Constraint 29 (unique-startTime)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="unique-startTime"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-startTime">Constraint 29 (unique-startTime)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">activity(a2,t1,_t2,_attrs)</span> and <span class="name">wasStartedBy(_start; a2,_e,_a1,t,_attrs)</span>,  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">t1</span>=<span class="name">t</span>.</p>
 </div> 
 
 <hr>
 
-<p id="unique-endTime_text">An <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-end-event">activity end event</a> is the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity ends. It allows for an optional time attribute.  <span id="optional-end-time">Activities also allow for an optional end time attribute.  If both are specified, they <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> be the same, as expressed by the following constraint.</span>
+<p id="unique-endTime_text">An <a href="#dfn-end-event" class="internalDFN">activity end event</a> is the <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> that marks the instant an activity ends. It allows for an optional time attribute.  <span id="optional-end-time">Activities also allow for an optional end time attribute.  If both are specified, they <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be the same, as expressed by the following constraint.</span>
 </p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="unique-endTime"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-endTime" class="internalDFN">Constraint 30 (unique-endTime)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="unique-endTime"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-endTime">Constraint 30 (unique-endTime)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">activity(a2,_t1,t2,_attrs)</span> and <span class="name">wasEndedBy(_end; a2,_e,_a1,t,_attrs1)</span>,  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">t2</span> = <span class="name">t</span>.</p>
 </div> 
@@ -3590,7 +3587,7 @@
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="unique-mention"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#unique-mention" class="internalDFN">Constraint 31 (unique-mention)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="unique-mention"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#unique-mention">Constraint 31 (unique-mention)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">mentionOf(e, e1, b1)</span> and <span class="name">mentionOf(e, e2, b2)</span>,
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>  <span class="name">e1</span>=<span class="name">e2</span> and <span class="name">b1</span>=<span class="name">b2</span>.</p>
@@ -3602,17 +3599,17 @@
 
 </div>  
 
-<div class="section" id="event-ordering-constraints">
+<div id="event-ordering-constraints" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Event Ordering Constraints</h3>
 
 
 <p>Given that provenance consists of a description of past entities
-and activities, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> provenance instances <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em>
+and activities, <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> provenance instances <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>
 satisfy <em>ordering constraints</em> between instantaneous events, which are introduced in
 this section.  For instance, an entity can only be used after it was
-generated; in other words, an entity's <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-generation-event" title="entity generation
-event">generation event</a> precedes any of this
-entity's <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-usage-event" title="entity usage event">usage events</a>.  Should this
+generated; in other words, an entity's <a title="entity generation
+event" href="#dfn-generation-event" class="internalDFN">generation event</a> precedes any of this
+entity's <a title="entity usage event" href="#dfn-usage-event" class="internalDFN">usage events</a>.  Should this
 ordering constraint be violated, the associated generation and
 usage would not be credible.  The rest of this section defines
 the <dfn id="dfn-temporal-interpretation">temporal interpretation</dfn> of provenance instances as a
@@ -3620,67 +3617,67 @@
 
 
 <p>To allow for minimalistic clock assumptions, like Lamport
-[<cite><a href="#bib-CLOCK" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">CLOCK</a></cite>], PROV relies on a notion of relative ordering of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous events</a>,
-without using physical clocks. This specification assumes that a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-preorder">preorder</a> exists between <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous events</a>.
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-CLOCK">CLOCK</a></cite>], PROV relies on a notion of relative ordering of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous events</a>,
+without using physical clocks. This specification assumes that a <a href="#dfn-preorder" class="internalDFN">preorder</a> exists between <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous events</a>.
 </p>
 
 
-<p>Specifically, <dfn id="dfn-precedes">precedes</dfn> is a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-preorder">preorder</a>
-between <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous events</a>.  A
+<p>Specifically, <dfn id="dfn-precedes">precedes</dfn> is a <a href="#dfn-preorder" class="internalDFN">preorder</a>
+between <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous events</a>.  A
 constraint of the form
 <span class="name">e1</span> precedes <span class="name">e2</span> means that <span class="name">e1</span>
 happened at the same time as or before <span class="name">e2</span>.
 For symmetry, <dfn id="dfn-follows">follows</dfn> is defined as the
-inverse of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>; that is, a constraint of
+inverse of <a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>; that is, a constraint of
 the form 
 <span class="name">e1</span> follows <span class="name">e2</span> means that <span class="name">e1</span> happened at the same time
 as or after <span class="name">e2</span>. Both relations are
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-preorder">preorder</a>s, meaning that they are <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a> and
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.  Moreover, we sometimes consider <em>strict</em> forms of these
+<a href="#dfn-preorder" class="internalDFN">preorder</a>s, meaning that they are <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a> and
+<a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.  Moreover, we sometimes consider <em>strict</em> forms of these
 orders: we say <span class="name">e1</span> <dfn id="dfn-strictly-precedes">strictly precedes</dfn> <span class="name">e2</span> to indicate that <span class="name">e1</span>
 happened before <span class="name">e2</span>, but not at the same time.  This is a
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a><span class="insert">, </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-irreflexive"><span class="insert">irreflexive</span></a> relation. </p>
+<a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#dfn-irreflexive" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">irreflexive</span></a> relation. </p>
 
 
 <p>PROV also allows for time observations to be inserted in
-specific provenance statements, for each of the five kinds of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous events</a> introduced in
+specific provenance statements, for each of the five kinds of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous events</a> introduced in
 this specification.  Times in provenance records arising from
 different sources might be with respect to different timelines
 (e.g. different time zones) leading to apparent inconsistencies.  For
 the purpose of checking ordering constraints, the times associated
 with events are irrelevant; thus, there is no inference that time ordering
-implies event ordering, or vice versa.  However, an application <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> flag time values
+implies event ordering, or vice versa.  However, an application <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> flag time values
 that appear inconsistent with the event ordering as possible
-inconsistencies.  When generating provenance, an application <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em>
+inconsistencies.  When generating provenance, an application <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>
 use a consistent <span class="delete">imeline</span><span class="insert">timeline</span> for related PROV statements within an
 instance.</p>
 
 
 <p>  A typical ordering constraint is as follows.</p>
 
-  <div class="constraint-example" id="ordering-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#ordering-example" class="internalDFN">Constraint-example NNN (ordering-example)</a></div>
-    <p><span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">hyp<sub>1</sub></span> and ... and <span class="name">hyp<sub>n</sub></span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">evt1</span> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a>/<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strictly-precedes">strictly precedes</a> <span class="name">evt2</span>.  </p></div>
+  <div class="constraint-example" id="ordering-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#ordering-example">Constraint-example NNN (ordering-example)</a></div>
+    <p><span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">hyp<sub>1</sub></span> and ... and <span class="name">hyp<sub>n</sub></span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">evt1</span> <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>/<a href="#dfn-strictly-precedes" class="internalDFN">strictly precedes</a> <span class="name">evt2</span>.  </p></div>
   <p>
-  The conclusion of an ordering constraint is either <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a>
-  or <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strictly-precedes">strictly precedes</a>.  One way to check
+  The conclusion of an ordering constraint is either <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
+  or <a href="#dfn-strictly-precedes" class="internalDFN">strictly precedes</a>.  One way to check
   ordering constraints is to 
-  generate all <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">strictly
+  generate all <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> and <a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">strictly
   precedes</a> 
-  relationships arising from the ordering constraints to form a directed graph, with edges marked <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> or
-  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strictly-precedes">strictly precedes</a>, and check that there is no cycle
-  containing a <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strictly-precedes">strictly precedes</a> edge.
+  relationships arising from the ordering constraints to form a directed graph, with edges marked <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> or
+  <a href="#dfn-strictly-precedes" class="internalDFN">strictly precedes</a>, and check that there is no cycle
+  containing a <a href="#dfn-strictly-precedes" class="internalDFN">strictly precedes</a> edge.
   </p>
 
   
 
 
 
-<div class="section" id="activity-constraints">
+<div id="activity-constraints" class="section">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Activity constraints</h4>
 
 <p>
 This section specifies ordering constraints from the perspective of
-the <a class="internalDFN" href="#lifetime">lifetime</a> of an activity.  An activity starts, then during
+the <a href="#lifetime" class="internalDFN">lifetime</a> of an activity.  An activity starts, then during
 its lifetime can use, generate or invalidate entities, communicate
   with, start, or end
 other
@@ -3696,10 +3693,10 @@
 right. Activities are represented by rectangles, whereas entities are
 represented by circles. Usage, generation and invalidation are
 represented by the corresponding edges between entities and
-activities.  The five kinds of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous events</a> are represented by vertical
+activities.  The five kinds of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous events</a> are represented by vertical
 dotted lines (adjacent to the vertical sides of an activity's
 rectangle, or intersecting usage and generation edges).  The ordering
-constraints are represented by triangles: an occurrence of a triangle between two <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> vertical dotted lines represents that the event denoted by the left
+constraints are represented by triangles: an occurrence of a triangle between two <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> vertical dotted lines represents that the event denoted by the left
 line precedes the event denoted by the right line.</p>
   <div class="note"> Miscellaneous suggestions about figures
   (originally from Tim Lebo):
@@ -3710,10 +3707,10 @@
 
   <div style="text-align: center;">
 
-<span id="ordering-activity" class="figure">
+<span class="figure" id="ordering-activity">
 <img src="images/constraints/ordering-activity.png" alt="constraints between events">
 <br>
-<span id="ordering-activity-fig" class="figcaption">Figure 3<sup><a href="#ordering-activity-fig" class="internalDFN"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> ordering constraints for activities</span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="ordering-activity-fig">Figure 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#ordering-activity-fig"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> ordering constraints for activities</span> 
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -3722,13 +3719,13 @@
 <hr>
 
 <p id="start-precedes-end_text">
-The existence of an activity implies that the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-start-event">activity start
-event</a> always <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the corresponding <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-end-event">activity end
+The existence of an activity implies that the <a href="#dfn-start-event" class="internalDFN">activity start
+event</a> always <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the corresponding <a href="#dfn-end-event" class="internalDFN">activity end
 event</a>.  This is illustrated by
 <a href="#ordering-activity">Figure 3</a>
 (a) and expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#start-precedes-end"><span>Constraint 32 (start-precedes-end)</span></a>.</p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="start-precedes-end"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#start-precedes-end" class="internalDFN">Constraint 32 (start-precedes-end)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="start-precedes-end"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#start-precedes-end">Constraint 32 (start-precedes-end)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasStartedBy(start; a,_e1,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -3736,7 +3733,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end; a,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end</span>.
 </p>
 </div>
@@ -3747,11 +3744,11 @@
 <p id="start-start-ordering_text">
 If an activity is started by more than one activity, the events must all
 be simultaneous.  The following constraint requires that if there are two start
-events that start the same activity, then one <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the
+events that start the same activity, then one <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the
 other.  Using this constraint in both directions means that each event
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the other.
+<a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the other.
 </p>
-<div class="constraint" id="start-start-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#start-start-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 33 (start-start-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="start-start-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#start-start-ordering">Constraint 33 (start-start-ordering)</a></div>
  <p>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasStartedBy(start1; a,_e1,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -3759,7 +3756,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasStartedBy(start2; a,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">start2</span>.
   </p>
 </div>
@@ -3769,11 +3766,11 @@
 <p id="end-end-ordering_text">
 If an activity is ended by more than one activity, the events must all
 be simultaneous.  The following constraint requires that if there are two end
-events that end the same activity, then one <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the
+events that end the same activity, then one <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the
 other.  Using this constraint in both directions means that each event
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the other, that is, they are simultaneous.
+<a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the other, that is, they are simultaneous.
 </p>
-<div class="constraint" id="end-end-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#end-end-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 34 (end-end-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="end-end-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#end-end-ordering">Constraint 34 (end-end-ordering)</a></div>
  <p>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end1; a,_e1,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -3781,17 +3778,17 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end2; a,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">end1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end2</span>.
   </p>
 </div>
 
 <hr>
 
-<p id="usage-within-activity_text">A usage implies ordering of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">events</a>, since the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-usage-event" title="entity usage event">usage event</a> had to occur during the associated activity. This is
+<p id="usage-within-activity_text">A usage implies ordering of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">events</a>, since the <a title="entity usage event" href="#dfn-usage-event" class="internalDFN">usage event</a> had to occur during the associated activity. This is
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-activity">Figure 3</a> (b) and  expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#usage-within-activity"><span>Constraint 35 (usage-within-activity)</span></a>.</p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="usage-within-activity"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#usage-within-activity" class="internalDFN">Constraint 35 (usage-within-activity)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="usage-within-activity"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#usage-within-activity">Constraint 35 (usage-within-activity)</a></div>
 <ol>
     <li>
   <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -3800,7 +3797,7 @@
 <span class="name">used(use; a,_e2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">use</span>.
   </li>
   <li>
@@ -3810,7 +3807,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end; a,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">use</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
@@ -3821,10 +3818,10 @@
 </p><hr>
 
 
-<p id="generation-within-activity_text">A generation implies ordering of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">events</a>, since the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-generation-event" title="entity generation event">generation event</a> had to occur during the associated activity. This is
+<p id="generation-within-activity_text">A generation implies ordering of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">events</a>, since the <a title="entity generation event" href="#dfn-generation-event" class="internalDFN">generation event</a> had to occur during the associated activity. This is
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-activity">Figure 3</a> (c) and  expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#generation-within-activity"><span>Constraint 36 (generation-within-activity)</span></a>.</p> 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="generation-within-activity"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#generation-within-activity" class="internalDFN">Constraint 36 (generation-within-activity)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="generation-within-activity"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-within-activity">Constraint 36 (generation-within-activity)</a></div>
    <ol>
     <li>
   <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -3833,7 +3830,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen; _e2,a,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">gen</span>.
   </li>
   <li>
@@ -3843,7 +3840,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end; a,_e1,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
@@ -3855,7 +3852,7 @@
 <p id="wasInformedBy-ordering_text">
 Communication between two activities <span class="name">a1</span>
 and <span class="name">a2</span> also implies ordering
-of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">events</a>, since some entity must
+of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">events</a>, since some entity must
 have been generated by the former and used by the latter, which
 implies that the start event of <span class="name">a1</span> cannot
 follow the end event of <span class="name">a2</span>. This is
@@ -3863,7 +3860,7 @@
 <a href="#ordering-activity">Figure 3</a>
 (d) and expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#wasInformedBy-ordering"><span>Constraint 37 (wasInformedBy-ordering)</span></a>.</p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="wasInformedBy-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasInformedBy-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 37 (wasInformedBy-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="wasInformedBy-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasInformedBy-ordering">Constraint 37 (wasInformedBy-ordering)</a></div>
 <p>
   <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasInformedBy(_id; a2,a1,_attrs)</span> 
@@ -3873,7 +3870,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end; a2,_e2,_a2',_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end</span>.
 </p>
 </div>
@@ -3883,7 +3880,7 @@
 
 </p></div>
 
-<div class="section" id="entity-constraints">
+<div id="entity-constraints" class="section">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span> Entity constraints</h4>
 
 
@@ -3900,10 +3897,10 @@
 
   
 <div style="text-align: center;">
-<span id="ordering-entity" class="figure">
+<span class="figure" id="ordering-entity">
 <img src="images/constraints/ordering-entity.png" alt="ordering constraints for entities">
 <br>
-<span id="ordering-entity-fig" class="figcaption">Figure 4<sup><a href="#ordering-entity-fig" class="internalDFN"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> ordering constraints for entities</span></span>  
+<span class="figcaption" id="ordering-entity-fig">Figure 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#ordering-entity-fig"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> ordering constraints for entities</span></span>  
 </div>
 
 <p>
@@ -3916,7 +3913,7 @@
 explicitly here to cover the case of an entity that is generated and
 invalidated without being used.)</p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="generation-precedes-invalidation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#generation-precedes-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Constraint 38 (generation-precedes-invalidation)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="generation-precedes-invalidation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-precedes-invalidation">Constraint 38 (generation-precedes-invalidation)</a></div>
 <p>
  <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen; e,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -3924,7 +3921,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv</span>. 
 </p>
 </div>
@@ -3935,18 +3932,18 @@
 <hr>
 
 <p id="generation-precedes-usage_text"> 
-A usage and a generation for a given entity implies ordering of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">events</a>, since the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-generation-event" title="entity generation
-event">generation event</a> had to precede the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-usage-event" title="entity usage event">usage event</a>. This is
+A usage and a generation for a given entity implies ordering of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">events</a>, since the <a title="entity generation
+event" href="#dfn-generation-event" class="internalDFN">generation event</a> had to precede the <a title="entity usage event" href="#dfn-usage-event" class="internalDFN">usage event</a>. This is
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-entity">Figure 4</a>(a) and  expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#generation-precedes-usage"><span>Constraint 39 (generation-precedes-usage)</span></a>.</p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="generation-precedes-usage"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#generation-precedes-usage" class="internalDFN">Constraint 39 (generation-precedes-usage)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="generation-precedes-usage"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-precedes-usage">Constraint 39 (generation-precedes-usage)</a></div>
 <p>  <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen; e,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
 and
 <span class="name">used(use; _a2,e,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">use</span>.  
 </p>
 </div>
@@ -3956,7 +3953,7 @@
 
 <p id="usage-precedes-invalidation_text">All usages of an entity precede its invalidation, which is captured by <a class="rule-ref" href="#usage-precedes-invalidation"><span>Constraint 40 (usage-precedes-invalidation)</span></a> (without any explicit graphical representation).</p> 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="usage-precedes-invalidation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#usage-precedes-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Constraint 40 (usage-precedes-invalidation)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="usage-precedes-invalidation"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#usage-precedes-invalidation">Constraint 40 (usage-precedes-invalidation)</a></div>
 <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">used(use; _a1,e,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -3964,7 +3961,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">use</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv</span>.</p>
 </div>
 
@@ -3976,11 +3973,11 @@
 <p id="generation-generation-ordering_text">
 If an entity is generated by more than one activity, the events must all
 be simultaneous.  The following constraint requires that if there are two generation
-events that generate the same entity, then one <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the
+events that generate the same entity, then one <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the
 other.  Using this constraint in both directions means that each event
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the other.
+<a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the other.
 </p>
-<div class="constraint" id="generation-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#generation-generation-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 41 (generation-generation-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="generation-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-generation-ordering">Constraint 41 (generation-generation-ordering)</a></div>
  <p>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen1; e,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -3988,7 +3985,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen2; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">gen2</span>.
   </p>
 </div>
@@ -3998,11 +3995,11 @@
 <p id="invalidation-invalidation-ordering_text">
 If an entity is invalidated by more than one activity, the events must all
 be simultaneous.  The following constraint requires that if there are two invalidation
-events that invalidate the same entity, then one <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the
+events that invalidate the same entity, then one <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the
 other.  Using this constraint in both directions means that each event
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> the other, that is, they are simultaneous.
+<a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> the other, that is, they are simultaneous.
 </p>
-<div class="constraint" id="invalidation-invalidation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#invalidation-invalidation-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 42 (invalidation-invalidation-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="invalidation-invalidation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#invalidation-invalidation-ordering">Constraint 42 (invalidation-invalidation-ordering)</a></div>
  <p>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv1; e,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> 
@@ -4010,7 +4007,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv2; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">inv1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv2</span>.
   </p>
 </div>
@@ -4020,21 +4017,21 @@
 <p id="derivation-usage-generation-ordering_text">If there is a
 derivation relationship linking <span class="name">e2</span> and <span class="name">e1</span>, then 
 this means that the entity <span class="name">e1</span> had some influence on the entity <span class="name">e2</span>; for this to be possible, some event ordering must be satisfied.
-First, we consider derivations, where the activity and usage are known. In that case, the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-usage-event" title="entity usage event">usage</a> of <span class="name">e1</span> has to precede the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-generation-event" title="entity generation
-event">generation</a> of <span class="name">e2</span>.
+First, we consider derivations, where the activity and usage are known. In that case, the <a title="entity usage event" href="#dfn-usage-event" class="internalDFN">usage</a> of <span class="name">e1</span> has to precede the <a title="entity generation
+event" href="#dfn-generation-event" class="internalDFN">generation</a> of <span class="name">e2</span>.
 This is
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-entity-fig">Figure 4</a> (b) and  expressed by  <a class="rule-ref" href="#derivation-usage-generation-ordering"><span>Constraint 43 (derivation-usage-generation-ordering)</span></a>.</p>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="derivation-usage-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#derivation-usage-generation-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 43 (derivation-usage-generation-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="derivation-usage-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-usage-generation-ordering">Constraint 43 (derivation-usage-generation-ordering)</a></div>
   <p>
-  In this constraint, <span class="name">_a</span>, <span class="name">gen2</span>, <span class="name">use1</span> <em title="must not" class="rfc2119">must not</em> be placeholders.</p>
+  In this constraint, <span class="name">_a</span>, <span class="name">gen2</span>, <span class="name">use1</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be placeholders.</p>
 <p>
       <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasDerivedFrom(_d; _e2,_e1,_a,gen2,use1,_attrs)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">use1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">gen2</span>.  
 </p>
 </div>
@@ -4046,9 +4043,9 @@
 generation event, as
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-entity-fig">Figure 4</a> (c) and  expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#derivation-generation-generation-ordering"><span>Constraint 44 (derivation-generation-generation-ordering)</span></a>.</p>
 
-<div class="constraint" id="derivation-generation-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#derivation-generation-generation-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 44 (derivation-generation-generation-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="derivation-generation-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-generation-generation-ordering">Constraint 44 (derivation-generation-generation-ordering)</a></div>
   <p>
-In this constraint, any <span class="name">_a</span>, <span class="name">_g</span>, <span class="name">_u</span> <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be placeholders.</p>
+In this constraint, any <span class="name">_a</span>, <span class="name">_g</span>, <span class="name">_u</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be placeholders.</p>
 <p>
  <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasDerivedFrom(_d; e2,e1,_a,_g,_u,attrs)</span>
@@ -4058,7 +4055,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen2; e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span>
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strictly-precedes">strictly precedes</a>
+<a href="#dfn-strictly-precedes" class="internalDFN">strictly precedes</a>
 <span class="name">gen2</span>.  
 </p>
   </div>
@@ -4066,7 +4063,7 @@
 <div class="remark">
   <p>This constraint requires the derived
     entity to be generated strictly following the generation of the
-    original entity. This follows from the [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-DM" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">PROV-DM</a></cite>] definition of
+    original entity. This follows from the [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] definition of
     derivation: <em>A derivation is a transformation of an entity into
     another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the
     construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity</em>, thus
@@ -4085,7 +4082,7 @@
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-entity-trigger">Figure 5</a>(a) and  expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#wasStartedBy-ordering"><span>Constraint 45 (wasStartedBy-ordering)</span></a>.</p>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="wasStartedBy-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasStartedBy-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 45 (wasStartedBy-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="wasStartedBy-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasStartedBy-ordering">Constraint 45 (wasStartedBy-ordering)</a></div>
  <ol>
     <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4094,7 +4091,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasStartedBy(start; _a,e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">start</span>.
   </li><li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4103,7 +4100,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
@@ -4117,7 +4114,7 @@
 <a href="#ordering-entity-trigger">Figure 5</a>(b).</p>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="wasEndedBy-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasEndedBy-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 46 (wasEndedBy-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="wasEndedBy-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasEndedBy-ordering">Constraint 46 (wasEndedBy-ordering)</a></div>
  <ol>
       <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4126,7 +4123,7 @@
    <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end; _a,e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end</span>.
   </li><li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4135,17 +4132,17 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">end</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
 </div>
 
 <div style="text-align: center; ">
-<span id="ordering-entity-trigger" class="figure">
+<span class="figure" id="ordering-entity-trigger">
 <img src="images/constraints/ordering-entity-trigger.png" alt="ordering constraints for trigger entities">
 <br>
-<span id="ordering-entity-trigger-fig" class="figcaption">Figure 5<sup><a href="#ordering-entity-trigger-fig" class="internalDFN"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> ordering constraints for trigger entities</span>  
+<span class="figcaption" id="ordering-entity-trigger-fig">Figure 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#ordering-entity-trigger-fig"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> ordering constraints for trigger entities</span>  
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -4155,11 +4152,11 @@
 specific entity must have been generated after the
 less specific entity was generated.
 </p>
-<div class="constraint" id="specialization-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#specialization-generation-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 47 (specialization-generation-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="specialization-generation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#specialization-generation-ordering">Constraint 47 (specialization-generation-ordering)</a></div>
   <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span> and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen1; e1,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> and
   <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen2; e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span>
-  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">gen1</span> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> <span class="name">gen2</span>.  
+  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">gen1</span> <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> <span class="name">gen2</span>.  
 </p></div>
 
 <p>
@@ -4170,18 +4167,18 @@
 then
 the invalidation event of the more specific entity precedes that of
 the less specific entity.
-</p><div class="constraint" id="specialization-invalidation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#specialization-invalidation-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 48 (specialization-invalidation-ordering)</a></div>
+</p><div class="constraint" id="specialization-invalidation-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#specialization-invalidation-ordering">Constraint 48 (specialization-invalidation-ordering)</a></div>
   <p>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e1,e2)</span> and
  <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv1; e1,_a1,_t1,_attrs1)</span> and 
  <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv2; e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span>
-  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">inv1</span> <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes">precedes</a> <span class="name">inv2</span>.
+  <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">inv1</span> <a href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a> <span class="name">inv2</span>.
 </p>
   </div>
 
 </div>
 
-<div class="section" id="agent-constraints">
+<div id="agent-constraints" class="section">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span> Agent constraints</h4>
 
 <p> Like entities and activities, agents have lifetimes that follow a
@@ -4194,10 +4191,10 @@
 </p> <p>Further constraints associated with agents appear in <a href="#ordering-agents">Figure 6</a> and are discussed below.</p>
 
 <div style="text-align: center;">
-<span id="ordering-agents-fig" class="figure">
+<span class="figure" id="ordering-agents-fig">
 <img src="images/constraints/ordering-agents.png" alt="ordering constraints for agents">
 <br>
-<span id="ordering-agents" class="figcaption">Figure 6<sup><a href="#ordering-agents" class="internalDFN"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-event" title="instantaneous event">instantaneous event</a> ordering
+<span class="figcaption" id="ordering-agents">Figure 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#ordering-agents"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Summary of <a title="instantaneous event" href="#dfn-event" class="internalDFN">instantaneous event</a> ordering
   constraints for agents</span> 
 </span>
 </div>
@@ -4207,15 +4204,15 @@
 
 <p id="wasAssociatedWith-ordering_text">An activity that was
 associated with an agent must have some overlap with the agent. The
-agent <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> have been generated (or started), or <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> have become
-associated with the activity, after the activity start: so, the agent <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> exist before the activity end. Likewise, the agent may be destructed (or ended), or may terminate its association with the activity, before the activity end: hence, the agent invalidation (or end) is required to happen after the activity start.
+agent <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have been generated (or started), or <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have become
+associated with the activity, after the activity start: so, the agent <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> exist before the activity end. Likewise, the agent may be destructed (or ended), or may terminate its association with the activity, before the activity end: hence, the agent invalidation (or end) is required to happen after the activity start.
 This is illustrated by <a href="#ordering-agents">Figure 6</a> (a) and  expressed by <a class="rule-ref" href="#wasAssociatedWith-ordering"><span>Constraint 49 (wasAssociatedWith-ordering)</span></a>.</p>
 
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="wasAssociatedWith-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasAssociatedWith-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 49 (wasAssociatedWith-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="wasAssociatedWith-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasAssociatedWith-ordering">Constraint 49 (wasAssociatedWith-ordering)</a></div>
   <p>
-In the following inferences, <span class="name">_pl</span> <em title="may" class="rfc2119">may</em> be
+In the following inferences, <span class="name">_pl</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be
  a placeholder <span class="name">-</span>.
   </p><ol>    <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4226,7 +4223,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv2; ag,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv2</span>.
   </li><li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4237,7 +4234,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end2; a,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end2</span>.
   </li><li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4248,7 +4245,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end2; ag,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end2</span>.
   </li><li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4259,7 +4256,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end2; a,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end2</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
@@ -4270,14 +4267,14 @@
 
 </p><hr>
 
-<p id="wasAttributedTo-ordering_text">An agent to which an entity was attributed, <em title="must" class="rfc2119">must</em> exist before this entity was generated.
+<p id="wasAttributedTo-ordering_text">An agent to which an entity was attributed, <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> exist before this entity was generated.
 This is
 illustrated by <a href="#ordering-agents">Figure 6</a> (b) and  expressed by  <a class="rule-ref" href="#wasAttributedTo-ordering"><span>Constraint 50 (wasAttributedTo-ordering)</span></a>.</p>
 
 
 
  
-<div class="constraint" id="wasAttributedTo-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#wasAttributedTo-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 50 (wasAttributedTo-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="wasAttributedTo-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#wasAttributedTo-ordering">Constraint 50 (wasAttributedTo-ordering)</a></div>
       <ol> <li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">wasAttributedTo(_at; e,ag,_attrs)</span> 
@@ -4287,7 +4284,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen2; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">gen2</span>.
   </li><li>
     <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4298,7 +4295,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(gen2; e,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">gen2</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
@@ -4310,7 +4307,7 @@
 <p id="actedOnBehalfOf-ordering_text">For delegation, <span class="delete">two agents need</span><span class="insert">the responsible agent has</span> to <span class="insert">precede or </span>have some overlap <span class="delete">in their lifetime.</span><span class="insert">with the subordinate agent.</span></p>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="actedOnBehalfOf-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#actedOnBehalfOf-ordering" class="internalDFN">Constraint 51 (actedOnBehalfOf-ordering)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="actedOnBehalfOf-ordering"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#actedOnBehalfOf-ordering">Constraint 51 (actedOnBehalfOf-ordering)</a></div>
  <ol> <li>
 	 <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 <span class="name">actedOnBehalfOf(_del; ag2,ag1,_a,_attrs)</span> 
@@ -4320,7 +4317,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(inv2; ag2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">gen1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">inv2</span>.
   </li><li>
 	 <span class="conditional">IF</span>
@@ -4331,7 +4328,7 @@
 <span class="name">wasEndedBy(end2; ag2,_e2,_a2,_t2,_attrs2)</span> 
 <span class="conditional">THEN</span>
 <span class="name">start1</span> 
-<a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-precedes" title="precedes">precedes</a>
+<a title="precedes" href="#dfn-precedes" class="internalDFN">precedes</a>
 <span class="name">end2</span>.
   </li>
   </ol>
@@ -4344,7 +4341,7 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="section" id="type-constraints">
+<div id="type-constraints" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Type Constraints</h3>
 
 <p id="typing_text">The following rule  establishes types denoted by identifiers from their use within expressions. 
@@ -4373,7 +4370,7 @@
   violated as a result.</p>
 
 
-<div class="constraint" id="typing"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#typing" class="internalDFN">Constraint 52 (typing)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint" id="typing"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#typing">Constraint 52 (typing)</a></div>
 
 
 <ol>
@@ -4457,7 +4454,7 @@
 <span class="name">'entity' ∈ typeOf(e2)</span> AND
 <span class="name">'entity' ∈ typeOf(e1)</span> AND
 <span class="name">'activity' ∈ typeOf(a)</span>.
-   In this constraint, <span class="name">a</span>, <span class="name">g2</span>, and <span class="name">u1</span> <em title="must not" class="rfc2119">must not</em> be placeholders.
+   In this constraint, <span class="name">a</span>, <span class="name">g2</span>, and <span class="name">u1</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be placeholders.
 
 </li><li>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> 
@@ -4481,7 +4478,7 @@
 <span class="name">'activity' ∈ typeOf(a)</span> AND
 <span class="name">'agent' ∈ typeOf(ag)</span> AND
 <span class="name">'entity' ∈ typeOf(pl)</span>.  In this
-constraint, <span class="name">pl</span> <em title="must not" class="rfc2119">must not</em> be a placeholder.
+constraint, <span class="name">pl</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be a placeholder.
 
 </li><li>
 <span class="conditional">IF</span> 
@@ -4553,15 +4550,15 @@
 
 </div> 
 
-<div class="section" id="impossibility-constraints">
+<div id="impossibility-constraints" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Impossibility constraints</h3>
 
 <p> Impossibility constraints require that certain patterns of
-statements never appear in <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> PROV instances.  Impossibility
+statements never appear in <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> PROV instances.  Impossibility
 constraints have the following general form:
 </p>
 
-<div class="constraint-example" id="impossible-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#impossible-example" class="internalDFN">Constraint-example NNN (impossible-example)</a></div>
+<div class="constraint-example" id="impossible-example"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#impossible-example">Constraint-example NNN (impossible-example)</a></div>
   <p><span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">hyp<sub>1</sub></span> and ... and  <span class="name">hyp<sub>n</sub></span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="conditional">INVALID</span>.</p>
   </div>
 
@@ -4579,8 +4576,8 @@
     are unspecified.  It is forbidden to specify a generation or use
     event without specifying the activity.</p>
 
-        <div class="constraint" id="impossible-unspecified-derivation-generation-use"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#impossible-unspecified-derivation-generation-use" class="internalDFN">Constraint 53 (impossible-unspecified-derivation-generation-use)</a></div>
-<p> In the following rules, <span class="name">g</span> and <span class="name">u</span> <em title="must not" class="rfc2119">must not</em> be <span class="name">-</span>.</p>
+        <div class="constraint" id="impossible-unspecified-derivation-generation-use"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#impossible-unspecified-derivation-generation-use">Constraint 53 (impossible-unspecified-derivation-generation-use)</a></div>
+<p> In the following rules, <span class="name">g</span> and <span class="name">u</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be <span class="name">-</span>.</p>
 	  <ol>
   <li> <span class="conditional">IF</span>
 	    <span class="name">wasDerivedFrom(_id;_e2,_e1,-,g,-,attrs)</span>
@@ -4595,10 +4592,10 @@
 <hr>
 
 <p id="impossible-specialization-reflexive_text">As noted previously, specialization is a
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-strict-partial-order">strict partial order</a>: it is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</a> and
-    <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.</p>
-
-        <div class="constraint" id="impossible-specialization-reflexive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#impossible-specialization-reflexive" class="internalDFN">Constraint 54 (impossible-specialization-reflexive)</a></div>
+    <a href="#dfn-strict-partial-order" class="internalDFN">strict partial order</a>: it is <a href="#dfn-irreflexive" class="internalDFN">irreflexive</a> and
+    <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.</p>
+
+        <div class="constraint" id="impossible-specialization-reflexive"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#impossible-specialization-reflexive">Constraint 54 (impossible-specialization-reflexive)</a></div>
 
 	  <p> <span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e,e)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="conditional">INVALID</span>.</p>
     </div>
@@ -4613,7 +4610,7 @@
    <p id="impossible-property-overlap_text"> Furthermore,  identifiers
    of basic relationships are disjoint.
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint" id="impossible-property-overlap"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#impossible-property-overlap" class="internalDFN">Constraint 55 (impossible-property-overlap)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint" id="impossible-property-overlap"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#impossible-property-overlap">Constraint 55 (impossible-property-overlap)</a></div>
   <p>
 For each <span class="name">r</span> and <span class="name">s</span>
    in { 
@@ -4658,7 +4655,7 @@
    <p id="impossible-object-property-overlap_text"> Identifiers of entities,
   agents and activities cannot also be identifiers of properties.
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint" id="impossible-object-property-overlap"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#impossible-object-property-overlap" class="internalDFN">Constraint 56 (impossible-object-property-overlap)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint" id="impossible-object-property-overlap"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#impossible-object-property-overlap">Constraint 56 (impossible-object-property-overlap)</a></div>
   <p>
 For each <span class="name">p</span> in {<span class="name">entity</span>, <span class="name">activity</span>
    or <span class="name">agent</span>} and for each  <span class="name">r</span> in { 
@@ -4687,7 +4684,7 @@
    <p id="entity-activity-disjoint_text">   The set of entities and activities are disjoint, expressed by 
   the following constraint:
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint" id="entity-activity-disjoint"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#entity-activity-disjoint" class="internalDFN">Constraint 57 (entity-activity-disjoint)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint" id="entity-activity-disjoint"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-activity-disjoint">Constraint 57 (entity-activity-disjoint)</a></div>
 
     
 <p>
@@ -4710,7 +4707,7 @@
    <p id="membership-empty-collection_text"> An empty collection cannot contain any member, expressed by
   the following constraint:
   </p>
-  <div class="constraint" id="membership-empty-collection"><div class="ruleTitle"><a href="#membership-empty-collection" class="internalDFN">Constraint 58 (membership-empty-collection)</a></div>
+  <div class="constraint" id="membership-empty-collection"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#membership-empty-collection">Constraint 58 (membership-empty-collection)</a></div>
 <p> <span class="conditional">IF</span> 
  <span class="name">hasMember(c,e)</span> and
 <span class="name">'prov:EmptyCollection' ∈ typeOf(c)</span>
@@ -4724,15 +4721,15 @@
 
 </div> 
 
-  <div class="section" id="normalization-validity-equivalence">
+  <div id="normalization-validity-equivalence" class="section">
 <h2><span class="secno">6. </span>Normalization, Validity, and Equivalence</h2>
 
 
-  <p>We define the notions of <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form" title="normal form">normalization</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid" title="valid">validity</a> and
+  <p>We define the notions of <a title="normal form" href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normalization</a>, <a title="valid" href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">validity</a> and
 <a title="equivalence">equivalence</a> of PROV documents and instances.  We first define these concepts
 for PROV instances and then extend them to PROV documents.</p>
 
-<div class="section" id="instance">
+<div id="instance" class="section">
   <h3><span class="secno">6.1 </span>Instances</h3>
   
 <div class="remark">
@@ -4783,7 +4780,7 @@
   dependencies</a> and <a>equality-generating dependencies</a> that
   satisfy a termination condition called <a>weak acyclicity</a> that
   has been studied in the context of relational databases
-  [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  Therefore, the above algorithm terminates, independently
+  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  Therefore, the above algorithm terminates, independently
   of the order in which inferences and constraints are applied.
   <a href="#termination">Appendix C</a> gives a proof that normalization terminates and produces
   a unique (up to isomorphism) normal form.
@@ -4800,22 +4797,22 @@
 
 <ol>
   <li>Normalize the instance <span class="math">I</span>, obtaining normalized instance <span class="math">I'</span>.  If
-  normalization fails, then <span class="math">I</span> is not <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.
+  normalization fails, then <span class="math">I</span> is not <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.
   </li>
   <li>Apply all event ordering constraints to <span class="math">I'</span> to build a graph <span class="math">G</span> whose nodes
   are event identifiers and edges
   are labeled by "precedes" 
   and "strictly precedes" relationships among events induced by the constraints.</li>
   <li> Determine whether there is a cycle in <span class="math">G</span> that contains a
-  "strictly precedes" edge.  If so, then <span class="math">I</span> is not <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.  
+  "strictly precedes" edge.  If so, then <span class="math">I</span> is not <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.  
   </li>
   <li>Apply the type constraints <a href="#type-constraints">(section
   5.3)</a> to determine whether there are any violations of
-  disjointness.  If so, then <span class="math">I</span> is not <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.  
+  disjointness.  If so, then <span class="math">I</span> is not <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.  
   </li><li>
   Check that none of the impossibility constraints <a href="#impossibility-constraints">(section 5.4)</a>  are
   violated.  If any are violated, then <span class="math">I</span> is
-  not <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a>.  Otherwise, <span class="math">I</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a><span class="insert">.</span>
+  not <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a>.  Otherwise, <span class="math">I</span> is <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a><span class="insert">.</span>
   </li>
   </ol>
 
@@ -4828,8 +4825,8 @@
   variable of </span><span class="math"><span class="insert">I</span></span><span class="insert"> to a distinct variable of </span><span class="math"><span class="insert">I'</span></span><span class="insert"> and such that
   </span><span class="math"><span class="insert">S(I) = I'</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
 
-<p><span class="insert">  Two </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid"><span class="insert">valid</span></a><span class="insert"> PROV instances </span>are <dfn id="dfn-equivalent">equivalent</dfn> if they 
-  have <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-isomorphic">isomorphic</a> normal <span class="delete">forms (that</span><span class="insert">forms.  That</span> is, after applying all possible inference
+<p><span class="insert">  Two </span><a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">valid</span></a><span class="insert"> PROV instances </span>are <dfn id="dfn-equivalent">equivalent</dfn> if they 
+  have <a href="#dfn-isomorphic" class="internalDFN">isomorphic</a> normal <span class="delete">forms (that</span><span class="insert">forms.  That</span> is, after applying all possible inference
 rules, the two instances produce the same set of PROV statements,
 up to reordering of statements and attributes within attribute lists,
   and renaming of existential <span class="delete">variables).
@@ -4841,7 +4838,7 @@
     <li><span class="insert">If both are valid, then equivalence is
   defined above.</span></li>
     <li><span class="insert">If both are invalid, then equivalence can be
-  implemented in any way provided it is </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive"><span class="insert">reflexive</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-symmetric"><span class="insert">symmetric</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive"><span class="insert">transitive</span></a><span class="insert">.
+  implemented in any way provided it is </span><a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">reflexive</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#dfn-symmetric" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">symmetric</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">transitive</span></a><span class="insert">.
   </span></li>
   <li><span class="insert">If one instance is valid and the other is invalid, then the two
   instances are not equivalent.</span></li>
@@ -4871,15 +4868,15 @@
   <li>
   Applying inference rules, definitions, and uniqueness constraints preserves equivalence.  That is, a <a>PROV
   instance</a> is equivalent to the instance obtained by applying any
-  inference rule or definition, or by <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-unification" title="unification"><span class="insert">unifying</span></a><span class="insert"> two terms or </span><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-merging">merging</a> two statements to
+  inference rule or definition, or by <a title="unification" href="#dfn-unification" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">unifying</span></a><span class="insert"> two terms or </span><a href="#dfn-merging" class="internalDFN">merging</a> two statements to
   enforce a uniqueness constraint.
   </li>
-  <li>Equivalence is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-symmetric">symmetric</a>, and 
-  <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.<span class="insert">  (This is because a valid instance has a unique
-  normal form up to isomorphism [</span><cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><span class="insert">DBCONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]). </span></li>
+  <li>Equivalence is <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a>, <a href="#dfn-symmetric" class="internalDFN">symmetric</a>, and 
+  <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.<span class="insert">  (This is because a valid instance has a unique
+  normal form up to isomorphism [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">DBCONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]). </span></li>
 </ul>
 
-<p> An application that processes PROV data <em title="should" class="rfc2119">should</em> handle
+<p> An application that processes PROV data <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> handle
 equivalent instances in the same way.<span class="delete"> (Common</span><span class="insert">  This guideline is necessarily
 imprecise because "in the same way" is application-specific.
 Common</span> exceptions to this <span class="delete">rule</span><span class="insert">guideline</span>
@@ -4890,7 +4887,7 @@
 
 </div>
 
-<div class="section" id="bundle-constraints">
+<div id="bundle-constraints" class="section">
 <h3><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Bundles and Documents</h3>
 
 
@@ -4914,29 +4911,31 @@
 following PROV-N syntax:</p>
 
 <div class="name">
-B<sub>0</sub><br>
-bundle b<sub>1</sub><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  B<sub>1</sub><br>
-endBundle<br>
-...<br>
-bundle b<sub>n</sub><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  B<sub>n</sub><br>
-endBundle
+<span class="delete">B</span><span class="insert">document</span><br><span class="insert">
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B</span><sub>0</sub><br>
+<span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bundle</span> b<sub>1</sub><br>
+<span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  B</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B</span><sub>1</sub><br>
+<span class="delete">endBundle</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;endBundle</span><br>
+<span class="delete">...</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;...</span><br>
+<span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bundle</span> b<sub>n</sub><br>
+<span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  B</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B</span><sub>n</sub><br>
+<span class="delete">endBundle</span><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;endBundle</span><br><span class="insert">
+endDocument</span>
 </div>
 
 
 
 
-<p> The <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-normal-form">normal form</a> of a PROV document
+<p> The <a href="#dfn-normal-form" class="internalDFN">normal form</a> of a PROV document
 <span class="name">(B<sub>0</sub>,[b<sub>1</sub>=B<sub>1</sub>,...,[b<sub>n</sub>=B<sub>n</sub>])</span> is <span class="name">(B'<sub>0</sub>,[b<sub>1</sub>=B'<sub>1</sub>,...,b<sub>n</sub>=B'<sub>n</sub>])</span>
 where <span class="name">B'<sub>i</sub></span> is the normal
 form of <span class="name">B<sub>i</sub></span> for each <span class="name">i</span> between 0 and <span class="name">n</span>.  </p>
 
-<p>A PROV document is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-valid">valid</a> if each of the bundles <span class="name">B<sub>0</sub></span>,
+<p>A PROV document is <a href="#dfn-valid" class="internalDFN">valid</a> if each of the bundles <span class="name">B<sub>0</sub></span>,
 ..., <span class="name">B<sub>n</sub></span> are valid and none of the bundle identifiers <span class="name">b<sub>i</sub></span> are repeated.</p>
 
 <p>Two (valid) PROV documents <span class="name">(B<sub>0</sub>,[b<sub>1</sub>=B<sub>1</sub>,...,b<sub>n</sub>=B<sub>n</sub>])</span> and
-<span class="name">(B'<sub>0</sub>,[b<sub>1</sub>'=B'<sub>1</sub>,...,b'<sub>m</sub>=B'<sub>m</sub>])</span> are <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-equivalent">equivalent</a> if <span class="name">B<sub>0</sub></span> is
+<span class="name">(B'<sub>0</sub>,[b<sub>1</sub>'=B'<sub>1</sub>,...,b'<sub>m</sub>=B'<sub>m</sub>])</span> are <a href="#dfn-equivalent" class="internalDFN">equivalent</a> if <span class="name">B<sub>0</sub></span> is
 equivalent to <span class="name">B'<sub>0</sub></span> and <span class="name">n = m</span> and
 there exists a permutation <span class="name">P : {1..n} -&gt; {1..n}</span> such that for each <span class="name">i</span>, <span class="name">b<sub>i</sub> =
 b'<sub>P(i)</sub></span> and <span class="name">B<sub>i</sub></span> is equivalent to <span class="name">B'<sub>P(i)</sub></span>.
@@ -4957,34 +4956,34 @@
 
 
 
-<div id="glossary" class="glossary section"> 
+<div class="glossary section" id="glossary"> 
       <h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Glossary</h2>
 
       <ul> 
-       <li> <dfn id="dfn-antisymmetric">antisymmetric</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-antisymmetric">antisymmetric</a> if
+       <li> <dfn id="dfn-antisymmetric">antisymmetric</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a href="#dfn-antisymmetric" class="internalDFN">antisymmetric</a> if
       for any elements <span class="math">x</span>, <span class="math">y</span> of <span class="math">X</span>, if <span class="math">x R y</span> and <span class="math">y R x</span> then <span class="math">x = y</span>.</li>
-       <li> <dfn id="dfn-asymmetric">asymmetric</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-asymmetric">asymmetric</a> if
+       <li> <dfn id="dfn-asymmetric">asymmetric</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a href="#dfn-asymmetric" class="internalDFN">asymmetric</a> if
       <span class="math">x R y</span> and <span class="math">y R x</span> do not hold for any elements <span class="math">x</span>, <span class="math">y</span> of <span class="math">X</span>.</li>
         <li><dfn id="dfn-equivalence-relation">equivalence relation</dfn>: An equivalence relation is a relation
-      that is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-symmetric">symmetric</a>, and
-       <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.</li>
-       <li> <dfn id="dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</a> if
+      that is <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a>, <a href="#dfn-symmetric" class="internalDFN">symmetric</a>, and
+       <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.</li>
+       <li> <dfn id="dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a href="#dfn-irreflexive" class="internalDFN">irreflexive</a> if
       for <span class="math">x R x</span> does not hold for any element <span class="math">x</span> of <span class="math">X</span>.</li>
-        <li> <dfn id="dfn-reflexive">reflexive</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a> if
+        <li> <dfn id="dfn-reflexive">reflexive</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a> if
       for any element <span class="math">x</span> of <span class="math">X</span>, we have <span class="math">x R x</span>.</li>
       <li><dfn id="dfn-partial-order">partial order</dfn>: A partial order is a relation
-      that is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-antisymmetric">antisymmetric</a>, and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.</li>
+      that is <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a>, <a href="#dfn-antisymmetric" class="internalDFN">antisymmetric</a>, and <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.</li>
       <li><dfn id="dfn-preorder">preorder</dfn>: A preorder is a relation that is
-      <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-reflexive">reflexive</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.  (It is not necessarily antisymmetric,
+      <a href="#dfn-reflexive" class="internalDFN">reflexive</a> and <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.  (It is not necessarily antisymmetric,
       meaning there can be cycles of distinct elements <span class="math">x<sub>1</sub> R x<sub>2</sub> R ... R
       x<sub>n</sub> R x<sub>1</sub>.</span></li>
     <li><dfn id="dfn-strict-partial-order">strict partial order</dfn>: A strict partial order is a
-      relation that is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</a>, <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-asymmetric">asymmetric</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.</li>
+      relation that is <a href="#dfn-irreflexive" class="internalDFN">irreflexive</a>, <a href="#dfn-asymmetric" class="internalDFN">asymmetric</a> and <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.</li>
       <li><dfn id="dfn-strict-preorder">strict preorder</dfn>: A strict preorder is a relation
-      that is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-irreflexive">irreflexive</a> and <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a>.</li>
-       <li> <dfn id="dfn-symmetric">symmetric</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-symmetric">symmetric</a> if
+      that is <a href="#dfn-irreflexive" class="internalDFN">irreflexive</a> and <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a>.</li>
+       <li> <dfn id="dfn-symmetric">symmetric</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a href="#dfn-symmetric" class="internalDFN">symmetric</a> if
       for any elements <span class="math">x</span>, <span class="math">y</span> of <span class="math">X</span>, if <span class="math">x R y</span> then <span class="math">y R x</span>.</li>
-        <li> <dfn id="dfn-transitive">transitive</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-transitive">transitive</a> if
+        <li> <dfn id="dfn-transitive">transitive</dfn>: A relation <span class="math">R</span> over <span class="math">X</span> is <a href="#dfn-transitive" class="internalDFN">transitive</a> if
       for any elements <span class="math">x</span>, <span class="math">y</span>, <span class="math">z</span> of <span class="math">X</span>, if <span class="math">x R y</span> and <span class="math">y R z</span> then <span class="math">x R z</span>.</li>
      
      
@@ -5015,7 +5014,7 @@
 
       <p><b>Termination for instances without attributes.</b>  For
       these instances, uniqueness and key constraints can be
-      As shown in [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], termination of normalization can be
+      As shown in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], termination of normalization can be
       shown by checking that the inference rules are <em>weakly
       acyclic</em>.  In addition, weak acyclicity can be checked
       in a modular fashion for our system, because there are only a few possible
@@ -5085,7 +5084,7 @@
       involved, so they are weakly acyclic.
        </li>
        <li>For stage 6, we check weak acyclicity using the algorithm
-      in       [<cite><a href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], namely:
+      in       [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">DBCONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], namely:
        <ul><li> Given a formula <span class="math">φ(x<sub>1</sub>,...,x<sub>n</sub>) ⇒
       ∃y<sub>1</sub>,...,y<sub>m</sub>. ψ(x<sub>1</sub>,...,x<sub>n</sub>,y<sub>1</sub>,...,y<sub>m</sub>)</span></li>
       <li>For every <span class="math">x</span> that occurs in  <span class="math">ψ</span>, and for every
@@ -5133,8 +5132,8 @@
        </p>
 </div>
 
-<div id="changes-since-last-version" class="appendix section"> 
-      <h2><span class="secno">B. </span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></h2> 
+<div class="appendix section" id="changes-since-last-version"> 
+      <h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">B. </span></span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></h2> 
 
 <ul>
   <li><span class="insert">Abstract: clarified that term "validity" is analogous to other
@@ -5180,12 +5179,13 @@
   instances "in the same way".</span></li>
   <li><span class="insert">Dropped RDF as a normative reference.</span></li>
   <li><span class="insert">Made PROV-DM and PROV-N into normative references.</span></li>
+  <li><span class="insert">Added "document" and "endDocument" to sec. 6.2.</span></li>
 </ul>
 
 </div>
        
-<div id="acknowledgements" class="appendix section"> 
-      <h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">C.</span> </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements"> 
+      <h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">B.</span><span class="insert">C.</span> </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
       <p> 
 
 This  document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to Ivan Herman (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym>), Paul Groth, Tim Lebo, Simon Miles, Stian Soiland-Reyes,  for their thorough reviews.
@@ -5305,11 +5305,11 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="appendix section" id="references"><h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.</span><span class="insert">D.</span> </span>References</h2><div class="section" id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.1</span><span class="insert">D.1</span> </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-IRI">[IRI]</dt><dd>M. Duerst, M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
+<div id="references" class="appendix section"><h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.</span><span class="insert">D.</span> </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.1</span><span class="insert">D.1</span> </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-IRI">[IRI]</dt><dd>M. Duerst, M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
 </dd><span class="delete">[RDF]</span><dt id="bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">[PROV-DM]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Reza B'Far, James Cheney, Stephen Cresswell, Yolanda Gil, Paul Groth, </span>Graham <span class="delete">Klyne and Jeremy J. Carroll (eds.) </span><span class="insert">Klyne, Jim McCusker, Simon Miles, James Myers, Satya Sahoo, and Curt Tilmes </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><cite><span class="delete">Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax</span><span class="insert">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</span></cite></a>. <span class="delete">2004, W3C Recommendation.</span><span class="insert">2012, Working Draft.</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</span></a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">[PROV-N]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.), James Cheney, Stian Soiland-Reyes </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><cite><span class="insert">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. 2011, Working Draft. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span></a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
-</dd></dl></div><div class="section" id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.2</span><span class="insert">D.2</span> </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-CHR">[CHR]</dt><dd>Thom Frühwirth <a href="http://constraint-handling-rules.org/"><cite>Constraint        Handling Rules</cite></a>. Cambridge University Press  URL: <a href="http://constraint-handling-rules.org/">http://constraint-handling-rules.org/</a>
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.2</span><span class="insert">D.2</span> </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-CHR">[CHR]</dt><dd>Thom Frühwirth <a href="http://constraint-handling-rules.org/"><cite>Constraint        Handling Rules</cite></a>. Cambridge University Press  URL: <a href="http://constraint-handling-rules.org/">http://constraint-handling-rules.org/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-CLOCK">[CLOCK]</dt><dd>Lamport, L. <a href="http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf"><cite>Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system</cite></a>. Communications of the ACM 21 (7): 558–565. 1978. URL: <a href="http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf">http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf</a> DOI: doi:10.1145/359545.359563.
 </dd><dt id="bib-DBCONSTRAINTS">[DBCONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd> Ronald Fagin, Phokion G. Kolaitis, Renée J. Miller, and Lucian Popa  <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2004.10.033"><cite>Data        exchange: Semantics and query answering</cite></a>.  Theoretical computer science 336(1):89-124   Elsevier  URL: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2004.10.033">http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2004.10.033</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-Logic">[Logic]</dt><dd>W. E. Johnson<a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>.1924. URL: <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>
--- a/model/prov-constraints.html	Thu Nov 01 08:47:07 2012 +0000
+++ b/model/prov-constraints.html	Thu Nov 01 10:16:39 2012 +0000
@@ -4666,14 +4666,16 @@
 following PROV-N syntax:</p>
 
 <div class="name">
-B<sub>0</sub><br>
-bundle b<sub>1</sub><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  B<sub>1</sub><br>
-endBundle<br>
-...<br>
-bundle b<sub>n</sub><br>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  B<sub>n</sub><br>
-endBundle
+document<br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B<sub>0</sub><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bundle b<sub>1</sub><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B<sub>1</sub><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;endBundle<br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;...<br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bundle b<sub>n</sub><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B<sub>n</sub><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;endBundle<br />
+endDocument
 </div>
 
 <p> The <a>normal form</a> of a PROV document
@@ -4931,6 +4933,7 @@
   instances "in the same way".</li>
   <li>Dropped RDF as a normative reference.</li>
   <li>Made PROV-DM and PROV-N into normative references.</li>
+  <li>Added "document" and "endDocument" to sec. 6.2.</li>
 </ul>
 
 </section>