Primer: Updated biblio
authorSimon Miles <simon.miles@kcl.ac.uk>
Tue, 23 Apr 2013 21:52:40 +0100
changeset 6280 e4e8bbc43629
parent 6279 e914827b5f13
child 6281 3081f1e9d50a
Primer: Updated biblio
primer/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/Overview.html
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-<head> 
-  <title>PROV Model Primer</title>
-  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
-  <link rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#has_provenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/provenance/prov-primer">
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- <body><div class="head">
-  <p>
-    
-      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
-    
-  </p>
-  <h1 class="title" id="title">PROV Model Primer</h1>
-  
-  <h2 id="w3c-working-group-note-30-april-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Group Note 30 April 2013</h2>
-  <dl>
-    
-      <dt>This version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/</a></dd>
-      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</a></dd>
-        
-    
-    
-    
-      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/</a></dd>
-    
-    
-    <dt>Editors:</dt>
-    <dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, US</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/">Simon Miles</a>, King's College London, UK</dd>
-
-    
-      <dt>Contributors:</dt>
-      <dd><span><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a></span>, University of Manchester</dd>
-<dd><span>Helena Deus</span>, Digital Enterprise Research Institute (DERI), NUI Galway</dd>
-<dd><span><a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net/index.php/en/phdstudents/28-dgarijo">Daniel Garijo</a></span>, Ontology Engineering Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain</dd>
-<dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
-<dd><span><a href="http://www.ncl.ac.uk/computing/people/profile/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a></span>, Newcastle University</dd>
-<dd><span><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/">Stian Soiland-Reyes</a></span>, University of Manchester</dd>
-<dd><span><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/StephanZednik">Stephan Zednik</a></span>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
-
-    
-  </dl>
-  
-  
-  
-  
-    
-      <p class="copyright">
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
-        2013
-        
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
-        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
-        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
-        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), All Rights Reserved.
-        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
-      </p>
-    
-  
-  <hr>
-</div>
-  <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
-   <p>
-    This document provides an intuitive introduction and guide to the
-    PROV Data Model for provenance interchange on the web. PROV defines a core data model for
-    provenance for building representations of the entities, people and
-    processes involved in producing a piece of data or thing in the world.
-    This primer explains the fundamental PROV concepts and provides examples 
-    of its use.  The primer is intended as a starting point for those wishing
-    to create or use PROV data.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.
-   </p>
-
-   <!-- p>
-    This is a document for internal discussion, which will ultimately
-    evolve in the first Public Working Draft of the Primer.</p -->
-  </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
-  
-    
-      
-        <p>
-          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
-          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
-          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
-          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
-        </p>
-        
-   <h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
-   This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
-   interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are listed below. Please consult the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] for a guide to reading these documents. 
-   <ul>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (Note), a primer for the PROV data model (this document);</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/">PROV-O</a> (Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of the PROV data model to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/">PROV-DM</a> (Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/">PROV-N</a> (Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/">PROV-XML</a> (Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/">PROV-AQ</a> (Note), mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/">PROV-DICTIONARY</a> (Note) introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/">PROV-DC</a> (Note) provides a mapping between PROV-O and Dublin Core Terms [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DC">PROV-DC</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430/">PROV-SEM</a> (Note), a declarative specification in terms of first-order logic of the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>];</li>
-    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/">PROV-LINKS</a> (Note) introduces a mechanism to link across bundles [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>].</li>
-   </ul>
-
-   <h4 id="implementations-encouraged">Implementations Encouraged</h4>
-   <p>
-    The Provenance Working Group encourages implementation of the material defined in this document.
-    Although work on this document by the Provenance Working Group is complete, 
-    errors may be recorded in the  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/errata.html">errata</a> or and these may be addressed in future revisions. 
-   </p>
-
-   <h4 id="please-send-comments">Please Send Comments</h4>
-
-  
-        <p>
-          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note.
-          
-          
-          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
-          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
-          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
-          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).
-          
-          
-          
-          
-        All comments are welcome.
-        
-        
-          </p><p>
-            Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
-            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
-            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
-          </p>
-        
-        
-        <p>
-          
-            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
-            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
-          
-          
-          
-            
-              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
-            
-            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
-            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
-            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
-            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
-            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
-          
-          
-        </p>
-        
-      
-    
-  
-</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#intuitive-overview-of-prov" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Intuitive overview of PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#activities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#usage-and-generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Usage and Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents-and-responsibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#roles" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Roles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivation-and-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plans" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Plans</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-entities-and-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#examples-of-key-concepts-in-prov" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples of Key Concepts in PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Entities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#activities-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#usage-and-generation-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Usage and Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents-and-responsibility-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#roles-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Roles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivation-and-revision-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plans-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Plans</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#time-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-entities-and-specialization-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-complete-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10 </span>The Complete Example</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#summary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Summary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-fourth-public-working-draft" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
-
-  
-
-  <section id="introduction"> 
-   <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
-   <p>
-    This primer document provides an accessible introduction to the PROV 
-    data model for provenance interchange on the Web.
-    The <i>provenance</i> of digital objects represents their origins.  PROV is a 
-    specification to express provenance records, 
-    which contain <i>descriptions</i> of the entities 
-    and activities involved in producing and delivering or otherwise influencing a 
-    given object.
-    Provenance can be used for many purposes, such as 
-    understanding how data was collected so it can be meaningfully used, determining 
-    ownership and rights over an object, making judgements about information to 
-    determine whether to trust it, verifying that the process and steps used to obtain a 
-    result complies with given requirements, and reproducing how something was generated.
-   </p>
-
-   <p>
-    As a specification for provenance, PROV accommodates all those different uses 
-    of provenance.  Different people may have different perspectives on provenance, 
-    and as a result different types of information might be captured in provenance records.
-   </p><ul>
-    <li>
-     One perspective might focus on <i>agent-centered provenance</i>, that is, what people or organizations 
-     were involved in generating or manipulating the information in question.  For example, 
-     in the provenance of a picture in a news article we might capture the photographer who 
-     took it, the person that edited it, and the newspaper that published it.
-    </li>
-    <li>
-     A second perspective 
-     might focus on <i>object-centered provenance</i>, by tracing the origins of portions of a 
-     document to other documents. An example is having a web page that was assembled from content
-     from a news article, quotes of interviews with experts, and a chart that plots data from a 
-     government agency.
-    </li>
-    <li>A third perspective one might take is on <i>process-centered provenance</i>, 
-     capturing the actions and steps taken to generate the information in question.  For example, a 
-     chart may have been generated by invoking a service to retrieve data from a database, then 
-     extracting certain statistics from the data using some statistics package, and finally 
-     processing these results with a graphing tool.
-    </li>
-   </ul>
-  <p></p>
-
-  <p>
-   Provenance records are metadata.  There are other kinds of metadata that are 
-   not provenance.  For example, the size of an image is metadata of 
-   that image but it is not provenance.
-   For general background on provenance, a 
-   comprehensive overview of requirements, use cases, prior research, and proposed 
-   vocabularies for provenance are available from the 
-   Final Report of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Provenance Incubator Group [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROVENANCE-XG">PROVENANCE-XG</a></cite>].
-   That document contains three general scenarios 
-   that may help identify the provenance aspects of planned applications and 
-   help plan the design of a provenance system.
-  </p>
-
-  <p>
-   This primer document aims to ease the adoption of the PROV specifications by providing:
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-   <li>A high-level explanation of how PROV models provenance, in Section 2. A detailed description of
-    all the concepts and relations in the PROV Data Model is provided in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>].</li>
-   <li>A simple self-contained example that illustrates how to produce and use PROV assertions, in
-    Section 3. 
-    The example includes snippets in RDF using the PROV ontology [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], in a
-    notation designed for human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and in PROV's XML format [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>].
-    The example shows how 
-    to combine PROV with other popular vocabularies such as FOAF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-FOAF">FOAF</a></cite>] and Dublin Core [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DCTERMS">DCTERMS</a></cite>].</li>
-  </ul>
-
-  <p>The document ends with a summary of major capabilities and features of PROV.</p>
-
- </section>
-
- <section id="intuitive-overview-of-prov">
-  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Intuitive overview of PROV</h2>
-
-  <p>
-   This section provides an explanation of the main concepts in PROV. 
-   As with the rest of this document, it should be treated as a starting point for
-   understanding the model. The PROV data model document [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]
-   provides precise definitions and constraints [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] to be followed.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-   The following diagram provides a high level overview of the structure of PROV records,
-   limited to some key PROV concepts discussed in this document.
-   Note that because PROV is meant to describe how things were created or delivered, 
-   PROV relations are named so they can be used in assertions about the past.  
-  </p>
-
-  <div style="text-align: center;">
-   <img src="images/key-concepts.png" alt="PROV key concepts overview">
-  </div>
-
-  <section id="entities">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    In PROV, physical, digital, conceptual, or other kinds of thing are called
-    <i>entities</i>.
-    Examples of such entities are a web page, a chart, and a spellchecker.
-    Provenance records can describe the provenance of entities, and
-    an entity’s provenance may refer to many other entities.  For example, a document D is
-    an entity whose provenance refers to other entities such as a chart inserted into D,
-    and the dataset that was used to create that chart.
-    Entities may be described as having different attributes and
-    be described from different perspectives.  For example,
-    document D as stored in my file system, the second version of document D, 
-    and D as an evolving document,
-    are three distinct entities for which we may describe provenance.
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="activities">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Activities</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    <i>Activities</i> are how entities come into 
-    existence and how their attributes change to become new entities, 
-    often making use of previously existing entities to achieve this. 
-    They are
-    dynamic aspects of the world, such as actions, processes, etc.
-    For example, if the second version of document D was generated 
-    by a translation from the first version of the document in another language,
-    then this translation is an activity.
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="usage-and-generation">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Usage and Generation</h3>
-   <p>
-    Activities <i>generate</i> new entities.
-    For example, writing a document brings the document into existence, while
-    revising the document brings a new version into existence.
-    Activities also make <i>use</i> of entities. For example, revising a document
-    to fix spelling mistakes uses the original version of the document as well
-    as a list of corrections.
-    Generation does not always occur at the end of an activity, and an activity may generate entities
-    part-way through.
-    Likewise, usage does not always occur at the beginning of an activity.
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="agents-and-responsibility">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h3>
-   <p>
-    An <i>agent</i> takes a role in an activity such 
-    that the agent can be assigned some degree of responsibility for the activity taking 
-    place.
-    An agent can be a person, a piece of software, an inanimate object, an organization, or
-    other entities that may be ascribed responsibility.
-    When an agent has some responsibility for an activity, PROV says the agent was
-    <i>associated</i> with the activity, where several agents may be associated with
-    an activity and vice-versa.
-    Consider a chart displaying some statistics 
-    regarding crime rates over time in a linear regression.  To represent the 
-    provenance of that chart, we could state that the person who created the 
-    chart was an agent involved in its creation, and that the software used to 
-    create the chart was also an agent involved in that activity.
-    An agent may be <i>acting on behalf</i> of others, e.g. an employee on behalf of their
-    organization, and we can express such chains of responsibility in the provenance.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    We can also describe that an entity is <i>attributed</i> to an agent to express
-    the agent's responsibility for that entity, possibly along with other agents.
-    This description can be understood as a shorthand
-    for saying that the agent was responsible for the activity which generated
-    the entity.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    One may want to describe the provenance of an agent.  For example, an organization 
-    responsible for the creation of a report may evolve over time as the report is written as
-    some members leave and others join.  To make provenance assertions about an agent in PROV,
-    the agent must be declared explicitly both as an agent and as an entity.
-   </p>
-
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="roles">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Roles</h3>
-   <p>
-    A <i>role</i> is a description of the function or the part that an entity 
-    played in an activity.  Roles specify
-    the relationship between an entity and an activity, i.e. how
-    the activity used or generated the entity.  Roles also specify how agents are
-    involved in an activity, qualifying their participation in the activity or
-    specifying for what aspect of it each agent was responsible.
-    For example, an agent may play the role of "editor" in an activity that uses
-    one entity in the role of "document to be edited" and another in the role of
-    "addition to be made to the document", to generate a further entity in the role of "edited document".
-    Roles are application specific, so PROV does not define any particular roles.
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="derivation-and-revision">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</h3>
-   <p>
-    When one entity's existence, content, characteristics and so on are
-    at least partly due to another entity, then we say that the former was
-    <i>derived</i> from the latter. For example, one document may contain
-    material copied from another, 
-    and a chart was derived from the data that it illustrates.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    PROV allows some common, specialized kinds of derivation to be described.
-    For example, a given entity, such as a document, may go through multiple <i>revisions</i> 
-    over time. Between revisions,
-    one or more attributes of the entity may change. 
-    In PROV, the result of each revision is a new entity.
-    PROV allows one to relate those entities by making a description that 
-    one was a revision of another.
-    Another kind of derivation is to say that one entity, a quotation, <i>was quoted from</i>
-    another entity, commonly a document.
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="plans">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Plans</h3>
-   <p>
-    Activities may follow pre-defined procedures, such as recipes, tutorials, instructions, or workflows.
-    PROV refers to these, in general, as <i>plans</i>, and allows the description that a plan was followed, by agents,
-    in executing an activity.
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="time">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Time</h3>
-   <p>
-    Time is often a critical aspect of provenance.
-    PROV allows the timing of significant events to be described, including
-    when an entity was generated or used, or when an activity started
-    and finished. For example, the model can be used to describe facts such as when a new
-    version of a document was created (generation time), or when a document was
-    edited (start and end of the editing activity).
-   </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="alternate-entities-and-specialization">
-   <h3><span class="secno">2.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</h3>
-   <p>
-    There is often more than one way to describe something in a record of
-    provenance. Each perspective will be referred to by a separately identified
-    entity, and PROV provides a mechanism for linking the different descriptions of
-    the same thing together through the mechanism of <i>specialization</i>. One
-    entity is a specialization of another entity if it shares the same fixed attributes,
-    with the possible addition of further fixed attributes. This concept is best
-    illustrated through a few use cases.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    Entities can be mutable things. For example, a webpage is a single
-    entity, W, despite being edited over time. Each version of the webpage is
-    also an entity, W1, W2... To connect an individual version to the webpage
-    in general, we say that the former is a specialization of the latter: W1 is a
-    specialization of W, W2 is a specialization of W, and so on.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    Two individuals may create provenance referring to the same thing from different
-    perspectives. For example, the author of an article may attribute that article
-    to themselves using PROV while, independently, a reader might quote a fact from that
-    article elsewhere and document this in PROV. If the author later changes the fact,
-    then from the reader's perspective there are now two versions of the article, and
-    the reader had quoted from the version before the change. From the author's perspective,
-    there is a single article, attributed to the author. If the author, the reader, or a
-    third party, were to connect the two PROV records, that party would say that the
-    article as referred to by the reader is a specialization of the same article
-    as referred to by the author.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    The above illustrates where we may want to connect entities by
-    saying that they refer to the same thing, but at different levels of specialization.
-    PROV also allows us to more generally draw a connection between two descriptions
-    of the same thing, even if not at different levels of specialization, describing the
-    entities as <i>alternates</i> of each other. For example,
-    two versions of the webpage above, W1 and W2, are alternates of each other because
-    they describe the same webpage.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    As another example, if a file is copied from one directory to another to create a backup,
-    we may say that the copies are alternate versions of the same, location-independent, file.
-    Specifically, we may say that the file in the first directory, entity F1, is an alternate of the 
-    file in the second directory, entity F2. Note that it is
-    the context (location) rather than content of the file that differs between the entities
-    in this case.
-   </p>
-  </section>   
-
- </section>
-
- <section id="examples-of-key-concepts-in-prov">
-  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples of Key Concepts in PROV</h2>
-
-  <p>
-   In the following sections, we show how PROV can be used to model 
-   provenance in a specific example scenario. Samples of PROV data are given.
-   These samples use the namespace prefixes <b>prov</b>, denoting 
-   terms from the PROV ontology, and prefixes <b>exc</b>, <b>exn</b>, <b>exb</b>, <b>exg</b>,
-   denoting terms specific to the example.
-   We illustrate in these examples how PROV can be used in combination with other
-   languages, such as FOAF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-FOAF">FOAF</a></cite>] and Dublin Core [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DCTERMS">DCTERMS</a></cite>] (with namespace prefix <b>foaf</b> and 
-   <b>dcterms</b> respectively).
-  </p>
-  <p>
-   The scenario describes a blogger exploring the provenance of an online newspaper
-   article, including a chart produced from a government agency dataset. The
-   provenance data comes from different sources: the blogger, the newspaper,
-   the chart generator company and the government agency. The samples of provenance from each source
-   use a different namespace prefix for identifiers that source has
-   created: <b>exb</b>, <b>exn</b>, <b>exc</b>, and <b>exg</b>
-   respectively.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-   The samples can be displayed in one or more of the following formats.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] RDF triples, expressed using the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] notation.</li>
-   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] expressions.</li>
-   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] fragments.</li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-   Select the formats to display using the buttons below. Note that if all formats
-   are hidden, the worked examples may not make sense!
-  </p>
-  <form action="#"><p> 
-    <input id="hide-turtle-examples" type="button" value="Hide Turtle Examples" onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');">
-    <input id="show-turtle-examples" type="button" value="Show Turtle Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', '');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', '');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', '');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', 'none');">
-    <input id="hide-provn-examples" type="button" value="Hide PROV-N Examples" onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');">
-    <input id="show-provn-examples" type="button" value="Show PROV-N Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', '');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', '');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', '');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', 'none');">
-    <input id="hide-provxml-examples" type="button" value="Hide XML Examples" onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');">
-    <input id="show-provxml-examples" type="button" value="Show XML Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', '');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', '');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', '');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', 'none');">
-   </p> 
-  </form>
-
-
-  <section id="entities-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Entities</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    An online newspaper publishes an article with a chart about crime statistics 
-    based on data (GovData) provided by a government portal.
-    The article includes a chart based on the data, with data values composed (aggregated) by
-    geographical regions.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    A blogger, Betty, looking at the article, spots what she thinks to be an error in the chart.
-    Betty retrieves a record of the provenance of the article, describing how it was created.
-   </p>
-   <p>Betty finds the following descriptions of entities in the provenance.</p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exn:article      a prov:Entity ;
-                   dcterms:title "Crime rises in cities" .
-  exg:dataset1     a prov:Entity .
-  exc:regionList   a prov:Entity .
-  exc:composition1 a prov:Entity .
-  exc:chart1       a prov:Entity .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  entity(exn:article, [dcterms:title="Crime rises in cities"])
-  entity(exg:dataset1)
-  entity(exc:regionList)
-  entity(exc:composition1)
-  entity(exc:chart1)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exn:article"&gt;
-      &lt;dct:title&gt;Crime rises in cities&lt;/dct:title&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exc:regionList1"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exc:composition1"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exc:chart1"/&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    These statements, in order, refer to the article 
-    (<code>exn:article</code>), 
-    an original data set (<code>exg:dataset1</code>),
-    a list of regions (<code>exc:regionList</code>),
-    data aggregated by region (<code>exc:composition1</code>), 
-    and a chart (<code>exc:chart1</code>), and state that each is an entity.
-    Any entity may have attributes, such as the title
-    of the article, expressed using <code>dcterms:title</code> above.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    Notice the different namespace prefixes used: for the article it corresponds to the 
-    newspaper that published it (<code>exn</code>), and 
-    for the dataset it is the government namespace (<code>exg</code>).
-    The <code>dcterms:title</code> namespace is taken from the Dublin Core 
-    vocabulary.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    PROV data is commonly visualized for human consumption using <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams">particular conventions</a>,
-    which we will introduce over the following sections. To start with, entities
-    are denoted using ovals, as shown below.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/entities.png" alt="Visualization of the example entities">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="activities-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Activities</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    Further, the provenance describes that there was
-    an activity (<code>exc:compile1</code>) denoting the compilation of the
-    chart from the data set.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compile1 a prov:Activity .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  activity(exc:compile1)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exc:compile1"/&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    The provenance also includes reference to the more specific steps involved in this compilation,
-    which are first composing the data by region (<code>exc:compose1</code>) and then generating the
-    chart graphic (<code>exc:illustrate1</code>).
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1    a prov:Activity .
-  exc:illustrate1 a prov:Activity .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  activity(exc:compose1)
-  activity(exc:illustrate1)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    In visualizations of the PROV data, activities are depicted as rectangles, as below.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/activities.png" alt="Visualization of the example activities">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="usage-and-generation-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Usage and Generation</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    Concluding the basic description of what occurred, the provenance 
-    describes the key relations among the above
-    entities and activities, i.e. the usage of an entity by an activity,
-    or the generation of an entity by an activity.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    For example, the descriptions below state that the composition activity
-    (<code>exc:compose1</code>) used the original data set, that it used the list of
-    regions, and that the composed data was generated by this activity.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1      prov:used           exg:dataset1 ;
-                    prov:used           exc:regionList1 .
-  exc:composition1  prov:wasGeneratedBy exc:compose1 .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  used(exc:compose1, exg:dataset1, -)
-  used(exc:compose1, exc:regionList1, -)
-  wasGeneratedBy(exc:composition1, exc:compose1, -)
-    </pre>
-    <p>Note that the - argument in the examples above denote unspecified optional
-     information. See the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] specification for the details of what arguments
-     may be expressed in each PROV-N statement.
-    </p>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:used&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
-    &lt;prov:used&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:regionList1"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:composition1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Similarly, the chart graphic creation activity (<code>exc:illustrate1</code>)
-    used the composed data, and the chart was generated by this activity.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:illustrate1 prov:used           exc:composition1 .
-  exc:chart1      prov:wasGeneratedBy exc:illustrate1 .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  used(exc:illustrate1, exc:composition1, -)
-  wasGeneratedBy(exc:chart1, exc:illustrate1, -)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:used&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:composition1"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    In visualizing the PROV data, usage and generation are connections between
-    entities and activities. The arrows point from the future to the past.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/use-generate.png" alt="Connection of the entities and activities by use and generation links">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="agents-and-responsibility-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    Digging deeper, Betty wants to know who compiled the chart.
-    Betty sees that Derek was involved in both the composition and
-    chart creation activities:
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1    prov:wasAssociatedWith exc:derek .
-  exc:illustrate1 prov:wasAssociatedWith exc:derek .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(exc:compose1, exc:derek, -)
-  wasAssociatedWith(exc:illustrate1, exc:derek, -)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    The record for Derek provides the
-    following description that
-    Derek is an agent, specifically a person, followed by non-PROV information
-    giving attributes of Derek.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:derek a prov:Agent ;
-            a prov:Person ;
-            foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string ;
-            foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt; .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  agent(exc:derek,
-        [prov:type='prov:Person', foaf:givenName="Derek", 
-         foaf:mbox="&lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt;"])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="exc:derek"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-      &lt;foaf:givenName&gt;Derek&lt;/foaf:givenName&gt;
-      &lt;foaf:mbox&gt;mailto:[email protected]&lt;/foaf:mbox&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Derek works as part of an organization, Chart Generators Inc, and so the provenance
-    declares that he acts on their behalf. Note that the organization is itself
-    an agent.  The namespace prefix used by the organization is <code>exc</code>.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:derek prov:actedOnBehalfOf exc:chartgen .
-  exc:chartgen a prov:Agent ;
-               a prov:Organization ;
-               foaf:name "Chart Generators Inc" .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  agent(exc:chartgen,
-        [prov:type='prov:Organization',
-         foaf:name="Chart Generators Inc"])
-  actedOnBehalfOf(exc:derek, exc:chartgen)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="exc:chartgen"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Organization&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-      &lt;foaf:name&gt;Chart Generators Inc&lt;/foaf:name&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
-    &lt;prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
-      &lt;prov:delegate prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:responsible prov:ref="exc:chartgen"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    It would also be possible to express the more specific statement that Derek 
-    worked on the organization's behalf for a particular activity, rather than 
-    in general, and so may have acted on behalf of other organizations for other 
-    activities. See the PROV specifications for details on how to express 
-    activity-specific delegation.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    Finally, there is an explicit statement in the provenance that the chart was
-    attributed to Derek.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:chart1 prov:wasAttributedTo exc:derek .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  wasAttributedTo(exc:chart1, exc:derek)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-
-   <p>
-    We can extend our graphical depiction to show the agents, association and attribution links.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/agents.png" alt="Agents added to provenance graph and linked to entities and activities">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="roles-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Roles</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    For Betty to understand where the error lies, she needs to have more detailed 
-    information on how entities have been used in and generated 
-    by activities.  Betty has determined that <code>exc:compose1</code> used 
-    entities <code>exc:regionList1</code> and <code>exg:dataset1</code>, but she does not 
-    know what function these entities played in the processing.  Betty 
-    also knows that <code>exc:derek</code> was associated with the activities, but she does 
-    not know if Derek was the analyst responsible for determining how the data 
-    should be composed.
-   </p>
-   <p>
-    The above information is described as roles in the provenance. The composition
-    activity involved entities in four roles: the data to be composed (<code>exc:dataToCompose</code>),
-    the regions to aggregate by (<code>exc:regionsToAggregateBy</code>), the
-    resulting composed data (<code>exc:composedData</code>), and the
-    analyst doing the composition (<code>exc:analyst</code>).
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:dataToCompose        a prov:Role .
-  exc:regionsToAggregateBy a prov:Role .
-  exc:composedData         a prov:Role .
-  exc:analyst              a prov:Role .
-    </pre>
-    <p>
-     Examples in the sections above show descriptions of the simple facts that the
-     composition activity used, generated and was enacted by entities/agents.
-     For example, the usage of the data set by the compose activity is expressed
-     as follows.
-    </p>
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:used exg:dataset1 .
-    </pre>
-    <p>     
-     The
-     provenance can contain more details of exactly how these entities and agents
-     were involved in the activity. 
-     To express this, PROV-O refers to <i>qualified usage</i>, <i>qualified generation</i>, etc.,
-     which are descriptions consisting of several statements about how usage, generation, etc. took place.
-     For example, we may describe the plan followed by an agent in performing an activity, or
-     the time at which an activity generated an entity, both illustrated later.
-     Another example of qualified involvement is the role an entity played in an activity.
-     The descriptions below state
-     that the composition activity (<code>exc:compose1</code>) included the usage
-     of the government data set (<code>exg:dataset1</code>) in the role of the data
-     to be composed (<code>exc:dataToCompose</code>).
-    </p>
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:qualifiedUsage [
-               a prov:Usage ;
-               prov:entity  exg:dataset1 ;
-               prov:hadRole exc:dataToCompose 
-     ] .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <p>
-     In PROV-N, the role is expressed as one of the list of attributes in the used
-     expression, with the attribute name <code>prov:role</code>.
-    </p>
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  used(exc:compose1, exg:dataset1, -, [prov:role='exc:dataToCompose'])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:used&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:dataToCompose&lt;/prov:role&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    This can then be distinguished from the same activity's usage of the list of
-    regions because the roles played are different.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:qualifiedUsage [
-                  a prov:Usage ;
-                  prov:entity  exc:regionList1 ;
-                  prov:hadRole exc:regionsToAggregateBy
-     ] .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  used(exc:compose1, exc:regionList1, -, [prov:role='exc:regionsToAggregateBy'])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:used&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:regionList1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:regionsToAggregateBy&lt;/prov:role&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Similarly, the provenance includes descriptions that the same activity was
-    enacted in a particular way by Derek, so it indicates that he had the role of 
-    <code>exc:analyst</code>, and that the entity <code>exc:composition1</code> took the role of the composed
-    data in what the activity generated:
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:qualifiedAssociation [
-                  a  prov:Association ;
-                  prov:agent    exc:derek ;
-                  prov:hadRole  exc:analyst
-  ] .
-  exc:composition1 prov:qualifiedGeneration [
-                      a prov:Generation ;
-                      prov:activity  exc:compose1 ;
-                      prov:hadRole   exc:composedData
-  ] .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(exc:compose1, exc:derek, -, [prov:role='exc:analyst'])
-  wasGeneratedBy(exc:composition1, exc:compose1, -, [prov:role='exc:composedData'])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:analyst&lt;/prov:role&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:composition1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:composedData&lt;/prov:role&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Depicting the above visually, we have the following.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/roles.png" alt="Provenance graph annotated with roles played by entities and agents">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="derivation-and-revision-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    After looking at the detail of the compilation activity, there appears
-    to be nothing wrong, so Betty concludes the error is in the government dataset. 
-    She looks at the dataset <code>exg:dataset1</code>, 
-    and sees that it is missing data from one of the zipcodes in the area.  She contacts
-    the government agency, and a new version of GovData is created, declared to be the
-    next revision of the data. The provenance of this new dataset,
-    <code>exg:dataset2</code>, states that it is a revision of the
-    old data set, <code>exg:dataset1</code>.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exg:dataset2 a prov:Entity ;
-               prov:wasRevisionOf exg:dataset1 .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  entity(exg:dataset2)
-  wasDerivedFrom(exg:dataset2, exg:dataset1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;entity prov:id="dataSet2"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exg:dataset2"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Derek notices that there is a new dataset available and creates a new chart based on the revised data, 
-    using another compilation activity. Betty checks the article again at a
-    later point, and wants to know if it is based on the old or new GovData.
-    She sees a new description stating that the new chart is derived from the new dataset
-    (the same relation could be expressed between the old chart and old dataset).
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
-             prov:wasDerivedFrom exg:dataset2 .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  wasDerivedFrom(exc:chart2, exg:dataset2)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exc:chart2"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exg:dataset2"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>and that the new chart is a revision of the original one:
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
-            prov:wasRevisionOf exc:chart1 .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  entity(exc:chart2)
-  wasDerivedFrom(exc:chart2, exc:chart1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;entity prov:id="chart2"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exc:chart2"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Derivation and revision are connections between entities, and so depicted
-    with arrows in our visualization.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/derivation.png" alt="Derivation and revision links between entities">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="plans-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Plans</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    Betty then wishes to know whether the new data set correctly addresses
-    the error that existed before. The provenance of the new dataset,
-    <code>exg:dataset2</code>, describes not only who performed the corrections,
-    Edith, but also what instructions she followed in doing so (in PROV terms, the plan).
-    First, the correction activity (<code>exg:correct1</code>), the person who corrected
-    it, Edith (<code>exg:edith</code>), and the correction instructions (<code>exg:instructions</code>)
-    are described.
-   </p><div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exg:correct1     a prov:Activity .
-  exg:edith        a prov:Agent, prov:Person .
-  exg:instructions a prov:Plan .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  activity(exg:correct1)
-  agent(exg:edith, [prov:type='prov:Person'])
-  entity(exg:instructions)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exg:correct1"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="exg:edith"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exg:instructions"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Plan&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <p>
-     The connection between them is expressed in PROV-O using a qualified association giving details of
-     how Edith was associated with the correction activity,
-     including that she followed the above correction instructions.
-    </p>
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exg:correct1 prov:qualifiedAssociation [
-                 a Association ;
-                 prov:agent   exg:edith ;
-                 prov:hadPlan exg:instructions
-  ] .
-  exg:dataset2 prov:wasGeneratedBy exg:correct1 .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <p>
-     In PROV-N, the plan is an optional parameter to wasAssociatedWith descriptions.
-    </p>
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(exg:correct1, exg:edith, exg:instructions)
-  wasGeneratedBy(exg:dataset2, exg:correct1, -)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <p>
-     In PROV-XML, the plan is an optional child of the wasAssociatedWith element.
-    </p>
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exg:correct1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exg:edith"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:plan prov:ref="exg:instructions"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exg:dataset2"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exg:correct1"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Plans are additional information about the connection from an activity to
-    an agent, and so, in our visualization, connect to the link between them.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/plans.png" alt="Annotaion of example provenance graph with plan followed">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="time-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Time</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    The government agency that produced GovData is concerned to know how long
-    the incorrect chart was in circulation before the corrected chart was created.
-    That is, they wish to compare the times at which the original and the corrected
-    charts were generated. The snippet below shows that the second chart
-    was generated roughly a month after the first.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exc:chart1 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-03-02T10:30:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
-  exc:chart2 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  wasGeneratedBy(exc:chart1, exc:compile1,  2012-03-02T10:30:00)
-  wasGeneratedBy(exc:chart2, exc:compile2, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-03-02T10:30:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart2"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-04-01T15:21:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-
-   <p>
-    To ensure their procedures are efficient, the agency also wishes to know how long the
-    corrections took once the error was discovered. That is, they wish to know the
-    start and end times of the correction activity (<code>exg:correct1</code>).
-    These details are expressed as follows, showing that the corrections took a
-    little over a day.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exg:correct1 prov:startedAtTime "2012-03-31T09:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
-               prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  activity(exg:correct1, 2012-03-31T09:21:00, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exg:correct1"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2012-03-31T09:21:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
-      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2012-04-01T15:21:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Time is visualized as additional information regarding activities or the
-    links between activities and entities or agents.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/time.png" alt="Annotation of provenance graph with example timestamps">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="alternate-entities-and-specialization-1">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</h3>
-
-   <p>
-    Before noticing anything wrong with the government data, Betty had already
-    posted a blog entry about the article. The blog entry had its own published
-    provenance. In particular, it contains some text copied from the article, and the
-    provenance states that this text (<code>exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326</code>) is quoted
-    from the article.  Note the namespace prefix (<code>exb</code>) used for the blog.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326 a prov:Entity ;
-                                prov:value "Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones" ;
-                                prov:wasQuotedFrom exn:article .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  entity(exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326, prov:value="Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones")
-  wasDerivedFrom(exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326, exn:article, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exb:BlogEntry-20130326"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:value&gt;Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones&lt;/prov:value&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
-    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exn:article"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Quotation&lt;/prov:type&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    The newspaper, from past experience, anticipated that there could be revisions
-    to the article, and so created identifiers for both the article in general
-    (<code>exn:article</code>) as a URI that got redirected to the first version of the article (<code>exn:articleV1</code>),
-    allowing both to be referred to as entities in provenance data. 
-    In the provenance records, the newspaper describes the connection between the two: that
-    the first version of the article is a specialization of the article in general.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exn:articleV1 a prov:Entity ;
-               prov:specializationOf exn:article .
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  entity(exn:articleV1)
-  specializationOf(exn:articleV1, exn:article)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exn:articleV1"/&gt;
-    &lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
-      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="exn:articleV1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="exn:article"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Later, after the data set is corrected and the new chart generated, a new version
-    of the article is created, <code>exn:articleV2</code>, with its own URI where the article
-    is redirected to.  To ensure that those
-    consulting the provenance of <code>exn:articleV2</code> understand that it
-    is connected with the provenance of <code>exn:article</code> and <code>exn:articleV1</code>,
-    the newspaper describes how these entities are related.
-   </p>
-   <div class="turtle example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  exn:articleV2 prov:specializationOf exn:article .
-  exn:articleV2 prov:alternateOf      exn:articleV1 
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provn example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  specializationOf(exn:articleV2, exn:article)
-  alternateOf(exn:articleV2, exn:articleV1)
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <div class="provxml example">
-    <div class="exampleheader">
-     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
-      <a onclick="
-    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
-    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
-     </span></div>
-    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
-    ...
-    &lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
-      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="exn:articleV2"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="exn:article"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;
-    &lt;prov:alternateOf&gt;
-      &lt;prov:alternate1 prov:ref="exn:articleV1"/&gt;
-      &lt;prov:alternate2 prov:ref="exn:articleV2"/&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:alternateOf&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
-    </pre>
-   </div>
-   <p>
-    Note that above we could have also
-    stated that <code>exn:articleV2</code> was a revision of <code>exn:articleV1</code>,
-    as we did between <code>exc:chart2</code> and <code>exc:chart1</code>,
-    which would describe more concretely how the alternate entities are related.
-    Specialization and alternate relations connect entities, and so are visualized
-    as links between them.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/specialization.png" alt="Specialization and alternate links between entities">
-  </section>
-
-  <section id="the-complete-example">
-   <h3><span class="secno">3.10 </span>The Complete Example</h3>
-   <p>
-    The full set of examples shown above are available in <a href="primer-turtle-examples.ttl">PROV-O Turtle format</a>
-    or <a href="primer-provn-examples.provn">PROV-N format</a> or <a href="primer-prov-xml-examples.xml">PROV-XML format</a>.
-    We visualize the whole example below.
-   </p>
-   <img src="images/everything.png" alt="Provenance graph for whole example">
-  </section>
- </section>
- <section id="summary">
-  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Summary</h2>
-  <p>The examples in the previous section highlight the following important capabilities of PROV:
-  </p>
-  <ol>
-   <li><b>Representing diverse entities involved in provenance</b>.  
-    The examples illustrate that provenance records can contain different 
-    kinds of information:
-    <ul>
-     <li>The newspaper took an object-centered view on their provenance statements, 
-      stating what objects were derived from others but not stating what processes 
-      were used or what entities were involved.</li>
-     <li>Betty the blogger took a very agent-centered view on provenance.  
-      She chose to associate her blog post with herself, the government agency 
-      that published the data, and the newspaper that published the article.</li>
-     <li>Derek took a process-centered perspective and combined it with object-centered 
-      and agent-centered provenance information. The processes followed to derive the 
-      charts from the government datasets were clearly.  All intermediate and final 
-      documents were stated.  His involvement in the various activities was clearly 
-      recorded, and the resulting documents were attributed to him.</li>
-    </ul></li>
-   <li><b>Stating partial or incomplete provenance</b>.  The newspaper omitted 
-    information about their specific editorial processes in publishing articles.  
-    The chart generator said nothing about the software used, therefore omitting 
-    information about other agents involved in the processes.</li>
-   <li><b>Integrating provenance-related information represented in other vocabularies</b>.  
-    The FOAF vocabulary was used for specifying details about Derek and his company.  
-    The Dublin Core vocabulary was used for specifying the article title. </li>
-   <li><b>Combining distributed provenance records provided by different parties</b>.  
-    The provenance records described in this example came from a government source, 
-    a newspaper, a company, and a blogger.  Using URIs and namespaces, a provenance 
-    record can draw from multiple sources on the Web.</li>
-   <li><b>Describing the commonalities in the derivation of two entities</b>.  
-    The two versions of the charts were both derived through a similar compile activity.</li>
-   <li><b>Relating versions of objects over time</b>.  
-    The second dataset was described as a revision of the first one.</li>
-   <li><b>Stating the provenance of provenance assertions</b>.  
-    Betty could create a provenance record for her blog post, and 
-    then assert the provenance of that provenance record.</li>
-   <li><b>Enabling alternative accounts for the provenance of an entity</b>.  
-    The blog post could have a provenance account from Betty as its author and another 
-    one from the newspaper that the blog quoted from.</li>
-   <li><b>Supporting queries over provenance of different granularity</b>.   
-    The activity of composing the data from different regions was described 
-    in greater detail than the other steps to produce the chart.  
-    The provenance of the chart has much finer-grained detail than 
-    the provenance of the government dataset.</li>
-   <li><b>Supporting reasoning and inference over provenance records</b>.   
-    The provenance assertions explicitly stated above can be used to infer 
-    additional assertions that are true according to the PROV model.  
-    For example, because Derek created the chart acting on behalf of Chart 
-    Generators, a PROV inference may be that the chart can be attributed to Chart Generators.</li>
-  </ol>
-  <p>The examples also illustrate how PROV enables many uses of provenance, 
-   such as checking for possible errors, tracking down parties responsible for 
-   fixing them, repeating processes to re-generate datasets, relating versions of 
-   documents over time, and inspecting sources and attribution.
-  </p>
-
-  <p>There are additional aspects of the PROV data model that we have not covered 
-    in this primer and that are important in many uses of provenance. These include
-    the following.
-   </p>
-   <ol>
-    <li><b>Provenance of provenance</b>:  
-     It is often useful to state the provenance of a provenance record.  
-     To enable this, PROV allows the grouping of provenance assertions as a <i>bundle</i>.
-     A bundle is a type of entity, and therefore its provenance can be asserted in turn.
-     For example, supposed that Betty wanted to express in the provenance of her blog 
-     entry that she personally checked her sources.  She would want to state the 
-     provenance of her blog entry, and then state that she stands by that provenance.  
-     To do this, she would create a bundle that contains provenance assertions for 
-     her blog entry, and then she would state that she was the creator of that bundle.  </li>
-    <li><b>Collections of entities</b>:
-     A <i>collection</i> in PROV is a type of entity that has other entities as members.
-     For example, Derek could decide to create several types of charts using dataset2.  
-     He would describe all the charts as a collection, and then state the provenance of 
-     the collection to be a single step that generates all the charts. </li>
-   </ol>
-   <p>
-    Please see the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] specification for details on these
-    and other concepts.
-   </p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix" id="acknowledgements">
- <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
- <p> 
-  This  document has been produced by the Provenance Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>) and Ivan Herman (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>), <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> contacts for the Provenance Working Group.
- </p> 
- <p>
-  The editors acknowledge valuable contributions from the following:
-  Tom Baker,
-  David Booth,
-  Bob DuCharme,
-  Robert Freimuth,
-  Satrajit Ghosh,
-  Ralph Hodgson,
-  Renato Iannella,
-  Jacek Kopecky,
-  James Leigh,
-  Chuck Morris,
-  Jacco van Ossenbruggen,
-  Alan Ruttenberg,
-  Reza Samavi, and
-  Antoine Zimmermann.
- </p>
- <p>
-  Members of the Provenance Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
-
-  Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
-  Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
-  Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
-  James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
-  Sam Coppens (iMinds - Ghent University),
-  David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
-  Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
-  Tom De Nies (iMinds - Ghent University),
-  Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
-  Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
-  Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
-  Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
-  Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
-  James Frew (Invited expert),
-  Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
-  Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid),
-  Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
-  Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
-  Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
-  Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
-  David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
-  Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>),
-  Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
-  Ivan Herman, (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>),
-  Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
-  Hook Hua (Invited expert),
-  Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
-  Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
-  Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
-  Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-  James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-  Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-  Simon Miles (Invited expert),
-  Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university),
-  Luc Moreau (University of Southampton),
-  James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-  Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University),
-  Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
-  Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-  Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium),
-  Adam Retter (Invited Expert),
-  Christine Runnegar (Invited expert),
-  Satya Sahoo (Invited expert),
-  David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.),
-  Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium),
-  Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert),
-  Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester),
-  Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory),
-  Linda Stewart (The National Archives),
-  Ed Summers (Library of Congress),
-  Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
-  Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.),
-  Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration),
-  Craig Trim (IBM Corporation),
-  Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-  Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
-  Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
-</p></section>
-
-<section class="appendix" id="changes-since-fourth-public-working-draft"> 
- <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</h2> 
- <ul>
-  <li>Corrected XML example for activities</li>
-  <li>Clarified usage of adoptedOnBehalfOf relation</li>
-  <li>Clarified wasQuotedFrom example</li>
-  <li>Adapted PROV-XML examples to clarify they are not RDF/XML</li>
-  <li>Clarified varying sources of example provenance data with different namespace prefixes,
-   and in division of complete example provenance graph</li>
-  <li>Used instance-specific identifiers for entities, activities and agents</li>
-  <li>Added section summarising some additional aspects of PROV not covered in depth</li>
-  <li>Added summary section</li>
-  <li>Added proper acknowledgements</li>
-  <li>Clarified the introduction regarding what is in each section.</li>
-  <li>Added references for FOAF, Dublin Core and newer PROV documents.</li>
-  <li>Typos fixed and minor clarifications throughout</li>
- </ul>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-DCTERMS">[DCTERMS]</dt><dd>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/2012/06/14/dcmi-terms/"><cite>DCMI Metadata Terms</cite></a>. 14 June 2012. URL: <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/2012/06/14/dcmi-terms/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2012/06/14/dcmi-terms/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-FOAF">[FOAF]</dt><dd>Dan Brickley, Libby Miller; eds. <a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html"><cite>FOAF Vocabulary Specification 0.98</cite></a>. 9 August 2010. URL: <a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html">http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DC">[PROV-DC]</dt><dd>Daniel Garijo; Kai Eckert; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/"><cite>Dublin Core to PROV Mapping</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">[PROV-DICTIONARY]</dt><dd>Tom De Nies; Sam Coppens; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/"><cite>PROV Dictionary</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-LINKS">[PROV-LINKS]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Timothy Lebo; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/"><cite>Linking Across Provenance Bundles</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-SEM">[PROV-SEM]</dt><dd>James Cheney; ed. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430"><cite>Semantics of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430</a>.
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROVENANCE-XG">[PROVENANCE-XG]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil, James Cheney, Paul Groth, Olaf Hartig, Simon Miles, Luc Moreau, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva. <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/"><cite>Provenance XG Final Report</cite></a>. 8 December 2010. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd>Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/"><cite>Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language</cite></a>. 9 August 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/</a>
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
+<head> 
+  <title>PROV Model Primer</title>
+  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+  <link rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#has_provenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/provenance/prov-primer">
+  <!--
+    === NOTA BENE ===
+    For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+    out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+  -->
+  <!-- PM -->
+  <style type="text/css">
+   .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
+  </style>
+
+  <script src="toggles.js" type="text/javascript"></script> 
+  
+
+  
+  
+  
+ <style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
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+
+/* --- TOC --- */
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+    text-decoration:    none;
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+
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+    color:  #000;
+}
+
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+    margin-top: 0.5em;
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+    background: #f0f6ff;
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+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
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+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WG-NOTE"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--></head>
+ <body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">PROV Model Primer</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-working-group-note-30-april-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Group Note 30 April 2013</h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, US</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/">Simon Miles</a>, King's College London, UK</dd>
+
+    
+      <dt>Contributors:</dt>
+      <dd><span><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a></span>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dd><span>Helena Deus</span>, Digital Enterprise Research Institute (DERI), NUI Galway</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net/index.php/en/phdstudents/28-dgarijo">Daniel Garijo</a></span>, Ontology Engineering Group, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Spain</dd>
+<dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://www.ncl.ac.uk/computing/people/profile/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a></span>, Newcastle University</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/">Stian Soiland-Reyes</a></span>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/StephanZednik">Stephan Zednik</a></span>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a>  
+        2013
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup></sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div>
+  <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+   <p>
+    This document provides an intuitive introduction and guide to the
+    PROV Data Model for provenance interchange on the web. PROV defines a core data model for
+    provenance for building representations of the entities, people and
+    processes involved in producing a piece of data or thing in the world.
+    This primer explains the fundamental PROV concepts and provides examples 
+    of its use.  The primer is intended as a starting point for those wishing
+    to create or use PROV data.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.
+   </p>
+
+   <!-- p>
+    This is a document for internal discussion, which will ultimately
+    evolve in the first Public Working Draft of the Primer.</p -->
+  </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+   <h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+   This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+   interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are listed below. Please consult the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] for a guide to reading these documents. 
+   <ul>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-primer-20130430/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (Note), a primer for the PROV data model (this document);</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/">PROV-O</a> (Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of the PROV data model to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/">PROV-DM</a> (Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/">PROV-N</a> (Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/">PROV-XML</a> (Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/">PROV-AQ</a> (Note), mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/">PROV-DICTIONARY</a> (Note) introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/">PROV-DC</a> (Note) provides a mapping between PROV-O and Dublin Core Terms [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DC">PROV-DC</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430/">PROV-SEM</a> (Note), a declarative specification in terms of first-order logic of the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>];</li>
+    <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/">PROV-LINKS</a> (Note) introduces a mechanism to link across bundles [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>].</li>
+   </ul>
+
+   <h4 id="implementations-encouraged">Implementations Encouraged</h4>
+   <p>
+    The Provenance Working Group encourages implementation of the material defined in this document.
+    Although work on this document by the Provenance Working Group is complete, 
+    errors may be recorded in the  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/errata.html">errata</a> or and these may be addressed in future revisions. 
+   </p>
+
+   <h4 id="please-send-comments">Please Send Comments</h4>
+
+  
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note.
+          
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          
+          
+        All comments are welcome.
+        
+        
+          </p><p>
+            Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#intuitive-overview-of-prov" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Intuitive overview of PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#activities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#usage-and-generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Usage and Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents-and-responsibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#roles" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Roles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivation-and-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plans" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Plans</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-entities-and-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#examples-of-key-concepts-in-prov" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples of Key Concepts in PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Entities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#activities-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#usage-and-generation-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Usage and Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents-and-responsibility-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#roles-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Roles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivation-and-revision-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plans-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Plans</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#time-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-entities-and-specialization-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-complete-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10 </span>The Complete Example</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#summary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Summary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-fourth-public-working-draft" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
+
+  
+
+  <section id="introduction"> 
+   <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+   <p>
+    This primer document provides an accessible introduction to the PROV 
+    data model for provenance interchange on the Web.
+    The <i>provenance</i> of digital objects represents their origins.  PROV is a 
+    specification to express provenance records, 
+    which contain <i>descriptions</i> of the entities 
+    and activities involved in producing and delivering or otherwise influencing a 
+    given object.
+    Provenance can be used for many purposes, such as 
+    understanding how data was collected so it can be meaningfully used, determining 
+    ownership and rights over an object, making judgements about information to 
+    determine whether to trust it, verifying that the process and steps used to obtain a 
+    result complies with given requirements, and reproducing how something was generated.
+   </p>
+
+   <p>
+    As a specification for provenance, PROV accommodates all those different uses 
+    of provenance.  Different people may have different perspectives on provenance, 
+    and as a result different types of information might be captured in provenance records.
+   </p><ul>
+    <li>
+     One perspective might focus on <i>agent-centered provenance</i>, that is, what people or organizations 
+     were involved in generating or manipulating the information in question.  For example, 
+     in the provenance of a picture in a news article we might capture the photographer who 
+     took it, the person that edited it, and the newspaper that published it.
+    </li>
+    <li>
+     A second perspective 
+     might focus on <i>object-centered provenance</i>, by tracing the origins of portions of a 
+     document to other documents. An example is having a web page that was assembled from content
+     from a news article, quotes of interviews with experts, and a chart that plots data from a 
+     government agency.
+    </li>
+    <li>A third perspective one might take is on <i>process-centered provenance</i>, 
+     capturing the actions and steps taken to generate the information in question.  For example, a 
+     chart may have been generated by invoking a service to retrieve data from a database, then 
+     extracting certain statistics from the data using some statistics package, and finally 
+     processing these results with a graphing tool.
+    </li>
+   </ul>
+  <p></p>
+
+  <p>
+   Provenance records are metadata.  There are other kinds of metadata that are 
+   not provenance.  For example, the size of an image is metadata of 
+   that image but it is not provenance.
+   For general background on provenance, a 
+   comprehensive overview of requirements, use cases, prior research, and proposed 
+   vocabularies for provenance are available from the 
+   Final Report of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Provenance Incubator Group [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROVENANCE-XG">PROVENANCE-XG</a></cite>].
+   That document contains three general scenarios 
+   that may help identify the provenance aspects of planned applications and 
+   help plan the design of a provenance system.
+  </p>
+
+  <p>
+   This primer document aims to ease the adoption of the PROV specifications by providing:
+  </p>
+  <ul>
+   <li>A high-level explanation of how PROV models provenance, in Section 2. A detailed description of
+    all the concepts and relations in the PROV Data Model is provided in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>].</li>
+   <li>A simple self-contained example that illustrates how to produce and use PROV assertions, in
+    Section 3. 
+    The example includes snippets in RDF using the PROV ontology [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], in a
+    notation designed for human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and in PROV's XML format [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>].
+    The example shows how 
+    to combine PROV with other popular vocabularies such as FOAF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-FOAF">FOAF</a></cite>] and Dublin Core [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DCTERMS">DCTERMS</a></cite>].</li>
+  </ul>
+
+  <p>The document ends with a summary of major capabilities and features of PROV.</p>
+
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="intuitive-overview-of-prov">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Intuitive overview of PROV</h2>
+
+  <p>
+   This section provides an explanation of the main concepts in PROV. 
+   As with the rest of this document, it should be treated as a starting point for
+   understanding the model. The PROV data model document [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]
+   provides precise definitions and constraints [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] to be followed.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+   The following diagram provides a high level overview of the structure of PROV records,
+   limited to some key PROV concepts discussed in this document.
+   Note that because PROV is meant to describe how things were created or delivered, 
+   PROV relations are named so they can be used in assertions about the past.  
+  </p>
+
+  <div style="text-align: center;">
+   <img src="images/key-concepts.png" alt="PROV key concepts overview">
+  </div>
+
+  <section id="entities">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    In PROV, physical, digital, conceptual, or other kinds of thing are called
+    <i>entities</i>.
+    Examples of such entities are a web page, a chart, and a spellchecker.
+    Provenance records can describe the provenance of entities, and
+    an entitys provenance may refer to many other entities.  For example, a document D is
+    an entity whose provenance refers to other entities such as a chart inserted into D,
+    and the dataset that was used to create that chart.
+    Entities may be described as having different attributes and
+    be described from different perspectives.  For example,
+    document D as stored in my file system, the second version of document D, 
+    and D as an evolving document,
+    are three distinct entities for which we may describe provenance.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="activities">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Activities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    <i>Activities</i> are how entities come into 
+    existence and how their attributes change to become new entities, 
+    often making use of previously existing entities to achieve this. 
+    They are
+    dynamic aspects of the world, such as actions, processes, etc.
+    For example, if the second version of document D was generated 
+    by a translation from the first version of the document in another language,
+    then this translation is an activity.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="usage-and-generation">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Usage and Generation</h3>
+   <p>
+    Activities <i>generate</i> new entities.
+    For example, writing a document brings the document into existence, while
+    revising the document brings a new version into existence.
+    Activities also make <i>use</i> of entities. For example, revising a document
+    to fix spelling mistakes uses the original version of the document as well
+    as a list of corrections.
+    Generation does not always occur at the end of an activity, and an activity may generate entities
+    part-way through.
+    Likewise, usage does not always occur at the beginning of an activity.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="agents-and-responsibility">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h3>
+   <p>
+    An <i>agent</i> takes a role in an activity such 
+    that the agent can be assigned some degree of responsibility for the activity taking 
+    place.
+    An agent can be a person, a piece of software, an inanimate object, an organization, or
+    other entities that may be ascribed responsibility.
+    When an agent has some responsibility for an activity, PROV says the agent was
+    <i>associated</i> with the activity, where several agents may be associated with
+    an activity and vice-versa.
+    Consider a chart displaying some statistics 
+    regarding crime rates over time in a linear regression.  To represent the 
+    provenance of that chart, we could state that the person who created the 
+    chart was an agent involved in its creation, and that the software used to 
+    create the chart was also an agent involved in that activity.
+    An agent may be <i>acting on behalf</i> of others, e.g. an employee on behalf of their
+    organization, and we can express such chains of responsibility in the provenance.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    We can also describe that an entity is <i>attributed</i> to an agent to express
+    the agent's responsibility for that entity, possibly along with other agents.
+    This description can be understood as a shorthand
+    for saying that the agent was responsible for the activity which generated
+    the entity.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    One may want to describe the provenance of an agent.  For example, an organization 
+    responsible for the creation of a report may evolve over time as the report is written as
+    some members leave and others join.  To make provenance assertions about an agent in PROV,
+    the agent must be declared explicitly both as an agent and as an entity.
+   </p>
+
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="roles">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Roles</h3>
+   <p>
+    A <i>role</i> is a description of the function or the part that an entity 
+    played in an activity.  Roles specify
+    the relationship between an entity and an activity, i.e. how
+    the activity used or generated the entity.  Roles also specify how agents are
+    involved in an activity, qualifying their participation in the activity or
+    specifying for what aspect of it each agent was responsible.
+    For example, an agent may play the role of "editor" in an activity that uses
+    one entity in the role of "document to be edited" and another in the role of
+    "addition to be made to the document", to generate a further entity in the role of "edited document".
+    Roles are application specific, so PROV does not define any particular roles.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="derivation-and-revision">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</h3>
+   <p>
+    When one entity's existence, content, characteristics and so on are
+    at least partly due to another entity, then we say that the former was
+    <i>derived</i> from the latter. For example, one document may contain
+    material copied from another, 
+    and a chart was derived from the data that it illustrates.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    PROV allows some common, specialized kinds of derivation to be described.
+    For example, a given entity, such as a document, may go through multiple <i>revisions</i> 
+    over time. Between revisions,
+    one or more attributes of the entity may change. 
+    In PROV, the result of each revision is a new entity.
+    PROV allows one to relate those entities by making a description that 
+    one was a revision of another.
+    Another kind of derivation is to say that one entity, a quotation, <i>was quoted from</i>
+    another entity, commonly a document.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="plans">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Plans</h3>
+   <p>
+    Activities may follow pre-defined procedures, such as recipes, tutorials, instructions, or workflows.
+    PROV refers to these, in general, as <i>plans</i>, and allows the description that a plan was followed, by agents,
+    in executing an activity.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="time">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Time</h3>
+   <p>
+    Time is often a critical aspect of provenance.
+    PROV allows the timing of significant events to be described, including
+    when an entity was generated or used, or when an activity started
+    and finished. For example, the model can be used to describe facts such as when a new
+    version of a document was created (generation time), or when a document was
+    edited (start and end of the editing activity).
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="alternate-entities-and-specialization">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</h3>
+   <p>
+    There is often more than one way to describe something in a record of
+    provenance. Each perspective will be referred to by a separately identified
+    entity, and PROV provides a mechanism for linking the different descriptions of
+    the same thing together through the mechanism of <i>specialization</i>. One
+    entity is a specialization of another entity if it shares the same fixed attributes,
+    with the possible addition of further fixed attributes. This concept is best
+    illustrated through a few use cases.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Entities can be mutable things. For example, a webpage is a single
+    entity, W, despite being edited over time. Each version of the webpage is
+    also an entity, W1, W2... To connect an individual version to the webpage
+    in general, we say that the former is a specialization of the latter: W1 is a
+    specialization of W, W2 is a specialization of W, and so on.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Two individuals may create provenance referring to the same thing from different
+    perspectives. For example, the author of an article may attribute that article
+    to themselves using PROV while, independently, a reader might quote a fact from that
+    article elsewhere and document this in PROV. If the author later changes the fact,
+    then from the reader's perspective there are now two versions of the article, and
+    the reader had quoted from the version before the change. From the author's perspective,
+    there is a single article, attributed to the author. If the author, the reader, or a
+    third party, were to connect the two PROV records, that party would say that the
+    article as referred to by the reader is a specialization of the same article
+    as referred to by the author.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    The above illustrates where we may want to connect entities by
+    saying that they refer to the same thing, but at different levels of specialization.
+    PROV also allows us to more generally draw a connection between two descriptions
+    of the same thing, even if not at different levels of specialization, describing the
+    entities as <i>alternates</i> of each other. For example,
+    two versions of the webpage above, W1 and W2, are alternates of each other because
+    they describe the same webpage.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    As another example, if a file is copied from one directory to another to create a backup,
+    we may say that the copies are alternate versions of the same, location-independent, file.
+    Specifically, we may say that the file in the first directory, entity F1, is an alternate of the 
+    file in the second directory, entity F2. Note that it is
+    the context (location) rather than content of the file that differs between the entities
+    in this case.
+   </p>
+  </section>   
+
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="examples-of-key-concepts-in-prov">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples of Key Concepts in PROV</h2>
+
+  <p>
+   In the following sections, we show how PROV can be used to model 
+   provenance in a specific example scenario. Samples of PROV data are given.
+   These samples use the namespace prefixes <b>prov</b>, denoting 
+   terms from the PROV ontology, and prefixes <b>exc</b>, <b>exn</b>, <b>exb</b>, <b>exg</b>,
+   denoting terms specific to the example.
+   We illustrate in these examples how PROV can be used in combination with other
+   languages, such as FOAF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-FOAF">FOAF</a></cite>] and Dublin Core [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-DCTERMS">DCTERMS</a></cite>] (with namespace prefix <b>foaf</b> and 
+   <b>dcterms</b> respectively).
+  </p>
+  <p>
+   The scenario describes a blogger exploring the provenance of an online newspaper
+   article, including a chart produced from a government agency dataset. The
+   provenance data comes from different sources: the blogger, the newspaper,
+   the chart generator company and the government agency. The samples of provenance from each source
+   use a different namespace prefix for identifiers that source has
+   created: <b>exb</b>, <b>exn</b>, <b>exc</b>, and <b>exg</b>
+   respectively.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+   The samples can be displayed in one or more of the following formats.
+  </p>
+  <ul>
+   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] RDF triples, expressed using the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] notation.</li>
+   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] expressions.</li>
+   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] fragments.</li>
+  </ul>
+  <p>
+   Select the formats to display using the buttons below. Note that if all formats
+   are hidden, the worked examples may not make sense!
+  </p>
+  <form action="#"><p> 
+    <input id="hide-turtle-examples" type="button" value="Hide Turtle Examples" onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');">
+    <input id="show-turtle-examples" type="button" value="Show Turtle Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', '');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', '');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', '');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', 'none');">
+    <input id="hide-provn-examples" type="button" value="Hide PROV-N Examples" onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');">
+    <input id="show-provn-examples" type="button" value="Show PROV-N Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', '');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', '');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', '');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', 'none');">
+    <input id="hide-provxml-examples" type="button" value="Hide XML Examples" onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');">
+    <input id="show-provxml-examples" type="button" value="Show XML Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', '');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', '');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', '');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', 'none');">
+   </p> 
+  </form>
+
+
+  <section id="entities-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Entities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    An online newspaper publishes an article with a chart about crime statistics 
+    based on data (GovData) provided by a government portal.
+    The article includes a chart based on the data, with data values composed (aggregated) by
+    geographical regions.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    A blogger, Betty, looking at the article, spots what she thinks to be an error in the chart.
+    Betty retrieves a record of the provenance of the article, describing how it was created.
+   </p>
+   <p>Betty finds the following descriptions of entities in the provenance.</p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exn:article      a prov:Entity ;
+                   dcterms:title "Crime rises in cities" .
+  exg:dataset1     a prov:Entity .
+  exc:regionList   a prov:Entity .
+  exc:composition1 a prov:Entity .
+  exc:chart1       a prov:Entity .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(exn:article, [dcterms:title="Crime rises in cities"])
+  entity(exg:dataset1)
+  entity(exc:regionList)
+  entity(exc:composition1)
+  entity(exc:chart1)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exn:article"&gt;
+      &lt;dct:title&gt;Crime rises in cities&lt;/dct:title&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exc:regionList1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exc:composition1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exc:chart1"/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    These statements, in order, refer to the article 
+    (<code>exn:article</code>), 
+    an original data set (<code>exg:dataset1</code>),
+    a list of regions (<code>exc:regionList</code>),
+    data aggregated by region (<code>exc:composition1</code>), 
+    and a chart (<code>exc:chart1</code>), and state that each is an entity.
+    Any entity may have attributes, such as the title
+    of the article, expressed using <code>dcterms:title</code> above.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Notice the different namespace prefixes used: for the article it corresponds to the 
+    newspaper that published it (<code>exn</code>), and 
+    for the dataset it is the government namespace (<code>exg</code>).
+    The <code>dcterms:title</code> namespace is taken from the Dublin Core 
+    vocabulary.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    PROV data is commonly visualized for human consumption using <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams">particular conventions</a>,
+    which we will introduce over the following sections. To start with, entities
+    are denoted using ovals, as shown below.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/entities.png" alt="Visualization of the example entities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="activities-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Activities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Further, the provenance describes that there was
+    an activity (<code>exc:compile1</code>) denoting the compilation of the
+    chart from the data set.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compile1 a prov:Activity .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(exc:compile1)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exc:compile1"/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    The provenance also includes reference to the more specific steps involved in this compilation,
+    which are first composing the data by region (<code>exc:compose1</code>) and then generating the
+    chart graphic (<code>exc:illustrate1</code>).
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1    a prov:Activity .
+  exc:illustrate1 a prov:Activity .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(exc:compose1)
+  activity(exc:illustrate1)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    In visualizations of the PROV data, activities are depicted as rectangles, as below.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/activities.png" alt="Visualization of the example activities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="usage-and-generation-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Usage and Generation</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Concluding the basic description of what occurred, the provenance 
+    describes the key relations among the above
+    entities and activities, i.e. the usage of an entity by an activity,
+    or the generation of an entity by an activity.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    For example, the descriptions below state that the composition activity
+    (<code>exc:compose1</code>) used the original data set, that it used the list of
+    regions, and that the composed data was generated by this activity.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1      prov:used           exg:dataset1 ;
+                    prov:used           exc:regionList1 .
+  exc:composition1  prov:wasGeneratedBy exc:compose1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(exc:compose1, exg:dataset1, -)
+  used(exc:compose1, exc:regionList1, -)
+  wasGeneratedBy(exc:composition1, exc:compose1, -)
+    </pre>
+    <p>Note that the - argument in the examples above denote unspecified optional
+     information. See the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] specification for the details of what arguments
+     may be expressed in each PROV-N statement.
+    </p>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:regionList1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:composition1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Similarly, the chart graphic creation activity (<code>exc:illustrate1</code>)
+    used the composed data, and the chart was generated by this activity.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:illustrate1 prov:used           exc:composition1 .
+  exc:chart1      prov:wasGeneratedBy exc:illustrate1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(exc:illustrate1, exc:composition1, -)
+  wasGeneratedBy(exc:chart1, exc:illustrate1, -)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:composition1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    In visualizing the PROV data, usage and generation are connections between
+    entities and activities. The arrows point from the future to the past.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/use-generate.png" alt="Connection of the entities and activities by use and generation links">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="agents-and-responsibility-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Digging deeper, Betty wants to know who compiled the chart.
+    Betty sees that Derek was involved in both the composition and
+    chart creation activities:
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1    prov:wasAssociatedWith exc:derek .
+  exc:illustrate1 prov:wasAssociatedWith exc:derek .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(exc:compose1, exc:derek, -)
+  wasAssociatedWith(exc:illustrate1, exc:derek, -)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:illustrate1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    The record for Derek provides the
+    following description that
+    Derek is an agent, specifically a person, followed by non-PROV information
+    giving attributes of Derek.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:derek a prov:Agent ;
+            a prov:Person ;
+            foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string ;
+            foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt; .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  agent(exc:derek,
+        [prov:type='prov:Person', foaf:givenName="Derek", 
+         foaf:mbox="&lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt;"])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="exc:derek"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+      &lt;foaf:givenName&gt;Derek&lt;/foaf:givenName&gt;
+      &lt;foaf:mbox&gt;mailto:[email protected]&lt;/foaf:mbox&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Derek works as part of an organization, Chart Generators Inc, and so the provenance
+    declares that he acts on their behalf. Note that the organization is itself
+    an agent.  The namespace prefix used by the organization is <code>exc</code>.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:derek prov:actedOnBehalfOf exc:chartgen .
+  exc:chartgen a prov:Agent ;
+               a prov:Organization ;
+               foaf:name "Chart Generators Inc" .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  agent(exc:chartgen,
+        [prov:type='prov:Organization',
+         foaf:name="Chart Generators Inc"])
+  actedOnBehalfOf(exc:derek, exc:chartgen)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="exc:chartgen"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Organization&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+      &lt;foaf:name&gt;Chart Generators Inc&lt;/foaf:name&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+    &lt;prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:delegate prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:responsible prov:ref="exc:chartgen"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    It would also be possible to express the more specific statement that Derek 
+    worked on the organization's behalf for a particular activity, rather than 
+    in general, and so may have acted on behalf of other organizations for other 
+    activities. See the PROV specifications for details on how to express 
+    activity-specific delegation.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Finally, there is an explicit statement in the provenance that the chart was
+    attributed to Derek.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:chart1 prov:wasAttributedTo exc:derek .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAttributedTo(exc:chart1, exc:derek)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+
+   <p>
+    We can extend our graphical depiction to show the agents, association and attribution links.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/agents.png" alt="Agents added to provenance graph and linked to entities and activities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="roles-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Roles</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    For Betty to understand where the error lies, she needs to have more detailed 
+    information on how entities have been used in and generated 
+    by activities.  Betty has determined that <code>exc:compose1</code> used 
+    entities <code>exc:regionList1</code> and <code>exg:dataset1</code>, but she does not 
+    know what function these entities played in the processing.  Betty 
+    also knows that <code>exc:derek</code> was associated with the activities, but she does 
+    not know if Derek was the analyst responsible for determining how the data 
+    should be composed.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    The above information is described as roles in the provenance. The composition
+    activity involved entities in four roles: the data to be composed (<code>exc:dataToCompose</code>),
+    the regions to aggregate by (<code>exc:regionsToAggregateBy</code>), the
+    resulting composed data (<code>exc:composedData</code>), and the
+    analyst doing the composition (<code>exc:analyst</code>).
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:dataToCompose        a prov:Role .
+  exc:regionsToAggregateBy a prov:Role .
+  exc:composedData         a prov:Role .
+  exc:analyst              a prov:Role .
+    </pre>
+    <p>
+     Examples in the sections above show descriptions of the simple facts that the
+     composition activity used, generated and was enacted by entities/agents.
+     For example, the usage of the data set by the compose activity is expressed
+     as follows.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:used exg:dataset1 .
+    </pre>
+    <p>     
+     The
+     provenance can contain more details of exactly how these entities and agents
+     were involved in the activity. 
+     To express this, PROV-O refers to <i>qualified usage</i>, <i>qualified generation</i>, etc.,
+     which are descriptions consisting of several statements about how usage, generation, etc. took place.
+     For example, we may describe the plan followed by an agent in performing an activity, or
+     the time at which an activity generated an entity, both illustrated later.
+     Another example of qualified involvement is the role an entity played in an activity.
+     The descriptions below state
+     that the composition activity (<code>exc:compose1</code>) included the usage
+     of the government data set (<code>exg:dataset1</code>) in the role of the data
+     to be composed (<code>exc:dataToCompose</code>).
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:qualifiedUsage [
+               a prov:Usage ;
+               prov:entity  exg:dataset1 ;
+               prov:hadRole exc:dataToCompose 
+     ] .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <p>
+     In PROV-N, the role is expressed as one of the list of attributes in the used
+     expression, with the attribute name <code>prov:role</code>.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(exc:compose1, exg:dataset1, -, [prov:role='exc:dataToCompose'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:dataToCompose&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    This can then be distinguished from the same activity's usage of the list of
+    regions because the roles played are different.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:qualifiedUsage [
+                  a prov:Usage ;
+                  prov:entity  exc:regionList1 ;
+                  prov:hadRole exc:regionsToAggregateBy
+     ] .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(exc:compose1, exc:regionList1, -, [prov:role='exc:regionsToAggregateBy'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:regionList1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:regionsToAggregateBy&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Similarly, the provenance includes descriptions that the same activity was
+    enacted in a particular way by Derek, so it indicates that he had the role of 
+    <code>exc:analyst</code>, and that the entity <code>exc:composition1</code> took the role of the composed
+    data in what the activity generated:
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:compose1 prov:qualifiedAssociation [
+                  a  prov:Association ;
+                  prov:agent    exc:derek ;
+                  prov:hadRole  exc:analyst
+  ] .
+  exc:composition1 prov:qualifiedGeneration [
+                      a prov:Generation ;
+                      prov:activity  exc:compose1 ;
+                      prov:hadRole   exc:composedData
+  ] .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(exc:compose1, exc:derek, -, [prov:role='exc:analyst'])
+  wasGeneratedBy(exc:composition1, exc:compose1, -, [prov:role='exc:composedData'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exc:derek"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:analyst&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:composition1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exc:compose1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;exc:composedData&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Depicting the above visually, we have the following.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/roles.png" alt="Provenance graph annotated with roles played by entities and agents">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="derivation-and-revision-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    After looking at the detail of the compilation activity, there appears
+    to be nothing wrong, so Betty concludes the error is in the government dataset. 
+    She looks at the dataset <code>exg:dataset1</code>, 
+    and sees that it is missing data from one of the zipcodes in the area.  She contacts
+    the government agency, and a new version of GovData is created, declared to be the
+    next revision of the data. The provenance of this new dataset,
+    <code>exg:dataset2</code>, states that it is a revision of the
+    old data set, <code>exg:dataset1</code>.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exg:dataset2 a prov:Entity ;
+               prov:wasRevisionOf exg:dataset1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(exg:dataset2)
+  wasDerivedFrom(exg:dataset2, exg:dataset1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;entity prov:id="dataSet2"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exg:dataset2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exg:dataset1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Derek notices that there is a new dataset available and creates a new chart based on the revised data, 
+    using another compilation activity. Betty checks the article again at a
+    later point, and wants to know if it is based on the old or new GovData.
+    She sees a new description stating that the new chart is derived from the new dataset
+    (the same relation could be expressed between the old chart and old dataset).
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
+             prov:wasDerivedFrom exg:dataset2 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasDerivedFrom(exc:chart2, exg:dataset2)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exc:chart2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exg:dataset2"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>and that the new chart is a revision of the original one:
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
+            prov:wasRevisionOf exc:chart1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(exc:chart2)
+  wasDerivedFrom(exc:chart2, exc:chart1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;entity prov:id="chart2"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exc:chart2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Derivation and revision are connections between entities, and so depicted
+    with arrows in our visualization.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/derivation.png" alt="Derivation and revision links between entities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="plans-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Plans</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Betty then wishes to know whether the new data set correctly addresses
+    the error that existed before. The provenance of the new dataset,
+    <code>exg:dataset2</code>, describes not only who performed the corrections,
+    Edith, but also what instructions she followed in doing so (in PROV terms, the plan).
+    First, the correction activity (<code>exg:correct1</code>), the person who corrected
+    it, Edith (<code>exg:edith</code>), and the correction instructions (<code>exg:instructions</code>)
+    are described.
+   </p><div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exg:correct1     a prov:Activity .
+  exg:edith        a prov:Agent, prov:Person .
+  exg:instructions a prov:Plan .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(exg:correct1)
+  agent(exg:edith, [prov:type='prov:Person'])
+  entity(exg:instructions)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exg:correct1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="exg:edith"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exg:instructions"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Plan&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <p>
+     The connection between them is expressed in PROV-O using a qualified association giving details of
+     how Edith was associated with the correction activity,
+     including that she followed the above correction instructions.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exg:correct1 prov:qualifiedAssociation [
+                 a Association ;
+                 prov:agent   exg:edith ;
+                 prov:hadPlan exg:instructions
+  ] .
+  exg:dataset2 prov:wasGeneratedBy exg:correct1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <p>
+     In PROV-N, the plan is an optional parameter to wasAssociatedWith descriptions.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(exg:correct1, exg:edith, exg:instructions)
+  wasGeneratedBy(exg:dataset2, exg:correct1, -)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <p>
+     In PROV-XML, the plan is an optional child of the wasAssociatedWith element.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exg:correct1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="exg:edith"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:plan prov:ref="exg:instructions"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exg:dataset2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="exg:correct1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Plans are additional information about the connection from an activity to
+    an agent, and so, in our visualization, connect to the link between them.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/plans.png" alt="Annotaion of example provenance graph with plan followed">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="time-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Time</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    The government agency that produced GovData is concerned to know how long
+    the incorrect chart was in circulation before the corrected chart was created.
+    That is, they wish to compare the times at which the original and the corrected
+    charts were generated. The snippet below shows that the second chart
+    was generated roughly a month after the first.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exc:chart1 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-03-02T10:30:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+  exc:chart2 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasGeneratedBy(exc:chart1, exc:compile1,  2012-03-02T10:30:00)
+  wasGeneratedBy(exc:chart2, exc:compile2, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-03-02T10:30:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="exc:chart2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-04-01T15:21:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+
+   <p>
+    To ensure their procedures are efficient, the agency also wishes to know how long the
+    corrections took once the error was discovered. That is, they wish to know the
+    start and end times of the correction activity (<code>exg:correct1</code>).
+    These details are expressed as follows, showing that the corrections took a
+    little over a day.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exg:correct1 prov:startedAtTime "2012-03-31T09:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
+               prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(exg:correct1, 2012-03-31T09:21:00, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="exg:correct1"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2012-03-31T09:21:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
+      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2012-04-01T15:21:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Time is visualized as additional information regarding activities or the
+    links between activities and entities or agents.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/time.png" alt="Annotation of provenance graph with example timestamps">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="alternate-entities-and-specialization-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Before noticing anything wrong with the government data, Betty had already
+    posted a blog entry about the article. The blog entry had its own published
+    provenance. In particular, it contains some text copied from the article, and the
+    provenance states that this text (<code>exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326</code>) is quoted
+    from the article.  Note the namespace prefix (<code>exb</code>) used for the blog.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326 a prov:Entity ;
+                                prov:value "Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones" ;
+                                prov:wasQuotedFrom exn:article .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326, prov:value="Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones")
+  wasDerivedFrom(exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326, exn:article, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exb:BlogEntry-20130326"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:value&gt;Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones&lt;/prov:value&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="exb:quoteInBlogEntry-20130326"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="exn:article"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Quotation&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    The newspaper, from past experience, anticipated that there could be revisions
+    to the article, and so created identifiers for both the article in general
+    (<code>exn:article</code>) as a URI that got redirected to the first version of the article (<code>exn:articleV1</code>),
+    allowing both to be referred to as entities in provenance data. 
+    In the provenance records, the newspaper describes the connection between the two: that
+    the first version of the article is a specialization of the article in general.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exn:articleV1 a prov:Entity ;
+               prov:specializationOf exn:article .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(exn:articleV1)
+  specializationOf(exn:articleV1, exn:article)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="exn:articleV1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="exn:articleV1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="exn:article"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Later, after the data set is corrected and the new chart generated, a new version
+    of the article is created, <code>exn:articleV2</code>, with its own URI where the article
+    is redirected to.  To ensure that those
+    consulting the provenance of <code>exn:articleV2</code> understand that it
+    is connected with the provenance of <code>exn:article</code> and <code>exn:articleV1</code>,
+    the newspaper describes how these entities are related.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'turtle example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  exn:articleV2 prov:specializationOf exn:article .
+  exn:articleV2 prov:alternateOf      exn:articleV1 
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provn example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  specializationOf(exn:articleV2, exn:article)
+  alternateOf(exn:articleV2, exn:articleV1)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+    set_display_by_class('pre', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_class('div', 'provxml example', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples', 'none');
+    set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples', '');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="exn:articleV2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="exn:article"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;
+    &lt;prov:alternateOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:alternate1 prov:ref="exn:articleV1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:alternate2 prov:ref="exn:articleV2"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:alternateOf&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Note that above we could have also
+    stated that <code>exn:articleV2</code> was a revision of <code>exn:articleV1</code>,
+    as we did between <code>exc:chart2</code> and <code>exc:chart1</code>,
+    which would describe more concretely how the alternate entities are related.
+    Specialization and alternate relations connect entities, and so are visualized
+    as links between them.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/specialization.png" alt="Specialization and alternate links between entities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="the-complete-example">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.10 </span>The Complete Example</h3>
+   <p>
+    The full set of examples shown above are available in <a href="primer-turtle-examples.ttl">PROV-O Turtle format</a>
+    or <a href="primer-provn-examples.provn">PROV-N format</a> or <a href="primer-prov-xml-examples.xml">PROV-XML format</a>.
+    We visualize the whole example below.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/everything.png" alt="Provenance graph for whole example">
+  </section>
+ </section>
+ <section id="summary">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Summary</h2>
+  <p>The examples in the previous section highlight the following important capabilities of PROV:
+  </p>
+  <ol>
+   <li><b>Representing diverse entities involved in provenance</b>.  
+    The examples illustrate that provenance records can contain different 
+    kinds of information:
+    <ul>
+     <li>The newspaper took an object-centered view on their provenance statements, 
+      stating what objects were derived from others but not stating what processes 
+      were used or what entities were involved.</li>
+     <li>Betty the blogger took a very agent-centered view on provenance.  
+      She chose to associate her blog post with herself, the government agency 
+      that published the data, and the newspaper that published the article.</li>
+     <li>Derek took a process-centered perspective and combined it with object-centered 
+      and agent-centered provenance information. The processes followed to derive the 
+      charts from the government datasets were clearly.  All intermediate and final 
+      documents were stated.  His involvement in the various activities was clearly 
+      recorded, and the resulting documents were attributed to him.</li>
+    </ul></li>
+   <li><b>Stating partial or incomplete provenance</b>.  The newspaper omitted 
+    information about their specific editorial processes in publishing articles.  
+    The chart generator said nothing about the software used, therefore omitting 
+    information about other agents involved in the processes.</li>
+   <li><b>Integrating provenance-related information represented in other vocabularies</b>.  
+    The FOAF vocabulary was used for specifying details about Derek and his company.  
+    The Dublin Core vocabulary was used for specifying the article title. </li>
+   <li><b>Combining distributed provenance records provided by different parties</b>.  
+    The provenance records described in this example came from a government source, 
+    a newspaper, a company, and a blogger.  Using URIs and namespaces, a provenance 
+    record can draw from multiple sources on the Web.</li>
+   <li><b>Describing the commonalities in the derivation of two entities</b>.  
+    The two versions of the charts were both derived through a similar compile activity.</li>
+   <li><b>Relating versions of objects over time</b>.  
+    The second dataset was described as a revision of the first one.</li>
+   <li><b>Stating the provenance of provenance assertions</b>.  
+    Betty could create a provenance record for her blog post, and 
+    then assert the provenance of that provenance record.</li>
+   <li><b>Enabling alternative accounts for the provenance of an entity</b>.  
+    The blog post could have a provenance account from Betty as its author and another 
+    one from the newspaper that the blog quoted from.</li>
+   <li><b>Supporting queries over provenance of different granularity</b>.   
+    The activity of composing the data from different regions was described 
+    in greater detail than the other steps to produce the chart.  
+    The provenance of the chart has much finer-grained detail than 
+    the provenance of the government dataset.</li>
+   <li><b>Supporting reasoning and inference over provenance records</b>.   
+    The provenance assertions explicitly stated above can be used to infer 
+    additional assertions that are true according to the PROV model.  
+    For example, because Derek created the chart acting on behalf of Chart 
+    Generators, a PROV inference may be that the chart can be attributed to Chart Generators.</li>
+  </ol>
+  <p>The examples also illustrate how PROV enables many uses of provenance, 
+   such as checking for possible errors, tracking down parties responsible for 
+   fixing them, repeating processes to re-generate datasets, relating versions of 
+   documents over time, and inspecting sources and attribution.
+  </p>
+
+  <p>There are additional aspects of the PROV data model that we have not covered 
+    in this primer and that are important in many uses of provenance. These include
+    the following.
+   </p>
+   <ol>
+    <li><b>Provenance of provenance</b>:  
+     It is often useful to state the provenance of a provenance record.  
+     To enable this, PROV allows the grouping of provenance assertions as a <i>bundle</i>.
+     A bundle is a type of entity, and therefore its provenance can be asserted in turn.
+     For example, supposed that Betty wanted to express in the provenance of her blog 
+     entry that she personally checked her sources.  She would want to state the 
+     provenance of her blog entry, and then state that she stands by that provenance.  
+     To do this, she would create a bundle that contains provenance assertions for 
+     her blog entry, and then she would state that she was the creator of that bundle.  </li>
+    <li><b>Collections of entities</b>:
+     A <i>collection</i> in PROV is a type of entity that has other entities as members.
+     For example, Derek could decide to create several types of charts using dataset2.  
+     He would describe all the charts as a collection, and then state the provenance of 
+     the collection to be a single step that generates all the charts. </li>
+   </ol>
+   <p>
+    Please see the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] specification for details on these
+    and other concepts.
+   </p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix" id="acknowledgements">
+ <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+ <p> 
+  This  document has been produced by the Provenance Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>) and Ivan Herman (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>), <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> contacts for the Provenance Working Group.
+ </p> 
+ <p>
+  The editors acknowledge valuable contributions from the following:
+  Tom Baker,
+  David Booth,
+  Bob DuCharme,
+  Robert Freimuth,
+  Satrajit Ghosh,
+  Ralph Hodgson,
+  Renato Iannella,
+  Jacek Kopecky,
+  James Leigh,
+  Chuck Morris,
+  Jacco van Ossenbruggen,
+  Alan Ruttenberg,
+  Reza Samavi, and
+  Antoine Zimmermann.
+ </p>
+ <p>
+  Members of the Provenance Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
+
+  Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
+  Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
+  Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
+  James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
+  Sam Coppens (iMinds - Ghent University),
+  David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+  Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
+  Tom De Nies (iMinds - Ghent University),
+  Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
+  Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
+  Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+  Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
+  Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
+  James Frew (Invited expert),
+  Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+  Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politcnica de Madrid),
+  Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
+  Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
+  Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
+  Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
+  David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
+  Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>),
+  Jrn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
+  Ivan Herman, (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>),
+  Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
+  Hook Hua (Invited expert),
+  Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
+  Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
+  Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
+  Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+  James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+  Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+  Simon Miles (Invited expert),
+  Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university),
+  Luc Moreau (University of Southampton),
+  James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+  Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University),
+  Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+  Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+  Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium),
+  Adam Retter (Invited Expert),
+  Christine Runnegar (Invited expert),
+  Satya Sahoo (Invited expert),
+  David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.),
+  Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium),
+  Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert),
+  Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester),
+  Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory),
+  Linda Stewart (The National Archives),
+  Ed Summers (Library of Congress),
+  Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+  Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.),
+  Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration),
+  Craig Trim (IBM Corporation),
+  Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+  Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
+  Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
+</p></section>
+
+<section class="appendix" id="changes-since-fourth-public-working-draft"> 
+ <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</h2> 
+ <ul>
+  <li>Corrected XML example for activities</li>
+  <li>Clarified usage of adoptedOnBehalfOf relation</li>
+  <li>Clarified wasQuotedFrom example</li>
+  <li>Adapted PROV-XML examples to clarify they are not RDF/XML</li>
+  <li>Clarified varying sources of example provenance data with different namespace prefixes,
+   and in division of complete example provenance graph</li>
+  <li>Used instance-specific identifiers for entities, activities and agents</li>
+  <li>Added section summarising some additional aspects of PROV not covered in depth</li>
+  <li>Added summary section</li>
+  <li>Added proper acknowledgements</li>
+  <li>Clarified the introduction regarding what is in each section.</li>
+  <li>Added references for FOAF, Dublin Core and newer PROV documents.</li>
+  <li>Typos fixed and minor clarifications throughout</li>
+ </ul>
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-DCTERMS">[DCTERMS]</dt><dd>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/2012/06/14/dcmi-terms/"><cite>DCMI Metadata Terms</cite></a>. 14 June 2012. URL: <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/2012/06/14/dcmi-terms/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2012/06/14/dcmi-terms/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-FOAF">[FOAF]</dt><dd>Dan Brickley, Libby Miller; eds. <a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html"><cite>FOAF Vocabulary Specification 0.98</cite></a>. 9 August 2010. URL: <a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html">http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-aq-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-constraints-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DC">[PROV-DC]</dt><dd>Daniel Garijo; Kai Eckert; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/"><cite>Dublin Core to PROV Mapping</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dc-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">[PROV-DICTIONARY]</dt><dd>Tom De Nies; Sam Coppens; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/"><cite>PROV Dictionary: Modeling Provenance for Dictionary Data Structures</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-dictionary-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-dm-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-LINKS">[PROV-LINKS]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Timothy Lebo; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/"><cite>Linking Across Provenance Bundles</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-links-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-overview-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-SEM">[PROV-SEM]</dt><dd>James Cheney; ed. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430"><cite>Semantics of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. 30 April 2013, W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROVENANCE-XG">[PROVENANCE-XG]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil, James Cheney, Paul Groth, Olaf Hartig, Simon Miles, Luc Moreau, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva. <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/"><cite>Provenance XG Final Report</cite></a>. 8 December 2010. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd>Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/"><cite>Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language</cite></a>. 9 August 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/</a>
 </dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
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