prov-dm LC release
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Fri, 13 Jul 2012 11:05:53 +0100
changeset 4043 dcbf3c1387ec
parent 4042 098b336e0d81
child 4044 a860a5695e20
prov-dm LC release
model/diff-n.html
model/diff.html
--- a/model/diff-n.html	Fri Jul 13 11:00:39 2012 +0100
+++ b/model/diff-n.html	Fri Jul 13 11:05:53 2012 +0100
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
 
     <style type="text/css">
       .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
+     <span class="insert">
 table.thinborder {
 	border-width: 1px;
 	border-spacing: 0px;
@@ -35,7 +36,16 @@
 	border-color: gray;
 	-moz-border-radius: ;
 }
-</style>
+</span></style>
+
+     
+     
+    
+
+    
+
+     
+  
 
     
 
@@ -358,6 +368,10 @@
     margin-bottom:  0;
 }
 
+
+
+
+
 /* --- EXAMPLES --- */
 pre.example {
     border-top: 1px solid #ff4500;
@@ -516,8 +530,760 @@
 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_paren { color: red; }
 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }
 
-</style><link href="./extra.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
-  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</h1><h2 id="subtitle">Final review before Last Call Vote (<a href="diff-n.html">Diffs since last release</a>)</h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-10-july-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Editor's Draft <span class="delete">29 June</span><span class="insert">10 July</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+
+
+
+</style><style type="text/css">
+/* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
+.pending {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #BFEFFF;
+}
+
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+    content:    "Pending Review";
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+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #9BCD9B;
+}
+
+.resolved::before {
+    content:    "Resolved";
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+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
+.inference {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+<span class="insert">/* </span>.inference[id]::before {
+    <span class="insert"> */
+/*     </span>content:    "Inference:<span class="insert"> " attr(id); */
+/*     width:  380px;  /\* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) *\/ */
+/* } */
+
+
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+/*     display:    block; */
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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+    background: #fff;
+}
+
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+    content:    "Syntax:</span> " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+<span class="delete">.inference::before</span><span class="insert">.syntax::before</span> {
+    content:    <span class="delete">"Inference";</span><span class="insert">"Syntax";</span>
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
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+}
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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+}<span class="delete">
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+
+
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
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+}
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
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+}
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+/*     content:    "Constraint: " attr(id); */
+/*     width:  380px;  /\* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) *\/ */
+/* } */
+
+
+/* .constraint::before { */
+/*     content:    "Constraint"; */
+/*     display:    block; */
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+/*     font-weight:    bold; */
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+
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+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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+}
+
+.interpretation[id]::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation:</span> " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of <span class="delete">"Constraint:</span><span class="insert">"Interpretation:</span> " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+<span class="delete">.syntax::before</span><span class="insert">.interpretation::before</span> {
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+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid <span class="delete">#f00;</span><span class="insert">#00f;</span>
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid <span class="delete">#00f;</span><span class="insert">#777;</span>
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+    <span class="insert"> */
+/*     </span>font-weight:    bold;
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+/*     </span>border: 1px solid <span class="delete">#00f;
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+    <span class="insert"> */
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+}
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+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of <span class="delete">"Constraint:</span><span class="insert">"Deprecatedconstraint:</span> " attr(id) */
+}
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+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+.xmpl</span> {
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+    background: #fff;
+}
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+    font-family: monospace;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Interpretation: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
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+    content:    "Interpretation";
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+}
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+    border: 1px solid #777;
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+}
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+    width:  380px; 
+}
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+
+.definition::before {
+    content:    "Definition";
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+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;</span><span class="insert">"Structural constraint: ";</span>
+    font-weight:    bold;<span class="delete">
+    border: 1px solid #000;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;</span>
+}
+
+
+<span class="delete">.deprecatedconstraint</span><span class="insert">code</span> {
+    <span class="delete">padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;</span><span class="insert">color:  black;</span>
+}
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+    <span class="delete">content:    "Deprecated: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Deprecatedconstraint: " attr(id) */</span><span class="insert">font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;</span>
+}<span class="delete">
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+    border: 1px solid #f00;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+    font-family: monospace;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+    font-family: monospace;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
+
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+.structural-forward::before {
+    content:    "Structural constraint: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+
+
+</span>
+
+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</h1>
+<h2 id="w3c-working-draft-24-july-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Working Draft <span class="delete">03 May</span><span class="insert">24 July</span> 2012</h2>
+<dl><dt>This<span class="insert"> version:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120724/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120724/</span></a></dd><dt><span class="insert">Latest published version:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span></a></dd><dt><span class="insert">Latest editor's draft:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span></a></dd><dt><span class="insert">Previous</span> version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-n-20120503/</a></dd>
+<span class="delete">Latest published version:</span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span>
+<span class="delete">Latest editor's draft:</span><span class="delete">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-n.html</span>
+<dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
 <dt><span class="insert">Authors:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/"><span class="insert">James Cheney</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Edinburgh</span></dd>
 <dd><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/"><span class="insert">Stian Soiland-Reyes</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Manchester</span></dd>
@@ -525,39 +1291,42 @@
 
     <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
 
+
 <p>
-Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
-involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
+<span class="delete">PROV-DM, the PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of</span> data <span class="delete">model,</span><span class="insert">or thing, which can be used
  to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
-PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>
-provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
+PROV-DM</span> is <span class="insert">the conceptual data model that forms </span>a <span class="delete">data model</span><span class="insert">basis</span> for <span class="insert">the </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym>
+provenance <span class="delete">that describes
+the entities, people and activities involved in
+producing a piece</span><span class="insert">(PROV) family</span> of <span class="delete">data or thing.</span><span class="insert">specifications.
 PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
-extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
-PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance.</span> 
+PROV-DM is <span class="delete">structured</span><span class="insert">organized</span> in six components,<span class="insert"> respectively</span> dealing with: 
 (1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-(2) derivations of entities from entities;
-(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
-(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
-(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+(2) <span class="insert">derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) </span>agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+<span class="delete">(3) derivations</span><span class="insert">(4) a notion</span> of <span class="insert">bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
+(5) properties to link </span>entities <span class="delete">from entities;
+(4) properties</span><span class="insert">that refer</span> to <span class="delete">link entities that refer to </span>the same thing;
+<span class="delete">(5)</span><span class="insert">(6)</span> collections forming a logical structure for its <span class="delete">members;
+(6) a simple annotation mechanism.</span><span class="insert">members.</span>
 </p>
+
 <p>To provide examples of the PROV data model, the PROV notation (PROV-N) is introduced: aimed at human consumption, PROV-N allows serializations of PROV
 instances to be created in a compact manner. PROV-N facilitates the
 mapping of the PROV data model to concrete syntax, and is used as the basis for a
 formal semantics of PROV.  The purpose of this document is to define the PROV-N notation.
 </p>
     </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
-<h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
-<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
-Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
-the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external <span class="delete">review, before the implementation phase.</span><span class="insert">review.</span></p>
-
-<p>This specification identifies one  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">feature at risk</a>:<span class="insert"> the expression</span> <a href="#expression-mention">Mention</a> might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
-
-<h4 id="please-comment-by--2012-09-13--tbc">Please Comment By  2012-09-13 (TBC)</h4>
-<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
-The end date of the Last Call review period is <b>2012-09-13 (TBC)</b>, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
-</p>
+<h4 id="last-call"><span class="insert">Last Call</span></h4>
+<p><span class="insert">
+Publication as Last Call Working Draft means that 
+the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review.</span></p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">This specification identifies one  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi"><span class="insert">feature at risk</span></a><span class="insert">: the expression Mention </span><a href="#expression-mention"><span class="insert">(section 3.5.3)</span></a><span class="insert"> might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span></p>
+
+
 
 <h4 id="prov-family-of-specifications">PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
 This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
@@ -585,7 +1354,24 @@
 <li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
 should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  <span class="delete">PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML</span><span class="insert">PROV-O and PROV-N</span> offer examples of mapping to <span class="delete">RDF,</span><span class="insert">RDF and</span> text,<span class="delete"> and XML,</span> respectively.</li>
 </ul>
-<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#purpose" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Purpose of this Document and <span class="delete">target audience</span><span class="insert">Target Audience</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notational-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>General grammar considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#functional-syntax" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#grammar-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#main-productions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Main Productions</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-optionals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3</span><span class="insert">2.4</span> </span>Optional terms in expressions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-standard-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#comments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.5</span><span class="insert">2.6</span> </span>Comments</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-expressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-wasInformedBy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#Derivation-Relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-original-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-bundle-constructor" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">Constructor</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Alternate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span>Mention</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#subexpressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Expressions</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Attribute</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Literal</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-types" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3.1 </span>Reserved Type Values</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.3.2 </span>Time Values</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#toplevelBundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Toplevel Bundle</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5. </span></span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#media-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">5.</span><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>Media Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">First Public Working Draft</span>
+ 
+<p>This <span class="delete">is the first public release of the PROV-N
+document. Following feedback, the Working Group has decided to
+reorganize the PROV-DM document substantially, separating the data model,
+from its constraints, and the notation used to illustrate it. The
+PROV-N release is synchronized with the release of the PROV-DM, PROV-O,
+PROV-PRIMER, and PROV-CONSTRAINTS documents.
+</span><span class="delete">This </span>document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a <span class="delete">First Public</span><span class="insert">Last Call</span> Working Draft. This document is intended to become a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <span class="delete">[email protected]</span><a href="mailto:[email protected]"><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="insert"> The Last Call period ends 18 September 2012.</span> All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p><span class="insert">This is a Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this document has satisfied the relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to advance through the Technical Recommendation process.</span></p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#purpose" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Purpose of this Document and <span class="delete">target audience</span><span class="insert">Target Audience</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notational-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>General grammar considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#functional-syntax" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Functional-style Syntax</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#grammar-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>EBNF Grammar</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#main-productions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Main Productions</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-optionals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3</span><span class="insert">2.4</span> </span>Optional terms in expressions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-standard-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#comments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.6 </span></span><span class="insert">Comments</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-n-expressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-wasInformedBy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.1.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.5</span><span class="insert">3.1.6</span> </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.6</span><span class="insert">3.1.7</span> </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.7</span><span class="insert">3.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation<span class="delete">3.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span><span class="delete">3.1.9 </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: <span class="delete">Agents and Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Derivations</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#Derivation-Relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span><span class="delete">Agent</span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span><span class="delete">Attribution</span><span class="insert">Revision</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span><span class="delete">Association</span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: <span class="delete">Derivations</span><span class="insert">Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span><span class="insert">Association</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span><span class="delete">Trace</span><span class="insert">Influence</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: <span class="delete">Alternate Entities</span><span class="insert">Bundles</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-bundle-constructor" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span><span class="delete">Alternate</span><span class="insert">Bundle Constructor</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-bundle-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4.2 </span><span class="delete">Specialization</span><span class="insert">Bundle Type</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: <span class="delete">Collections</span><span class="insert">Alternate Entities</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Insertion</span><span class="insert">Alternate</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Removal</span><span class="insert">Specialization</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span><span class="insert">Mention</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: <span class="delete">Annotations</span><span class="insert">Collections</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Note</span><span class="insert">Collection</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.2 </span><span class="delete">Annotation</span><span class="insert">Membership</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#subexpressions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Further Expressions</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 <span class="delete">Namespace Declaration</span><span class="delete">3.7.2</span> </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.3</span><span class="insert">3.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-literal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4</span><span class="insert">3.7.3</span> </span>Literal</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-types" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.1</span> </span>Reserved Type Values</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-Time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.2</span> </span>Time Values</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.7.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespace Declaration</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#semantic-rules-summary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.7.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Summary of additional semantic rules</span></a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#toplevelBundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span><span class="delete">Expression Container</span><span class="insert">Toplevel Bundle</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span><span class="delete">Account</span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#media-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Media Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
+
+
+
+
+
+ 
 
 
 
@@ -597,7 +1383,7 @@
 <div id="introduction" class="section"> 
 <h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
 
-<p> Provenance is a record that describes the people,
+<p> Provenance is<span class="delete"> defined as</span> a record that describes the people,
 institutions, entities, and activities, involved in producing,
 influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing in the world.  Two
 companion specifications respectively define PROV-DM, a data model for
@@ -611,7 +1397,7 @@
 
 
 
-With these two requirements in mind, this document introduces PROV-N, a syntax notation designed to  write instances of the PROV data model according to the following design principles:
+With these two requirements in mind, this document introduces PROV-N, <span class="insert">the PROV notation, </span>a syntax<span class="delete"> notation</span> designed to  write instances of the PROV data model according to the following design principles:
 <ul>
 <li>Technology independence. PROV-N provides a simple syntax that can be mapped to several technologies.
 
@@ -631,8 +1417,8 @@
 <p>This document introduces the PROV-N grammar along with examples of its usage.</p>
 <p>Its target audience is twofold:
 </p><ul>
-<li>Developers of provenance management applications, as well as implementors of new PROV data model encodings, and thus in particular of PROV-N parsers. These readers may be interested in the entire structure of the grammar, starting from the top level nonterminal 
-<code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">bundle</a></code>.</li>
+<li>Developers of provenance management applications, as well as implementors of new PROV data model encodings, and thus in particular of PROV-N parsers. These readers may be interested in the entire structure of the grammar, starting from the top level nonterminal <span class="delete">container</span> 
+<code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></a></code>.</li>
 <li>Readers of the  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and of  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] documents, who are interested in the details of the formal language underpinning the notation used in the examples and in the definition of the constraints. Those readers may find the  <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></code> nonterminal a useful entry point into the grammar.</li>
 </ul>
 
@@ -641,20 +1427,23 @@
     <div id="structure-of-this-document" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</h3>
 
-<p>This document <span class="insert">is </span>structured as follows.
-
-</p><p><a href="#general-conventions">Section 2</a> provides general consideration about the PROV-N grammar.</p>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-n-expressions">Section 3</a> presents the grammar of all expressions of the language grouped according to the PROV data model components.</p>
-
-<p><a href="#toplevelBundle">Section 4</a> defines the grammar of toplevel bundles, a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N expressions and namespace declarations.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><a href="#extensibility"><span class="insert">Section 5</span></a><span class="insert"> defines the extensibility mechanism for the PROV-N notation.</span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#media-type">Section <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">6</span></a> defines media type for the PROV-N notation.</p>
+<p>This document <span class="delete">defines a grammar using the Extended  Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation. Its productions correspond to PROV data model types and relations.
+</span><span class="insert">is structured as follows.
+
+</span></p><span class="delete">
+It is structured as follows.
+
+</span><p><a href="#general-conventions">Section 2</a> provides <span class="delete">the design rationale for the PROV Notation.</span>
+
+<span class="delete">Section 3</span><span class="delete"> defines the notation for the Extended  Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) grammar used in this specification.</span><span class="insert">general consideration about the PROV-N grammar.</span></p>
+
+<p><a href="#prov-n-expressions">Section <span class="delete">4</span><span class="insert">3</span></a> presents the grammar of all expressions of the language grouped according to the PROV data model components.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#toplevelBundle">Section <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">4</span></a> defines the grammar of <span class="delete">containers,</span><span class="insert">toplevel bundles,</span> a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N expressions and namespace declarations.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#extensibility">Section <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">5</span></a> defines the <span class="delete">grammar of accounts.</span><span class="insert">extensibility mechanism for the PROV-N notation.</span></p>
+
+<p><a href="#media-type">Section <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">6</span></a> defines media type for the PROV-N notation.</p>
 
 
     </div> 
@@ -680,9 +1469,10 @@
 </p><div style="text-align: left;">
 <table border="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
 <caption id="namespace-table">Table 1: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri </b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see Section <a href="#expression-NamespaceDeclaration"><span class="delete">4.7.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.4</span></a>)</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><span class="delete">]</span>
+<span class="delete">rdf</span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</span><span class="delete">The RDF namespace  [</span><span class="delete">RDF-CONCEPTS</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite>]</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent URI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>]</td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
@@ -716,16 +1506,20 @@
 
 <p>
 All PROV data model relations involve two primary elements, the <em>subject</em> and the <em>object</em>, in this order. Furthermore, some expressions also admit additional elements that further characterize it.
-</p><div class="anexample" id="example_3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3">Example <span class="delete">1</span><span class="insert">3</span></a></div>
+</p>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3"><span class="insert">Example 3</span></a></div>
 <p>The following expression should be read as "<span class="name">e2</span> was derived from <span class="name">e1</span>". Here <span class="name">e2</span> is the subject, and  <span class="name">e1</span> is the object.
 </p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 </pre>
   </div>
   
-<div class="anexample" id="example_4"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4">Example <span class="delete">2</span><span class="insert">4</span></a></div>
-<span class="delete">In the</span><p><span class="insert">The</span> following <span class="delete">expressions,</span><span class="insert">expression expands the above derivation relation by providing
-additional elements</span> the optional activity <span class="name">a</span><span class="delete"> along with</span><span class="insert">,</span> the generation<span class="delete"> and usage identifiers</span> <span class="name">g2</span><span class="insert">,</span> and<span class="insert"> the usage</span> <span class="name">u1</span>:
-</p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+<span class="delete">
+In the</span><div class="anexample" id="example_4"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4"><span class="insert">Example 4</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">The</span> following <span class="delete">expressions,</span><span class="insert">expression expands the above derivation relation by providing
+additional elements</span> the optional activity <span class="name">a</span><span class="delete"> along with</span><span class="insert">,</span> the generation <span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert">, </span>and <span class="insert">the </span>usage <span class="delete">identifiers, and timestamps have been added to further qualify the derivation:
+</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">:
+</span></p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)<span class="delete">
+activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)</span>
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -777,22 +1571,25 @@
 </p><ul>
 <li> 
 <span class="delete">E</span> 
- <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>: matches <span class="delete">term satisfying rule</span><span class="insert">production</span> for <span class="insert">nonterminal </span>symbol <span class="delete">E.</span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>
-</li>
-
-
-<li> 
- <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code><span class="insert">: matches production for terminal symbol </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code>
-</li>
-
-<li> 
-<span class="delete">abc</span> 
- <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">"abc"</span></code>: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>: matches <span class="delete">term satisfying rule</span><span class="insert">production</span> for <span class="insert">nonterminal </span>symbol <span class="delete">E.
+</span>
+
+ 
+<span class="delete">abc</span><span class="delete">: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.</span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">expr</span></code>
 </li>
 
 
 <li> 
  
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code><span class="insert">: matches production for terminal symbol </span><code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">TERMINAL</span></code>
+</li>
+
+<li> 
+ <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">"abc"</span></code><span class="insert">: matches the literal string inside the single quotes.
+</span></li>
+
+
+<li> 
  <code class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">(term)?</span></code><span class="insert">: optional, matches </span><em>term</em><span class="delete">: optional </span><span class="delete">term</span><span class="delete">, matches </span><span class="delete">term</span> or nothing.
 </li>
 
@@ -824,41 +1621,70 @@
 
 <p><span class="insert">Two productions are entry points to the grammar.</span></p>
 
-<p>The <span class="delete">grammar is centered on nonterminals for various types of </span><span class="insert">production </span><code class="grammarRef"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a><span class="delete">. The main production is introduced here below as it reflects the rationale</span></code><span class="insert">
-provides the structure</span> for the <span class="delete">design</span><em><span class="insert">core expressions</span></em> of <span class="delete">the entire grammar. Note that parser developers may use the top level
-</span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete">  nonterminal as a starting point instead.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</span><span class="insert">PROV-N. 
+<p>The <span class="delete">grammar</span><span class="insert">production </span><code class="grammarRef"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code><span class="insert">
+provides the structure for the </span><em><span class="insert">core expressions</span></em><span class="insert"> of PROV-N. 
 
 
 
 
 </span></p><table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-expression" name="prod-expression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">2</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">expression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-communicationExpression">communicationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agentExpression">agentExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributionExpression">attributionExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-delegationExpression">delegationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression">derivationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-influenceExpression">influenceExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-alternateExpression">alternateExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-specializationExpression">specializationExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-mentionExpression">mentionExpression</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-membershipExpression">membershipExpression</a></span> <span class="insert">| </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-insertionExpression"><span class="insert">insertionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-removalExpression"><span class="insert">removalExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-dictMembershipExpression"><span class="insert">dictMembershipExpression</span></a></span> )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-expression" name="prod-expression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">2</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">expression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression"><span class="insert">activityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression"><span class="insert">generationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression"><span class="insert">usageExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression"><span class="insert">startExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression"><span class="insert">endExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression"><span class="insert">invalidationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-communicationExpression"><span class="insert">communicationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agentExpression"><span class="insert">agentExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression"><span class="insert">associationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributionExpression"><span class="insert">attributionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-delegationExpression"><span class="insert">delegationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression"><span class="insert">derivationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-influenceExpression"><span class="insert">influenceExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-alternateExpression"><span class="insert">alternateExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-specializationExpression"><span class="insert">specializationExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-mentionExpression"><span class="insert">mentionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-membershipExpression"><span class="insert">membershipExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-insertionExpression"><span class="insert">insertionExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-removalExpression"><span class="insert">removalExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-dictMembershipExpression"><span class="insert">dictMembershipExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>Each <span class="insert">of the symbols included in </span><code>expression<span class="delete"> non-terminal </span></code><span class="insert"> above, i.e., </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert">,  </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression"><span class="insert">activityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> etc., corresponds to one concept (e.g., Entity, Activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">Each of the symbols included in </span><code><span class="insert">expression</span></code><span class="insert"> above, i.e., </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert">,  </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-activityExpression"><span class="insert">activityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> etc., corresponds to one concept (e.g., Entity, Activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.</span></p>
 
 
 <p><span class="insert">Alternatively,  the production rule </span><code><a href="#prod-bundle"><span class="grammarRef"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span></a></code><span class="insert">
-provides the overall structure of PROV-N descriptions.  It is a wrapper  for
- a set of expressions, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a><span class="delete">, i.e., </span><span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete">,</span></code><span class="insert"> production,</span>  <span class="delete">activityExpression</span><span class="delete"> etc., corresponds to one element (entity, activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
-</span><span class="delete">A PROV-N document consists of a collection of </span><span class="delete">expressions</span><span class="delete">, wrapped in a </span><span class="delete">toplevel bundle</span><span class="delete"> with</span><span class="insert">and</span> some namespace <span class="delete">declarations, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete"> production of the grammar.</span><span class="insert">declarations.</span></p>
+provides the overall structure of PROV-N descriptions.  It</span> is <span class="delete">centered on nonterminals </span><span class="insert">a wrapper  </span>for<span class="delete"> various types</span><span class="insert">
+ a set</span> of <span class="insert">expressions, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression<span class="delete">. The main production is introduced here below as it reflects the rationale for the design of the entire grammar. Note that parser developers may use the top level </span><span class="delete">container</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production,</span>  <span class="delete">nonterminal as a starting point instead.
+
+</span>
+
+<span class="delete">expression</span> 
+<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>
+
+<span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">activityExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">generationExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">usageExpression</span> 
+<span class="delete">
+&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">startExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">endExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">invalidationExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">communicationExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">startByActivityExpression</span> 
+<span class="delete">
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">agentExpression</span><span class="delete">
+| </span><span class="delete">attributionExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">associationExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">responsibilityExpression</span> 
+<span class="delete">
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">derivationExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">revisionExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">quotationExpression</span> <span class="delete">
+&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSourceExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">traceExpression</span> 
+<span class="delete">
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">alternateExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">specializationExpression</span>
+<span class="delete">
+
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;| </span><span class="delete">noteExpression</span><span class="delete"> 
+| </span><span class="delete">annotationExpression</span> 
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">
+
+Each expression non-terminal </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">, i.e.,  </span><span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">activityExpression</span><span class="delete"> etc., corresponds to one element (entity, activity, etc.) of the PROV data model.
+</span><span class="delete">A PROV-N document consists of a collection of </span><span class="delete">expressions</span><span class="delete">, wrapped in an </span><span class="delete">expression container</span><span class="delete"> with</span><span class="insert">and</span> some namespace <span class="delete">declarations, such that the text for an element matches the corresponding </span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete"> production of the grammar.
+
+</span><span class="insert">declarations.</span></p>
 
 </div>
 
@@ -868,50 +1694,35 @@
 
 Some terms in an expression may be optional. For example:
 
-<span class="delete">Example 3</span>
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+<div class="anexample" id="example_5"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_5"><span class="insert">Example 5</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-</span><span class="delete">
+</pre>
 In a derivation expression, the activity, generation, and usage are optional terms. They are specified in the first derivation, but not in the second.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Example 4</span>
-<span class="delete">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
-activity(a1)
-</span><span class="delete">
-The start and end times for Activity </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">The general rule for optionals is that, if </span><span class="delete">none</span><span class="delete"> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</span><span class="delete">
-However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="delete">'-'</span><span class="delete"> is used for this purpose.</span>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_5"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_5">Example 5</a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-In a derivation expression, the activity, generation, and usage are optional terms. They are specified in the first derivation, but not in the second.
-</span></div>
+</div>
 
 <div class="anexample" id="example_6"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_6"><span class="insert">Example 6</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(a2, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01)
 activity(a1)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The start and end times for Activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
-</span></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The general rule for optionals is that, if </span><em><span class="insert">none</span></em><span class="insert"> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</span></p><span class="insert">
-However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">'-'</span></span><span class="insert"> is used for this purpose.
-
-</span><div class="anexample" id="example_7"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_7"><span class="insert">Example 7</span></a></div>
-<p>In the first expression below, all optionals are specified. However in the second and third, only one optional is specified, forcing the use of the marker for the missing terms. 
+</pre>
+The start and end times for Activity <span class="name">a1</span> are optional. They are specified in the first expression, but not in the second.
+</div>
+
+<p>The general rule for optionals is that, if <em>none</em> of the optionals are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression as in the examples above.</p>
+However, it may be the case that only some of the optional terms are omitted. Because the position of the terms in the expression matters, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The symbol  <span class="name"><span class="delete">-</span><span class="insert">'-'</span></span> is used for this purpose.
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_7"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_7"><span class="insert">Example 7</span></a></div>
+<p>In the first expression below, all optionals are specified. However in the <span class="delete">second,</span><span class="insert">second and third,</span> only <span class="delete">the last </span>one <span class="insert">optional </span>is specified, forcing the use of the marker for the missing terms.<span class="delete"> In the last, no marker is necessary because all </span><span class="delete">remaining</span><span class="delete"> optionals after </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> are missing.
+
+</span> 
 
 </p><pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, <span class="delete">a)</span><span class="insert">a, -, -)</span>
 </pre>
 </div>
 Note that the more succinct form is just shorthand for a complete expression with all the markers specified:
-<div class="anexample" id="example_8"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_8">Example <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">8</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_8"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_8"><span class="insert">Example 8</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(a1)
 activity(a1, -, -)
 </pre>
@@ -924,24 +1735,29 @@
 <h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.4</span><span class="insert">2.5</span> </span>Identifiers and attributes</h3>
 
 <p><span class="insert">Almost all expressions defined in the grammar include an identifier (see </span><a href="#expression-identifier"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.1</span></a><span class="insert"> for the full syntax of identifiers). </span>Most expressions<span class="delete"> defined</span><span class="insert">
-can aslo include a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term</span> in <span class="delete">the grammar include the use of two terms: an identifier and</span><span class="insert">any expression.  Optional identifiers </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be separated using</span> a <span class="delete">set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers</span><span class="insert">semi-colon ';', but where the identifiers</span> are <span class="delete">optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term in any expression. By convention, optional identifiers are separated using</span><span class="insert">required,</span> a <span class="delete">semi-colon ';'.</span><span class="insert">regular comma ',' </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be used.</span> This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set of attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_9"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_9">Example <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">9</span></a></div>
-<p>Derivation has an optional identifier. In the first expression, the identifier is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing identifier using the <span class="name">-</span> marker.<span class="insert"> This is equivalent to the first expression. </span></p>
+can aslo include a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Identifiers are optional except for Entities, Activites, and Agents. Identifiers are always the first term</span> in <span class="delete">the grammar include the use</span><span class="insert">any expression.  Optional identifiers </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be separated using a semi-colon ';', but where the identifiers are required, a regular comma ',' </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be used. This makes it possible to completely omit an optional identifier with no ambiguity arising. Also, if the set</span> of <span class="delete">two terms:</span><span class="insert">attribute-value pairs is present, it is always the last term in any expression.</span></p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_9"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_9"><span class="insert">Example 9</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">Derivation has</span> an <span class="insert">optional identifier. In the first expression, the </span>identifier <span class="delete">for the predicate, and a set of attribute-value pairs, delimited by square brackets. Both are optional (unless specified otherwise). By convention, the</span><span class="insert">is not available, while it is explicit in the second. The third example shows that one can optionally indicate the missing</span> identifier <span class="delete">is the first term in any expression, and the  set of attribute-value pairs is the last. </span><span class="delete">
+Consistent with the convention on optional terms, the  '</span><span class="insert">using the </span><span class="name">-</span><span class="delete">' marker can be used when the identifier</span><span class="insert"> marker. This</span> is <span class="delete">not available. Additionally, the grammar rules are defined in such a way that the optional identifier can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising.
+
+</span>
+<span class="delete">Derivation has an optional identifier. In</span><span class="insert">equivalent to</span> the first <span class="delete">expression, the identifier is not available. It is explicit in the second, and marked by a </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> in the third.</span><span class="insert">expression. </span></p>
 <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(-; e2, e1)
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d;</span> e2, e1)
+<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(-,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(-;</span> e2, e1)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-Lack of attributes can be equivalently expressed by omitting the list, or by using an empty list.
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_10"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_10">Example <span class="delete">8</span><span class="insert">10</span></a></div>
-<p>The first and second <span class="delete">activities</span><span class="insert">activity expressions</span> have no <span class="delete">attributes.</span><span class="insert">attributes, and are equivalent.</span>
-
-The third activity  <span class="insert"> expression </span>has two attributes. 
+<span class="delete">A distinction is made between expressions with no attributes, and expressions that include</span><span class="insert">Lack of attributes can be equivalently expressed by omitting the list, or by using</span> an empty <span class="delete">list of attributes.
+</span><span class="insert">list.
+
+
+
+</span><div class="anexample" id="example_10"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_10"><span class="insert">Example 10</span></a></div>
+<p>The first <span class="insert">and second </span>activity <span class="delete">does not</span><span class="insert">expressions</span> have <span class="delete">any attributes. </span><span class="insert">no attributes, and are equivalent.
+
+</span>The <span class="delete">second has an empty list of attributes. The </span>third activity  <span class="insert"> expression </span>has two attributes. 
 </p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">activity(ex:a10)
 activity(ex:a10,</span><span class="insert">activity(ex:a1)
 activity(ex:a1,</span> [])
@@ -952,16 +1768,16 @@
 </div>
 
 <div id="comments" class="section">
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.5</span><span class="insert">2.6</span> </span>Comments</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.6 </span></span><span class="insert">Comments</span></h3><span class="insert">
 
 
 Comments in PROV-N take two forms:
-<ul>
-<li> '//'  outside an <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></code> or <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>; such <span class="delete">cooments</span><span class="insert">comments</span> continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A) or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment marker. 
-
-</li><li> '/*' ... '*/', outside an <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></code> or <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>.
-</li></ul>
-<p>Comments are treated as white space.</p>
+</span><ul>
+<li><span class="insert"> '//'  outside an </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert"> or </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">; such comments continue to the end of line (marked by characters U+000D or U+000A) or end of file if there is no end of line after the comment marker. 
+
+</span></li><li><span class="insert"> '/*' ... '*/', outside an </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert"> or </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">.
+</span></li></ul>
+<p><span class="insert">Comments are treated as white space.</span></p>
 
 </div>
 
@@ -970,7 +1786,9 @@
 <div id="prov-n-expressions" class="section"> 
 <h2><span class="secno">3. </span>PROV-N Productions per Component</h2>
 
-<p>This section  introduces grammar productions for each expression, followed by small examples of expressions illustrating the grammar. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid expressions in the PROV-N language.</p>
+<p>This section  introduces grammar productions for each expression, followed by small examples <span class="insert">of expressions </span>illustrating the <span class="delete">use of</span><span class="insert">grammar. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid</span> expressions in <span class="delete">PROV-N. Strings conforming to the grammar are valid expressions in </span>the PROV-N language.
+
+</p>
 
 <div id="component1" class="section"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
@@ -984,33 +1802,58 @@
 
 
 </p><table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entityExpression" name="prod-entityExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">3</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">entityExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"entity" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs" name="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"></a>[<span class="prodNo">4</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">optionalAttributeValuePairs</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( "," "[" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePairs">attributeValuePairs</a></span> "]" )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePairs" name="prod-attributeValuePairs"></a>[<span class="prodNo">5</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributeValuePairs</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">(  | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair">attributeValuePair</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair">attributeValuePair</a></span> )* )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePair" name="prod-attributeValuePair"></a>[<span class="prodNo">6</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributeValuePair</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attribute">attribute</a></span> "=" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal">literal</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entityExpression" name="prod-entityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">3</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"entity" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs" name="prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">4</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( "," "[" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">attributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "]" )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePairs" name="prod-attributeValuePairs"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">5</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">attributeValuePairs</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">(  | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair"><span class="insert">attributeValuePair</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attributeValuePair"><span class="insert">attributeValuePair</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributeValuePair" name="prod-attributeValuePair"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">6</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">attributeValuePair</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-attribute"><span class="insert">attribute</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "=" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal"><span class="insert">literal</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Entity maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Entity maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<span class="delete">entityExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">entity</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Entity</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Entity</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.id"><span class="attribute" id="entity.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.id"><span class="attribute" id="entity.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">[</span>
+<span class="delete">attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">]</span>
+
+<span class="delete">attribute-values</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">attribute-value</span><span class="delete">
+| </span><span class="delete">attribute-value</span> <span class="delete">,</span> <span class="delete">attribute-values</span>
+
+<span class="delete">attribute-value</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">attribute</span>
+<span class="delete">=</span>
+<span class="delete">Literal</span>
+</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#entity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_11"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_11">Example <span class="delete">9</span><span class="insert">11</span></a></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_11"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_11"><span class="insert">Example 11</span></a></div>
+
+
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document" ])
 </pre>
-  Here <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the entity identifier, and <span class="name">[ prov:type="document" ]</span> groups the optional attributes, only one in this example,  with their values.
+  Here <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the <span class="delete">optional </span>entity identifier, and <span class="name">[ prov:type="document" ]</span> groups the optional <span class="delete">attributes </span><span class="insert">attributes, only one in this example,  </span>with their values.
   <pre class="codeexample">
 entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
 </pre>
-Here, the optional attributes are absent.
+<span class="delete">Here</span><span class="insert">Here,</span> the optional attributes are <span class="delete">not used.</span><span class="insert">absent.</span>
 </div>
 
 
@@ -1021,35 +1864,50 @@
 
 
 
+
+
+
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-activityExpression" name="prod-activityExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">7</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">activityExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"activity" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-timeOrMarker" name="prod-timeOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">8</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">timeOrMarker</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time">time</a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-activityExpression" name="prod-activityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">7</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">activityExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">activity</span>
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"activity" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span> (
+<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-timeOrMarker" name="prod-timeOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">8</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time"><span class="insert">time</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Activity maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Activity maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Activity</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Activity</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.id"><span class="attribute" id="activity.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.startTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime">startTime</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.endTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime">endTime</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.id"><span class="attribute" id="activity.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+(</span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+(</span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.startTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime"><span class="insert">startTime</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.endTime"><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime"><span class="insert">endTime</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#activity.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_12"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_12">Example <span class="delete">10</span><span class="insert">12</span></a></div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_12"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_12"><span class="insert">Example 12</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [prov:type="createFile"])
 </pre>
-<p>Here <span class="name">ex:a10</span> is the  activity identifier, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span> are the optional start and end times for the activity, and <span class="name">[prov:type="createFile"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<p>Here <span class="name">ex:a10</span> is the<span class="delete"> optional </span>  activity identifier, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span> are the optional start and end times for the activity, and <span class="name">[prov:type="createFile"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a10)
 activity(ex:a10, -, -)
@@ -1071,49 +1929,69 @@
 
 
 
+
+
+
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-generationExpression" name="prod-generationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">9</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">generationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasGeneratedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalIdentifier" name="prod-optionalIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">10</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">optionalIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker">identifierOrMarker</a></span> ";" )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifierOrMarker" name="prod-identifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">11</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">identifierOrMarker</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-generationExpression" name="prod-generationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">9</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">generationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy</span>
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasGeneratedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> (
+<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-optionalIdentifier" name="prod-optionalIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">10</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ";" )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifierOrMarker" name="prod-identifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">11</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> | <span class="delete">-</span><span class="insert">"-"</span> ) <span class="delete">,</span> 
+</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Generation maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Generation maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Generation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Generation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute" id="generation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute" id="generation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_13"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_13">Example <span class="delete">11</span><span class="insert">13</span></a></div>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_13"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_13"><span class="insert">Example 13</span></a></div>
+
+
+
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1;</span> tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
 </pre>
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:g1</span> is the optional generation identifier, <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the identifier of the entity being generated,
   <span class="name">ex:edit1</span> is the optional identifier of the generating activity, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional generation time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="save"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
   
-<pre class="codeexample">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, <span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-wasGeneratedBy(e, ex:edit1,</span><span class="insert">-)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1,</span> -)
+<span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, <span class="delete">-, -, </span>[ex:fct="save"])     
+<span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+wasGeneratedBy(-, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; e, a, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)</span>
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><strong><span class="insert">Note:</span></strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+<p><span class="delete">Even though the production </span><span class="insert">Additional semantic rules (</span><a href="#semantic-rules-summary"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.5</span></a><span class="insert">) apply to </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression<span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(-, e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
+at least  one of </span><span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, or  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span>  <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+
+
 
 
 
@@ -1125,231 +2003,319 @@
 
 
 
+
+
+
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-usageExpression" name="prod-usageExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">12</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">usageExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"used" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="delete">"," </span>( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-usageExpression" name="prod-usageExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">12</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">usageExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">used</span>
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"used" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> (
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Usage maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Usage maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Usage</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Usage</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute" id="usage.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.activity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr><tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute" id="usage.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.activity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr><tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) 
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_14"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_14">Example <span class="delete">12</span><span class="insert">14</span></a></div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_14"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_14"><span class="insert">Example 14</span></a></div>
   
-<pre class="codeexample">used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:fct="load"])
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">used(ex:u1,</span><span class="insert">used(ex:u1;</span> ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:fct="load"])
  </pre>
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:u1</span> is the optional usage identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the using activity,
   <span class="name">ar3:0111</span> is the identifier of the entity being used,
  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional usage time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="load"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-  <pre class="codeexample">used(ex:act2)
-used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(ex:act2)
+</span>used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, <span class="insert">2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 used(a1,e1, -, [ex:fct="load"])
-used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
-</pre>
+used(ex:u1; ex:act2, ar3:0111, </span>-)
+<span class="delete">used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+used(a1,e1, -, [ex:fct="load"])
+used(ex:u1, ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
+used(-, ex:act2, ar3:0111, -)
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 
-<p><strong><span class="insert">Note:</span></strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">used(a2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">used(-; <span class="delete">e2,</span><span class="insert">a2,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute">entity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">Additional semantic rules (</span><a href="#semantic-rules-summary"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.5</span></a><span class="insert">) apply to </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression"><span class="insert">usageExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
 
 
 
 </div>
 
+
 <div id="expression-wasInformedBy" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span>Communication</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.1.5 </span><span class="insert">Communication</span></h4>
 
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-communicationExpression" name="prod-communicationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">13</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">communicationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasInformedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-communicationExpression" name="prod-communicationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">13</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">communicationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasInformedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Communication maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Communication maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Communication</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Communication</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.id"><span class="attribute" id="communication.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informed"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed">informed</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informant"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant">informant</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.id"><span class="attribute" id="communication.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informed"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed"><span class="insert">informed</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.informant"><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant"><span class="insert">informant</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#communication.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_15"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_15">Example <span class="delete">13</span><span class="insert">15</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</pre>
-<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:inf1</span> is the optional communication identifier,  <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is the identifier of the informed activity,
-  <span class="name">ex:a2</span> is the identifier of the informant activity,
-and <span class="name">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_15"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_15"><span class="insert">Example 15</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">  Here </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:inf1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional communication identifier,  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier of the informed activity,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier of the informant activity,
+and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-<pre class="codeexample">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
 wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
 wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2)
 wasInformedBy(i; ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-</pre>
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 </div>
 
 
 
 <div id="expression-Start" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.1.6 </span>Start</h4>
-
-
-<table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-startExpression" name="prod-startExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">14</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">startExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasStartedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-</table>
-
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Start maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
-<div style="text-align: left; ">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Start</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute" id="start.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.activity"><span class="attribute" id="start.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger">trigger</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute" id="start.starter">starter</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_16"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_16">Example <span class="delete">14</span><span class="insert">16</span></a></div>
-
-  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
-  </pre>
-  <p>Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the started activity,
-  <span class="name">ex:trigger</span> is the optional identifier for the entity that triggered the activity start,
-   <span class="name">ex:act1</span> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   <span class="name">ex:trigger</span>,
- <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional start time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
-  The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
-  
-  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, -)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasStartedBy(ex:act2, [ex:param="a"])
-wasStartedBy(s; ex:act2, e, ex:act1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<p><strong>Note:</strong> Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasStartedBy(e2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)</span>  and <span class="name">wasStartedBy(-; e2,<span class="insert"> -,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute">starter</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be <span class="delete">present.</span><span class="insert">present (as per [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]).</span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="expression-End" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.1.7 </span>End</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.1.6 </span></span>Start</h4>
+
+
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-endExpression" name="prod-endExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">15</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">endExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasEndedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-startExpression" name="prod-startExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">14</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">startExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy</span>
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasStartedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> (
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM End maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Start maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>End</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Start</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute" id="end.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.activity"><span class="attribute" id="end.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger">trigger</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute" id="end.ender">ender</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute" id="start.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.activity"><span class="attribute" id="start.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute" id="start.starter"><span class="insert">starter</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_17"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_17">Example <span class="delete">15</span><span class="insert">17</span></a></div>
-
-    <pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(s; ex:act2, ex:trigger,ex:act3,  2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_16"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_16"><span class="insert">Example 16</span></a></div>
+
+  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(s,</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(s;</span> ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">ex:trigger, ex:act1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
   </pre>
-<p>  Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  
+  <p>Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,  <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the <span class="delete">starting</span><span class="insert">started</span> activity,
+  <span class="name"><span class="delete">ar3:0111</span><span class="insert">ex:trigger</span></span> is the <span class="insert">optional </span>identifier <span class="delete">of</span><span class="insert">for</span> the entity that triggered the activity start,
+   <span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:trigger</span></span><span class="insert">,</span>
+ <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional <span class="delete">usage</span><span class="insert">start</span> time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes.</p>
+  The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+  
+  <pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">-, ex:act1,</span> -)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">-, ex:act1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, <span class="delete">-, -)
+wasStartedBy(ex:act2, -, -, </span>[ex:param="a"])
+<span class="delete">wasStartedBy(s,</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(s;</span> ex:act2, <span class="delete">ar3:0111,</span><span class="insert">e, ex:act1,</span> 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+<span class="delete">wasStartedBy(-, ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+</span></pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<p><span class="delete">Note:</span><span class="delete"> Even though the production </span><span class="insert">Additional semantic rules (</span><a href="#semantic-rules-summary"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.5</span></a><span class="insert">) apply to </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression">startExpression<span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(-, e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
+since 
+at least  one of </span><span class="delete">trigger</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, or  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span>  <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="expression-End" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.6</span><span class="insert">3.1.7</span> </span>End</h4>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-endExpression" name="prod-endExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">15</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">endExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy</span>
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasEndedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> (
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM End maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">End</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute" id="end.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.activity"><span class="attribute" id="end.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute" id="end.ender"><span class="insert">ender</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_17"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_17"><span class="insert">Example 17</span></a></div>
+
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(s,</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(s;</span> ex:act2, <span class="delete">ex:trigger, </span><span class="insert">ex:trigger,ex:act3,  </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+  </pre>
+<p>  Here <span class="name">s</span> is the optional start identifier,    
 <span class="name">ex:act2</span> is the identifier of the ending activity,
   <span class="name">ex:trigger</span> is the identifier of the entity that triggered the activity end,
-  <span class="name">ex:act3</span> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   <span class="name">e</span>,
+  <span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:act3</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity   </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">,</span>
  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional usage time, and <span class="name"> [ex:param="a"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
-<pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, -)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
-wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2)
-wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2, ex:trigger, -, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
-</pre>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, ex:trigger, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+wasEndedBy(ex:act2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ex:param="a"])
+<span class="delete">wasEndedBy(e,ex:act2,</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2)
+wasEndedBy(e; ex:act2, ex:trigger,</span> -, <span class="delete">-)
+wasEndedBy(e, ex:act2, ex:trigger, </span>2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+<span class="delete">wasEndedBy(-, ex:act2, ex:trigger, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><strong>Note:</strong>Even though the production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasEndedBy(e2, -, <span class="insert">-, </span>-)</span>  and <span class="name">wasEndedBy(-; e2,<span class="insert"> -,</span> -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
-since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute">ender</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+<p><span class="delete">Note:</span><span class="delete">Even though the production </span><span class="insert">Additional semantic rules (</span><a href="#semantic-rules-summary"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.5</span></a><span class="insert">) apply to </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression">endExpression<span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(-, e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N,
+since 
+at least  one of </span><span class="delete">trigger</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, and  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span> <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+
+
 </div>
 
 
 
+
+
 <div id="expression-Invalidation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.1.8 </span>Invalidation</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1.7</span><span class="insert">3.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation</h4>
 
 
 <div class="withPn">
 
 
+
+
+
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-invalidationExpression" name="prod-invalidationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">16</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">invalidationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasInvalidatedBy" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-invalidationExpression" name="prod-invalidationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">16</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">invalidationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy</span>
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasInvalidatedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> (
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Invalidation maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Invalidation maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Invalidation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker">timeOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.entity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> ( </span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-timeOrMarker"><span class="insert">timeOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_18"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_18">Example <span class="delete">16</span><span class="insert">18</span></a></div>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_18"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_18"><span class="insert">Example 18</span></a></div>
+
+
+
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1;</span> tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,  [ex:fct="save"])
 </pre>
 <p>  Here <span class="name">ex:i1</span> is the optional invalidation identifier, <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is the identifier of the entity being invalidated,
   <span class="name">ex:edit1</span> is the optional identifier of the invalidating activity, <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> is the optional invalidation time, and <span class="name"> [ex:fct="save"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
@@ -1359,17 +2325,32 @@
 wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
 wasInvalidatedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
 wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1; tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+<span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(ex:i1;</span> tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+<span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(-, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,</span> ex:edit1, -)
 </pre>
+
+
+<span class="delete">Even though the production </span><span class="delete">invalidationExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows for expressions </span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(-, e2, -, -)</span><span class="delete">, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
+at least  one of </span><span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">time</span><span class="delete">, or  </span><span class="delete">attributes</span>  <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be present.</span>
+
+
 </div>
 
-<p><strong><span class="insert">Note:</span></strong> Even though the production  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name">wasInvalidatedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span>, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, since 
-since at least one  of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
-
-
-
-</div></div>
+
+
+<span class="delete">3.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">communicationExpression</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy</span>
+<p><span class="insert">Additional semantic rules </span>(
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span> <a href="#semantic-rules-summary"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.5</span></a>) <span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+<span class="insert">apply to </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression"><span class="insert">invalidationExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
 
 
 
@@ -1377,38 +2358,100 @@
 
 </div>
 
+
+<span class="delete">wasInformedBy(ex:inf1, ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</span>
+<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:inf1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional communication identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the informed activity,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the informant activity,
+and </span><span class="delete">[ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasInformedBy(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+wasInformedBy(i, ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasInformedBy(i, ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+wasInformedBy(-, ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasInformedBy(-, ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</span>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+
+<span class="delete">3.1.9 </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">startByActivityExpression</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity(s,ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">s</span><span class="delete"> is the optional start-by-activity identifier,  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the starting activity,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the activity that started  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete">,
+and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+  
+  </span><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity(ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasStartedByActivity(ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+wasStartedByActivity(s,ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasStartedByActivity(-,ex:a1, ex:a2)
+wasStartedByActivity(-,ex:a1, ex:a2, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+
 <div id="component2" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Component 2: <span class="delete">Agents and Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Derivations</span></h3>
 <div id="Derivation-Relation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span>Derivation</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.1 </span><span class="delete">Agent</span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">agentExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-derivationExpression" name="prod-derivationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">17</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">derivationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasDerivedFrom" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker">gIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker">uIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-derivationExpression" name="prod-derivationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">17</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">derivationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasDerivedFrom" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Derivation maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Derivation maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Derivation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Derivation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.id"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generation"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation">generation</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker">gIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usage"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage">usage</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker">uIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.id"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="insert">generatedEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usedEntity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity"><span class="insert">usedEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.generation"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation"><span class="insert">generation</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.usage"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage"><span class="insert">usage</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#derivation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
@@ -1417,21 +2460,21 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation">Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">19</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
-  </pre>
-<p>  Here
-    <span class="name">d</span> is the optional derivation identifier,
-  <span class="name">e2</span> is the identifier for the entity being derived,
-  <span class="name">e1</span> is the  identifier of the entity from which <span class="name">e2</span> is derived,
-  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
-  <span class="name">g2</span> is the optional identifier of the generation,
-  <span class="name">u1</span> is the optional identifier of the usage,
-  and <span class="name">[ex:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="insert">Example 19</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
+  </span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">  Here
+    </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">d</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional derivation identifier,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier for the entity being derived,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the  identifier of the entity from which </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> is derived,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the generation,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the usage,
+  and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[ex:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
-<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, g2, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, u1)
@@ -1439,341 +2482,684 @@
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, -)
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(-,</span><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(-;</span> e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-</pre>
+wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(-; e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-Revision" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span>Revision</h4>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_20"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_20">Example <span class="delete">18</span><span class="insert">20</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, 
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Revision</span></h4>
+
+<p id="provn-type-Revision"><span class="insert">
+PROV-N provides no dedicated syntax for Revision. Instead, a Revision </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be expressed as a</span> 
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression"><span class="insert">derivationExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute </span><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Revision'</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_20"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_20"><span class="insert">Example 20</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(d; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, 
                [prov:type='prov:Revision', 
                 ex:comment="a righteous derivation"])
-  </pre>
-<p>Here, the derivation from
-<a href="#anexample-derivation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">19</span></span></a>
-is extended with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>.<span class="insert">  The expression </span><code><span class="insert">'prov:Revision'</span></code><span class="insert"> is </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></a></code><span class="insert"> to denote a </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> literal (See  </span><a href="#expression-literal"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.3. Literal</span></a><span class="insert">).</span>
-</p></div>
+  </span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">Here, the derivation from
+</span><a href="#anexample-derivation" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 19</span></span></a><span class="insert">
+is extended with a </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">agent</span>
+<span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute and value </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">identifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">agent(ag4, [ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ])
+</span>
+<span class="delete">Here </span><span class="delete">ag</span><span class="insert">prov:Revision</span></span><span class="insert">.  The expression </span><code><span class="insert">'prov:Revision'</span></code> is <span class="delete">the agent identifier, and
+   </span><span class="delete">[ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></a></code><span class="insert"> to denote a </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> literal (See  </span><a href="#expression-literal"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.3. Literal</span></a><span class="insert">).
+</span></p><span class="delete">
+In the next example, the optional attributes are omitted.
+
+</span><span class="delete">agent(ag4)
+</span>
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+
+<span class="delete">3.2.2 </span><span class="delete">Attribution</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">attributionExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>  
+<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo</span> 
+<span class="delete">(</span> 
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">agIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span> 
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(id, e, ag, [ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">    Here </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional attribution identifier,  </span><span class="delete">e</span><span class="delete"> is an entity identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">ag</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the agent to whom the entity is abscribed, 
+and </span><span class="delete">[ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+</span><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(e, ag)
+wasAttributedTo(e, ag, [ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"])
+wasAttributedTo(-,  e, ag, [ex:license="cc:attributionURL" %% "xsd:QName"])
+</span>
+
+
+  
+
+
+<div id="expression-quotation" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span><span class="delete">Association</span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">associationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
+( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete">  | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
+( </span><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete">  | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas, ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+  </span>
+
+<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">ex:agas</span><span class="delete"> is the optional attribution identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is an activity identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:ag1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent associated to the activity,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:e1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the plan used by the agent in the context of the activity,
+  and </span><span class="delete"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+  
+  
+</span><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, -)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+wasAssociatedWith(a, ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
+wasAssociatedWith(-, ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
+wasAssociatedWith(-, ex:a1, ex:ag1, -)
+</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">Note:</span><span class="delete">The production </span><span class="delete">associationExpression</span><span class="delete"> allows</span><p id="provn-type-Quotation"><span class="insert">
+PROV-N provides no dedicated syntax</span> for <span class="delete">expressions </span><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span><span class="delete">  and </span><span class="delete">wasAssociatiedWith(-, a, -, -)</span><span class="delete">. However, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, 
+because at least  one of </span><span class="delete">agent</span><span class="delete"> or </span><span class="delete">plan</span><span class="insert">Quotation. Instead, a Quotation</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be<span class="delete"> present.</span><span class="insert">  expressed as a 
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression"><span class="insert">derivationExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute </span><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Quotation'</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_21"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_21"><span class="insert">Example 21</span></a></div>
+
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(quoteId1; ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, ex:act1, ex:g, ex:u,
+               [ prov:type='prov:Quotation' ]) 
+ </span></pre>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Here, the derivation is provided with a </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute and value </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Quotation</span></span><span class="insert">.
+</span></p></div>
 
 
 </div>  
-<div id="expression-quotation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.2.3 </span>Quotation</h4>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_21"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_21">Example <span class="delete">19</span><span class="insert">21</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(quoteId1; ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, ex:act1, ex:g, ex:u,
-               [ prov:type='prov:Quotation' ])
-  </pre>
-
-<p>Here, the derivation is provided with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:Quotation</span>.
-</p></div>
-
-
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="expression-original-source" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span>Primary Source</h4>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_22"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_22">Example <span class="delete">20</span><span class="insert">22</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(src1;  ex:e1, ex:e2, ex:act, ex:g, ex:u, 
-               [ <span class="delete">prove:type='prov:PrimarySource'</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:PrimarySource'</span> ])
-</pre>
-<p>Here, the derivation is provided with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute and value <span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span>.
+
+
+<div id="expression-primary-source" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">responsibilityExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>
+
+
+<p id="provn-type-Primary-Source"><span class="insert">
+PROV-N provides no dedicated syntax for PrimarySource. Instead, a PrimarySource </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be expressed as a</span> 
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-derivationExpression"><span class="insert">derivationExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute </span><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Primary-Source'</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_22"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_22"><span class="insert">Example 22</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(src1;  ex:e1, ex:e2, ex:act, ex:g, ex:u, 
+               [ prov:type='prov:PrimarySource' ])
+</span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">Here, the derivation is provided with a </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf</span>
+<span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> attribute and value </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">agIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">agIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+  <span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(act1, ag1, ag2, a, [prov:type="contract"])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here </span><span class="delete">act1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional attribution identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">ag1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier for the subordinate agent,
+  </span><span class="delete">ag2</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
+  </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the responsibility link holds,
+  and </span><span class="delete"> [prov:type="contract"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="insert">prov:PrimarySource</span></span><span class="insert">.
   
-</p></div>
-
-
-</div>  
+</span></p><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+
+</span><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, -)
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a)
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, -, [prov:type="delegation"])
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
+actedOnBehalfOf(r, ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
+actedOnBehalfOf(-, ag1, ag2, -)
+</span>
+</div>
+
 
 </div>
+  
+
+</div>
+
 
 
 <div id="component3" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Component 3: <span class="delete">Derivations</span><span class="insert">Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</span></h3>
 <div id="expression-Agent" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span>Agent</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="insert">Agent</span></h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">derivationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agentExpression" name="prod-agentExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">18</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">agentExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"agent" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agentExpression" name="prod-agentExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">18</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">agentExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"agent" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Agent maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Agent maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Agent</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Agent</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.id"><span class="attribute" id="agent.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.id"><span class="attribute" id="agent.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#agent.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_23"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_23">Example <span class="delete">21</span><span class="insert">23</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">agent(ag4, [ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ])
-</pre>
-<p>Here <span class="name">ag</span> is the agent identifier, and
-   <span class="name">[ prov:type="prov:Person", ex:name="David" ]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<p><span class="insert">
+PROV-N provides no dedicated syntax for Person, Organization, SoftwareAgent. Instead, a Person, an Organization, or a SoftwareAgent </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be expressed as an
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agentExpression"><span class="insert">agentExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute</span> 
+<span id="provn-type-Person" <code=""><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Person'</span></span><span class="insert">,
+</span><span id="provn-type-Organization" <code=""><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Organization</span></span><span class="insert">, or
+</span><span id="provn-type-SoftwareAgent" <code=""><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent'</span></span><span class="insert">, respectively.</span></p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_23"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_23"><span class="insert">Example 23</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">agent(ag4, [ prov:type='prov:Person', ex:name="David" ])
+</span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">Here </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom</span>
+<span class="insert">ag</span></span><span class="insert"> is the agent identifier, and
+   </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">gIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">uIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:Person', ex:name="David" ]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
 In the next example, the optional attributes are omitted.
 
-<pre class="codeexample">agent(ag4)
-</pre>
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">agent(ag4)
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 
-</div>
+
+    </div>
 <div id="expression-attribution" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.3.2 </span>Attribution</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.3.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Attribution</span></h4>
 
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributionExpression" name="prod-attributionExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">19</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attributionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasAttributedTo" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attributionExpression" name="prod-attributionExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">19</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">attributionExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasAttributedTo" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Attribution maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Attribution maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Attribution</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Attribution</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.id"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.entity"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.agent"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent">agent</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.id"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.entity"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.agent"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#attribution.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_24"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_24">Example <span class="delete">22</span><span class="insert">24</span></a></div>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
+<div class="anexample" id="example_24"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_24"><span class="insert">Example 24</span></a></div>
+
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, [prov:comment="a righteous derivation"])</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])</span>
   </pre>
-<p>    Here <span class="name">id</span> is the optional attribution identifier,  <span class="name">e</span> is an entity identifier,
-  <span class="name">ag</span> is the identifier of the agent to whom the entity is abscribed, 
-and <span class="name">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<p><span class="insert">    Here </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional attribution identifier,  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert"> is an entity identifier,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier of the agent to whom the entity is abscribed, 
+and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
-<pre class="codeexample">wasAttributedTo(e, ag)
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(e, ag)
 wasAttributedTo(e, ag, [ex:license='cc:attributionURL' ])
-</pre>
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 </div>  
 
 
 <div id="expression-Association" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.3.3 </span>Association</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.3.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Association</span></h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-associationExpression" name="prod-associationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">20</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">associationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"wasAssociatedWith" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></span> <span class="insert">( </span>"," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker">agIdentifierOrMarker</a></span><span class="delete"> (</span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-associationExpression" name="prod-associationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">20</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">associationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasAssociatedWith" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Association maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Association maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Association</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Association</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute" id="association.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.activity"><span class="attribute" id="association.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier">aIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute" id="association.agent">agent</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker">agIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute" id="association.plan">plan</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker">eIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute" id="association.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.activity"><span class="attribute" id="association.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute" id="association.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute" id="association.plan"><span class="insert">plan</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_25"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_25">Example <span class="delete">23</span><span class="insert">25</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas; ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
-  </pre>
-
-<p>  Here <span class="name">ex:agas</span> is the optional attribution identifier,
-  <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is an activity identifier,
-  <span class="name">ex:ag1</span> is the optional identifier of the agent associated to the activity,
-  <span class="name">ex:e1</span> is the optional identifier of the plan used by the agent in the context of the activity,
-  and <span class="name"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<p id="provn-type-Plan"><span class="insert">
+PROV-N provides no dedicated syntax for Plan. Instead, a Plan </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be expressed as an
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute </span><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Plan'</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_25"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_25"><span class="insert">Example 25</span></a></div>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(ex:agas; ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
+  </span></pre>
+
+<p>  Here
+     <span class="name"><span class="delete">d</span><span class="insert">ex:agas</span></span> is the optional <span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="insert">attribution identifier,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> is an activity identifier,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:ag1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the agent associated to the activity,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:e1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the plan used by the agent in the context of the activity,
+  and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert"> [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
   
   
-<pre class="codeexample">wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1)
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:ag1, ex:e1, [ex:param1="a", ex:param2="b"])
 wasAssociatedWith(a; ex:a1, -, ex:e1)
-</pre>
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><strong>Note:</strong>The production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></code> allows for expressions <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span>  and <span class="name"><span class="delete">wasAssociatiedWith(-;</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(-;</span> a, -, -)</span>. However, these expressions are not valid in PROV-N, 
-since
-at least one of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute">agent</span></a>,  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute">plan</span></a>, and  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Additional semantic rules (</span><a href="#semantic-rules-summary"><span class="insert">Section 3.7.5</span></a><span class="insert">) apply to </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression"><span class="insert">associationExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-delegation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.3.4 </span>Delegation</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.3.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></h4>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-delegationExpression" name="prod-delegationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">21</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">delegationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"actedOnBehalfOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></span> ( "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></span> )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-delegationExpression" name="prod-delegationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">21</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">delegationExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"actedOnBehalfOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Delegation maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Delegation maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Delegation</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Delegation</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.id"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.delegate"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate">delegate</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.responsible"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible">responsible</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier">agIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker">aIdentifierOrMarker</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.id"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.delegate"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate"><span class="insert">delegate</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.responsible"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible"><span class="insert">responsible</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.activity"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#delegation.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_26"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_26">Example <span class="delete">24</span><span class="insert">26</span></a></div>
-
-  <pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(del1; ag2, ag1, a, [prov:type="contract"])
-  </pre>
-<p>  Here <span class="name">del1</span> is the optional delegation identifier,
-  <span class="name">ag2</span> is the identifier for the delegate agent,
-  <span class="name">ag1</span> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
-  <span class="name">a</span> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the delegation link holds,
-  and <span class="name">[prov:type="contract"]</span> are optional attributes. </p>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_26"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_26"><span class="insert">Example 26</span></a></div>
+
+  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(del1; ag2, ag1, a, [prov:type="contract"])
+  </span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">  Here </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">del1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional delegation identifier,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag2</span></span><span class="insert"> is the identifier for the delegate agent,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ag1</span></span><span class="insert"> is the  identifier of the responsible agent,
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional identifier of the activity for which the delegation link holds,
+  and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">[prov:type="contract"]</span></span><span class="insert"> are optional attributes. </span></p><span class="insert">
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 
-<pre class="codeexample">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2)
+</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2)
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a)
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, -, [prov:type="delegation"])
 actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
 actedOnBehalfOf(r; ag2, ag3, a, [prov:type="contract"])
-</pre>
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 
 </div>
 
 <div id="expression-influence" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.3.5 </span>Influence</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.3.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Influence</span></h4>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-influenceExpression" name="prod-influenceExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">22</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">influenceExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"influence"</span><span class="insert">"wasInfluencedBy"</span> "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-influenceExpression" name="prod-influenceExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">22</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">influenceExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"wasInfluencedBy" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Influence maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Influence maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Influence</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Influence</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.id"><span class="attribute" id="influence.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencee"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencee">influencee</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencer"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencer">influencer</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="influence.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.id"><span class="attribute" id="influence.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencee"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencee"><span class="insert">influencee</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.influencer"><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencer"><span class="insert">influencer</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#influence.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="influence.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></code></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_27"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_27">Example <span class="delete">25</span><span class="insert">27</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">influence(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])</span>
-  </pre>
-<p>  Here
-    <span class="name">id</span> is the optional influence identifier,
-  <span class="name">e2</span> is an entity identifier,
+<div class="anexample" id="example_27"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_27"><span class="insert">Example 27</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
+  </span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">  Here
+    </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert"> is the optional influence</span> identifier,
+  <span class="name">e2</span> is <span class="delete">the identifier for the entity being derived,
+  </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier of the entity from which </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is derived,
+  </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the activity which used/generated the entities,
+  </span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the generation,
+  </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the usage,
+  and </span><span class="delete">[prov:comment="a righteous derivation"]</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+  
+</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, g2, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, -)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, -, -)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, -, -, -)
+wasDerivedFrom(d, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasDerivedFrom(-, e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">3.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">revisionExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete">
+( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+    <span class="delete">wasRevisionOf(rev1, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium, [prov:comment="??"] )
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here
+    </span><span class="delete">rev1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional revision identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the revised entity,
+  </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the original entity,
+  </span><span class="delete">w3:Consortium</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent involved in the revision,
+  and </span><span class="delete"> [prov:comment="??"] )</span><span class="delete"> are optional attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+
+  </span><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
+wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium)
+wasRevisionOf(id,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium)
+wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
+wasRevisionOf(id,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
+wasRevisionOf(-,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, -)
+</span>
+
+
+
+  
+
+<span class="delete">3.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">quotationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom</span> 
+<span class="delete">(</span> 
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+
+<span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
+( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> 
+( </span><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> )
+</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span> 
+
+
+
+
+    <span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom(quoteId1, ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul,[])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here
+    </span><span class="delete">quoteId1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional revision identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:blockQuote</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the entity that represents the quote (the partial copy)
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:blog</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the original entity being quoted,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:Luc</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent who performs the quoting,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:Paul</span><span class="delete"> is the optional identifier of the agent to whom the original entity is attributed,
+  and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the (empty) optional set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+
+  </span><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog)
+wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul)
+wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,-,ex:Paul)
+wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul,[])
+wasQuotedFrom(ex:blockQuote,ex:blog, -, -)
+wasQuotedFrom(id,ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,ex:Paul)
+wasQuotedFrom(-,ex:blockQuote,ex:blog,ex:Luc,-)
+
+</span>
+
+
+  
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">3.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">originalSourceExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource</span> 
+<span class="delete">(</span> 
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span> 
+
+
+
+
+    <span class="delete">hadOriginalSource(src1, ex:e1, ex:e2,[ex:param="a"])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here
+    </span><span class="delete">src1</span><span class="delete"> is the optional original source identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:e1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the derived entity,
+  </span><span class="delete">ex:e2</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of the original source entity,
+  and </span><span class="delete">[ex:param="a"]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+
+  </span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource(ex:e1, ex:e2)
+hadOriginalSource(ex:e1, ex:e2,[ex:param="a"])
+hadOriginalSource(-,ex:e1, ex:e2,[ex:param="a"])
+hadOriginalSource(-,ex:e1, ex:e2)
+</span>
+
+
+  
+
+<span class="delete">3.3.5 </span><span class="delete">Trace</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">traceExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">tracedTo</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> ) </span><span class="delete">,</span> 
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+    <span class="delete">tracedTo(id,e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here
+    </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional trace identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is </span>an entity identifier,
   <span class="name">e1</span> is the identifier for an ancestor entity that   <span class="name">e2</span> <span class="delete">depends on,</span><span class="insert">is influenced by,</span>
   and <span class="name">[ex:param="a"]</span> is the optional set of attributes. </p>
 The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
 
 
-  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">influence(e2,e1)
-influence(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-influence(id;</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1)
+  <pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">tracedTo(e2,e1)
+tracedTo(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
+tracedTo(-,e2,e1)</span><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1)
 wasInfluencedBy(e2,e1,[ex:param="a"])
-wasInfluencedBy(id;</span> e2,e1)
+wasInfluencedBy(id; e2,e1)</span>
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 </div>
 
+
 </div>
 
+
 <div id="component4" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Component 4: <span class="delete">Alternate Entities</span><span class="insert">Bundles</span></h3>
+
+
 
 <div id="expression-bundle-constructor" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span>Bundle <span class="delete">Declaration</span><span class="insert">Constructor</span></h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.4.1 </span><span class="insert">Bundle Constructor</span></h4>
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namedBundle" name="prod-namedBundle"></a>[<span class="prodNo">23</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namedBundle</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"bundle" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span> (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations">namespaceDeclarations</a></span>)? (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></span>)* "endBundle"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namedBundle" name="prod-namedBundle"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">23</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"bundle" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "endBundle"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 <p><span class="insert">Named bundles cannot be nested because </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is not an </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code><span class="insert">, and therefore cannot occurs inside another </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
 
 <p><span class="insert">Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that bundle. In other words, for every identifier with a prefix </span><code><span class="insert">p</span></code><span class="insert"> within a named bundle, there </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a namespace declaration for </span><code><span class="insert">p</span></code><span class="insert"> in this named bundled; for every identifier  without prefix, there </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a default namespace declaration  in this named bundled.</span></p>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_28"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_28">Example <span class="delete">26</span><span class="insert">28</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:author-view<span class="insert">
-  prefix ex  &lt;http://example.org/&gt;</span>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_28"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_28"><span class="insert">Example 28</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:author-view
+  prefix ex  &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
   agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
   agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  <span class="delete">...</span><span class="insert">//...</span>
+  //...
 endBundle
-  </pre>
-<p> Here  <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is the name of the bundle.
- 
-</p>
+  </span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert"> Here  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:author-view</span></span><span class="insert"> is the name of the bundle. 
+</span></p>
 
 
 
@@ -1781,38 +3167,57 @@
 </div>
 
 </div>
+
+<div id="expression-bundle-type" class="section"> 
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle Type</span></h4>
+
+<p id="provn-type-Bundle"><span class="insert">
+When described, a Bundle </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be expressed as an
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute </span><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Bundle'</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+
+</div>
 </div>
 
 <div id="component5" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 5: Alternate Entities</span></h3>
 <div id="expression-alternate" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Alternate</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.5.1 </span></span>Alternate</h4>
+
+
+   
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-alternateExpression" name="prod-alternateExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">24</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">alternateExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"alternateOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-alternateExpression" name="prod-alternateExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">24</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">alternateExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=
+  </span><span class="delete">alternateOf</span> 
+<span class="delete">(</span> 
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"alternateOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
+<span class="delete">,</span> 
+</a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
+<span class="delete">)</span>  
+</a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Alternate maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Alternate maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Alternate</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Alternate</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate1"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1">alternate1</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate2"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2">alternate2</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate1"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1"><span class="insert">alternate1</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#alternate.alternate2"><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2"><span class="insert">alternate2</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
 
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_29"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_29">Example <span class="delete">27</span><span class="insert">29</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_29"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_29"><span class="insert">Example 29</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex:alternate-20111215)
 </pre>
   Here  <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is alternate for   <span class="name">ex:alternate-20111215</span>.
@@ -1821,34 +3226,46 @@
 
 </div>
 <div id="expression-specialization" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.5.2 </span>Specialization</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.4.2</span><span class="insert">3.5.2</span> </span>Specialization</h4>
+
+
+   
 
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-specializationExpression" name="prod-specializationExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">25</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">specializationExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"specializationOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-specializationExpression" name="prod-specializationExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">25</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">specializationExpression<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=
+  </span><span class="delete">specializationOf</span> 
+<span class="delete">(</span> 
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"specializationOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
+<span class="delete">,</span> 
+</a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier 
+<span class="delete">)</span>  
+</a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Specialization maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Specialization maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Specialization</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Specialization</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#specialization.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity"><span class="insert">generalEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
 
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_30"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_30">Example <span class="delete">28</span><span class="insert">30</span></a></div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_30"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_30"><span class="insert">Example 30</span></a></div>
 <pre class="codeexample">specializationOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,tr:prov-dm)
 </pre>
     Here  <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> is a specialization of <span class="name">tr:prov-dm</span>.
@@ -1859,52 +3276,156 @@
 
 
 <div id="expression-mention" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno">3.5.3 </span>Mention</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.5.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Mention</span></h4>
 
 <div class="note">
-<p>Note: This feature is "<a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">at risk</a>" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</p>
-
-
-<p>The expression Mention   might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
+<p><span class="insert">Note: This feature is "</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi"><span class="insert">at risk</span></a><span class="insert">" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</span></p>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">The expression Mention might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span></p>
 </div>
 
+ 
+<span class="delete">3.5 </span><span class="delete">Component 5: Collections</span>
+
+<span class="delete">Grammar for collections </span><span class="delete">may</span><span class="delete"> under go minor syntactic changes since it has not been implemented yet.</span><span class="delete">
+
+In the productions in this section, nonterminals </span><span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">keySet</span><span class="delete"> are defined as follows.
+
+</span>
+<span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
+</span><span class="delete">(</span>
+    <span class="delete">literal</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">eidentifier</span>
+    <span class="delete">)</span><span class="delete">
+|
+</span><span class="delete">(</span>
+  <span class="delete">literal</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">eidentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+  <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span>
+
+
+  
+<span class="delete">keySet</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
+    </span><span class="delete">literal</span><span class="delete">
+|
+  </span><span class="delete">literal</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">keySet</span>
+
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" name="prod-mentionExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">26</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">mentionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"mentionOf" "(" <span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> "," <span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" name="prod-mentionExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">26</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">mentionExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"mentionOf" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier"><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Mention maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Mention maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Mention</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Mention</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle">bundle</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity"><span class="insert">generalEntity</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier"><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
 
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_31"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_31">Example <span class="delete">29</span><span class="insert">31</span></a></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">  mention(ex:report1_as_in_b1, ex:report1, ex:b1)   
-</pre>
+
+<span class="delete">3.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Insertion</span>
+
+
+ <span class="delete">derivationByInsertionFromExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">derivedByInsertionFrom</span> 
+ <span class="delete">(</span>
+ <span class="delete">identifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+  <span class="delete">{</span>
+  <span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span>
+   <span class="delete">}</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+  <span class="delete">)</span>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_31"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_31"><span class="insert">Example 31</span></a></div>
+
+
+    
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete"> derivedByInsertionFrom(id, c1, c, {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}, [])  
+  </span><span class="insert">  mention(ex:report1_as_in_b1, ex:report1, ex:b1)   
+</span></pre>
 <p>  Here
-  <span class="name">ex:report1_as_in_b1</span> is an entity identifier,
-  <span class="name">ex:report1</span> is an entity identifier,
-  <span class="name">ex:b1</span> is the identifier for a bundle
-</p></div>
-
-
-
-</div>
+    
+  <span class="name"><span class="delete">id</span><span class="insert">ex:report1_as_in_b1</span></span> is <span class="delete">the optional insertion</span><span class="insert">an entity</span> identifier,
+  <span class="name"><span class="delete">c1</span><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span> is <span class="delete">the  identifier for the collection after the insertion,
+  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection before the insertion,
+  </span><span class="delete"> {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}</span><span class="delete"> is the set of key-value pairs that have been inserted in
+  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
+    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+  </span><span class="delete"> derivedByInsertionFrom(c1, c, {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)})  
+ derivedByInsertionFrom(c1, c, {("k1", v1)})  
+ derivedByInsertionFrom(c1, c, {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}, [])
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">3.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Removal</span>
+
+
+ <span class="delete">derivationByRemovalFromExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">derivedByRemovalFrom</span> 
+ <span class="delete">(</span>
+ <span class="delete">identifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+  <span class="delete">{</span>
+  <span class="delete">keySet</span>
+   <span class="delete">}</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+  <span class="delete">)</span>
+  
+
+
+
+    <span class="delete"> derivedByRemovalFrom(id, c3, c, {"k1", "k3"}, [])  
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here
+    </span><span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete"> is the optional removal</span><span class="insert">an entity</span> identifier,
+  <span class="name"><span class="delete">c1</span><span class="insert">ex:b1</span></span> is the   identifier for <span class="delete">the collection after the removal,
+  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection before the removal,
+  </span><span class="delete"> {("k1", v1), ("k2", v2)}</span><span class="delete"> is the set of key-value pairs that have been removed from
+  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
+    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="insert">a bundle
+</span></p><span class="delete">
+  The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+  </span><span class="delete">   derivedByRemovalFrom(c3, c1, {"k1", "k3"})               
+   derivedByRemovalFrom(c3, c1, {"k1"})               
+   derivedByRemovalFrom(c3, c1, {"k1", "k3"}, [])               
+</span>
+  </div>
+
 
 
 
@@ -1912,78 +3433,159 @@
 </div>
 
 
+<span class="delete">3.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span>
+
+
+ <span class="delete">membershipExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">isMemberOf</span> 
+ <span class="delete">(</span>
+ <span class="delete">identifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span>
+ <span class="delete">,</span>
+  <span class="delete">{</span>
+  <span class="delete">keyValuePairs</span>
+   <span class="delete">}</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+  <span class="delete">)</span>
+  
+
+
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+    <span class="delete">   memberOf(mid, c, {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)}, [])
+  </span>
+<span class="delete">  Here
+    </span><span class="delete">mid</span><span class="delete"> is the optional membership identifier,
+  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is the  identifier for the collection whose membership is stated,
+  </span><span class="delete"> {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)}</span><span class="delete"> is the set of key-value pairs that are members of 
+  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">,
+    and </span><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="delete"> is the optional (empty) set of attributes. </span><span class="delete">  
+The remaining examples show cases where some of the optionals are omitted.
+
+
+  </span><span class="delete">   memberOf(c3, {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)})
+   memberOf(c3, {("k4", v4)})
+   memberOf(c3, {("k4", v4), ("k5", v5)},[])  
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+
+   
+
+
+
 
 <div id="component6" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</h3>
-
-
-
-
-
+<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Component 6: <span class="delete">Annotations</span><span class="insert">Collections</span></h3>
+    
+
+
+
+<div id="expression-collection" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Note</span><span class="insert">Collection</span></h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">noteExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=</span>
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">
+PROV-N provides no dedicated syntax for Collection and EmptyCollection. Instead, a Collection or an EmptyCollection </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be expressed as an
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entityExpression"><span class="insert">entityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> with attribute</span> 
+<span class="delete">note</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">identifier</span>
+<span class="delete">optional-attribute-values</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span><span id="provn-type-Collection"><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Collection'</span></code></span><span class="insert">, or
+</span><span id="provn-type-EmptyCollection"><code><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection'</span></code></span><span class="insert">, respectively.</span></p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">note(ann1,[ex:color="blue", ex:screenX=20, ex:screenY=30])
+</span>
+
+
+    
 
 <div id="expression-collection-membership" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Membership</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.6.2 </span><span class="delete">Annotation</span><span class="insert">Membership</span></h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">annotationExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-membershipExpression" name="prod-membershipExpression"></a>[<span class="prodNo">27</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">membershipExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"memberOf"</span><span class="insert">"hadMembers"</span> "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier">cIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entitySet">entitySet</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-complete">complete</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-complete" name="prod-complete"></a>[<span class="prodNo">28</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">complete</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( "," ( "true" | "false" | "-" ) )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-entitySet" name="prod-entitySet"></a>[<span class="prodNo">29</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">entitySet</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"{" (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span>)* "}"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-membershipExpression" name="prod-membershipExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">27</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">membershipExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"hadMember" "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier"><span class="insert">cIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Membership maps to a <span class="delete">non-terminal.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
+<p><span class="insert">The following table summarizes how each constituent of a PROV-DM Membership maps to a PROV-N syntax element.</span></p>
 <div style="text-align: left; ">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Collection Membership</b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Membership</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Non-Terminal</span></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.id"><span class="attribute" id="membership.id">id</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier">optionalIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.collection"><span class="attribute" id="membership.collection">collection</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier">cIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.entity-set"><span class="attribute" id="membership.entity-set">entity-set</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-entitySet">entitySet</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.complete"><span class="attribute" id="membership.complete">complete</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-complete">complete</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.attributes"><span class="attribute" id="membership.attributes">attributes</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs">optionalAttributeValuePairs</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.collection"><span class="attribute" id="membership.collection"><span class="insert">collection</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-cIdentifier"><span class="insert">cIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#membership.member"><span class="attribute" id="membership.member"><span class="insert">member</span></span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></code></td></tr>
+
+
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_32"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_32">Example <span class="delete">30</span><span class="insert">32</span></a></div>
-    <pre class="codeexample">   <span class="delete">memberOf(mId,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(mId,</span> c, {e1, e2, e3}, <span class="delete">[])</span><span class="insert">true, [prov:label="A beautiful collection"])</span>   // Collection membership
-  </pre>
-<p>  Here
-    <span class="name">mId</span> is the optional membership identifier,
-  <span class="name">c</span> is the  identifier for the collection whose membership is stated,
-  <span class="name"> {e1, e2, e3}</span> is the entity-set indicating the members of 
-  <span class="name">c</span>,
-    <span class="name"><span class="insert">true</span></span><span class="insert"> is the complete flag indicating that the collection member is believed to be closed,
-    </span>and <span class="name"><span class="delete">[]</span><span class="insert">[prov:label="A beautiful collection"]</span></span> is the optional <span class="delete">(empty) </span>set of attributes. </p>  
-  
-
-<p>
-In the remaining examples,  some of the optionals are omitted.
-
-</p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1})
-<span class="delete">memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1,e2})<span class="delete">     // default "complete" flag is false
-memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">     
-hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1,e2}, false)
-<span class="delete">memberOf(c3,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3,</span> {e1,e2}, true)
-<span class="delete">memberOf(c3, ,[])  
-memberOf(c3, ,true,</span><span class="insert">hadMembers(c3, {},</span> [])  
-<span class="insert">hadMembers(c3, {}, true, [])  // c3 is effectively of type EmptyCollection
-</span></pre>
-</div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_32"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_32"><span class="insert">Example 32</span></a></div>
+    <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">   hadMember(c, e1)   // c contained e1
+   hadMember(c, e2)   // c contained e2 
+  </span></pre>
+<p><span class="insert">  Here
+  </span><span class="name"><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span>
+<span class="delete">(</span>
+<span class="delete">identifier</span>
+<span class="delete">,</span>
+<span class="delete">nIdentifier</span>
+<span class="delete">)</span>
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">hasAnnotation(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex2:n1)
+</span><span class="delete">
+  Here
+   </span><span class="delete">ex2:n1</span><span class="insert">c</span></span> is the  identifier for <span class="delete">a note of the entity identified by</span><span class="insert">the collection whose membership is stated, and</span> 
+  <span class="name"><span class="delete">(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete">.
+</span><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> are the entities that are members of collection c 
+
+
+</span></p></div>
+
+
+
 
 </div>
 
 
-</div>   
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+   
 
 
 
@@ -1996,38 +3598,69 @@
 This section defines further expressions of PROV-N.
 
 
-
-
 <div id="expression-identifier" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Identifier</h4>
-
-<p>Various kinds of identifiers are used in productions.</p>
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span><span class="delete">Namespace Declaration</span>
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+ |  </span><span class="delete">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">namespaceDeclaration</span>  <span class="delete">namespaceDeclaration</span>
+<span class="delete">namespaceDeclaration</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">prefix</span> <span class="delete">prefix</span> <span class="delete">IRI</span>
+<span class="delete">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+ </span><span class="delete">default</span> <span class="delete">IRI</span> 
+
+
+<span class="delete">In PROV-N, the following prefixes are reserved:
+</span>
+  <span class="delete">prov</span><span class="delete">  denotes the PROV namespace with URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>
+  <span class="delete">xsd</span><span class="delete"> denotes the XML Schema namespace with URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</span><span class="delete">.
+</span>
+
+<span class="delete">A PROV-N document </span><span class="delete">must not</span><span class="delete"> redeclare prefixes </span><span class="delete">prov</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">xsd</span><span class="delete">.</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes </span><span class="delete">ex1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex2</span><span class="delete">.</span>
+<span class="delete">container
+  default &lt;http://example.org/0/&gt;
+  prefix ex1 &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
+  prefix ex2 &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
+...
+end
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">3.7.2 </span>Identifier</h4>
+
+<p><span class="insert">Various kinds of identifiers are used in productions.</span></p>
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifier" name="prod-eIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">30</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">eIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifier" name="prod-aIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">31</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">aIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifier" name="prod-agIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">32</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">agIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifier" name="prod-gIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">33</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">gIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifier" name="prod-uIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">34</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">uIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-cIdentifier" name="prod-cIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">36</span><span class="insert">35</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">cIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bIdentifier" name="prod-bIdentifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">35</span><span class="insert">36</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">dIdentifier</span><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-
-
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">37</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">bIdentifier</span><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><span class="delete">identifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-
-
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">38</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">eIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">39</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">aIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">40</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">agIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifier"><span class="insert">gIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"></a>[<span class="prodNo">41</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">gIdentifierOrMarker</span><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><span class="delete">gIdentifier</span><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifier"><span class="insert">uIdentifier</span></a></span> | "-" )</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifier" name="prod-identifier"></a>[<span class="prodNo">42<span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">uIdentifierOrMarker</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( </span><span class="delete">uIdentifier</span><span class="delete"> | "-" )</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">43</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">identifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifier" name="prod-eIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">28</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifier" name="prod-aIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">29</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifier" name="prod-agIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">30</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifier" name="prod-gIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">31</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">gIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifier" name="prod-uIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">32</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">uIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-cIdentifier" name="prod-cIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">33</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">cIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bIdentifier" name="prod-bIdentifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">34</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">bIdentifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifier"><span class="insert">identifier</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-eIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">35</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">eIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-eIdentifier"><span class="insert">eIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-aIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">36</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">aIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-aIdentifier"><span class="insert">aIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-agIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">37</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">agIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-agIdentifier"><span class="insert">agIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-gIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">38</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">gIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-gIdentifier"><span class="insert">gIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker" name="prod-uIdentifierOrMarker"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">39</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">uIdentifierOrMarker</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-uIdentifier"><span class="insert">uIdentifier</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "-" )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-identifier" name="prod-identifier"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">40</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">identifier</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
 <p>
 A <dfn id="dfn-qualifiedName">qualified name</dfn> is a name subject to <a>namespace</a> interpretation. It consists of a <a>namespace</a>, denoted by an optional prefix, and a local name.
-The PROV data model  stipulates that a qualified name can be mapped into an IRI
+The PROV data model  stipulates that a qualified name can be mapped <span class="delete">into</span><span class="insert">to</span> an IRI
  by concatenating the IRI associated with the prefix and the local part.
 <span class="insert">  This section provides the exact details of this procedure for qualified names defined by PROV-N. </span></p>
 
@@ -2036,11 +3669,31 @@
  <span class="delete">refers</span><span class="insert">belongs</span> to the <a title="default namespace declaration">default namespace</a>.</p>
 
 
-
-
-<p>A <span class="delete">PROV</span><span class="insert">PROV-N</span> qualified name<span class="insert"> (production</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code><span class="insert">)</span> has a more permissive syntax then XML's <code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-QName">QName</a></code> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>]
-and SPARQL <code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115/#rPrefixedName">PrefixedName</a></code> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</a></cite>].<span class="delete"> It is</span><span class="insert"> 
-A </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consists of</span> a <span class="insert">prefix and a local part. Prefixes follow the production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert"> defined by SPARQL [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]. Local parts have to be conformant with </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">, which extends the original SPARQL </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> definition 
+<span class="delete">identifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span>
+<span class="delete">eIdentifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span>  <span class="delete">(intended to denote an entity)</span>
+<span class="delete">aIdentifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span>  <span class="delete">(intended to denote an activity)</span>
+<span class="delete">agIdentifier</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span>  <span class="delete">(intended to denote an agent)</span>
+<span class="delete">gIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote</span>
+
+
+
+
+<p><span class="insert">A PROV-N qualified name (production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert">) has</span> a <span class="delete">generation)</span>
+<span class="delete">uIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote a usage)</span>
+<span class="delete">nIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote a note)</span>
+<span class="delete">cIdentifier</span><span class="delete">::=  </span><span class="delete">identifier</span> <span class="delete">(intended to denote a collection)</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= 
+</span>
+<span class="delete">prefix</span> <span class="delete">:</span>
+ <span class="delete">localPart</span><span class="delete">  | </span><span class="delete">:</span> <span class="delete">localPart</span>
+<span class="delete">prefix</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">a name without colon compatible with the </span><span class="delete">NC_NAME</span><span class="delete"> production</span><span class="insert">more permissive syntax then XML's </span><code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-QName"><span class="insert">QName</span></a></code> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES">XML-NAMES</a></cite>]
+<span class="delete">localPart</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">a name compatible with the
+</span><span class="delete">reference</span><span class="delete"> production</span><span class="insert">
+and SPARQL </span><code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115/#rPrefixedName"><span class="insert">PrefixedName</span></a></code> [<cite><span class="delete">RDFA-CORE</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span></a></cite><span class="delete">]</span>
+<span class="insert">]. 
+A </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consists of a prefix and a local part. Prefixes follow the production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert"> defined by SPARQL [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]. Local parts have to be conformant with </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">, which extends the original SPARQL </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> definition 
 by allowing further characters (see </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></code><span class="insert">):</span></p>
 <ul>
 <li><span class="insert"> an extra set of characters commonly encountered in IRIs;
@@ -2058,44 +3711,35 @@
 ')' (right bracket),
 ',' (comma),
 ':' (colon),
-';' (semi-colon),
+';' (semi-colon),   
 '"' (double quote),
 '[' (left square bracket),
-']' (right square bracket) are used by the </span>PROV <span class="delete">requirement that the concatenation of the namespace with the</span><span class="insert">notation as delimiters, they are not allowed in</span> local <span class="delete">part results</span><span class="insert">parts. 
-Instead, those characters permitted</span> in<span class="insert"> SPARQL
-</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert">,  are also allowed in </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> if they are escaped by the '\' (backslash character) as per production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></code><span class="insert">. Furthermore, '.' (dot), ':' (colon), '-' (hyphen) can also be \-escaped.</span></p>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A PROV-N qualified name </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> can be mapped to</span> a valid IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite><span class="delete">]. Given that 
-',' (comma),
-';' (semi-colon),
-'=' (equal),
-'(' (left bracket),
-')' (right bracket),
-'[' (left square bracket),
-']' (right square bracket) are used</span><span class="insert">]</span> by <span class="delete">the PROV notation as delimiters, they are not allowed in</span><span class="insert">concatenating the namespace denoted  its</span> local <span class="delete">parts. Instead, they can be %-escaped or incorporated in the IRI denoted by a prefix.
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Qualified names </span><span class="delete">QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="delete"> consist of a prefix and a local part. Prefixes follow the production</span><span class="insert">name</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a></code> <span class="delete">defined by SPARQL [</span><span class="delete">RDF-SPARQL-QUERY</span><span class="delete">]. Local parts have </span>to <span class="delete">be conformant with</span><span class="insert">the local name</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL">PN_LOCAL</a></code>, <span class="delete">which extends the original SPARQL </span><span class="delete">PN_LOCAL</span><span class="delete"> definition</span><span class="insert">whose \-escaped characters have been unescaped</span> by <span class="delete">allowing further characters and %-escaped charaters (see </span><span class="delete">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span><span class="delete">).</span><span class="insert">dropping the character '\' (backslash).</span></p>
+']' (right square bracket) are used by the PROV notation as delimiters, they are not allowed in local parts. 
+Instead, among those characters, those that are permitted in SPARQL
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></code><span class="insert">  are also allowed in </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> if they are escaped by the '\' (backslash character) as per production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></code><span class="insert">. Furthermore, '.' (dot), ':' (colon), '-' (hyphen) can also be \-escaped.</span></p>
+
+
+
+<p>A <span class="delete">PROV</span><span class="insert">PROV-N</span> qualified name <span class="delete">has a more permissive syntax then XML's </span><span class="delete">QName</span><span class="delete"> [</span><span class="delete">XML-NAMES</span><span class="delete">] since it allows any syntax for its local part provided that the concatenation with the namespace results in</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> can be mapped to</span> a valid IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite><span class="delete">]. </span><span class="insert">] by concatenating the namespace denoted  its local name </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert"> to the local name </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">, whose \-escaped characters have been unescaped by dropping the character '\' (backslash).</span></p>
+
+
 
  
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">59</span><span class="insert">62</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">QUALIFIED_NAME</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a></span> ":" )? <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL">PN_LOCAL</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX">PN_PREFIX</a></span> ":"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_LOCAL" name="prod-PN_LOCAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">60</span><span class="insert">63</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">PN_LOCAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS_U">PN_CHARS_U</a></span> | [0-9] | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</a></span> ) ( ( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a></span> | "." | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</a></span> )* ( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS">PN_CHARS</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</a></span> ) )?</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS" name="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">61</span><span class="insert">64</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"/"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "@"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "~"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "&amp;"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "+"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "*"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "?"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "#"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "$"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "!"</span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PERCENT">PERCENT</a></span><br> | <span class="delete">"/"</span><span class="delete"> | "@"</span><span class="delete"> | "~"</span><span class="delete"> | "&amp;"</span><span class="delete"> | "+"</span><span class="delete"> | "?"</span><span class="delete"> | "#"</span><span class="delete"> | "$"</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_ESC" name="prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">62</span><span class="insert">65</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"\" ( "=" | "'" | "(" | ")" | "," | "-" | ":" | ";" | "[" | "]" | "." )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PERCENT" name="prod-PERCENT"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">66</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">PERCENT</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"%" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX">HEX</a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX">HEX</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-HEX" name="prod-HEX"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">63</span><span class="insert">67</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">HEX</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">[0-9]<br> | [A-F]<br> | [a-f]</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">61</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":" )? </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_LOCAL"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ":"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_LOCAL" name="prod-PN_LOCAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">62</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_LOCAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS_U"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_U</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | [0-9] | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ) ( ( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | "." | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* ( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_CHARS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ) )?</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS" name="prod-PN_CHARS_OTHERS"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">63</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_OTHERS</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"/"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "@"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "~"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "&amp;"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "+"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "*"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "?"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "#"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "$"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "!"</span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PERCENT"><span class="insert">PERCENT</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PN_CHARS_ESC" name="prod-PN_CHARS_ESC"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">64</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PN_CHARS_ESC</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"\" ( "=" | "'" | "(" | ")" | "," | "-" | ":" | ";" | "[" | "]" | "." )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-PERCENT" name="prod-PERCENT"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">65</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">PERCENT</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"%" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX"><span class="insert">HEX</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-HEX"><span class="insert">HEX</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-HEX" name="prod-HEX"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">66</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">HEX</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">[0-9]</span><br><span class="insert"> | [A-F]</span><br><span class="insert"> | [a-f]</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name">Example <span class="delete">31</span><span class="insert">33</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name"><span class="insert">Example 33</span></a></div>
 <p>Examples of articles on the BBC Web site seen as  entities.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">bundle
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span>
   prefix bbc &lt;http://www.bbc.co.uk/&gt;
   prefix bbcNews &lt;http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/&gt;
 
@@ -2105,14 +3749,16 @@
 
   entity(bbcNews:)                      // an alternative way of referring to the bbc news site
 
-endBundle
+<span class="delete">end</span><span class="insert">endBundle</span>
 </pre>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name2">Example <span class="delete">32</span><span class="insert">34</span></a></div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name2"><span class="insert">Example 34</span></a></div>
 <p>Examples of entities with declared and default namespace.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">bundle
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span>
   default &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
   prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
 
@@ -2121,14 +3767,17 @@
   entity(ex:a/b)   //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/1/a/b
   entity(b)        //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/b
   entity(ex:1234)  //  corresponds to IRI <span class="delete">http://example.org/2/1234</span><span class="insert">http://example.org/1/1234</span>
-  entity(4567)     //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/4567<span class="insert">
+  entity(4567)     //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/4567<span class="delete">
+end</span><span class="insert">
   entity(c/)       //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/2/c/
   entity(ex:/)     //  corresponds to IRI http://example.org/1//
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
+endBundle</span>
+</pre>
 </div>
 
 
+
+
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-qualified-name3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-qualified-name3"><span class="insert">Example 35</span></a></div>
 <p><span class="insert">Examples of \-escaped characters.</span></p>
 <pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle
@@ -2140,29 +3789,38 @@
   entity(ex:?fred\=fish%20soup)  // corresponds to IRI http://example.org/?fred=fish%20soup
 
   used(-;a1,e1,-)                // identifier not specified for usage  
-  used(\-;a1,e1,-)               // usage identifier corresponds to http://example.org/default-</span>
+  used(\-;a1,e1,-)               // usage identifier corresponds to http://example.org/default-
 endBundle
-</pre>
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 
-<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for<span class="insert"> the terminals</span>  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="delete">prefix</span><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code> are conflicting.<span class="insert">
+<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for <span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><span class="insert">the terminals  </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and <span class="delete">prefix</span>  <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code> are conflicting.<span class="insert">
 Indeed,</span>  <span class="insert">for a tokenizer operating independently of the parse tree, </span><code><span class="insert">abc</span></code><span class="insert"> matches both 
 </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> and
 </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code><span class="insert">.
-  </span>In the context of a <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code>, a <span class="delete">parser</span><span class="insert">tokenizer</span> should give<span class="delete"> precedence</span><span class="insert">  preference</span> to the production<span class="delete"> for</span> <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="delete">prefix</span><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code>.
+  </span>In the context of a <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code>, a <span class="delete">parser</span><span class="insert">tokenizer</span> should give<span class="delete"> precedence</span><span class="insert">  preference</span> to the production <span class="delete">for </span><span class="delete">prefix</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></code>.
 </p>
 
 
+<span class="delete">We need to explicitly disallow '</span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete">' as first and only character of local part. Instead, it should be encoded as </span><span class="delete">pct-encoded</span><span class="delete"> [</span><span class="delete">RFC3987</span><span class="delete">].
+</span>
+
 </div>
 
 <div id="expression-attribute" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Attribute</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.3</span><span class="insert">3.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</h4>
+
+
+
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attribute" name="prod-attribute"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">44</span><span class="insert">43</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">attribute</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-attribute" name="prod-attribute"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">41</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod">attribute<span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  </span><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span>
+
+
+</code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
@@ -2186,53 +3844,84 @@
 
 
 <div id="expression-literal" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.7.3 </span>Literal</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4</span><span class="insert">3.7.3</span> </span>Literal</h4>
+
+
+<span class="delete">Literal</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span>
 
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-literal" name="prod-literal"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">45</span><span class="insert">44</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">literal</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-typedLiteral">typedLiteral</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation">convenienceNotation</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-typedLiteral" name="prod-typedLiteral"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">46</span><span class="insert">45</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">typedLiteral</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></span> "%%" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-datatype" name="prod-datatype"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">47</span><span class="insert">46</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">datatype</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-literal" name="prod-literal"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">42</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">literal</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-typedLiteral">typedLiteral</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation">convenienceNotation </a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-typedLiteral" name="prod-typedLiteral"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">43</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">typedLiteral</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "%%" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype"><span class="insert">datatype</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-datatype" name="prod-datatype"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">44</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">datatype</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 <tbody><tr valign="baseline"><td></td><td></td><td></td></tr></tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-convenienceNotation" name="prod-convenienceNotation"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">48</span><span class="insert">47</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">convenienceNotation</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></span> (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rLANGTAG">LANGTAG</a></span>)?<br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-STRING_LITERAL" name="prod-STRING_LITERAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">64</span><span class="insert">68</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">STRING_LITERAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL2">STRING_LITERAL2</a></span><br> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL_LONG2">STRING_LITERAL_LONG2</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-INT_LITERAL" name="prod-INT_LITERAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">66</span><span class="insert">70</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">INT_LITERAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">("-")? (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT">DIGIT</a></span>)+</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">67</span><span class="insert">71</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td>&lt;<code class="production term">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</code>&gt;</td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"'" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span> "'"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-convenienceNotation" name="prod-convenienceNotation"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">45</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></span><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rLANGTAG"><span class="insert">LANGTAG</span></a></span><span class="insert">)?</span><br>
+<span class="delete">typedLiteral</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">quotedString</span> <span class="delete">%%</span> <span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-STRING_LITERAL" name="prod-STRING_LITERAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">67</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL2"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL2</span></a></span><br><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rSTRING_LITERAL_LONG2"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL_LONG2</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-INT_LITERAL" name="prod-INT_LITERAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">69</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">("-")? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-DIGIT"><span class="insert">DIGIT</span></a></span><span class="insert">)+</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="term"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL" name="prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">70</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&lt;</span><code class="production term"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</span></code><span class="insert">&gt;</span></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"'" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "'"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
-<p>In production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype</a></code>, the <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code> is used to denote a <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-value">PROV data type</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>].
-
-
-</p><p>The non terminals
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL">STRING_LITERAL</a></code>,
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code>, and
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</a></code>
-are syntactic sugar for quoted strings with datatype 
-<code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="name">xsd:string</span></a></code>,
-<code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int"><span class="name">xsd:int</span></a></code>, and
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</a></code>
+<p><span class="insert">In production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype">datatype
+<span class="delete">datatype</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">qualifiedName</span> <span class="delete"> listed in Table </span><span class="delete">permitted-datatypes</span>
+<span class="delete">convenienceNotation</span><span class="delete"> &nbsp;::= </span><span class="delete">stringLiteral</span><span class="delete"> | </span><span class="delete">intLiteral</span>
+<span class="delete">stringLiteral</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">quotedString</span>
+<span class="delete">quotedString</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span></a></code><span class="insert">, the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is used to denote </span>a <span class="delete">finite sequence of characters in which " (#x22) and \ (#x5C) occur only in pairs of the form \" (#x5C, #x22) and \\ (#x5C,
+#x5C), enclosed in a pair of " (#x22) characters</span>
+<span class="delete">intLiteral</span><span class="delete"> ::= </span><span class="delete">a finite-length non-empty sequence of decimal digits (#x30-#x39) with an optional leading negative sign (-)</span>
+
+
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-value"><span class="insert">PROV data type</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].
+
+
+</span></p><p>The non terminals <span class="delete">stringLiteral</span>
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-STRING_LITERAL"><span class="insert">STRING_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">,
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">,</span> and
+<span class="delete">intLiteral</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME_LITERAL</span></a></code>
+are syntactic sugar for quoted strings with datatype  
+<code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="name">xsd:string</span></a><span class="delete"> and </span></code><span class="insert">,
+</span><code class="content"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int"><span class="name">xsd:int</span></a></code>, <span class="insert">and
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code>
 respectively.
 </p>
 
 <p> In particular, a Literal may be an IRI-typed string (with datatype <span class="name">xsd:anyURI</span>);  such IRI has no specific interpretation in the context of PROV.</p>
 
 
-<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for <span class="insert">terminals </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="delete">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and
-<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code> are conflicting.<span class="delete">  In the context</span><span class="insert">  
-Indeed, for a tokenizer operating independently</span> of <span class="delete">a 
-</span><span class="delete">literal</span><span class="delete">, a parser should give precedence to the production for
-</span><span class="insert">the parse tree, </span><code><span class="insert">1234</span></code><span class="insert"> matches both </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL">INT_LITERAL</a></code><span class="insert"> and </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> (local name without prefix). In the context of
+<span class="delete">Permitted datatypes in literals</span>
+<span class="delete">xsd:decimal</span> <span class="delete">xsd:double</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:dateTime</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:integer</span> <span class="delete">xsd:float</span>  
+<span class="delete">xsd:nonNegativeInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:string</span> <span class="delete">rdf:XMLLiteral</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:nonPositiveInteger</span><span class="delete">xsd:normalizedString</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:positiveInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:token</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:negativeInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:language</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:long</span> <span class="delete">xsd:Name</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:int</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:NCName</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:short</span> <span class="delete">xsd:NMTOKEN</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:byte</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:boolean</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedLong</span> <span class="delete">xsd:hexBinary</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedInt</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:base64Binary</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedShort</span><span class="delete">xsd:anyURI</span> 
+<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedByte</span> <span class="delete">xsd:QName</span>
+
+
+
+
+
+<p><b>Note:</b>The productions for <span class="delete">qualifiedName</span><span class="insert">terminals </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code> and <span class="delete">intLiteral</span>
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code> are conflicting.<span class="insert">  
+Indeed, for a tokenizer operating independently of the parse tree, </span><code><span class="insert">1234</span></code><span class="insert"> matches both </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert"> and </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></code><span class="insert"> (local name without prefix). In the context of
 a </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-convenienceNotation"><span class="insert">convenienceNotation</span></a></code><span class="insert">, a tokenizer should give preference to the production
-</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code>. 
-</p>
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-INT_LITERAL"><span class="insert">INT_LITERAL</span></a></code><span class="insert">. 
+</span></p>
 
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-convenience"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-convenience"><span class="insert">Example 36</span></a></div>
 <p><span class="insert">
 The following examples illustrate convenience notations.</span></p>
 
 <p><span class="insert">The two following expressions are strings; if </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-datatype"><span class="insert">datatype</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is not specified, it is </span><code><span class="insert">xsd:string</span></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "abc" %% xsd:string
+<pre class="codeexample">  <span class="delete">In the context</span><span class="insert">"abc" %% xsd:string
   "abc"
 </span></pre>
 
@@ -2244,60 +3933,68 @@
   -1234
 </span></pre>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The two following expressions are qualified names. Values of type qualified name can be conveniently expressed within single quotes.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
-  'ex:value'
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value">Example <span class="delete">33</span><span class="insert">37</span></a></div>
-<p>
+<p><span class="insert">The two following expressions are qualified names. Values</span> of <span class="delete">a </span><span class="delete">Literal</span><span class="delete">, a parser should give precedence to the production for </span><span class="delete">intLiteral</span><span class="delete">.
+</span><span class="insert">type qualified name can be conveniently expressed within single quotes.</span></p>
+
+<span class="delete">
+Wouldn't it be useful to introduce a literal for a qualified name?
+Currenlty, we have to write:
+</span><span class="delete">prov:type="ex:Programmer"</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">  <span class="insert">"ex:value" </span>%% <span class="delete">xsd:QName</span><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
+  'ex:value'</span>
+</pre>
+<span class="delete">to indicate that ex:Programmer should be interpreted as qualified name (QName).
+Instead, we could have a notation such as
+</span><span class="delete">prov:type='ex:Programmer'</span></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value"><span class="insert">Example 37</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">
 The following examples respectively are the string "abc", the string (in French) "bonjour", the integer number 1, and the IRI "http://example.org/foo".
-</p><pre class="codeexample">  "abc"
+</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  "abc"
   "bonjour"@fr
   "1" %% xsd:integer
-  "http://example.org/foo" %% xsd:anyURI
+  "http://example.org/foo" %% xsd:anyURI</span>
 </pre>
-<span class="delete">The following example shows a value of type </span><span class="delete">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="delete"> (see
-</span><span class="delete">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span><span class="delete">).
-The prefix </span><span class="delete">ex</span>  <span class="delete">must</span><span class="delete"> be bound to a </span><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="delete"> declared in a </span><span class="delete">namespace declaration</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-<span class="delete"> 
-  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
-</span><span class="delete">
-Alternatively, the same value can be expressed using the following convenience notation.
-</span><span class="delete"> 
-  'ex:value'
-</span>
+
 
 </div>
 
 
 
+
+
+
 <div id="expression-types" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno">3.7.3.1 </span>Reserved Type Values</h5>
+<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.1</span> </span>Reserved Type Values</h5>
 
 <p>The  reserved type values in the PROV namespace are the following.<span class="insert">
 Their meaning is defined [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] (see </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">Section 5.7.2.4: prov:type</span></a><span class="insert">).
 </span></p>
 
 <ol>
-<li>  <span class="name">prov:Bundle</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Collection</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Organization</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Person</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Plan</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Quotation</span>
-</li><li>  <span class="name">prov:Revision</span>
+<li>  <span class="name"><span class="delete">prov:Account</span><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyCollection</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Organization</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Person</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Plan</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:PrimarySource</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Quotation</span></span>
+</li><li>  <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Revision</span></span>
 </li><li>  <span class="name">prov:SoftwareAgent</span>
-</li></ol>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-types"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-types">Example <span class="delete">34</span><span class="insert">38</span></a></div>
-<p>The agent <span class="name">ag</span> is a person (type: <span class="name">prov:Person</span>), whereas the entity 
+</li>  <span class="delete">prov:Person</span>
+  <span class="delete">prov:Organization</span>
+  <span class="delete">prov:Plan</span>
+  <span class="delete">prov:Collection</span>
+  <span class="delete">prov:EmptyCollection</span>
+</ol>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-types"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-types"><span class="insert">Example 38</span></a></div>
+<p>The <span class="delete">entity</span><span class="insert">agent</span> <span class="name">ag</span> is a person (type: <span class="name">prov:Person</span>), whereas the entity 
 <span class="name">pl</span> is a plan (type: <span class="name">prov:Plan</span>).</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">agent(ag,  [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-entity(pl, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' ])
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">agent(ag,[prov:type="prov:Person" %% xsd:QName])
+entity(pl,[prov:type="prov:Plan" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">agent(ag,  [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+entity(pl, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' ])</span>
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -2305,19 +4002,16 @@
 </div>
 
 <div id="expression-Time" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno">3.7.3.2 </span>Time Values</h5>
-
-<p><dfn id="dfn-time">Time instants</dfn> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>].</p> 
+<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">3.7.3.2</span> </span>Time Values</h5>
+
+<p><dfn id="dfn-time">Time instants</dfn> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite>].</p> 
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-time" name="prod-time"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">49</span><span class="insert">48</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">time</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><span class="delete">ISODATETIME</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">68</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">&lt;</span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete">&gt;</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">[0-9]</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">69</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">&lt;</span><span class="delete">ISODATETIME</span><span class="delete">&gt;</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> "-" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> "-" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> "T" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ":" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ":" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ( "." </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ( </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete">)? )? )? ( "Z" | </span><span class="delete">TIMEZONEOFFSET</span><span class="delete"> )?</span>  
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">70</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">&lt;</span><span class="delete">TIMEZONEOFFSET</span><span class="delete">&gt;</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">( "+" | "-" ) </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><span class="delete"> ":" </span><span class="delete">DIGIT</span> <span class="delete">DIGIT</span><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nt-dateTimeRep"><span class="insert">DATETIME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-time" name="prod-time"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">46</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">time</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nt-dateTimeRep"><span class="insert">DATETIME</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-time"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-time">Example <span class="delete">35</span><span class="insert">39</span></a></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-time"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-time"><span class="insert">Example 39</span></a></div>
 
 <p>The third argument in the following usage expression is a time instance, namely 4pm on 2011-11-16.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">used(ex:act2, ar3:0111, 2011-11-16T16:00:00)
@@ -2336,63 +4030,60 @@
 
 
 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ 
+
+
+
+
+
+
 <div id="expression-NamespaceDeclaration" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno">3.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</h4>
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.7.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespace Declaration</span></h4>
 
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclarations" name="prod-namespaceDeclarations"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">50</span><span class="insert">49</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namespaceDeclarations</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">( <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</a></span> | <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></span> ) (<span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></span>)*</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclaration" name="prod-namespaceDeclaration"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">51</span><span class="insert">50</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">namespaceDeclaration</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"prefix" <span class="prod"><span class="delete">QUALIFIED_NAME</span><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespace">namespace</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" name="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"></a>[<span class="prodNo"><span class="delete">53</span><span class="insert">51</span></span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"default" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespace" name="prod-namespace"></a>[<span class="prodNo">52</span>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="delete">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span><span class="insert">namespace</span></code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="delete">"default" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF">IRI_REF</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclarations" name="prod-namespaceDeclarations"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">47</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ) (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></span><span class="insert">)*</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespaceDeclaration" name="prod-namespaceDeclaration"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">48</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"prefix" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">PN_PREFIX</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespace"><span class="insert">namespace</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" name="prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">49</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"default" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-namespace" name="prod-namespace"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">50</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">namespace</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rIRI_REF"><span class="insert">IRI_REF</span></a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
-<p>A <code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration">namespaceDeclaration</a></code> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this declaration <span class="delete">refers</span><span class="insert">belongs</span> to this namespace. <span class="insert"> 
+<p><span class="insert">A </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this declaration belongs to this namespace. 
 A </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">defaultNamespaceDeclaration</span></a></code><span class="insert"> consists of a namespace. Every qualified name without prefix in the scope of this declaration belongs to this namespace. Scope of a declaration is specified as follows:</span></p>
 <ul>
-<li> 
-The scope of a namespace declaration <span class="delete">is the </span><span class="insert">directly occurring in a </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a><span class="delete"> or </span></code><span class="insert"> is the </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> itself;</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert"> 
+The scope of a namespace declaration directly occurring in a </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is the </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> itself;</span></li>
 <li><span class="insert">
-the scope of a namespace declaration directly occurring in a </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">toplevel bundle</a><span class="delete"> in which</span></code><span class="insert"> is the </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> itself, except and </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code> it <span class="delete">directly occurs.</span><span class="insert">may contain.</span></li>
+the scope of a namespace declaration directly occurring in a </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> is the </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> itself, except and </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> it may contain.</span></li>
 </ul>
 
 <p><span class="insert">A set of namespace declarations </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><span class="insert">must not</span></em><span class="insert"> re-declare the same prefix.</span></p>
 
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">In PROV-N, the following</span><span class="insert">A namespace declaration </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><span class="insert">must not</span></em><span class="insert"> declare</span> prefixes <span class="delete">are reserved:
-</span>
-  <span class="name">prov</span><span class="delete">  denotes the PROV namespace with URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>
-  <span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name">xsd</span><span class="delete"> denotes the XML Schema namespace with URI</span>  <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">A PROV-N document </span><span class="delete">must not</span><span class="delete"> redeclare prefixes </span><span class="delete">prov</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">xsd</span><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert">(see </span><a href="#namespace-table"><span class="insert">Table 1</span></a><span class="insert"> for their IRI).</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-namespace">Example <span class="delete">36</span><span class="insert">40</span></a></div>
-<p>The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes <span class="name">ex1</span> and <span class="name">ex2</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">bundle
+<p><span class="insert">A namespace declaration </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclaration</span></a></code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not"><span class="insert">must not</span></em><span class="insert"> declare prefixes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd</span></span><span class="insert">  (see </span><a href="#namespace-table"><span class="insert">Table 1</span></a><span class="insert"> for their IRI).</span></p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-namespace"><span class="insert">Example 40</span></a></div>
+<p><span class="insert">The following example declares three namespaces, one default, and two with explicit prefixes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle
   default &lt;http://example.org/0/&gt;
   prefix ex1 &lt;http://example.org/1/&gt;
   prefix ex2 &lt;http://example.org/2/&gt;
 ...
 endBundle
-</pre>
+</span></pre>
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-
-
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-namespace-scope"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-namespace-scope"><span class="insert">Example 41</span></a></div>
 <p><span class="insert">In the following example, a toplevel bundle declares a default namespace and the occurrence of
 </span><code><span class="insert">e001</span></code><span class="insert"> directly occurring in the toplevel bundle refers to that namespace.
@@ -2420,23 +4111,71 @@
 
 
 
-
-
- 
+<div id="semantic-rules-summary" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3.7.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Summary of additional semantic rules</span></h4><span class="insert">
+
+Some of the grammar productions allow for expressions that are syntactically correct, and yet according to [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] they are not acceptable, because additional semantic rules are defined for those expressions.
+ The following table provides a summary of such expressions along with examples of syntactically correct but unacceptable forms, and the additional semantic rules.</span><p></p>
+
+<div style="text-align: left;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="validity-rules-table"><span class="insert">Summary of additional semantic rules for grammar productions</span></caption>
+<tbody><tr><td><a href="#dfn-production" class="internalDFN"><b><span class="insert">Production</span></b></a></td>
+     <td><b><span class="insert">Examples of syntactically correct expressions</span></b></td>
+     <td><b><span class="insert">Additional semantic rule</span></b></td>
+</tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-generationExpression"><span class="insert">Generation expression</span></a></td>
+    <td><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e2, -, -)</span></span><br><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span></span></td>
+    <td><span class="insert">At least one  of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.activity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></td>  
+</tr>
+<tr><td><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-usageExpression"><span class="insert">Usage expression</span></a></td>
+<td><span class="name"><span class="insert">used(a2, -, -)</span></span><br><span class="name"><span class="insert">used(-; a2, -, -)</span></span></td>
+<td><span class="insert">At least one  of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.entity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present</span></td>
+</tr><tr>
+<td><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-startExpression"><span class="insert">Start expression</span></a></td>
+<td> <span class="name"><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(e2, -, -, -)</span></span><br><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(-; e2, -, -, -)</span></span></td>
+<td><span class="insert">At least one  of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.trigger"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.starter"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">starter</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#start.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present</span></td>
+</tr><tr>
+
+</tr><tr>
+<td><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-endExpression"><span class="insert">End expression</span></a></td>
+<td><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(e2, -, -, -)</span></span><br><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(-; e2, -, -, -)</span></span></td>
+<td><span class="insert">At least one  of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.trigger"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.ender"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">ender</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#end.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present</span></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-invalidationExpression"><span class="insert">Invalidation expression</span></a></td>
+<td><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(e2, -, -)</span></span>  <br><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(-; e2, -, -)</span></span></td>
+<td><span class="insert">At least one  of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">activity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a> <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present</span></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-associationExpression"><span class="insert">Association expression</span></a></td>
+<td><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(a, -, -)</span></span> <br><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(-; a, -, -)</span></span></td>
+<td><span class="insert">At least one of </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.agent"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a><span class="insert">,  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.plan"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">plan</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/#association.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present</span></td>
+</tr>
+
+</tbody></table>
 </div>
 </div>
 
+</div>
+
+
+</div>  
+
 
 
 
 
 <div id="toplevelBundle" class="section">
-<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Toplevel Bundle</h2>
-
-<p>A <dfn id="dfn-toplevel-bundle">toplevel bundle</dfn> is a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N <a title="expression">expressions</a> and namespace declarations.  A toplevel bundle forms a self-contained package of provenance descriptions for the purpose of <em>exchanging</em> them.  A toplevel bundle may be used
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span><span class="delete">Expression Container</span><span class="insert">Toplevel Bundle</span></h2>
+
+<p><span class="delete">An </span><span class="delete">expression container</span><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-toplevel-bundle"><span class="insert">toplevel bundle</span></dfn> is a house-keeping construct of PROV-N capable of packaging up PROV-N <a title="expression">expressions</a> and namespace declarations.  <span class="delete">An expression container</span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle</span> forms a self-contained package of provenance descriptions for the purpose of <em>exchanging</em> them.  <span class="delete">An expression container</span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle</span> may be used
  to  package up PROV-N <a title="record">expressions</a> in response to a request for the provenance of something ([<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]).</p>
 
-<p> Given its status of house keeping construct for the purpose of exchanging provenance expressions,  a toplevel bundle is not defined as a PROV-N expression (production <code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression</a></code>).</p> 
+<p> Given its status of house keeping construct for the purpose of exchanging provenance expressions,  <span class="delete">an</span><span class="insert">a toplevel bundle is not defined as a PROV-N</span> expression <span class="delete">container is not defined as a PROV-N </span><span class="insert">(production </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression<span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">production </span><span class="delete">expression</span></a></code>).</p> 
 
 
  
@@ -2445,41 +4184,48 @@
 
 
 
-<p>A toplevel <span class="delete">bundle, written </span><span class="insert">bundle's text matches the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle">bundle<span class="delete"> decls exprs bundles endBundle</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production.</span></p>
+<p><span class="delete">An </span><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle's text matches the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bundle"><span class="insert">bundle</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production.</span></p>
 
 <table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bundle" name="prod-bundle"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">1</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">bundle</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"bundle" (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "endBundle"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-bundle" name="prod-bundle"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">1</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">bundle</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"bundle" (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></span><span class="insert">)? (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression">expression<span class="delete"> container, written </span><span class="delete">container decls  exprs endContainer</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* (</span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></span><span class="insert">)* "endBundle"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 </table>
 
 <p><span class="insert">A toplevel bundle</span> contains:
 </p><ul>
 <li><em>namespaceDeclarations</em>: a set <span class="delete">decls</span> of namespace <span class="delete">declarations,</span><span class="insert">declarations </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namespaceDeclarations"><span class="insert">namespaceDeclarations</span></a></code><span class="insert">,</span> declaring namespaces and associated prefixes, which can be used in <a title="attribute">attributes</a> and  <a title="identifier">identifiers</a> occurring inside  <span class="name">exprs</span>;</li>
-<li><em>expressions</em>:  a <span class="delete">non-empty </span>set of expressions <span class="delete">exprs</span><span class="insert">matching </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code>;</li>
-<li><em>namedBundles</em>:  a  set of <span class="delete">bundle declarations</span> <span class="delete">bundles</span><span class="delete">;</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">A toplevel bundle's text matches the </span><span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete"> production.</span>
-
-
-  <span class="delete">[</span><span class="delete">1</span><span class="delete">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">bundle</span> <span class="delete">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span> <span class="delete">"bundle" (</span><span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span><span class="delete">)? (</span><span class="delete">expression</span><span class="delete">)* (</span>
-<code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a><span class="delete">)* "endBundle"</span>  
-</code><span class="insert">.</span></li>
+<li><em>expressions</em>:  a <span class="delete">non-empty </span>set of expressions <span class="delete">exprs</span><span class="insert">matching </span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-expression"><span class="insert">expression</span></a></code><span class="insert">;</span></li>
+<li><em><span class="insert">namedBundles</span></em><span class="insert">:  a  set of
+</span><code><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-namedBundle"><span class="insert">namedBundle</span></a></code>.</li>
 </ul>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">Thus, named bundles can occur inside a toplevel bundle. 
-Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the bundle identifier itself, </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that named bundle. In other words, named bundles do not inherit namespaces declarations from the toplevel bundle.
+
+
+<p><span class="delete">An expression container's text matches the </span><span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> production.</span><span class="insert">Thus, named bundles can occur inside a toplevel bundle. 
+Named bundles are self-contained: each identifier occuring in a named bundle, including the named bundle's identifier itself, </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be interpreted with respect to the namespace declarations of that named bundle. In other words, named bundles </span><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><span class="insert">should</span></em><span class="insert"> not inherit namespaces declarations from the toplevel bundle.
 </span></p>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_42"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_42">Example <span class="delete">37</span><span class="insert">42</span></a></div>
+<span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> ::=  
+</span><span class="delete">container</span> 
+<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span> 
+ <span class="delete">expression</span> 
+<span class="delete">endContainer</span> 
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_42"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_42"><span class="insert">Example 42</span></a></div>
+
+
+
 <p>
 The following <span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle</span> contains expressions related to the provenance of entity 
 <span class="name">e2</span>.
 </p>
-<pre class="codeexample">bundle
-  default &lt;http://anotherexample.org/&gt;
+<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">container</span><span class="insert">bundle
+  default &lt;http://anotherexample.org/&gt;</span>
   prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
 
   entity(e2, [ prov:type="File", ex:path="/shared/crime.txt", ex:creator="Alice", 
@@ -2487,9 +4233,9 @@
   activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, <span class="delete">-,[prov:type="edit"])</span><span class="insert">-, [prov:type="edit"])</span>
   wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, -, [ex:fct="save"])     
   wasAssociatedWith(a1, ag2, -, [prov:role="author"])
-  agent(ag2, [ <span class="delete">prov:type='prov:Person' ,</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Person',</span> ex:name="Bob" ])
-
-endBundle
+  agent(ag2, [ <span class="delete">prov:type="prov:Person" %% xsd:QName,</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Person',</span> ex:name="Bob" ])
+
+<span class="delete">endContainer</span><span class="insert">endBundle</span>
 </pre>
 <p>This container could for instance be returned as the result of a query to a provenance store for the provenance of entity <span class="name">e2</span> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>].  
 </p>
@@ -2499,14 +4245,10 @@
 
 </div>
 
-
-
-
-
 <div id="extensibility" class="section">
-<h2><span class="secno">5. </span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></h2>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The PROV data model is extensible by means of attributes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></span><span class="insert"> allowing subtyping of expressions.  For some applications, novel  syntax may also be convenient. Hence, the normative requirements are as follow.
+<h2><span class="secno">5. </span><span class="delete">Account</span><span class="insert">Extensibility</span></h2>
+
+<p>The PROV data model <span class="delete">has introduced</span><span class="insert">is extensible by means of attributes </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></span><span class="insert"> allowing subtyping of expressions.  For some applications, novel  syntax may also be convenient. Hence, the normative requirements are as follow.
 </span></p><ul>
 <li><span class="insert"> PROV-N compliant parsers </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be able to parse expressions matching the </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production defined below.
 </span></li><li><span class="insert"> As PROV provides no definition for these expressions, PROV compliant implementations 
@@ -2517,36 +4259,74 @@
 
 <table class="grammar">
 
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityExpression" name="prod-extensibilityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">53</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityArgument" name="prod-extensibilityArgument"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">54</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal"><span class="insert">literal</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time"><span class="insert">time</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityTuple"><span class="insert">extensibilityTuple</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityTuple" name="prod-extensibilityTuple"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">55</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityTuple</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"{" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* "}"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityExpression" name="prod-extensibilityExpression"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">51</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span><span class="insert"> "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalIdentifier"><span class="insert">optionalIdentifier</span></a></span> <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-optionalAttributeValuePairs"><span class="insert">optionalAttributeValuePairs</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityArgument" name="prod-extensibilityArgument"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">52</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">( </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-identifierOrMarker"><span class="insert">identifierOrMarker</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-literal"><span class="insert">literal</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-time"><span class="insert">time</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></span><span class="insert"> | </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityTuple"><span class="insert">extensibilityTuple</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr valign="baseline"> <td><a id="prod-extensibilityTuple" name="prod-extensibilityTuple"></a><span class="insert">[</span><span class="prodNo"><span class="insert">53</span></span><span class="insert">]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="production prod"><span class="insert">extensibilityTuple</span></code></td> <td><span class="insert">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></td> <td><code class="content"><span class="insert">"{" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* "}"</span><br><span class="insert"> | "(" </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> ( "," </span><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityArgument"><span class="insert">extensibilityArgument</span></a></span><span class="insert"> )* ")"</span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
 
 </table>
 
 <p><span class="insert">Expressions compatible with the
-</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production follow a general form of functional syntax, in which the predicate </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be a
-</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">qualifiedName</span></a></code><span class="insert">
+</span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production follow</span> a <span class="delete">notion</span><span class="insert">general form</span> of <span class="delete">account by</span><span class="insert">functional syntax, in</span> which <span class="insert">the predicate </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be </span>a<span class="delete"> set</span>
+<code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">qualifiedName</span></a></code><span class="insert">
 with a non-empty </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#rPN_PREFIX"><span class="insert">prefix</span></a></code><span class="insert">.</span></p>
 
 
 
 <div class="anexample" id="example_43"><div class="anexampleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_43"><span class="insert">Example 43</span></a></div>
 <p>
-<a href="#component6"><span class="insert">Collections</span></a><span class="insert"> are sets of entities, whose membership can be expressed using the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">hadMembers</span></span><span class="insert"> relation.  The following example shows how one can express membership for an extension of Collections, namely sets of key-value pairs. The notation is a variation of that used for Collections membership, in which the elements of the set are pairs. The name of the relation is qualified with the extension-specific namespace </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">http://example.org/dictionaries</span></span><span class="insert">.
+<a href="#component6"><span class="insert">Collections</span></a><span class="insert"> are sets</span> of <span class="delete">provenance descriptions</span><span class="insert">entities, whose membership</span> can be <span class="delete">bundled up and named.</span><span class="insert">expressed using the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">hadMember</span></span><span class="insert"> relation.</span>  The <span class="delete">PROV data model </span><span class="delete">assumes</span><span class="delete"> the existence</span><span class="insert">following example shows how one can express membership for an extension</span> of <span class="delete">mechanisms</span><span class="insert">Collections, namely sets of key-value pairs. The notation is a variation of that used for Collections membership, allowing multiple member elements</span> to <span class="delete">implement accounts, but such mechanisms remain outside its scope.</span><span class="insert">be declared, and in which the elements are pairs. The name of the relation is qualified with the extension-specific namespace </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">http://example.org/dictionaries</span></span><span class="insert">.
 </span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  prefix dictExt &lt;http://example.org/dictionaries&gt;
+<pre class="codeexample">  <span class="delete">It</span><span class="insert">prefix dictExt &lt;http://example.org/dictionaries&gt;
   dictExt:hadMembers(mId; d, {("k1",e1), ("k2",e2), ("k3",e3)}, []) 
 </span></pre><span class="insert">
 
-Note that the generic </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production  above allows for alternative notations to be used for expressing membership, if the designers of the extensions so desire. Here is an alternate syntax that is consistent with the productions:
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">  prefix dictExt &lt;http://example.org/dictionaries&gt;
-  dictExt:hadMembers(mid; d, dictExt:set(dictExt:pair("k1",e1), dictExt:pair("k2",e2), dictExt:pair("k3",e3)), 
-                            [dictExt:uniqueKeys="true"]) 
-</span></pre>
+Note that the generic </span><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-extensibilityExpression"><span class="insert">extensibilityExpression</span></a></code><span class="insert"> production  above allows for alternative notations to be used for expressing membership, if the designers of the extensions so desire. Here</span> is <span class="delete">suggested</span><span class="insert">an alternate syntax</span> that <span class="delete">specific serializations may offer solutions to name bundles of descriptions. </span>
+
+<span class="delete">Given that the primary motivation for PROV-N </span>is <span class="delete">to provide a notation aimed at human consumption, it is therefore appropriate to introduce a notation for accounts, which would include an account name and a bundle of expressions.</span>
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">An account, written </span><span class="delete">account(id, exprs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N, contains:</span>
+
+<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">: an identifier</span><span class="insert">consistent with the productions:
+</span><pre class="codeexample">  <span class="delete">that identifies this account;</span>
+<span class="delete">expressions</span><span class="delete">: a set </span><span class="delete">exprs</span><span class="delete"> of expressions;</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">In PROV-N, an account's text matches the </span><span class="delete">accountExpression</span><span class="delete"> production of the grammar.</span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">accountExpression</span><span class="delete">&nbsp;::=  
+</span><span class="delete">account</span><span class="insert">prefix dictExt &lt;http://example.org/dictionaries&gt;
+  dictExt:hadMembers(mid; d, dictExt:set(dictExt:pair("k1",e1), 
+                                         dictExt:pair("k2",e2), 
+                                         dictExt:pair("k3",e3)), 
+                            [dictExt:uniqueKeys="true"])</span> 
+<span class="delete">(</span> 
+<span class="delete">identifier</span> 
+<span class="delete">,</span> 
+
+<span class="delete">expression</span> 
+<span class="delete">)</span> 
+</pre>
 
   
 </div>
 
+<span class="delete">It is also useful to package up one or more account expressions in an expression container, for interchange purpose. Hence,  </span><span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> is revised as follows. </span>
+
+
+<span class="delete">expressionContainer</span><span class="delete"> ::=  
+</span><span class="delete">container</span> 
+<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span> 
+ <span class="delete">expression</span> 
+<span class="delete">endContainer</span>   <span class="delete">
+| </span><span class="delete">container</span> 
+<span class="delete">namespaceDeclarations</span> 
+ <span class="delete">accountExpression</span> 
+<span class="delete">endContainer</span>  
+
+
 
 
 
@@ -2554,52 +4334,94 @@
 
 
 
+
+<span class="delete">
+The following container </span>
+<span class="delete">container
+  prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
+
+  account(ex:acc1,...)
+  account(ex:acc2,...)
+endContainer
+</span>
+<span class="delete"> illustrates how two accounts with identifiers </span><span class="delete">ex:acc1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex:acc2</span><span class="delete"> can be returned in a PROV-N serialization of the provenance of
+something.
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+<span class="delete">
+The following container </span>
+<span class="delete">container
+  prefix ex &lt;http://example.org/&gt;
+  ...
+
+  account(ex:acc1,
+      entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type="pr:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName ])
+      entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="pr:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName ])
+      ...
+      wasAssociatedWith(ex:pub2, w3:Consortium, pr:rec-advance))
+
+  account(ex:acc2,
+      entity(ex:acc1, [prov:type="prov:Account" %% xsd:QName ])
+      wasAttributedTo(ex1:acc1, w3:Consortium))
+
+endContainer
+</span>
+<span class="delete"> illustrates a first account, with identifier </span><span class="delete">ex:acc1</span><span class="delete">, containing expressions describing the provenance  of the technical report </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete">, and a second account </span><span class="delete">ex:acc2</span><span class="delete">, describing the provenance of the first.  In account </span><span class="delete">ex:acc2</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">ex:acc1</span><span class="delete"> is the identifier of an entity of type </span><span class="delete">prov:Account</span><span class="delete">.
+</span>
+
+
+
+
+
 <div id="media-type" class="section">
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>Media Type</h2>
+<h2><span class="secno">6. </span>Media Type</h2>
 
 <p>
 The media type of PROV-N is <span class="name"><span class="delete">text/prov-n</span><span class="insert">text/provenance-notation</span></span>. The content encoding of PROV-N content is UTF-8.
 </p>
 
 
-<span class="delete">
-See </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype</span><span class="delete"> for Register an Internet Media Type for a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Spec.</span><span class="delete">
-Following text adapted from </span><span class="delete">turtle</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
+
+
 
 
  <dl> 
-      <dt>Contact:</dt> 
-      <dd>Ivan Herman</dd> 
-      <dt>See also:</dt> 
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype">How to Register a Media Type for a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Specification</a></dd> 
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2002/0129-mime">Internet Media Type registration, consistency of use</a><br>TAG Finding 3 June 2002 (Revised 4 September 2002)</dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Contact:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">Ivan Herman</span></dd> 
+      <dt>See <span class="insert">also:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype"><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2002/06/registering-mediatype</span><span class="delete"> for</span><span class="insert">How to</span> Register <span class="delete">an Internet</span><span class="insert">a</span> Media Type for a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Spec.</span><span class="insert">Specification</span></a></dd> 
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2002/0129-mime"><span class="insert">Internet Media Type registration, consistency of use</span></a><br><span class="insert">TAG Finding 3 June 2002 (Revised 4 September 2002)</span></dd> 
     </dl> 
-    <p>The Internet Media Type / MIME Type for PROV-N is <span class="delete">"text/prov-n".</span><span class="insert">"text/provenance-notation".</span></p> 
-    <p>It is recommended that PROV-N files have the extension <span class="delete">".pn"</span><span class="insert">".provn"</span> (all lowercase) on all platforms.</p> 
-    <p>It is recommended that PROV-N files stored on Macintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of "TEXT".</p> 
-    <p>This information that follows has been <a href="TBD">submitted to the IESG</a> for review, approval, and registration with IANA.</p> 
+    <p><span class="insert">The Internet Media Type / MIME Type for PROV-N is "text/provenance-notation".</span></p>
+ 
+    <p><span class="insert">It is recommended that PROV-N files have the extension ".provn" (all lowercase) on all platforms.</span></p> 
+    <p><span class="insert">It is recommended that PROV-N files stored on Macintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of "TEXT".</span></p> 
+    <p><span class="insert">This information that follows has been </span><a href="TBD"><span class="insert">submitted to the IESG</span></a><span class="insert"> for review, approval, and registration with IANA.</span></p> 
     <dl> 
-      <dt>Type name:</dt> 
-      <dd>text</dd> 
-      <dt>Subtype name:</dt> 
-      <dd><span class="delete">prov-n</span><span class="insert">provenance-notation</span></dd> 
-      <dt>Required parameters:</dt> 
-      <dd>None</dd> 
-      <dt>Optional parameters:</dt> 
-      <dd><tt>charset</tt> — this parameter is required when transferring non-ASCII data. If present, the value of <tt>charset</tt> is always <tt>UTF-8</tt>.</dd> 
-      <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt> 
-      <dd>The syntax of PROV-N is expressed over code points in Unicode [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE5">UNICODE5</a></cite>]. The encoding is always UTF-8 [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UTF-8">UTF-8</a></cite>].</dd> 
-      <dd>Unicode code points may also be expressed using an \uXXXX (U+0 to U+FFFF) or \UXXXXXXXX syntax (for U+10000 onwards) where X is a hexadecimal digit [0-9A-F]</dd> 
-      <dt>Security considerations:</dt> 
-      <dd>PROV-N is a general-purpose language for describing the provenance of things; applications may evaluate given data to infer more descriptions or to dereference URIs, invoking the security considerations of the scheme for that URI. Note in particular, the privacy issues in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023">RFC3023</a></cite>] section 10 for HTTP URIs. Data obtained from an inaccurate or malicious data source may lead to inaccurate or misleading conclusions, as well as the dereferencing of unintended URIs. Care must be taken to align the trust in consulted resources with the sensitivity of the intended use of the data; inferences of potential medical treatments would likely require different trust than inferences for trip planning.</dd> 
-      <dd>PROV-N is used to express <span class="insert">the provenance of </span>arbitrary application data; security considerations will vary by domain of use. Security tools and protocols applicable to text (e.g. PGP encryption, MD5 sum validation, password-protected compression) may also be used on PROV-N documents. Security/privacy protocols must be imposed which reflect the sensitivity of the embedded information.  </dd> 
-      <dd>PROV-N can express data which is presented to the user, for example, label attributes. Application rendering strings retrieved from untrusted PROV-N documents must ensure that malignant strings may not be used to mislead the reader. The security considerations in the media type registration for XML ([<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023">RFC3023</a></cite>] section 10) provide additional guidance around the expression of arbitrary data and markup.</dd> 
-      <dd>PROV-N <span class="insert">is a language for describing the provenance of things, and therefore a PROV-N document is metadata for other resources.  Untrusted PROV-N documents may mislead its consumers by indicating that a third-party resource has a reputable lineage, when it has not. Provenance of PROV-N document should be sought. </span></dd>
-      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N </span>uses qualified names mappeable to IRIs as term identifiers. Applications interpreting data expressed in PROV-N should address the security issues of
-  <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>] Section 8, as well as
-  <a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>] Section 7.</dd> 
-      <dd>Multiple IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Type name:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">text</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Subtype name:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">provenance-notation</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Required parameters:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">None</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Optional parameters:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><tt><span class="insert">charset</span></tt><span class="insert"> — this parameter is mandatory. The value of </span><tt><span class="insert">charset</span></tt><span class="insert"> is always </span><tt><span class="insert">UTF-8</span></tt><span class="insert">.</span></dd> 
+
+      <dt><span class="insert">Encoding considerations:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">The syntax of PROV-N is expressed over code points in Unicode [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE5"><span class="insert">UNICODE5</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]. The encoding is always UTF-8 [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UTF-8"><span class="insert">UTF-8</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></dd> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">Unicode code points may also be expressed using an \uXXXX (U+0 to U+FFFF) or \UXXXXXXXX syntax (for U+10000 onwards) where X is a hexadecimal digit [0-9A-F]</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Security considerations:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N is a general-purpose language for describing the provenance of things; applications may evaluate given data to infer more descriptions or to dereference URIs, invoking the security considerations of the scheme for that URI. Note in particular, the privacy issues in [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023"><span class="insert">RFC3023</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] section 10 for HTTP URIs. Data obtained from an inaccurate or malicious data source may lead to inaccurate or misleading conclusions, as well as the dereferencing of unintended URIs. Care must be taken to align the trust in consulted resources with the sensitivity of the intended use of the data.</span></dd> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N is used to express the provenance of arbitrary application data; security considerations will vary by domain of use. Security tools and protocols applicable to text (e.g. PGP encryption, MD5 sum validation, password-protected compression) may also be used on PROV-N documents. Security/privacy protocols must be imposed which reflect the sensitivity of the embedded information.  </span></dd> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N can express data which is presented to the user, for example, by means of label attributes. Application rendering strings retrieved from untrusted PROV-N documents must ensure that malignant strings may not be used to mislead the reader. The security considerations in the media type registration for XML ([</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3023"><span class="insert">RFC3023</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] section 10) provide additional guidance around the expression of arbitrary data and markup.</span></dd> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N is a language for describing the provenance of things, and therefore a PROV-N document is metadata for other resources.  Untrusted PROV-N documents may mislead its consumers by indicating that a third-party resource has a reputable lineage, when it has not. Provenance of PROV-N document should be sought. </span></dd>
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N uses qualified names mappeable to IRIs as term identifiers. Applications interpreting data expressed in PROV-N should address the security issues of
+  </span><a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><span class="insert">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] Section 8, as well as
+  </span><a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><span class="insert">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986"><span class="insert">RFC3986</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] Section 7.</span></dd> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">Multiple IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may 
 look similar (a Cyrillic "о" may appear similar to a Latin "o"). A character followed 
 by combining characters may have the same visual representation as another character 
 (LATIN SMALL LETTER E followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT has the same visual representation 
@@ -2607,36 +4429,36 @@
  
 Any person or application that is writing or interpreting data in PROV-N must take care to use the IRI that matches the intended semantics, and avoid IRIs that make look similar.
 Further information about matching of similar characters can be found 
-in <a class="inform" href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">Unicode Security 
-Considerations</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNISEC">UNISEC</a></cite>] and
-<a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">Internationalized Resource 
-Identifiers (IRIs)</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>] Section 8.
-</dd> 
+in </span><a class="inform" href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><span class="insert">Unicode Security 
+Considerations</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNISEC"><span class="insert">UNISEC</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] and
+</span><a class="norm" href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><span class="insert">Internationalized Resource 
+Identifiers (IRIs)</span></a><span class="insert"> [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] Section 8.
+</span></dd> 
  
-      <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt> 
-      <dd>There are no known interoperability issues.</dd> 
-      <dt>Published specification:</dt> 
-      <dd><span class="delete">This specification.</span><span class="insert">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation, Moreau, Missier, (eds), Cheney, Soiland-Reyes
+      <dt><span class="insert">Interoperability considerations:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">There are no known interoperability issues.</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Published specification:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation, Moreau, Missier, (eds), Cheney, Soiland-Reyes
       </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span></a></dd> 
-      <dt>Applications which use this media type:</dt> 
-      <dd>No widely deployed applications are known to use this media type. It may be used by some web services and clients consuming their data.</dd> 
-      <dt>Additional information:</dt> 
-      <dt>Magic number(s):</dt> 
-      <dd>PROV-N documents may have the strings 'bundle' near the beginning of the document.</dd> 
-      <dt>File extension(s):</dt> 
-      <dd><span class="delete">".pn"</span><span class="insert">".provn"</span></dd> 
-      <dt>Base URI:</dt> 
-      <dd><span class="delete">None</span><span class="insert">There are no constructs in the PROV-N Syntax to change the Base IRI.</span></dd> 
-      <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt> 
-      <dd>"TEXT"</dd> 
-      <dt>Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</dt> 
-      <dd><span class="delete">Ivan Herman, [email protected]</span><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></dd> 
-      <dt>Intended usage:</dt> 
-      <dd>COMMON</dd> 
-      <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt> 
-      <dd>None</dd> 
-      <dt>Author/Change controller:</dt> 
-      <dd>The PROV-N specification is the product of <span class="delete">Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier. A</span><span class="insert">the World Wide Web Consortium's PROV Working Group. The</span> <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Working Group may assume maintenance of</span><span class="insert">has change control over</span> this <span class="delete">document; </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> reserves change control over this specifications.</span><span class="insert">specification.</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Applications which use this media type:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">No widely deployed applications are known to use this media type. It may be used by some web services and clients consuming their data.</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Additional information:</span></dt> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Magic number(s):</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">PROV-N documents may have the strings 'bundle' near the beginning of the document.</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">File extension(s):</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">".provn"</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Base URI:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">There are no constructs in the PROV-N Syntax to change the Base IRI.</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Macintosh file type code(s):</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">"TEXT"</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Intended usage:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">COMMON</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Restrictions on usage:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">None</span></dd> 
+      <dt><span class="insert">Author/Change controller:</span></dt> 
+      <dd><span class="insert">The PROV-N specification is the product of the World Wide Web Consortium's PROV Working Group. The </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert"> has change control over this specification.</span></dd> 
     </dl> 
  
 </div>
@@ -2647,14 +4469,24 @@
 
 
 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
 <div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements"> 
       <h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
-      <p> 
+      <p><span class="delete"> 
+        WG membership to be listed here.
+      </span><span class="insert"> 
 
 This  document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. 
-      </p> 
-
-<p>
+      </span></p> 
+     
+
+<p><span class="insert">
 Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
 
 Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
@@ -2678,9 +4510,9 @@
 Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
 Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
 David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
-Sandro Hawke (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym>),
+Sandro Hawke (</span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert">/</span><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology"><span class="insert">MIT</span></acronym><span class="insert">),
 Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
-Ivan Herman, (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym>),
+Ivan Herman, (</span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym><span class="insert">/</span><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics"><span class="insert">ERCIM</span></acronym><span class="insert">),
 Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
 Hook Hua (Invited expert),
 Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
@@ -2714,30 +4546,31 @@
 Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
 Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
 Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
-</p>
+</span></p>
 
     </div> 
 
 
  
 <div id="references" class="appendix section"><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-IRI">[IRI]</dt><dd>M. Duerst, M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">[RDF-SPARQL-QUERY]</dt><dd>Andy Seaborne; Eric Prud'hommeaux. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115"><cite>SPARQL Query Language for RDF.</cite></a> 15 January 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115</a> 
+</dd><span class="delete">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</span><dt id="bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY"><span class="insert">[RDF-SPARQL-QUERY]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. </span><span class="insert">Andy Seaborne; Eric Prud'hommeaux. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115"><cite><span class="delete">Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</span><span class="insert">SPARQL Query Language for RDF.</span></cite></a> <span class="delete">10 February 2004.</span><span class="insert">15 January 2008.</span> W3C Recommendation. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</span> 
+<span class="delete">[RDFA-CORE]</span><span class="delete">Shane McCarron; et al. </span><span class="delete">RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</span><span class="delete"> 13 March 2012. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-rdfa-core-20120313/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115</span></a> 
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3023">[RFC3023]</dt><dd>M. Murata; S. St.Laurent; D. Kohn. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><cite>XML Media Types</cite></a> January 2001. Internet RFC 3023. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3023"><span class="insert">[RFC3023]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">M. Murata; S. St.Laurent; D. Kohn. </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><cite><span class="insert">XML Media Types</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> January 2001. Internet RFC 3023. URL: </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt"><span class="insert">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986"><span class="insert">[RFC3986]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite><span class="insert">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><span class="insert">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</span></a> 
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd>M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
 </dd><dt id="bib-URI">[URI]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): generic syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-UTF-8">[UTF-8]</dt><dd>F. Yergeau. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt"><cite>UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</cite></a>. IETF RFC 3629. November 2003. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-UTF-8"><span class="insert">[UTF-8]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">F. Yergeau. </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt"><cite><span class="insert">UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. IETF RFC 3629. November 2003. URL: </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt"><span class="insert">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt</span></a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-XML-NAMES">[XML-NAMES]</dt><dd>Richard Tobin; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/"><cite>Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition).</cite></a> 8 December 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-XML11"><span class="insert">[XML11]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Eve Maler; et al. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><cite><span class="insert">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 (Second Edition).</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> 16 August 2006. W3C Recommendation. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816</span></a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</dt><dd>Henry S. Thompson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite>W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes.</cite></a> 5 April 2012. W3C Recommendation URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</a> 
+</dd><span class="delete">[XMLSCHEMA-2]</span><dt id="bib-XML11"><span class="insert">[XML11]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Paul V. Biron; Ashok Malhotra. </span><span class="insert">Eve Maler; et al. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><cite><span class="insert">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 (Second Edition).</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> 16 August 2006. W3C Recommendation. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Henry S. Thompson; et al. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite><span class="insert">W3C </span>XML Schema <span class="insert">Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 </span>Part 2: <span class="delete">Datatypes Second Edition.</span><span class="insert">Datatypes.</span></cite></a> <span class="delete">28 October 2004.</span><span class="insert">5 April 2012.</span> W3C <span class="delete">Recommendation.</span><span class="insert">Recommendation</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</span></a> 
 </dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne and Paul Groth (eds.) Luc Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame, and Simon Miles <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 2011, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.)<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/"><cite>Constraints of the Prov Data Model</cite></a>. 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Reza B'Far, Stephen Cresswell, Yolanda Gil, Paul Groth, Graham Klyne, Jim McCusker, Simon Miles, James Myers, Satya Sahoo, and Curt Tilmes<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-RDF">[PROV-RDF]</dt><dd>James Cheney<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvRDF"><cite>PROV-RDF Mapping </cite></a>2012, Working in Progress. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvRDF">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvRDF</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-SEM">[PROV-SEM]</dt><dd>James Cheney <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman"><cite>Formal Semantics Strawman</cite></a>. 2011, Work in progress. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman</a>
 </dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>James Cheney <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvXML"><cite>PROV-XML Mapping </cite></a>2012, Working in Progress. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvXML">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvXML</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE5">[UNICODE5]</dt><dd>The Unicode Consortium. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/"><cite>The Unicode Standard, Version 5.1.0.</cite></a> Addison-Wesley. 2007. ISBN 0-321-48091-0. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/">http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-UNISEC">[UNISEC]</dt><dd> Mark Davis and Michel Suignard. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><cite>Unicode Security Considerations<cite></cite></cite></a>.  4 August 2010. URL: <a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/">http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNICODE5"><span class="insert">[UNICODE5]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">The Unicode Consortium. </span><a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/"><cite><span class="insert">The Unicode Standard, Version 5.1.0.</span></cite></a><span class="insert"> Addison-Wesley. 2007. ISBN 0-321-48091-0. URL: </span><a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/"><span class="insert">http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/</span></a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-UNISEC"><span class="insert">[UNISEC]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert"> Mark Davis and Michel Suignard. </span><a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><cite><span class="insert">Unicode Security Considerations</span><cite></cite></cite></a><span class="insert">.  4 August 2010. URL: </span><a href="http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/"><span class="insert">http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/</span></a>
 </dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
 
--- a/model/diff.html	Fri Jul 13 11:00:39 2012 +0100
+++ b/model/diff.html	Fri Jul 13 11:05:53 2012 +0100
@@ -1,3 +1,4 @@
+
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 <html lang="en" dir="ltr">
 <head><style type="text/css"><!--
@@ -12,9 +13,13 @@
     <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> 
     
 
+     
+    
+
 
     <style type="text/css">
       .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
+     <span class="insert">
 
 .diamond {
     font-weight: normal;
@@ -44,7 +49,18 @@
 	border-color: gray;
 	-moz-border-radius: ;
 }
-</style>
+</span></style>
+
+     
+     
+    
+
+    
+
+    
+
+     
+  
 
      
     
@@ -518,31 +534,31 @@
 /* other */
 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_section { color: black; font-weight: bold; }
 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_paren { color: red; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }
-
-</style><span class="delete">
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }<span class="delete">
+
+
 /* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
 .component1-color {
  background-color: rgba(255,42,42,0.2);
+}</span>
+
+<span class="delete">.component2-color {
+ background-color: rgba(0,68,170,0.2);
 }
 
 .component3-color {
- background-color: rgba(0,68,170,0.2);
-}
-
-.component2-color {
  background-color: rgba(0,170,0,0.2);
 }
 .component4-color {
- background-color: rgba(244,105,14,0.2);
+ background-color: rgba(204,255,0,0.2);
+}
+
+.component5-color {
+ background-color: rgba(11,40,40,0.2);
 }
 
 .component6-color {
- background-color: rgba(11,40,40,0.2);
-}
-
-.component5-color {
- background-color: rgba(204,255,0,0.2);
+ background-color: rgba(244,105,14,0.2);
 }
 
 .pending {
@@ -808,26 +824,12 @@
     padding:    3px 1em;
 }
 
-/* 
-generating this through java script now.
-
-.anexample[data-count]::before {
-    content: "Example " attr(data-count) ;
-    font-family: sans-serif;
-    font-size: 1.6ex;
-    font-weight: bold;
-}
-
-
 .anexample:before {
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     font-family: sans-serif;
     font-size: 1.6ex;
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 }
-
-*/
-
 .anexample {
     margin-top: 1ex;
     margin-bottom: 1ex;
@@ -842,23 +844,27 @@
     background-color: #f9f9f9;
 }
 
-.anexampleTitle {
+.conceptexample:before {
+    content: "Example:";
     font-family: sans-serif;
     font-size: 1.6ex;
     font-weight: bold;
 }
-
-.anexampleTitle {
-    font-family: sans-serif;
-    font-size: 1.6ex;
-    font-weight: bold;
+.conceptexample {
+    margin-top: 1ex;
+    margin-bottom: 1ex;
+    padding-left: 1ex;
+    padding-right: 1ex;
+    padding-top: 1ex;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
 }
 
-
-.diamond {
+.pnExpression {
     font-weight: normal;
-    font-size:100%;
-    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size:120%;
+    font-family: monospace;
 }
 
 
@@ -928,7 +934,6 @@
     font-family: monospace;
     content: ")";
 }
-
 div[class="grammar"] span[class="group"]:before {
     font-weight: normal;
     font-size:130%;
@@ -957,32 +962,18 @@
     content:    "Structural constraint: ";
     font-weight:    bold;
 }
-
-.essential {
-    font-weight: bold;
-}
-
-.provType::before {
-}
-
-.pnExpression {
-    font-weight: normal;
-    font-size:120%;
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-</span><link href="./extra-dm.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
-  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</h1><h2 id="subtitle">Final review before Last Call Vote (WD6) (<a href="diff.html">Diffs since last release</a>)</h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-09-july-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Editor's Draft <span class="delete">28 June</span><span class="insert">09 July</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+</span></style><link href="./extra-dm.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</h1><h2 id="w3c-working-draft-24-july-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Working Draft <span class="delete">03 May</span><span class="insert">24 July</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/</span></a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120202/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</span></a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
-<dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dt><span class="delete">Contributors:</span><span class="insert">Authors:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester</dd>
 <dd><span>Reza B'Far</span>, Oracle Corporation</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/"><span class="insert">James Cheney</span></a><span class="insert">, University of Edinburgh</span></dd>
 <dd><span><span class="insert">Sam Coppens</span></span><span class="insert">, IBBT - Ghent University</span></dd>
-<dd><span>Stephen Cresswell</span>, legislation.gov.uk
-<span class="delete">Sam Coppens</span><span class="delete">, IBBT - Ghent University</span></dd>
+<dd><span>Stephen Cresswell</span>, legislation.gov.uk</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/">Paul Groth</a>, VU University of Amsterdam</dd>
 <dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo"><span class="insert">Timothy Lebo</span></a><span class="insert">, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</span></dd>
 <dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker">Jim McCusker</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/">Simon Miles</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/">James Myers</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
@@ -992,74 +983,80 @@
 
     <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
 <p>
-Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
-involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
+<span class="delete">PROV-DM, the PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of</span> data <span class="delete">model,</span><span class="insert">or thing, which can be used
  to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
-PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>
-provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
+PROV-DM</span> is <span class="delete">a</span><span class="insert">the conceptual</span> data model <span class="insert">that forms a basis </span>for <span class="insert">the </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym>
+provenance <span class="delete">that describes
+the entities, people and activities involved in
+producing a piece of data or thing.</span><span class="insert">(PROV) family of specifications.
 PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
-extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
-PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance.</span> 
+PROV-DM is <span class="delete">structured</span><span class="insert">organized</span> in six components,<span class="insert"> respectively</span> dealing with: 
 (1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-(2) derivations of entities from entities;
-(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance;<span class="insert"> 
-(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;</span> and,<span class="delete">
-(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;</span>
-(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+(2) <span class="insert">derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) </span>agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+<span class="delete">(3) derivations of</span><span class="insert">(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; 
+(5) properties to link</span> entities <span class="delete">from entities;
+(4) properties</span><span class="insert">that refer</span> to <span class="delete">link entities that refer to </span>the same thing;<span class="delete">
+(5)</span><span class="insert"> and,
+(6)</span> collections forming a logical structure for its <span class="delete">members;
+(6) a simple annotation mechanism.</span><span class="insert">members.</span>
 </p>
 
 <p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
 PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
-relations. PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
+relations. <span class="insert">The </span>PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
 extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
 
 <p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
 First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
-provenance should follow.  Second, 
+provenance<span class="delete"> descriptions</span> should follow.  Second, 
 a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
 instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
 this document. </p>
 
     </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
-<h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
-<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
-Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
-the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external <span class="delete">review, before the</span><span class="insert">review.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">This specification identifies one  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi"><span class="insert">feature at risk</span></a><span class="insert">: </span><a href="#term-mention"><span class="insert">Mention</span></a><span class="insert"> might be removed from PROV if</span> implementation <span class="delete">phase.</span><span class="insert">experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span></p>
-
-
-
-<h4 id="please-comment-by-2012-09-13--date-tbc">Please Comment By <span class="insert">2012-09-13 </span>(date <span class="delete">TBD)</span><span class="insert">TBC)</span></h4>
-<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
-The end date of the Last Call review period is <span class="delete">TBD,</span><b><span class="insert">2012-09-13 (TBC)</span></b><span class="insert">,</span> and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
-</p>
+<h4 id="last-call"><span class="insert">Last Call</span></h4>
+<p><span class="insert">This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
+Publication as Last Call Working Draft means that 
+the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review.</span></p>
+
+<p><span class="insert">This specification identifies one  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi"><span class="insert">feature at risk</span></a><span class="insert">: Mention (</span><a href="#term-mention"><span class="insert">Section 5.5.3</span></a><span class="insert">) might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span></p>
+
+
 
 <h4 id="prov-family-of-specifications">PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
 This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
 interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
 <ul>
-<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
-<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption;</li>
-<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
-<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
-<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-DM,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a set of constraints applying to the PROV data <span class="delete">model;</span><span class="insert">model [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span></li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-N,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a notation for provenance aimed at human <span class="delete">consumption;</span><span class="insert">consumption [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span></li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-O,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the PROV ontology, an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to <span class="delete">RDF;</span><span class="insert">RDF [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-O"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span></li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-AQ,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> the mechanisms for accessing and querying <span class="delete">provenance;</span><span class="insert">provenance [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span> </li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> a primer for the PROV data <span class="delete">model;</span><span class="insert">model [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></li>
 </ul>
-<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-specifications">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-specifications"><span class="insert">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</span></h4>
 <ul>
-<li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an <span class="delete">OWL-RL</span><span class="insert">OWL2</span> ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
-<li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
+<li><span class="delete"> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the</span><span class="insert">The primer is the entry point to</span> PROV <span class="delete">data model;</span>
+<span class="delete"> PROV-XML,</span><span class="insert">offering</span> an <span class="delete">XML schema for the PROV data</span><span class="insert">introduction to the provenance</span> model.</li>
+
+<span class="delete">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</span>
+
+<li>The <span class="delete">primer is the entry point</span><span class="insert">Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable</span> to <span class="delete">PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</span>
+<span class="delete">The Linked Data</span><span class="insert">the data model,</span> and <span class="delete">Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and </span>its interpretation. <span class="delete">PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</span>
+<span class="delete">The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</span></li>
 <li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
 <li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
-should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
+should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  <span class="delete">PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML</span><span class="insert">PROV-O and PROV-N</span> offer examples of mapping to <span class="delete">RDF,</span><span class="insert">RDF and</span> text,<span class="delete"> and XML,</span> respectively.</li>
 </ul>
-<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespaces</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>PROV Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.2 </span>Expanded Relations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.3 </span>Optional Identification</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.2 </span>Provenance of Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Modular Organization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Example: The Process View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Example: Attribution of Provenance</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>Bundle constructor</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>Bundle Type</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.1 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.2 </span>Alternate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.3 </span>Mention</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.1 </span>Collection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.2 </span>Collection <span class="delete">Memberhsip</span><span class="insert">Membership</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2 </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.1 </span>prov:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.2 </span>prov:location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.3 </span>prov:role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.4 </span>prov:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.5 </span>prov:value</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.3 </span>Value</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.5 </span>Qualified Name</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Creating Valid Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
+
+
+<span class="delete">Fourth Public Working Draft</span>
+<p>This <span class="delete">is the fourth public release of the PROV-DM document. Following feedback, the Working Group has decided to reorganize this document substantially, separating the data model from its contraints and the notation used to illustrate it. The PROV-DM release is synchronized with the release of the PROV-O, PROV-PRIMER, PROV-N, and PROV-CONSTRAINTS documents. We are now clarifying the entry path to the PROV family of specifications.</span>
+<span class="delete">This </span>document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a<span class="insert"> Last Call</span> Working Draft. This document is intended to become a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <span class="delete">[email protected]</span><a href="mailto:[email protected]"><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="insert"> The Last Call period ends 18 September 2012.</span> All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p><span class="insert">This is a Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this document has satisfied the relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to advance through the Technical Recommendation process.</span></p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
+</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespaces</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV <span class="delete">Starting Points</span><span class="insert">Overview</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Core Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.1</span><span class="insert">2.1.1</span> </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.2 </span><span class="delete">Generation, Usage, </span><span class="insert">2.1.2 </span></span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3 </span><span class="delete">Agents, Attribution, Association,</span><span class="insert">2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Agents</span> and Responsibility<span class="delete">2.4 </span><span class="delete">Further Entities: Collections and Accounts</span><span class="delete">2.5 </span><span class="delete">Simplified Overview Diagram</span><span class="delete">2.6 </span><span class="delete">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Extended Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno&qu