* merged concurrent change; hope everything is ok!
authorjcheney@inf.ed.ac.uk
Thu, 28 Feb 2013 17:52:30 +0000
changeset 5806 8016c1939a67
parent 5805 c67ff96a64ef (current diff)
parent 5803 98acae622628 (diff)
child 5807 a87e15a9aab6
child 5808 e2fc28e84338
* merged concurrent change; hope everything is ok!
provenance/prov-o.ttl
--- a/paq/prov-aq.html	Thu Feb 28 17:51:30 2013 +0000
+++ b/paq/prov-aq.html	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -8,8 +8,11 @@
     <meta http-equiv='Content-Type' content='text/html;charset=utf-8'/>
 <!--  Use common W3C-hosted version of ReSpec.js:
 -->
+    <script src="http://www.w3.org/Tools/respec/respec-w3c-common" class="remove"></script>
+<!--
     <script src="http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/js/respec.js" class="remove"></script>
-<!--  Use local version of ReSpec.js for debugging:
+
+    Use local version of ReSpec.js for debugging:
     <script src="js/respec.js" class="remove"></script>
     <script src="file:///usr/workspace/w3c-provenance/prov/paq/js/respec.js" class="remove"></script>
 -->
@@ -179,7 +182,6 @@
               { name: "Stian Soiland-Reyes", url: "http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/",
                 company: "University of Manchester", 
                 companyURL: "http://www.cs.manchester.ac.uk/"  },
-                
           ],
           
           // name of the WG
@@ -1257,53 +1259,80 @@
         <h2>Changes since 20120619 publication</h2>
         <p>
           <dl>
-  <dt>2013-02-21 13:33 +0000 2d42fb73e214 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add placeholder appendix for change log</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 18:26 +0000 ae85f08dcda4 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Further editorial fixes suggested by Tim</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 17:43 +0000 266d233ce54c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Move text about isolating information from section 3 (locating) to 1.3 (interpreting).  Tim's comment (13)</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 17:29 +0000 a53fb5b58d8f Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Section 2 editorial rework including suggestions by Tim</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 16:41 +0000 cf11871bb9ba Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial fixes suggested by Tim, and replace 'provenance description' with 'provenance record', following PROV-DM</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 15:53 +0000 4d16b451fc1a Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial fixes suggested by Simon</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 15:42 +0000 9406759adad3 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial fixes suggested by Simon</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 14:50 +0000 d5e7a0c76495 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Minor editorial fixes suggested by Ivan</dd>
-  <dt>2013-02-07 13:44 +0000 d4cf95c11dcd Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Minor editorial fixes suggested by Ivan</dd>
-  <dt>2013-01-10 15:43 +0100 cb49c07522ff Paul Groth <[email protected]></dt><dd>updated to fix minor editorial errors</dd>
-  <dt>2013-01-04 14:23 +0000 47a1f3baf67a Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial tweaks</dd>
-  <dt>2013-01-04 13:26 +0000 a374c48027b9 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Separate prov:DirectQueryService (specifric mechanism) from prov:ProvenanceQueryService (generic)</dd>
-  <dt>2013-01-04 13:11 +0000 7b4580bd6d52 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Fix some section cross-references; rename 'prov:has_provenanceService' as 'prov:has_query_service'</dd>
-  <dt>2013-01-04 13:03 +0000 f00efdbb4f6e Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Reorganize provenance query service description to accommodate SPARQL (ISSUE 601); 'rename provenance service' as 'provenance query service'; rename 'prov:ProvenanceService' as 'prov:ProivenanceQueryService'</dd>
-  <dt>2012-12-10 22:40 +0000 08deb1462a7c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Fix apostrophe</dd>
-  <dt>2012-12-10 19:03 +0000 f0f315c6781c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Fold in Jun's editorial comments.  Remove reference to POWDER</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-26 14:43 +0000 23f86dc89992 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Change 'provenance information' to 'provenance description' (ISSUE 601); extensive editorial changes should be reviewed</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-26 12:07 +0000 4bbf03ed4eff Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add note about service description and LDP consideration thereof</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-26 11:49 +0000 72ec0c88ede8 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add non-commital paragraph about accessing provenance bundles</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-26 11:08 +0000 b811ccb53b45 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update forward provenance (pingback) in response to comments; fix text around VoID example</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-20 16:00 +0000 839d503bd064 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added specification for pingback link header (ISSUE 600)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-20 14:15 +0000 0e668b4ce436 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Tidy up some text</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-20 14:03 +0000 3cba6f76b797 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Expanded discussion of provenance service discovery to include prov:has_provenanceService</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-20 12:22 +0000 44586518f842 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Remove speculative non-specification text to be covered in FAQ (ISSUES 426, 598)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-20 11:36 +0000 2f1a8ca558a8 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added section with table of URIs and what they dereference to (ISSUE 424)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-20 10:37 +0000 d2acceb63c0b Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Make treatment of direct retrieval and service for provenance access more equally visible (ISSUE 422)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 18:53 +0000 69d2ba847f40 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Point out that provenance services can accept paraneters other than just 'target' (ISSUE 420)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 18:10 +0000 6a283fe7b70c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added definitions for accessung and locating (ISSUE 417)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 13:23 +0000 45683a007809 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>More CSS tweaking to override RewSopec.js colouring</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 13:06 +0000 390df423d8b3 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Formatting and CSS colour tweaks for examples</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 12:58 +0000 7f6c1a541631 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added section on Link: headers and content negotiation (ISSUE 416)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 12:17 +0000 9c24773fd6c7 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Revert to W3C-hosted ReSpec.js</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-19 11:48 +0000 10c290a46ee0 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added icon to distibguish external links (ISSUE 400)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-16 16:29 +0000 5f35560288e7 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Updsate and cross-link table of prov: URIs defined</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-16 16:01 +0000 3144d9093733 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Changed link relations to URIs; removed IANA considerations section</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-10 19:03 +0000 77c849e3d67d Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Hyperlink concept definitions to themselves (per request from Tim 2012-06-05)</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-10 18:26 +0000 aff3d2fcf8f5 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update security considerations with note about use of provenance as part of audit/enforcement mechanism</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-10 18:07 +0000 84864eeceffb Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update list of PROV documents, copied from PROV-DM</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-10 02:08 +0000 beb278a59b28 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Revert JS import to W3C server</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-08 22:36 +0000 35ee2d7209ea Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Adjust TODO notes</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-08 22:27 +0000 d269fcdfc9fd Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Cut back on verbiage in sect 3,4 rbitrary data</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-08 22:24 +0000 aba651f6da5e Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Adjust TODO notes</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-08 22:20 +0000 06627e013264 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Revised section 3 descriptions in terms of prodcuers and consumers</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-08 12:12 +0000 098e7be8b4d5 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Updated security considerations to mention audit</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-06 17:04 +0000 96247e20c8b4 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add TODO for producer/consumer roles, add note about multiple links, add reference to RFC3986 for %-escaping</dd>
-  <dt>2012-11-06 15:17 +0000 4fbe51a47591 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update security considerations, note about non-RDF service desription, PROV-O link, acknowledgements</dd>
-  <dt>2012-06-20 14:27 -0700 d0af0446868d Paul Groth <[email protected]></dt><dd>updated to reflect newly published version</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 16:23 +0000 35385cbbfb9f Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Further refinements and bug fixes in the forward provenance section</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 15:33 +0000 2dfd7fac85c9 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Merge</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 15:19 +0000 bae275eaaf81 Stian Soiland-Reyes <[email protected]></dt><dd>Added Stian as PROV-AQ author</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 15:33 +0000 ecf3af571f1e Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Changed entity-URI back to target-URI, and updated concept definition to indicate it may also denote an activity</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 13:02 +0000 d6085196a22d Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Some tidying up of section decsribing provenance pingback</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 12:26 +0000 018e25f63183 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Changed all normative references to informative (this being a NOTE)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-27 12:23 +0000 33eea34f1863 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Renamed link relations 'hasProvenance', 'hasAnchor' and 'hasQueryService' to 'has_provenance', 'has_anchor' and 'has_query_service' respectively.  This is because RFC5988 strongly recommends link relations to be all lowercase.</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 18:42 +0000 25eb1149862f Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add placeholder links to ontology; deleted note in Appendiox B</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 18:33 +0000 473af1a90df2 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added describesService in appendix B</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 18:24 +0000 211ff39ee699 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add to security considerations: possible malicious use of links; possible information leakage when provenance links are folloiwed, or services used. (Stian:58,59)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 18:12 +0000 ec95bc31a43b Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Incorporate Stian's revised pingback proposal: accept links rather than actual provenance.</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 17:19 +0000 eadbf7c04b31 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Renamed prov:provPingback as just prov:pingback (Stian:55)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 17:07 +0000 4fd6242c151c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Re-worked description of direct HTTP query, particularly escaping of URI special characters and provenance formats returned.  Revise description of return codes. (Section 4.2)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 16:10 +0000 bbef7256bc91 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Rename prov:ProvenanceQueryService to prov:ServiceDescription</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 15:53 +0000 206caf60d43a Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Incorporarted Stian's proposal for a service description property</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 14:40 +0000 ae119d2377ca Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Query service - editorial updates per Stian's comments 35-41, including re-work of motivation</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 13:34 +0000 1a0bded232fb Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Edirtorial updates in response to Luc's comments; updated CSS for external link</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 11:26 +0000 52d0f60610aa Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial updates in response to comments by Dong</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 10:44 +0000 a87d5f3c056c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Moved entire discussion of bundles in section 2 to a NOTE, and simplified.</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-26 10:24 +0000 fd2f1476c795 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Further editorial changes suggestred by Stian's comments 28,29,30,33; quote anchor parameters in Link: header examples</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 19:16 +0000 2a38eacd1735 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Section 3, editorial changes and reorganization of text suggested by Stian's comments (15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27).  Moved some more material from sect 3 to sect 1.3, and trimmed.  Removed duplicate material about authority guarantees from section 2.  Added URI/IRI discussion to concepts.  Added HTTP examples.  Included '#' in shorthand references to link relations.</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 17:27 +0000 6c7dc767652a Graham Klyne</dt><dd>More trimming of material onprovenance interpretation</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 15:57 +0000 be8f6ec8a2d5 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Section 3, editorial changes and reorganization of text suggested by Stian's comments (10,11,12,13,14).  provider abnd consumer definitions moved to 1.1.  Further discussion of provenance interpretation moved to section 1.3.</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 15:31 +0000 7e2c896d5b3b Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Section 2, non-substantive editorial changes suggested by Stian's comments (8,9)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 15:22 +0000 9afefa103a72 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Non-substantive editorial changes suggested by Stian's comments (4,6,7)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 15:07 +0000 27cf75d7a6f2 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Changed 'target-URI' to 'entity-URI', and revised some associated text to describe provenance access with respect to entities.  Stian's comment (2)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 14:06 +0000 cc0ec03fed0e Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update Turtle reference to CR</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-21 13:33 +0000 2d42fb73e214 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add placeholder appendix for change log</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 18:26 +0000 ae85f08dcda4 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Further editorial fixes suggested by Tim</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 17:43 +0000 266d233ce54c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Move text about isolating information from section 3 (locating) to 1.3 (interpreting).  Tim's comment (13)</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 17:29 +0000 a53fb5b58d8f Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Section 2 editorial rework including suggestions by Tim</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 16:41 +0000 cf11871bb9ba Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial fixes suggested by Tim, and replace 'provenance description' with 'provenance record', following PROV-DM</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 15:53 +0000 4d16b451fc1a Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial fixes suggested by Simon</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 15:42 +0000 9406759adad3 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial fixes suggested by Simon</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 14:50 +0000 d5e7a0c76495 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Minor editorial fixes suggested by Ivan</dd>
+<dt>2013-02-07 13:44 +0000 d4cf95c11dcd Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Minor editorial fixes suggested by Ivan</dd>
+<dt>2013-01-10 15:43 +0100 cb49c07522ff Paul Groth <[email protected]></dt><dd>updated to fix minor editorial errors</dd>
+<dt>2013-01-04 14:23 +0000 47a1f3baf67a Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Editorial tweaks</dd>
+<dt>2013-01-04 13:26 +0000 a374c48027b9 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Separate prov:DirectQueryService (specifric mechanism) from prov:ProvenanceQueryService (generic)</dd>
+<dt>2013-01-04 13:11 +0000 7b4580bd6d52 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Fix some section cross-references; rename 'prov:hasProvenanceService' as 'prov:hasQueryService'</dd>
+<dt>2013-01-04 13:03 +0000 f00efdbb4f6e Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Reorganize provenance query service description to accommodate SPARQL (ISSUE 601); 'rename provenance service' as 'provenance query service'; rename 'prov:ProvenanceService' as 'prov:ProivenanceQueryService'</dd>
+<dt>2012-12-10 22:40 +0000 08deb1462a7c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Fix apostrophe</dd>
+<dt>2012-12-10 19:03 +0000 f0f315c6781c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Fold in Jun's editorial comments.  Remove reference to POWDER</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-26 14:43 +0000 23f86dc89992 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Change 'provenance information' to 'provenance description' (ISSUE 601); extensive editorial changes should be reviewed</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-26 12:07 +0000 4bbf03ed4eff Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add note about service description and LDP consideration thereof</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-26 11:49 +0000 72ec0c88ede8 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add non-commital paragraph about accessing provenance bundles</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-26 11:08 +0000 b811ccb53b45 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update forward provenance (pingback) in response to comments; fix text around VoID example</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-20 16:00 +0000 839d503bd064 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added specification for pingback link header (ISSUE 600)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-20 14:15 +0000 0e668b4ce436 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Tidy up some text</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-20 14:03 +0000 3cba6f76b797 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Expanded discussion of provenance service discovery to include prov:hasProvenanceService</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-20 12:22 +0000 44586518f842 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Remove speculative non-specification text to be covered in FAQ (ISSUES 426, 598)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-20 11:36 +0000 2f1a8ca558a8 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added section with table of URIs and what they dereference to (ISSUE 424)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-20 10:37 +0000 d2acceb63c0b Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Make treatment of direct retrieval and service for provenance access more equally visible (ISSUE 422)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 18:53 +0000 69d2ba847f40 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Point out that provenance services can accept paraneters other than just 'target' (ISSUE 420)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 18:10 +0000 6a283fe7b70c Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added definitions for accessung and locating (ISSUE 417)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 13:23 +0000 45683a007809 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>More CSS tweaking to override RewSopec.js colouring</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 13:06 +0000 390df423d8b3 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Formatting and CSS colour tweaks for examples</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 12:58 +0000 7f6c1a541631 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added section on Link: headers and content negotiation (ISSUE 416)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 12:17 +0000 9c24773fd6c7 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Revert to W3C-hosted ReSpec.js</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-19 11:48 +0000 10c290a46ee0 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Added icon to distibguish external links (ISSUE 400)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-16 16:29 +0000 5f35560288e7 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Updsate and cross-link table of prov: URIs defined</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-16 16:01 +0000 3144d9093733 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Changed link relations to URIs; removed IANA considerations section</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-10 19:03 +0000 77c849e3d67d Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Hyperlink concept definitions to themselves (per request from Tim 2012-06-05)</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-10 18:26 +0000 aff3d2fcf8f5 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update security considerations with note about use of provenance as part of audit/enforcement mechanism</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-10 18:07 +0000 84864eeceffb Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update list of PROV documents, copied from PROV-DM</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-10 02:08 +0000 beb278a59b28 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Revert JS import to W3C server</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-08 22:36 +0000 35ee2d7209ea Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Adjust TODO notes</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-08 22:27 +0000 d269fcdfc9fd Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Cut back on verbiage in sect 3,4 rbitrary data</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-08 22:24 +0000 aba651f6da5e Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Adjust TODO notes</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-08 22:20 +0000 06627e013264 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Revised section 3 descriptions in terms of prodcuers and consumers</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-08 12:12 +0000 098e7be8b4d5 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Updated security considerations to mention audit</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-06 17:04 +0000 96247e20c8b4 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Add TODO for producer/consumer roles, add note about multiple links, add reference to RFC3986 for %-escaping</dd>
+<dt>2012-11-06 15:17 +0000 4fbe51a47591 Graham Klyne</dt><dd>Update security considerations, note about non-RDF service desription, PROV-O link, acknowledgements</dd>
+<dt>2012-06-20 14:27 -0700 d0af0446868d Paul Groth <[email protected]></dt><dd>updated to reflect newly published version</dd>
           </dl>
         </p>
       </section>
--- a/primer/Primer.html	Thu Feb 28 17:51:30 2013 +0000
+++ b/primer/Primer.html	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
     subtitle   :  "",
  
     // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
-    //publishDate:  "2012-12-11",
+    publishDate:  "2013-03-12",
  
     // if the specification's copyright date is a range of years, specify
     // the start date here:
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@
  
     // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
     // and its maturity status
-    previousPublishDate:  "2012-07-24",
+    previousPublishDate:  "2012-12-11",
     previousMaturity:  "WD-NOTE",
  
     // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
@@ -1981,6 +1981,9 @@
   <h2>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</h2> 
   <ul>
       <li>Corrected XML example for activities</li>
+      <li>Clarified usage of adoptedOnBehalfOf relation</li>
+      <li>Clarified wasQuotedFrom example</li>
+      <li>Adapted PROV-XML examples to clarify they are not RDF/XML</li>
   </ul>
  </section>
 
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/Overview.html	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,2059 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
+<head> 
+  <title>PROV Model Primer</title>
+  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+  <link rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#has_provenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/provenance/prov-primer">
+  <!--
+    === NOTA BENE ===
+    For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+    out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+  -->
+  <!-- PM -->
+  <style type="text/css">
+   .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
+  </style>
+
+  <script src="toggles.js" type="text/javascript"></script><style type="text/css"></style> 
+  
+
+  
+  
+ <style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+
+/* --- --- */
+ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
+table.simple {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--></head>
+ <body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">PROV Model Primer</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-working-draft-12-march-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Draft 12 March 2013</h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/primer/Primer.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/primer/Primer.html</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, US</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm">Simon Miles</a>, King's College London, UK</dd>
+
+    
+      <dt>Authors:</dt>
+      <dd><span><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a></span>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dd><span>Helena Deus</span>, Digital Enterprise Research Institute (DERI), NUI Galway</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net/index.php/en/phdstudents/28-dgarijo">Daniel Garijo</a></span>, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid</dd>
+<dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a></span>, Newcastle University</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/">Stian Soiland-Reyes</a></span>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dd><span><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/StephanZednik">Stephan Zednik</a></span>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
+        2013
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div>
+  <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+   <p>
+    This document provides an intuitive introduction and guide to the
+    PROV specification for provenance on the Web. PROV is a core data model for
+    provenance for building representations of the entities, people and
+    processes involved in producing a piece of data or thing in the world.
+    This primer explains the fundamental PROV concepts and provides examples 
+    of its use.  The primer is intended as a starting point for those wishing
+    to create or use PROV data.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.
+   </p>
+
+   <!-- p>
+    This is a document for internal discussion, which will ultimately
+    evolve in the first Public Working Draft of the Primer.</p -->
+  </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are listed below. Please consult the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] for a guide to reading these documents. 
+<ul>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model (this document);</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/">PROV-O</a> (Proposed Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/">PROV-DM</a> (Proposed Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/">PROV-N</a> (Proposed Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Proposed Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/">PROV-AQ</a> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/">PROV-DICTIONARY</a> (To be published as Note) introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/">PROV-DC</a> (To be published as Note) provides a mapping between PROV and Dublic Core Terms [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DC">PROV-DC</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/">PROV-LINKS</a> (To be published as Note) introduces a mechanism to link across bundles [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>].</li>
+</ul>
+
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Working Draft.
+          
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          
+          
+        All comments are welcome.
+        
+        
+          </p><p>
+            Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          The group does not expect this document to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#intuitive-overview-of-prov" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Intuitive overview of PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#activities" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#usage-and-generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Usage and Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents-and-responsibility" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#roles" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Roles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivation-and-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plans" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Plans</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#time" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-entities-and-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#examples-of-key-concepts-in-prov" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples of Key Concepts in PROV</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#entities-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Entities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#activities-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Activities</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#usage-and-generation-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Usage and Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#agents-and-responsibility-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#roles-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Roles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#derivation-and-revision-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plans-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Plans</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#time-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Time</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#alternate-entities-and-specialization-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#complete-prov-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10 </span>Complete PROV data</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-fourth-public-working-draft" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
+
+
+
+  <section id="introduction"> 
+   <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+   <p>
+    This primer document provides an accessible introduction to the PROV 
+    specification for provenance on the Web.  
+    The <i>provenance</i> of digital objects represents their origins.  PROV is a 
+    proposed specification to express provenance records, 
+    which contain <i>descriptions</i> of the entities 
+    and activities involved in producing and delivering or otherwise influencing a 
+    given object.
+    For the remainder of this document, we use the term 'provenance' to refer also
+    to records of provenance, except where the distinction is important for clarity.
+    By knowing the provenance of an object, we can perceive how to
+    use it.  Provenance can be used for many purposes, such as 
+    understanding how data was collected so it can be meaningfully used, determining 
+    ownership and rights over an object, making judgments about information to 
+    determine whether to trust it, verifying that the process and steps used to obtain a 
+    result complies with given requirements, and reproducing how something was generated.
+   </p>
+
+   <p>
+    As a specification for provenance, PROV accommodates all those different uses 
+    of provenance.  Different people may have different perspectives on provenance, 
+    and as a result different types of information might be captured in provenance records.
+   </p><ul>
+    <li>
+     One perspective might focus on <i>agent-centered provenance</i>, that is, what entities 
+     were involved in generating or manipulating the information in question.  For example, 
+     in the provenance of a picture in a news article we might capture the photographer who 
+     took it, the person that edited it, and the newspaper that published it.
+    </li>
+    <li>
+     A second perspective 
+     might focus on <i>object-centered provenance</i>, by tracing the origins of portions of a 
+     document to other documents. An example is having a web page that was assembled from content
+     from a news article, quotes of interviews with experts, and a chart that plots data from a 
+     government agency.
+    </li>
+    <li>A third perspective one might take is on <i>process-centered provenance</i>, 
+     capturing the actions and steps taken to generate the information in question.  For example, a 
+     chart may have been generated by invoking a service to retrieve data from a database, then 
+     extracting certain statistics from the data using some statistics package, and finally 
+     processing these results with a graphing tool.
+    </li>
+   </ul>
+  <p></p>
+
+  <p>
+   Provenance records are metadata.  There are other kinds of metadata that is 
+   not provenance.  For example, the size of an image is metadata of 
+   that image but it is not provenance.
+   For general background on provenance, a 
+   comprehensive overview of requirements, use cases, prior research, and proposed 
+   vocabularies for provenance are available from the 
+   Final Report of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Provenance Incubator Group [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROVENANCE-XG">PROVENANCE-XG</a></cite>].
+   That document contains three general scenarios 
+   that may help identify the provenance aspects of planned applications and 
+   help plan the design of a provenance system.
+  </p>
+
+  <p>
+   This primer document aims to ease the adoption of the PROV specifications by providing:
+  </p>
+  <ul>
+   <li>An intuitive explanation of how PROV models provenance. A detailed description of
+    all the concepts and relations in the PROV Data Model is provided in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>].</li>
+   <li>A simple self-contained example that illustrates how to produce and use PROV assertions, highlighting how 
+    to combine PROV with other popular vocabularies such as FOAF and Dublin Core.  A description
+    of the formal PROV ontology (PROV-O) can be found in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>].</li>
+   <li>Example snippets using a notation of PROV designed for human
+    consumption (PROV-N).  Details of this notation can be found at [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>].</li>
+  </ul>
+
+  <p>There are additional reference documents for PROV that are not covered in this 
+   primer, including the PROV Access and Query aspects of the specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>], 
+   the constraints on the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], 
+   a formal semantics of the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>], and the PROV XML notation 
+   [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>]. </p>
+
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="intuitive-overview-of-prov">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Intuitive overview of PROV</h2>
+
+  <p>
+   This section provides an intuitive explanation of the main concepts in PROV. 
+   As with the rest of this document, it should be treated as a starting point for
+   understanding the model. The PROV data model document [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]
+   provides precise definitions and constraints [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] to be used.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+   The following diagram provides a high level overview of the structure of PROV records,
+   limited to some key PROV concepts discussed in this document.
+   Note that because PROV is meant to describe how things were created or delivered, 
+   PROV relations are named so they can be used in assertions about the past.  
+  </p>
+
+  <div style="text-align: center;">
+   <img src="images/key-concepts.png" alt="PROV key concepts overview">
+  </div>
+
+  <section id="entities">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Entities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    In PROV, physical, digital, conceptual, or other kinds of thing are called
+    <i>entities</i>.
+    Examples of such entities are a web page, a chart, and a spellchecker.
+    Provenance records can describe the provenance of entities, and
+    an entity’s provenance may refer to many other entities.  For example, a document D is
+    an entity whose provenance refers to other entities such as a chart inserted into D,
+    and the dataset that was used to create that chart.
+    Entities may be described as having different attributes and
+    be described from different perspectives.  For example,
+    document D as stored in my file system, the second version of document D, 
+    and D as an evolving document,
+    are three distinct entities for which we may describe provenance.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="activities">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Activities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    <i>Activities</i> are how entities come into 
+    existence and how their attributes change to become new entities, 
+    often making use of previously existing entities to achieve this. 
+    They are
+    dynamic aspects of the world, such as actions, processes, etc.
+    For example, if the second version of document D was generated 
+    by a translation from the first version of the document in another language,
+    then this translation is an activity.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="usage-and-generation">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Usage and Generation</h3>
+   <p>
+    Activities <i>generate</i> new entities.
+    For example, writing a document brings the document into existence, while
+    revising the document brings a new version into existence.
+    Activities also make <i>use</i> of entities. For example, revising a document
+    to fix spelling mistakes uses the original version of the document as well
+    as a list of corrections.
+    Generation does not always occur at the end of an activity, and an activity may generate entities
+    part-way through.
+    Likewise, usage does not always occur at the beginning of an activity.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="agents-and-responsibility">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h3>
+   <p>
+    An <i>agent</i> takes a role in an activity such 
+    that the agent can be assigned some degree of <i>responsibility</i> for the activity taking 
+    place.
+    An agent can be a person, a piece of software, an inanimate object, an organization, or
+    other entities that may be ascribed responsibility.
+    When an agent has some responsibility for an activity, PROV says the agent was
+    <i>associated</i> with the activity, where several agents may be associated with
+    an activity and vice-versa.
+    Consider a chart displaying some statistics 
+    regarding crime rates over time in a linear regression.  To represent the 
+    provenance of that chart, we could state that the person who created the 
+    chart was an agent involved in its creation, and that the software used to 
+    create the chart was also an agent involved in that activity.
+    An agent may be <i>acting on behalf</i> of others, e.g. an employee on behalf of their
+    organization, and we can express such chains of responsibility in the provenance.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    We can also describe that an entity is <i>attributed</i> to an agent to express
+    the agent's responsibility for that entity, possibly along with other agents.
+    This description can be understood as a shorthand
+    for saying that the agent was responsible for the activity which generated
+    the entity.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    One may want to describe the provenance of an agent.  For example, an organization 
+    responsible for the creation of a report may evolve over time as the report is written as
+    some members leave and others join.  To make provenance assertions about an agent in PROV,
+    the agent must be declared explicitly both as an agent and as an entity.
+   </p>
+
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="roles">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>Roles</h3>
+   <p>
+    A <i>role</i> is a description of the function or the part that an entity 
+    played in an activity.  Roles specify
+    the relationship between an entity and an activity, i.e. how
+    the activity used or generated the entity.  Roles also specify how agents are
+    involved in an activity, qualifying their participation in the activity or
+    specifying for what aspect of it each agent was responsible.
+    For example, an agent may play the role of "editor" in an activity that uses
+    one entity in the role of "document to be edited" and another in the role of
+    "addition to be made to the document", to generate a further entity in the role of "edited document".
+    Roles are application specific, so PROV does not define any particular roles.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="derivation-and-revision">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</h3>
+   <p>
+    When one entity's existence, content, characteristics and so on are
+    at least partly due to another entity, then we say that the former was
+    <i>derived</i> from the latter. For example, one document may contain
+    material copied from another, 
+    and a chart was derived from the data that it illustrates.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    PROV allows some common, specialized kinds of derivation to be described.
+    For example, a given entity, such as a document, may go through multiple <i>revisions</i> 
+    over time. Between revisions,
+    one or more attributes of the entity may change. 
+    In PROV, the result of each revision is a new entity.
+    PROV allows one to relate those entities by making a description that 
+    one was a revision of another.
+    Another specialized kind of derivation is to say that one entity, commonly
+    a document, <i>quotes</i> from another.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="plans">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.7 </span>Plans</h3>
+   <p>
+    Activities may follow pre-defined procedures, such as recipes, tutorials, instructions, or workflows.
+    PROV refers to these, in general, as <i>plans</i>, and allows the description that a plan was followed, by agents,
+    in executing an activity.
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="time">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.8 </span>Time</h3>
+   <p>
+    Time is often a critical aspect of provenance.
+    PROV allows the timing of significant events to be described, including
+    when an entity was generated or used, or when an activity started
+    and finished. For example, the model can be used to describe facts such as when a new
+    version of a document was created (generation time), or when a document was
+    edited (start and end of the editing activity).
+   </p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="alternate-entities-and-specialization">
+   <h3><span class="secno">2.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</h3>
+   <p>
+    There is often more than one way to describe something in a record of
+    provenance. Each perspective will be referred to by a separately identified
+    entity, and PROV provides a mechanism for linking the different descriptions of
+    the same thing together through the mechanism of <i>specialization</i>. One
+    entity is a specialization of another entity if it shares the same fixed attributes,
+    with the possible addition of further fixed attributes. This concept is best
+    illustrated through a few use cases, as below.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Entities can be mutable things. For example, a webpage is a single
+    entity, W, despite being edited over time. Each version of the webpage is
+    also an entity, W1, W2... To connect an individual version to the webpage
+    in general, we say that the former is a specialization of the latter: W1 is a
+    specialization of W, W2 is a specialization of W, and so on.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Two individuals may create provenance referring to the same thing from different
+    perspectives. For example, the author of an article may attribute that article
+    to themselves using PROV while, independently, a reader might quote a fact from that
+    article elsewhere and document this in PROV. If the author later changes the fact,
+    then from the reader's perspective there are now two versions of the article, and
+    they had quoted from the version before the change. From the author's perspective,
+    there is a single article, attributed to themselves. If either of them, or a
+    third party, were to connect the two PROV records, they would say that the
+    article as referred to by the reader is a specialization of the same article
+    as referred to by the author.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    The above illustrates where we may want to connect entities by
+    saying that they refer to the same thing, but at different levels of specialization.
+    PROV also allows us to more generally draw a connection between two descriptions
+    of the same thing, even if not at different levels of specialization, describing the
+    entities as <i>alternates</i> of each other. For example,
+    two versions of the webpage above, W1 and W2, are alternates of each other because
+    they describe the same webpage.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    As another example, if a file is copied from one directory to another to create a backup,
+    we may say that the copies are alternate versions of the same, location-independent, file.
+    Specifically, we may say that the file in the first directory, entity F1, is an alternate of the 
+    file in the second directory, entity F2. Note that it is
+    the context (location) rather than content of the file that differs between the entities
+    in this case.
+   </p>
+  </section>   
+
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="examples-of-key-concepts-in-prov">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Examples of Key Concepts in PROV</h2>
+
+  <p>
+   In the following sections, we show how PROV can be used to model 
+   provenance in a specific example scenario. Samples of PROV data are given.
+   These samples use the namespace prefixes <b>prov</b>, denoting 
+   terms from the PROV ontology, and <b>ex</b>, denoting terms specific to the example.
+   We illustrate in these examples how PROV can be used in combination with other
+   languages, such as FOAF and Dublin Core (with namespace prefix <b>foaf</b> and 
+   <b>dcterms</b> respectively).
+  </p>
+  <p>
+   The samples can be displayed in one or more of the following formats.
+  </p>
+  <ul>
+   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] RDF triples, expressed using the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] notation.</li>
+   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] expressions.</li>
+   <li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] fragments.</li>
+  </ul>
+  <p>
+   Select the formats to display using the buttons below. Note that if all formats
+   are hidden, the worked examples may not make sense!
+  </p>
+  <form action="#"><p> 
+    <input id="hide-turtle-examples" type="button" value="Hide Turtle Examples" onclick="
+            set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+            set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+            set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+            set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');">
+    <input id="show-turtle-examples" type="button" value="Show Turtle Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
+            set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','');
+            set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','');
+            set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','');
+            set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','none');">
+    <input id="hide-provn-examples" type="button" value="Hide PROV-N Examples" onclick="
+            set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+            set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+            set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+            set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');">
+    <input id="show-provn-examples" type="button" value="Show PROV-N Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
+            set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','');
+            set_display_by_class('div','provn example','');
+            set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','');
+            set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','none');">
+    <input id="hide-provxml-examples" type="button" value="Hide XML Examples" onclick="
+            set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+            set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+            set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+            set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');">
+    <input id="show-provxml-examples" type="button" value="Show XML Examples" style="display:none" onclick="
+            set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','');
+            set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','');
+            set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','');
+            set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','none');">
+   </p> 
+  </form>
+
+
+  <section id="entities-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Entities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    An online newspaper publishes an article with a chart about crime statistics making using of data (GovData) provided through a government portal. 
+    The article includes a chart based on the data, with data values composed (aggregated) by
+    geographical regions.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    A blogger, Betty, looking at the article, spots what she thinks to be an error in the chart.
+    Betty retrieves a record of the provenance of the article, describing how it was created.
+   </p>
+   <p>Betty finds the following descriptions of entities in the provenance.</p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:article     a prov:Entity ;
+                 dcterms:title "Crime rises in cities" .
+  ex:dataset1    a prov:Entity .
+  ex:regionList  a prov:Entity .
+  ex:composition a prov:Entity .
+  ex:chart1      a prov:Entity .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(ex:article, [dcterms:title="Crime rises in cities"])
+  entity(ex:dataSet1)
+  entity(ex:regionList)
+  entity(ex:composition)
+  entity(ex:chart1)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:article"&gt;
+      &lt;dct:title&gt;Crime rises in cities&lt;/dct:title&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:dataSet1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:regionList"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:composition"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:chart1"/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    These statements, in order, refer to the article (<code>ex:article</code>),
+    an original data set (<code>ex:dataSet1</code>),
+    a list of regions (<code>ex:regionList</code>), 
+    data aggregated by region (<code>ex:composition</code>), 
+    and a chart (<code>ex:chart1</code>), and state that each is an entity.
+    Any entity may have attributes, such as the title
+    of the article, expressed using <code>dcterms:title</code> above.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    PROV data is commonly visualized for human consumption using particular conventions,
+    which we will introduce over the following sections. To start with, entities
+    are denoted using ovals, as shown below.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/entities.png" alt="Visualization of the example entities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="activities-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Activities</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Further, the provenance describes that there was
+    an activity (<code>ex:compile</code>) denoting the compilation of the
+    chart from the data set.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compile a prov:Activity .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(ex:compile)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:compile"/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    The provenance also includes reference to the more specific steps involved in this compilation,
+    which are first composing the data by region (<code>ex:compose</code>) and then generating the
+    chart graphic (<code>ex:illustrate</code>).
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose    a prov:Activity .
+  ex:illustrate a prov:Activity .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(ex:compose)
+  activity(ex:illustrate)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:compose"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:illustrate"/&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    In visualizations of the PROV data, activities are depicted as rectangles, as below.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/activities.png" alt="Visualization of the example activities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="usage-and-generation-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Usage and Generation</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Concluding the basic description of what occurred, the provenance 
+    describes the key relations among the above
+    entities and activities, i.e. the usage of an entity by an activity,
+    or the generation of an entity by an activity.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    For example, the descriptions below state that the composition activity
+    (<code>ex:compose</code>) used the original data set, that it used the list of
+    regions, and that the composed data was generated by this activity.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose      prov:used           ex:dataSet1 ;
+                  prov:used           ex:regionList .
+  ex:composition  prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:compose .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(ex:compose, ex:dataSet1, -)
+  used(ex:compose, ex:regionList, -)
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:composition, ex:compose, -)
+    </pre>
+    <p>Note that the - argument in the examples above denote unspecified optional
+     information. See the [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>] specification for the details of what arguments
+     may be expressed in each PROV-N statement.
+    </p>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:dataset1"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:regionList"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:composition"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Similarly, the chart graphic creation activity (<code>ex:illustrate</code>)
+    used the composed data, and the chart was generated by this activity.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:illustrate prov:used           ex:composition .
+  ex:chart1     prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:illustrate .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(ex:illustrate, ex:composition, -)
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:chart1, ex:illustrate, -)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:illustrate"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:composition"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:illustrate"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    In visualizing the PROV data, usage and generation are connections between
+    entities and activities. The arrows point from the future to the past.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/use-generate.png" alt="Connection of the entities and activities by use and generation links">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="agents-and-responsibility-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Digging deeper, Betty wants to know who compiled the chart.
+    Betty sees that Derek was involved in both the composition and
+    chart creation activities:
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose    prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek .
+  ex:illustrate prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(ex:compose, ex:derek, -)
+  wasAssociatedWith(ex:illustrate, ex:derek, -)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:illustrate"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    The record for Derek provides the
+    following description that
+    Derek is an agent, specifically a person, followed by non-PROV information
+    giving attributes of Derek.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:derek a prov:Agent ;
+           a prov:Person ;
+           foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string ;
+           foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt; .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  agent(ex:derek,
+        [prov:type='prov:Person', foaf:givenName="Derek", 
+         foaf:mbox="&lt;mailto:[email protected]&gt;"])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="ex:derek"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+      &lt;foaf:givenName&gt;Derek&lt;/foaf:givenName&gt;
+      &lt;foaf:mbox&gt;mailto:[email protected]&lt;/foaf:mbox&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Derek works as part of an organization, Chart Generators Inc, and so the provenance
+    declares that he acts on their behalf. Note that the organization is itself
+    an agent.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:derek prov:actedOnBehalfOf ex:chartgen .
+  ex:chartgen a prov:Agent ;
+              a prov:Organization ;
+              foaf:name "Chart Generators Inc" .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  agent(ex:chartgen,
+        [prov:type='prov:Organization',
+         foaf:name="Chart Generators Inc"])
+  actedOnBehalfOf(ex:derek, ex:chartgen)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="ex:chartgen"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Organization&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+      &lt;foaf:name&gt;Chart Generators Inc&lt;/foaf:name&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+    &lt;prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:delegate prov:ref="ex:derek"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:responsible prov:ref="ex:chartgen"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:actedOnBehalfOf&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    It would also be possible to express the more specific statement that Derek 
+    worked on the organization's behalf for a particular activity, rather than 
+    in general, and so may have acted on behalf of other organizations for other 
+    activities. See the PROV specifications for details on how to express 
+    activity-specific delegation.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    Finally, there is an explicit statement in the provenance that the chart was
+    attributed to Derek.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:chart1 prov:wasAttributedTo ex:derek .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAttributedTo(ex:chart1, ex:derek)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAttributedTo&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+
+   <p>
+    We can extend our graphical depiction to show the agents, association and attribution links.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/agents.png" alt="Agents added to provenance graph and linked to entities and activities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="roles-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Roles</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    For Betty to understand where the error lies, she needs to have more detailed 
+    information on how entities have been used in and generated 
+    by activities.  Betty has determined that <code>ex:compose</code> used 
+    entities <code>ex:regionList</code> and <code>ex:dataSet1</code>, but she does not 
+    know what function these entities played in the processing.  Betty 
+    also knows that <code>ex:derek</code> was associated with the activities, but she does 
+    not know if Derek was the analyst responsible for determining how the data 
+    should be composed.
+   </p>
+   <p>
+    The above information is described as roles in the provenance. The composition
+    activity involved entities in four roles: the data to be composed (<code>ex:dataToCompose</code>),
+    the regions to aggregate by (<code>ex:regionsToAggregateBy</code>), the
+    resulting composed data (<code>ex:composedData</code>), and the
+    analyst doing the composition (<code>ex:analyst</code>).
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:dataToCompose        a prov:Role .
+  ex:regionsToAggregateBy a prov:Role .
+  ex:composedData         a prov:Role .
+  ex:analyst              a prov:Role .
+    </pre>
+    <p>
+     Examples in the sections above show descriptions of the simple facts that the
+     composition activity used, generated and was enacted by entities/agents.
+     For example, the usage of the data set by the compose activity is expressed
+     as follows.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose prov:used ex:dataSet1 .
+    </pre>
+    <p>     
+     The
+     provenance can contain more details of exactly how these entities and agents
+     were involved in the activity. 
+     To express this, PROV-O refers to <i>qualified usage</i>, <i>qualified generation</i>, etc.,
+     which are descriptions consisting of several statements about how usage, generation, etc. took place.
+     For example, we may describe the plan followed by an agent in performing an activity, or
+     the time at which an activity generated an entity, both illustrated later.
+     Another example of qualified involvement is the role an entity played in an activity.
+     The descriptions below state
+     that the composition activity (<code>ex:compose</code>) included the usage
+     of the government data set (<code>ex:dataSet1</code>) in the role of the data
+     to be composed (<code>ex:dataToCompose</code>).
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose prov:qualifiedUsage [
+                a prov:Usage ;
+                prov:entity  ex:dataSet1 ;
+                prov:hadRole ex:dataToCompose 
+     ] .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <p>
+     In PROV-N, the role is expressed as one of the list of attributes in the used
+     expression, with the attribute name <code>prov:role</code>.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(ex:compose, ex:dataSet1, -, [prov:role='ex:dataToCompose'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:dataSet1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;ex:dataToCompose&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    This can then be distinguished from the same activity's usage of the list of
+    regions because the roles played are different.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose prov:qualifiedUsage [
+                a prov:Usage ;
+                prov:entity  ex:regionList ;
+                prov:hadRole ex:regionsToAggregateBy
+     ] .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  used(ex:compose, ex:regionList, -, [prov:role='ex:regionsToAggregateBy'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:used&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:regionList"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;ex:regionsToAggregateBy&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:used&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Similarly, the provenance includes descriptions that the same activity was
+    enacted in a particular way by Derek, so it indicates that he had the role of 
+    <code>ex:analyst</code>, and that the entity <code>ex:composition</code> took the role of the composed
+    data in what the activity generated:
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:compose prov:qualifiedAssociation [
+                a  prov:Association ;
+                prov:agent    ex:derek ;
+                prov:hadRole  ex:analyst
+  ] .
+  ex:composition prov:qualifiedGeneration [
+                     a prov:Generation ;
+                     prov:activity  ex:compose ;
+                     prov:hadRole   ex:composedData
+  ] .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(ex:compose, ex:derek, -, [prov:role='ex:analyst'])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:composition, ex:compose, -, [prov:role='ex:composedData'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;ex:analyst&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:composition"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role&gt;ex:composedData&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Depicting the above visually, we have the following.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/roles.png" alt="Provenance graph annotated with roles played by entities and agents">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="derivation-and-revision-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Derivation and Revision</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    After looking at the detail of the compilation activity, there appears
+    to be nothing wrong, so Betty concludes the error is in the government dataset. 
+    She looks at the dataset <code>ex:dataSet1</code>, 
+    and sees that it is missing data from one of the zipcodes in the area.  She contacts
+    the government agency, and a new version of GovData is created, declared to be the
+    next revision of the data. The provenance of this new dataset,
+    <code>ex:dataSet2</code>, states that it is a revision of the
+    old data set, <code>ex:dataSet1</code>.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:dataSet2 a prov:Entity ;
+              prov:wasRevisionOf ex:dataSet1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(ex:dataSet2)
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:dataSet2, ex:dataSet1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;entity prov:id="dataSet2"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:dataSet2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:dataSet1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Derek notices that there is a new dataset available and creates a new chart based on the revised data, 
+    using another compilation activity. Betty checks the article again at a
+    later point, and wants to know if it is based on the old or new GovData.
+    She sees a new description stating that the new chart is derived from the new dataset
+    (the same relation could be expressed between the old chart and old dataset).
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
+            prov:wasDerivedFrom ex:dataSet2 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasDerivedFrom(ex:chart2, ex:dataSet2)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:chart2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:dataSet2"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>and that the new chart is a revision of the original one:
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
+            prov:wasRevisionOf ex:chart1 .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(ex:chart2)
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:chart2, ex:chart1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;entity prov:id="chart2"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:chart2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Revision&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Derivation and revision are connections between entities, and so depicted
+    with arrows in our visualization.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/derivation.png" alt="Derivation and revision links between entities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="plans-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Plans</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Betty then wishes to know whether the new data set correctly addresses
+    the error that existed before. The provenance of the new dataset,
+    <code>ex:dataSet2</code>, describes not only who performed the corrections,
+    Edith, but also what instructions she followed in doing so (in PROV terms, the plan).
+    First, the correction activity (<code>ex:correct</code>), the person who corrected
+    it, Edith (<code>ex:edith</code>), and the correction instructions (<code>ex:instructions</code>)
+    are described.
+   </p><div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:correct      a prov:Activity .
+  ex:edith        a prov:Agent, prov:Person .
+  ex:instructions a prov:Plan .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(ex:correct)
+  agent(ex:edith, [prov:type='prov:Person'])
+  entity(ex:instructions)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:correct"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="ex:edith"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Person&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:instructions"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Plan&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <p>
+     The connection between them is expressed in PROV-O using a qualified association giving details of
+     how Edith was associated with the correction activity,
+     including that she followed the above correction instructions.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:correct prov:qualifiedAssociation [
+                 a Association ;
+                 prov:agent   ex:edith ;
+                 prov:hadPlan ex:instructions
+  ] .
+  ex:dataSet2 prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:correct .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <p>
+     In PROV-N, the plan is an optional parameter to wasAssociatedWith descriptions.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasAssociatedWith(ex:correct, ex:edith, ex:instructions)
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:dataSet2, ex:correct, -)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <p>
+     In PROV-XML, the plan is an optional child of the wasAssociatedWith element.
+    </p>
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:correct"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:edith"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:plan prov:ref="ex:instructions"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:dataSet2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:correct"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Plans are additional information about the connection from an activity to
+    an agent, and so, in our visualization, connect to the link between them.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/plans.png" alt="Annotaion of example provenance graph with plan followed">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="time-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Time</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    The government agency that produced GovData is concerned to know how long
+    the incorrect chart was in circulation before the corrected chart was created.
+    That is, they wish to compare the times at which the original and the corrected
+    charts were generated. The snippet below shows that the second chart
+    was generated roughly a month after the first.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:chart1 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-03-02T10:30:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+  ex:chart2 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  wasGeneratedBy(ex:chart1, ex:compile,  2012-03-02T10:30:00)
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:chart2, ex:compile2, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-03-02T10:30:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+      &lt;prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:time&gt;2012-04-01T15:21:00&lt;/prov:time&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasGeneratedBy&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+
+   <p>
+    To ensure their procedures are efficient, the agency also wish to know how long the
+    corrections took once the error was discovered. That is, they wish to know the
+    start and end times of the correction activity (<code>ex:correct</code>).
+    These details are expressed as follows, showing that the corrections took a
+    little over a day.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:correct prov:startedAtTime "2012-03-31T09:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
+             prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  activity(ex:correct, 2012-03-31T09:21:00, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:correct"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2012-03-31T09:21:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
+      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2012-04-01T15:21:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Time is visualized as additional information regarding activities or the
+    links between activities and entities or agents.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/time.png" alt="Annotation of provenance graph with example timestamps">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="alternate-entities-and-specialization-1">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Alternate Entities and Specialization</h3>
+
+   <p>
+    Before noticing anything wrong with the government data, Betty had already
+    posted a blog entry about the article. The blog entry had its own published
+    provenance. In particular, it contains some text copied from the article, and the
+    provenance states that this text (<code>ex:quoteInBlogEntry</code>) is quoted
+    from the article.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:quoteInBlogEntry a prov:Entity ;
+               prov:value "Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones" ;
+               prov:wasQuotedFrom ex:article .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(ex:quoteInBlogEntry, prov:value="Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones")
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:quoteInBlogEntry, ex:article, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:quoteInBlogEntry"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:value&gt;Smaller cities have more crime than larger ones&lt;/prov:value&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:entity&gt;
+    &lt;prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:quoteInBlogEntry"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:type&gt;prov:Quotation&lt;/prov:type&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasDerivedFrom&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    The newspaper, from past experience, anticipated that there could be revisions
+    to the article, and so created identifiers for both the article in general
+    (<code>ex:article</code>) as a URI that got redirected to the first version of the article (<code>ex:articleV1</code>),
+    allowing both to be referred to as entities in provenance data. 
+    In the provenance records, the newspaper describes the connection between the two: that
+    the first version of the article is a specialization of the article in general.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:articleV1 a prov:Entity ;
+               prov:specializationOf ex:article .
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  entity(ex:articleV1)
+  specializationOf(ex:articleV1, ex:article)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:entity prov:id="ex:articleV1"/&gt;
+    &lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="ex:articleV1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Later, after the data set is corrected and the new chart generated, a new version
+    of the article is created, <code>ex:articleV2</code>, with its own URI where the article
+    is redirected to.  To ensure that those
+    consulting the provenance of <code>ex:articleV2</code> understand that it
+    is connected with the provenance of <code>ex:article</code> and <code>ex:articleV1</code>,
+    the newspaper describes how these entities are related.
+   </p>
+   <div class="turtle example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>Turtle Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','turtle example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-turtle-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-turtle-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  ex:articleV2 prov:specializationOf ex:article .
+  ex:articleV2 prov:alternateOf      ex:articleV1 
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provn example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>PROV-N Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provn example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provn-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provn-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  specializationOf(ex:articleV2, ex:article)
+  alternateOf(ex:articleV2, ex:articleV1)
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <div class="provxml example">
+    <div class="exampleheader">
+     <span class="exampleheader"><b>XML Example</b>
+      <a onclick="
+       set_display_by_class('pre','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_class('div','provxml example','none');
+       set_display_by_id('hide-provxml-examples','none');
+       set_display_by_id('show-provxml-examples','');"><u><i>(hide all)</i></u></a>
+     </span></div>
+    <pre>  &lt;prov:document&gt;
+    ...
+    &lt;prov:specializationOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="ex:articleV2"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:specializationOf&gt;
+    &lt;prov:alternateOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:alternate1 prov:ref="ex:articleV1"/&gt;
+      &lt;prov:alternate2 prov:ref="ex:articleV2"/&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:alternateOf&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:document&gt;
+    </pre>
+   </div>
+   <p>
+    Note that above we could have also
+    stated that <code>ex:articleV2</code> was a revision of <code>ex:articleV1</code>,
+    as we did between <code>ex:chart2</code> and <code>ex:chart1</code>,
+    which would describe more concretely how the alternate entities are related.
+    Specialization and alternate relations connect entities, and so are visualized
+    as links between them.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/specialization.png" alt="Specialization and alternate links between entities">
+  </section>
+
+  <section id="complete-prov-data">
+   <h3><span class="secno">3.10 </span>Complete PROV data</h3>
+   <p>
+    The full set of examples shown above are available in <a href="primer-turtle-examples.txt">PROV-O Turtle format</a>
+    or <a href="primer-provn-examples.txt">PROV-N format</a> or <a href="primer-prov-xml-examples.xml">PROV-XML format</a>.
+    We visualize the whole example below.
+   </p>
+   <img src="images/everything.png" alt="Provenance graph for whole example">
+  </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section class="appendix" id="acknowledgements">
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+  <p>
+   The Provenance Working Group members.
+  </p>
+ </section>
+
+ <section class="appendix" id="changes-since-fourth-public-working-draft"> 
+  <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Changes Since Fourth Public Working Draft</h2> 
+  <ul>
+      <li>Corrected XML example for activities</li>
+      <li>Clarified usage of adoptedOnBehalfOf relation</li>
+      <li>Clarified wasQuotedFrom example</li>
+      <li>Adapted PROV-XML examples to clarify they are not RDF/XML</li>
+  </ul>
+ </section>
+
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">C. </span>References</h2><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">C.1 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, W3C Proposed Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DC">[PROV-DC]</dt><dd>Daniel Garijo; Kai Eckert; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/"><cite>Dublin Core to PROV Mapping</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">[PROV-DICTIONARY]</dt><dd>Tom De Nies; Sam Coppens; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/"><cite>PROV Dictionary</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, W3C Proposed Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-LINKS">[PROV-LINKS]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Timothy Lebo; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/"><cite>Linking Across Provenance Bundles</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, W3C Proposed Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, W3C Proposed Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-SEM">[PROV-SEM]</dt><dd>James Cheney; ed. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-sem-20130312"><cite>Semantics of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-sem-20130312">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-sem-20130312</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROVENANCE-XG">[PROVENANCE-XG]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil, James Cheney, Paul Groth, Olaf Hartig, Simon Miles, Luc Moreau, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov/"><cite>Provenance XG Final Report</cite></a>. 8 December 2010. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov/">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd>Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/"><cite>Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language</cite></a>. 9 August 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-turtle-20110809/</a>
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/extra.css	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+
+/* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
+.pending {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #BFEFFF;
+}
+
+.pending::before {
+    content:    "Pending Review";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
+.resolved {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #9BCD9B;
+}
+
+.resolved::before {
+    content:    "Resolved";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
+.inference {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 0px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.inference::before {
+    content:    "Inference";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+.constraint {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.constraint::before {
+    content:    "Constraint";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
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Binary file primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/images/everything.png has changed
Binary file primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/images/key-concepts.png has changed
Binary file primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/images/plans.png has changed
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--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/primer-prov-xml-examples.xml	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,220 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+
+<prov:document
+    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
+    xmlns:ex="http://example.org/"
+	xmlns:dct="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+	xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">
+
+  <!-- Entities -->
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:article">
+	<dct:title>Crime rises in cities</dct:title>
+  </prov:entity>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:dataSet1"/>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:regionList"/>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:composition"/>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:chart1"/>
+
+  <!-- Activities -->
+
+  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:compile"/>
+
+  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:compose"/>
+
+  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:illustrate"/>
+
+  <!-- Usage and Generation -->
+
+  <prov:used>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:dataset1"/>
+  </prov:used>
+
+  <prov:used>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:regionList"/>
+  </prov:used>
+
+  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:composition"/>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+
+  <prov:used>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:illustrate"/>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:composition"/>
+  </prov:used>
+
+  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:illustrate"/>
+  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+
+  <!-- Agents and Responsibility -->
+
+  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:derek">
+    <prov:type>prov:Person</prov:type>
+    <foaf:givenName>Derek</foaf:givenName>
+    <foaf:mbox>mailto:[email protected]</foaf:mbox>
+  </prov:agent>
+
+  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:chartgen">
+    <prov:type>prov:Organization</prov:type>
+    <foaf:name>Chart Generators Inc</foaf:name>
+  </prov:agent>
+
+  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/>
+  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+
+  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:illustrate"/>
+    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/>
+  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+
+  <prov:wasAttributedTo>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/>
+    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/>
+  </prov:wasAttributedTo>
+
+  <prov:actedOnBehalfOf>
+    <prov:delegate prov:ref="ex:derek"/>
+    <prov:responsible prov:ref="ex:chartgen"/>
+  </prov:actedOnBehalfOf>
+
+  <!-- Roles -->
+
+  <prov:used>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:dataSet1"/>
+    <prov:role>ex:dataToCompose</prov:role>
+  </prov:used>
+
+  <prov:used>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:regionList"/>
+    <prov:role>ex:regionsToAggregateBy</prov:role>
+  </prov:used>
+
+  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:derek"/>
+    <prov:role>ex:analyst</prov:role>
+  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+
+  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:composition"/>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:compose"/>
+    <prov:role>ex:composedData</prov:role>
+  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+
+  <!-- Revision and Derivation -->
+
+  <entity prov:id="dataSet2"/>
+  <entity prov:id="chart2"/>
+
+  <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:dataSet2"/>
+    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:dataSet1"/>
+    <prov:type>prov:Revision</prov:type>
+  </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+
+  <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:chart2"/>
+    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:dataSet2"/>
+  </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+
+  <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:chart2"/>
+    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/>
+    <prov:type>prov:Revision</prov:type>
+  </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+
+  <!-- Plans -->
+
+  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:correct"/>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:instructions">
+    <prov:type>prov:Plan</prov:type>
+  </prov:entity>
+
+  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:edith">
+    <prov:type>prov:Person</prov:type>
+  </prov:agent>
+
+  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:correct"/>
+    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:edith"/>
+    <prov:plan prov:ref="ex:instructions"/>
+  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>
+
+  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:dataSet2"/>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:correct"/>
+  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+
+  <!-- Time -->
+
+  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart1"/>
+    <prov:time>2012-03-02T10:30:00</prov:time>
+  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+
+  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:chart2"/>
+    <prov:time>2012-04-01T15:21:00</prov:time>
+  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
+
+  <prov:wasStartedBy>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:correct"/>
+    <prov:time>2012-03-31T09:21:00</prov:time>
+  </prov:wasStartedBy>
+
+  <prov:wasEndedBy>
+    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:correct"/>
+    <prov:time>2012-04-01T15:21:00</prov:time>
+  </prov:wasEndedBy>
+	
+  <!-- alternatively, you can put the activity start and end time in the activity declaration -->
+
+  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:correct">
+    <prov:startTime>2012-03-31T09:21:00</prov:startTime>
+    <prov:endTime>2012-04-01T15:21:00</prov:endTime>
+  </prov:activity>
+
+  <!-- Alternate Entities and Specialization -->
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:quoteInBlogEntry"/>
+
+  <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:quoteInBlogEntry"/>
+    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/>
+    <prov:type>prov:Quotation</prov:type>
+  </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:articleV1"/>
+
+  <prov:specializationOf>
+    <prov:specificEntity prov:ref="ex:articleV1"/>
+    <prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/>
+  </prov:specializationOf>
+
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:articleV2"/>
+
+  <prov:specializationOf>
+    <prov:specificEntity prov:ref="ex:articleV2"/>
+    <prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/>
+  </prov:specializationOf>
+
+  <prov:alternateOf>
+    <prov:alternate1 prov:ref="ex:articleV1"/>
+    <prov:alternate2 prov:ref="ex:articleV2"/>
+  </prov:alternateOf>
+
+</prov:document>
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/primer-provn-examples.txt	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,84 @@
+prefix prov <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#>
+prefix ex <http://www.example.org#>
+prefix dcterms <http://purl.org/dc/terms/>
+prefix foaf <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
+
+// The examples below are taken from, and follow the same order
+// as in, the W3C PROV Primer, http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/
+
+// Entities
+
+entity(ex:article, [dcterms:title="Crime rises in cities"])
+entity(ex:dataSet1)
+entity(ex:regionList)
+entity(ex:composition)
+entity(ex:chart1)
+    
+// Activities
+
+activity(ex:compile)
+activity(ex:compose)
+activity(ex:illustrate)
+    
+// Usage and Generation
+
+used(ex:compose, ex:dataSet1, -)
+used(ex:compose, ex:regionList, -)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:composition, ex:compose, -)
+used(ex:illustrate, ex:composition, -)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:chart1, ex:illustrate, -)
+    
+// Agents and Responsibility
+
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:compose, ex:derek, -)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:illustrate, ex:derek, -)
+agent(ex:derek,
+      [prov:type='prov:Person', foaf:givenName="Derek", 
+       foaf:mbox="<mailto:[email protected]>"])
+
+agent(ex:chartgen,
+      [prov:type='prov:Organization',
+       foaf:name="Chart Generators Inc"])
+actedOnBehalfOf(ex:derek, ex:chartgen)
+
+wasAttributedTo(ex:chart1, ex:derek)
+    
+// Roles
+
+used(ex:compose, ex:dataSet1, -, [prov:role='ex:dataToCompose'])
+used(ex:compose, ex:regionList, -, [prov:role='ex:regionsToAggregateBy'])
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:compose, ex:derek, -, [prov:role='ex:analyst'])
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:composition, ex:compose, -, [prov:role='ex:composedData'])
+
+// Derivation and Revision
+
+entity(ex:dataSet2)
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:dataSet2, ex:dataSet1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:chart2, ex:dataSet2)
+entity(ex:chart2)
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:chart2, ex:chart1, [prov:type='prov:Revision'])
+    
+// Plans
+
+activity(ex:correct)
+agent(ex:edith, [prov:type='prov:Person'])
+entity(ex:instructions)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:correct, ex:edith, ex:instructions)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:dataSet2, ex:correct, -)
+    
+// Time
+
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:chart1, ex:compile,  2012-03-02T10:30:00)
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:chart2, ex:compile2, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
+activity(ex:correct, 2012-03-31T09:21:00, 2012-04-01T15:21:00)
+    
+// Alternate Entities and Specialization
+
+entity(ex:quoteInBlogEntry)
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:quoteInBlogEntry, ex:article, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
+    
+entity(ex:articleV1)
+specializationOf(ex:articleV1, ex:article)    
+specializationOf(ex:articleV2, ex:article)
+alternateOf(ex:articleV2, ex:articleV1)
+    
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/primer-turtle-examples.txt	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,113 @@
[email protected] rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
[email protected] prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
[email protected] ex: <http://www.example.org#> .
[email protected] dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
[email protected] foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
+
+# The examples below are taken from, and follow the same order
+# as in the W3C PROV Primer, http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/
+
+# Entities
+
+ex:article     a prov:Entity ;
+               dcterms:title "Crime rises in cities" .
+ex:dataset1    a prov:Entity .
+ex:regionList  a prov:Entity .
+ex:composition a prov:Entity .
+ex:chart1      a prov:Entity .
+
+# Activities
+
+ex:compile    a prov:Activity .
+ex:compose    a prov:Activity .
+ex:illustrate a prov:Activity .
+
+# Usage and Generation
+
+ex:compose      prov:used           ex:dataSet1 ;
+                prov:used           ex:regionList .
+ex:composition  prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:compose .
+ex:illustrate   prov:used           ex:composition .
+ex:chart1       prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:illustrate .
+
+# Agents and Responsibility
+
+ex:compose    prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek .
+ex:illustrate prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek .
+ex:derek a prov:Agent ;
+         a prov:Person ;
+         foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string ;
+         foaf:mbox      <mailto:[email protected]> .
+ex:derek prov:actedOnBehalfOf ex:chartgen .
+ex:chartgen a prov:Agent ;
+            a prov:Organization ;
+            foaf:name "Chart Generators Inc" .
+ex:chart1 prov:wasAttributedTo ex:derek .
+
+# Roles
+    
+ex:dataToCompose        a prov:Role .
+ex:regionsToAggregateBy a prov:Role .
+ex:composedData         a prov:Role .
+ex:analyst              a prov:Role .
+ex:compose prov:qualifiedUsage [
+           a prov:Usage ;
+           prov:entity  ex:dataSet1 ;
+           prov:hadRole ex:dataToCompose 
+] .    
+ex:compose prov:qualifiedUsage [
+           a prov:Usage ;
+           prov:entity  ex:regionList ;
+           prov:hadRole ex:regionsToAggregateBy
+] .
+ex:compose prov:qualifiedAssociation [
+           a prov:Association ;
+           prov:agent    ex:derek ;
+           prov:hadRole  ex:analyst
+] .
+ex:composition prov:qualifiedGeneration [
+               a prov:Generation ;
+               prov:activity  ex:compose ;
+               prov:hadRole   ex:composedData
+] .
+
+# Revision and Derivation
+
+ex:dataSet2 a prov:Entity ;
+            prov:wasRevisionOf ex:dataSet1 .
+ex:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
+          prov:wasDerivedFrom ex:dataSet2 .
+ex:chart2 a prov:Entity ;
+          prov:wasRevisionOf ex:chart1 .
+    
+# Plans
+
+ex:correct      a prov:Activity .
+ex:edith        a prov:Agent, prov:Person .
+ex:instructions a prov:Plan .
+    
+ex:correct prov:qualifiedAssociation [
+           a Association ;
+           prov:agent   ex:edith ;
+           prov:hadPlan ex:instructions
+] .
+ex:dataSet2 prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:correct .
+    
+# Time
+
+ex:chart1 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-03-02T10:30:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+ex:chart2 prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+    
+ex:correct prov:startedAtTime "2012-03-31T09:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
+           prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-01T15:21:00"^^xsd:dateTime .
+    
+# Alternate Entities and Specialization
+
+ex:quoteInBlogEntry a prov:Entity ;
+             prov:wasQuotedFrom ex:article .
+
+ex:articleV1 a prov:Entity ;
+             prov:specializationOf ex:article .
+    
+ex:articleV2 prov:specializationOf ex:article .
+ex:articleV2 prov:alternateOf      ex:articleV1 .
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/WD-prov-primer-20130312/toggles.js	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+/*
+	Written by Jonathan Snook, http://www.snook.ca/jonathan
+	Add-ons by Robert Nyman, http://www.robertnyman.com
+	Author says "The credit comment is all it takes, no license. Go crazy with it!:-)"
+	From http://www.robertnyman.com/2005/11/07/the-ultimate-getelementsbyclassname/
+*/
+
+function getElementsByClassName(oElm, strTagName, oClassNames){
+	var arrElements = (! (! (strTagName == "*") || ! (oElm.all)))? oElm.all : oElm.getElementsByTagName(strTagName);
+	var arrReturnElements = new Array();
+	var arrRegExpClassNames = new Array();
+	if(typeof oClassNames == "object"){
+		for(var i=0; !(i>=oClassNames.length); i++){ /*>*/
+			arrRegExpClassNames.push(new RegExp("(^|\s)" + oClassNames[i].replace(/\-/g, "\-") + "(\s|$)"));
+		}
+	}
+	else{
+		arrRegExpClassNames.push(new RegExp("(^|\s)" + oClassNames.replace(/\-/g, "\-") + "(\s|$)"));
+	}
+	var oElement;
+	var bMatchesAll;
+	for(var j=0; !(j>=arrElements.length); j++){ /*>*/
+		oElement = arrElements[j];
+		bMatchesAll = true;
+		for(var k=0; !(k>=arrRegExpClassNames.length); k++){ /*>*/
+			if(!arrRegExpClassNames[k].test(oElement.className)){
+				bMatchesAll = false;
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+		if(bMatchesAll){
+			arrReturnElements.push(oElement);
+		}
+	}
+	return (arrReturnElements)
+}
+
+function set_display_by_class(el, cls, newValue) {
+   var e = getElementsByClassName(document, el, cls);
+   if (e != null) {
+      for (var i=0; !(i>=e.length); i++) {
+        e[i].style.display = newValue;
+      }
+   }
+}
+
+function set_display_by_id(id, newValue) {
+   var e = document.getElementById(id);
+   if (e != null) {
+     e.style.display = newValue;
+   }
+}
\ No newline at end of file
--- a/primer/primer-prov-xml-examples.xml	Thu Feb 28 17:51:30 2013 +0000
+++ b/primer/primer-prov-xml-examples.xml	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -190,10 +190,10 @@
 
   <!-- Alternate Entities and Specialization -->
 
-  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:blogEntry"/>
+  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:quoteInBlogEntry"/>
 
   <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
-    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:blogEntry"/>
+    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:quoteInBlogEntry"/>
     <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:article"/>
     <prov:type>prov:Quotation</prov:type>
   </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
--- a/primer/primer-provn-examples.txt	Thu Feb 28 17:51:30 2013 +0000
+++ b/primer/primer-provn-examples.txt	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -74,8 +74,8 @@
     
 // Alternate Entities and Specialization
 
-entity(ex:blogEntry)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:blogEntry, ex:article, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
+entity(ex:quoteInBlogEntry)
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:quoteInBlogEntry, ex:article, [prov:type='prov:Quotation'])
     
 entity(ex:articleV1)
 specializationOf(ex:articleV1, ex:article)    
--- a/primer/primer-turtle-examples.txt	Thu Feb 28 17:51:30 2013 +0000
+++ b/primer/primer-turtle-examples.txt	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
     
 # Alternate Entities and Specialization
 
-ex:blogEntry a prov:Entity ;
+ex:quoteInBlogEntry a prov:Entity ;
              prov:wasQuotedFrom ex:article .
 
 ex:articleV1 a prov:Entity ;
--- a/provenance/prov-o.ttl	Thu Feb 28 17:51:30 2013 +0000
+++ b/provenance/prov-o.ttl	Thu Feb 28 17:52:30 2013 +0000
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
   prov:wasAttributedTo  <http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo>,
                         :StianSoilandReyes,
 						<http://delicias.dia.fi.upm.es/members/DGarijo/#me>, 
-                        #Satya Sahoo, Case Western Reserve University, USA
+                        :Satya Sahoo, 
                         #Deborah McGuinness, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
                         #Khalid Belhajjame, University of Manchester, UK
                         :JamesCheney;
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@
   prov:wasInfluencedBy  <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#acknowledgements>;
 .
 
+# James: should we introduce a uri for the  "PROV-O activity" (or the PROV working group) in the context of which I acted on the behalf of the University of Edinburgh?
 
 # Is this the correct URI for the group? With or without the /?
 <http://www.w3.org/2011/prov> 
@@ -80,6 +81,7 @@
 <http://dbpedia.org/page/University_of_Manchester> a foaf:Organization ;
     foaf:name "University of Manchester" ;
     foaf:member :StianSoilandReyes ;
+    foaf:member :KhalidBelhajjame ;	
     foaf:homepage <http://www.manchester.ac.uk/> .
 
 :DanielGarijo a prov:Person, foaf:Person;
@@ -90,8 +92,27 @@
         prov:specializationOf <http://users.ox.ac.uk/~zool0770/#me> ;
         prov:actedOnBehalfOf <http://dbpedia.org/page/University_of_Oxford> ;
         foaf:name "Jun Zhao".
+
+:KhalidBelhajjame a prov:Person, foaf:Person;
+	prov:specializationOf <http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame/#me> ;
+	prov:actedOnBehalfOf <http://dbpedia.org/page/University_of_Manchester> ;
+	foaf:account <http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/User:kbelhajj> ;
+	foaf:name "Khalid Belhajjame"@en .
+
   
-#Satya Sahoo, Case Western Reserve University, USA
+:SatyaSahoo a prov:Person, foaf:Person ;	
+	prov:wasAssociatedWith <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_Western_Reserve_University> ;
+	foaf:name "Satya Sahoo"@en ;
+	foaf:account <http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/User:Ssahoo2> ;
+  	foaf:page <http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo> ;
+	foaf:homepage <http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo> .
+
+<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_Western_Reserve_University> 
+	a prov:Organization;
+	foaf:name "Case Western Reserve University" ;
+    foaf:member :SatyaSahoo ;
+    foaf:homepage <https://www.case.edu/> .
+	
 #Deborah McGuinness, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
 #Khalid Belhajjame, University of Manchester, UK
 #James Cheney, University of Edinburgh, UK