mention document
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Fri, 09 Nov 2012 16:34:52 -0500
changeset 4678 48ce235876ac
parent 4677 033651257466
child 4683 12cd1aaa575a
mention document
mention/prov-mention.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/mention/prov-mention.html	Fri Nov 09 16:34:52 2012 -0500
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+<!DOCTYPE html
+>
+
+<html><head> 
+    <title>PROV-Mention</title> 
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> 
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+    <script type="text/javascript">
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+	Add-ons by Robert Nyman, http://www.robertnyman.com
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+}
+
+function set_display_by_id(id, newValue) {
+   var e = document.getElementById(id);
+   if (e != null) {
+     e.style.display = newValue;
+   }
+}
+</script> 
+    <script src="glossary.js" class="remove"></script>
+
+    <script class="remove">
+      function updateGlossaryRefs() {
+        $('.glossary-ref').each(function(index) {
+          var ref=$(this).attr('data-ref');
+          var span=$(this).attr('data-withspan')
+          $(this).removeAttr('data-withspan');
+          $(this).removeAttr('data-ref');
+
+          $('#'+ref+'.glossary').contents().clone().appendTo($(this));
+//          $(this).attr("prov:hadOriginalSource",glossary_hg);
+          if (span) {
+            $(this).children('dfn').replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').addClass('dfn').append($(this).contents())});
+          }
+        });
+      }
+
+        // function to replace figcaption since not allowed by prov rules, and not transformed by respec.js
+      function updateFigCaptions() {
+	var figureCount=1;
+
+        $('figcaption').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
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+          $(this).replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').addClass('figcaption').attr('data-count', mycount).attr('id',myid).append("Figure " + mycount)
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+        });
+      }
+
+        // function to update caption with linkable diamond
+      function updateCaptions() {
+	var tableCount=1;
+
+        $('caption').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
+          var mycount=tableCount++;
+
+          $(this).attr('data-count', mycount)
+.prepend($('<span>').append("Table " + mycount)
+		  .append($('<sup>').append($('<a>').addClass('internalDFN').attr('href','#'+myid).append($('<span>').addClass('diamond').append(" &#9674;:")))).append(" "))
+        });
+      }
+
+        // function to replace figure since not allowed by prov rules, and not transformed by respec.js
+      function updateFigures() {
+        $('figure').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
+          var mystyle=$(this).attr('style');
+
+             console.log( "figure " + myid + " " + $(this).contents());
+
+          $(this).replaceWith(function(){
+                                          var aNewElement=$('<span>').addClass('figure').append($(this).contents());
+                                          if (myid) {
+                                            aNewElement.attr('id',myid)
+                                          }                                          
+                                          if (mystyle) {
+                                            aNewElement.attr('style',mystyle)
+                                          }                                          
+                                          return aNewElement });
+
+
+
+        //          $(this).replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').addClass('figure').attr('id',myid).attr('style',mystyle).append($(this).contents())});
+             console.log( "figure " + myid);
+        });
+      }
+
+      function updateExamples() {
+        var count=1;
+        $('.anexample').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
+          var mycount=count++;
+
+          if (myid==undefined) {
+            myid='example_' + mycount;
+            $(this).attr('id',myid);
+          }
+
+          
+          $(this).attr('data-count', mycount).prepend($('<div>').addClass('anexampleTitle')
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+        });
+      }
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+              
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+      function updateDfn() {
+        var count=1;
+        $('dfn').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).addClass('internalDFN').attr('id');
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+
+    <script class="remove"> 
+      var addExtraReferences = function() {
+          for (var k in extraReferences)
+              berjon.biblio[k] = extraReferences[k];
+      };
+      var extraReferences = {
+        "CLOCK":
+         "Lamport, L. "+
+         "<a href=\"http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf\"><cite>Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system</cite></a>."+
+         "Communications of the ACM 21 (7): 558–565. 1978. "+
+         "URL: <a href=\"http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf\">http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf</a> " +
+         "DOI: doi:10.1145/359545.359563.",
+        "CSP":
+         "Hoare, C. A. R. "+
+         "<a href=\"http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf\"><cite>Communicating Sequential Processes</cite></a>."+
+         "Prentice-Hall. 1985"+
+         "URL: <a href=\"http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf\">http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf</a>",
+        "Logic":
+          "W. E. Johnson "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html\"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>."+
+          "1924. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html\">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>",
+        "PROV-SEM":
+          "James Cheney "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman\"><cite>Formal Semantics Strawman</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Work in progress. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman\">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman</a>",
+
+        "PROV-PRIMER":
+          "Yolanda Gil and Simon Miles (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Helena Deus, Daniel Garijo, Graham Klyne, Paolo Missier, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/\"><cite>Prov Model Primer</cite></a>. "+
+          "2012, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</a>",
+
+        "PROV-O":
+          "Timothy Lebo, Satya Sahoo and Deborah McGuinness (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, James Cheney, David Corsar, Daniel Garijo, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/\"><cite>Provenance Formal Model</cite></a>. "+
+          "2012, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</a>",
+
+
+        "PROV-CONSTRAINTS":
+          "James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.) "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/\"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. "+
+          "2012, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a>",
+
+        "PROV-N":
+          "Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) James Cheney, Stian Soiland-Reyes "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/\"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. "+
+          "2012, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a>",
+
+        "PROV-AQ":
+          "Graham Klyne and Paul Groth (eds.) Luc Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame, and Simon Miles "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/\"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. "+
+          "2012, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</a>",
+
+        "UML":
+          "Object Management Group "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/\"><cite>Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</cite></a>. "+
+          "version 2.0, 2005 "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/\">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</a>",
+
+        "RDF-CONCEPTS11":
+          "Richard Cyganiak and David Wood (eds.) " +
+          "RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/\"><cite>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</cite></a>. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>",
+
+        "Mappings":
+          "Satya Sahoo and Paul Groth and Olaf Hartig and Simon Miles and Sam Coppens and James Myers and Yolanda Gil and Luc Moreau and Jun Zhao and Michael Panzer and Daniel Garijo "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings\"><cite>Provenance Vocabulary Mappings</cite></a>. "+
+          "August 2010 "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings\">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</a>",
+
+
+
+      };
+      var respecConfig = {
+          // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
+          specStatus:           "ED",
+          
+          // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
+          shortName:            "prov-mention",
+ 
+          // if your specification has a subtitle that goes below the main
+          // formal title, define it here
+          subtitle   :  "<a href=\"diff.html\">Changes</a> since LC release",
+
+ 
+          // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
+          //publishDate:  "2012-07-24",
+ 
+          // if the specification's copyright date is a range of years, specify
+          // the start date here:
+          copyrightStart: "2011",
+ 
+          // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
+          // and its maturity status
+          previousPublishDate:  "2012-07-24",
+          previousMaturity:  "LC",
+ 
+          // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
+          edDraftURI:           "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html",
+ 
+          // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
+          lcEnd: "2012-09-18",
+ 
+          // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
+          // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
+          extraCSS:             ["http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css", "./extra-dm.css"],
+ 
+          // editors, add as many as you like
+          // only "name" is required
+          editors:  [
+              { name: "Luc Moreau", url: "http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/",
+                company: "University of Southampton" },
+              { name: "Paolo Missier", url: "http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier",
+                company: "Newcastle University" },
+          ],
+ 
+          // authors, add as many as you like. 
+          // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
+          // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
+ 
+          authors:  [
+              { name: "Khalid Belhajjame", url: "http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame",
+                company: "University of Manchester" },
+              { name: "Reza B'Far",
+                company: "Oracle Corporation" },
+              { name: "James Cheney", url: "http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/",
+                company: "University of Edinburgh" },
+              { name: "Sam Coppens",
+                company: "IBBT - Ghent University"},
+              { name: "Stephen Cresswell",
+                company: "legislation.gov.uk"},
+              { name: "Yolanda Gil",
+                company: "Invited Expert", url:"http://www.isi.edu/~gil/"},
+              { name: "Paul Groth", url: "http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/",
+                company: "VU University of Amsterdam" },
+              { name: "Graham Klyne",
+                company: "University of Oxford" },
+              { name: "Timothy Lebo", url: "http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo",
+                company: "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute" },
+              { name: "Jim McCusker", url: "http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker",
+                company: "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute" },
+              { name: "Simon Miles", 
+                company: "Invited Expert", url:"http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/" },
+              { name: "James Myers", url:"http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/",
+                company: "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute"},
+              { name: "Satya Sahoo", url:"http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo",
+                company: "Case Western Reserve University" },
+              { name: "Curt Tilmes", 
+                company: "National Aeronautics and Space Administration" },
+          ],
+          
+          // name of the WG
+          wg:           "Provenance Working Group",
+          
+          // URI of the public WG page
+          wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/",
+          
+          // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
+          wgPublicList: "public-prov-comments",
+          
+          // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
+          // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
+          // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
+          // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
+          // Team Contact.
+          wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status",
+
+          // Add extraReferences to bibliography database
+          preProcess: [addExtraReferences],
+
+          postProcess: [updateSectionRefs, updateDfn, updateFigures],
+      };
+    </script> 
+  </head> 
+  <body> 
+
+    <section id="abstract">
+<p>
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
+ to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
+PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the W3C
+provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
+PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
+PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
+(1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
+(2) derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; 
+(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing; and,
+(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+</p>
+
+<p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
+PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
+relations. The PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
+extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
+
+<p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
+First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
+provenance should follow.  Second, 
+a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
+instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
+this document. </p>
+
+    </section> 
+
+<section id="sotd">
+<h4>Last Call</h4>
+<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
+This is a Last Call Working Draft. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review.</p>
+
+<p>This specification identifies one  <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">feature at risk</a>: Mention (<a href="#term-mention">Section 5.5.3</a>) might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
+
+<!--
+<h4>Please Comment By 2012-09-18 (date TBC)</h4>
+<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
+The end date of the Last Call review period is <b>2012-09-18 (TBC)</b>, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
+</p>
+
+-->
+
+<h4>PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
+<ul>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">PROV-DM</a>, the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a>, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/">PROV-N</a>, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [[PROV-N]];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/">PROV-O</a>, the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [[PROV-O]];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/">PROV-AQ</a>, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [[PROV-AQ]]; </li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/">PROV-PRIMER</a>, a primer for the PROV data model [[PROV-PRIMER]].</li>
+</ul>
+<h4>How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+<ul>
+<li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </li>
+<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
+<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O and PROV-N offer examples of mapping to RDF and text, respectively.</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+<!-- <div class="buttonpanel"> 
+<form action="#"><p> 
+<input id="hide-asn" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','withAsn','none');set_display_by_class('span','withAsn','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-asn','none'); set_display_by_id('show-asn','');" type="button"
+value="Hide ASN" /> 
+<input id="show-asn" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','withAsn',''); set_display_by_class('span','withAsn','');  set_display_by_id('hide-asn',''); set_display_by_id('show-asn','none');" style="display: none"
+type="button" value="Show ASN" /> 
+</p> 
+</form> 
+</div>     
+-->
+
+
+
+
+
+    <section id="introduction"> 
+      <h2>Introduction</h2> 
+
+</section> 
+
+<<<<<<< local
+    <section id="xxx"> 
+=======
+<section id="conventions"> 
+<h3>Notational Conventions</h3>
+
+
+
+<p>The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
+      NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and
+      "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
+      [[!RFC2119]].</p>
+
+<p> 
+  Examples throughout this document use the PROV-N Provenance
+  Notation, briefly introduced in <a href="#prov-notation">Section 3</a> and specified fully in a separate document [[PROV-N]].</p>
+
+
+
+</section> 
+
+<section class="informative" id="namespaces"> 
+<h3>Namespaces</h3>
+
+<p>
+The following namespaces prefixes are used throughout this document.
+
+<div style="text-align: left;">
+<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="namespace-table">Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption> <!-- Table 1-->
+<tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration"><span>TBD</span></a>)</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]]</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace  [[!RDF-CONCEPTS]]</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br/> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br/> some application-dependent URI [[!URI]]</td></tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+
+</section> 
+
+</section> 
+
+
+
+<section class="informative" id='section-prov-overview'> 
+<h1>PROV Overview</h1>
+
+<p>This section introduces provenance concepts with informal explanations and illustrative
+examples. PROV distinguishes  <em>core structures</em>, forming the essence of  provenance, from <em>extended structures</em> catering for more specific uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a> and <a href="#section-extended-structures">Section 2.2</a>. Furthermore, the PROV data model is organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see <a href="#section-overview-components">Section 2.3</a>). A <em>provenance description</em> is an instance of  a core and extended provenance structure described below.
+</p>
+
+
+<section id='core-structures'> 
+<h1>PROV Core Structures</h1>
+
+<p>At its core, provenance describes the use and production of
+<em>entities</em> by <em>activities</em>, which may be 
+influenced in
+various ways by <em>agents</em>.  These core types and their relationships
+are illustrated
+by
+the UML diagram of <a href="#prov-core-structures-top">Figure 1</a>.</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center; ">
+ <figure style="max-width: 70%; " id="prov-core-structures-top">
+<img src="uml/essentials.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; "  /><br>
+<figcaption id="prov-core-structures">PROV Core Structures (Informative)</figcaption>
+  </figure>
+</div>
+
+<p>The concepts found in the core of PROV are introduced in the rest of this section.
+They are summarized in  <a href="#overview-types-and-relations">Table 2</a>, where they are categorized as
+ type or relation.
+ The first column lists concepts, the second column indicates whether a concept maps to a type or a relation, whereas the third column contains the corresponding name, as it appears in Figure 1.    Names of relations have a verbal form in the past tense to express what happened in the past, as opposed to what may or will happen. In the core of PROV, all relations are binary. 
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<div style="text-align: left;">
+<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="overview-types-and-relations">Mapping of PROV core concepts to  types and relations</caption> <!-- Table 2 -->
+<tr><td><a><b>PROV Concepts</b></a></td><td><b>PROV-DM types or relations</b></td><td><b>Name</b></td><td><b>Overview</b></td></tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a>Entity</a></td><td rowspan="3" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Types</td><td><a title="dfn-Entity">Entity</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity">Activity</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent">Agent</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a>Generation</a></td><td rowspan="7" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Relations</td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy">WasGeneratedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Usage</a></td><td><a title="used">Used</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Communication</a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy">WasInformedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom">WasDerivedFrom</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-derivation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo">WasAttributedTo</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Delegation</a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<!--
+<p><a href="#prov-core-structures">Figure 1</a> is not intended to be complete: it only illustrates  types and relations introduced in this section (<a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a>), exploited in the example discussed in <a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 3</a>, and explained in detail in <a href="#data-model-components">Section 4</a>.
+Names of relations depicted in <a href="#prov-core-structures">Figure 1</a> 
+are listed in
+the third column of <a href="#overview-types-and-relations">Table 2</a>. These names are part of a textual notation to write instances of the PROV data model, which we introduce in the next section. </p>
+
+-->
+
+
+
+
+
+<form action="#"><p> 
+<input id="hide-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-examples','none'); set_display_by_id('show-examples','');" type="button"
+value="Hide Concept Examples" /> 
+<input id="show-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample',''); set_display_by_id('hide-examples',''); set_display_by_id('show-examples','none');" style="display: none"
+type="button" value="Show Concept Examples" /> 
+</p> 
+</form> 
+
+
+
+
+  
+    <section id='section-entity-activity'> 
+<h2>Entity and Activity</h2>
+
+
+<p>In PROV, things we want to describe the provenance of are called <em>entities</em> and have some fixed aspects. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
+physical things such as a mountain, a building, a printed book, or a car as well as abstract concepts and ideas. 
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-entity"  data-withspan="true">
+</span> [<a href="#term-entity">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="entity-example">
+<p>An entity may be the document at URI <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</a>, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activity"  data-withspan="true"></span> [<a href="#term-Activity">Detailed specification</a>]
+Just as entities cover a broad range of notions, 
+activities can cover a broad range of
+notions:
+information processing activities
+ may for example move, copy, or duplicate  digital entities;
+ physical activities can include
+ driving a car from Boston to Cambridge or printing a book.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="activity-example">
+<p>An activity may be the publishing of a document on the Web, sending a twitter message, extracting metadata embedded in a file, driving a car from Boston to Cambridge, assembling a data set based on a set of measurements, performing a statistical analysis over a data set, sorting news items according to some criteria, running a SPARQL query over a triple store, or editing a file.</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>Activities and entities are associated with each other in two different ways: activities utilize entities and activities  produce entities. The act of utilizing or producing an entity may have a duration.  
+ The term 'generation' refers to the completion of the act of producing; likewise, the term 'usage' refers to the beginning of the act of utilizing entities. Thus, we define the following concepts of generation and usage. </p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-generation"  data-withspan="true">
+</span> [<a href="#term-Generation">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-usage"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>  [<a href="#term-Usage">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="generation-example">
+<p>Examples of generation are the completed creation of a file by a
+program, the completed creation of a linked data set, and the completed
+publication of a new version of a document.
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="usage-example">
+<p>Usage examples include a procedure beginning to consume an argument, a service starting to read a value on a port, a program beginning to read a configuration
+file, or the point at which an ingredient, such as eggs, is being added in a baking activity. Usage may entirely consume an entity (e.g. eggs are no longer available after being added to
+the mix); in contrast, the same entity may be used multiple times, possibly by different activities (e.g. a file on a file system can be read indefinitely).
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="driving-a-car">
+<p>
+Let us consider the activity of driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.
+One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by this activity.
+This is answered by
+considering that a single artifact may
+correspond to several entities; in this case, a car in Boston may be a
+different entity from a car in Cambridge.  
+Thus, among other things,
+an entity "car in Boston" would be used, and a new entity "car in
+Cambridge" would be generated by this activity of driving.  The
+provenance trace of the car might include: designed in Japan,
+manufactured in Korea, shipped to Boston USA, purchased by customer,
+driven to Cambridge, serviced by engineer in Cambridge, etc., all of
+which might be important information when deciding whether or not it
+represents a sensible second-hand purchase.  Or some of it might
+alternatively be relevant when trying to determine the truth of a web
+page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
+of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
+digital artifacts.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>The generation of an entity by an activity and its subsequent usage by another activity is termed communication.</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-communication"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>   [<a href="#term-Communication">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example">
+<p>
+The activity of writing a celebrity article was informed by (a
+communication instance) the activity of intercepting voicemails.
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+    <section id="section-derivation"> 
+<h2>Derivation</h2>
+
+
+
+<p>Activities utilize entities and produce entities. In some cases, utilizing an entity influences the creation of another in some way. This notion of 'influence' is captured by derivations, defined as follows.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-derivation"  data-withspan="true"></span>
+   [<a href="#term-Derivation">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example">
+<p>Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
+linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>
+The focus of derivation is on connecting a generated entity to a used
+entity.
+While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
+subtle: implicit is the notion that the generated entity was affected
+in some way by the used entity.  
+
+If an artifact
+was used by an activity that also generated a new artifact, it does not always follow
+that the second artifact was derived from the first.  In the activity
+of creating a painting, an artist may have mixed some paint that was
+never actually applied to the canvas: the painting would typically
+not be considered a derivation from the unused paint.  
+<!-- The provenance
+model does not attempt to define what constitutes derivation; rather,
+it is considered to be something that is asserted, having been
+determined by unspecified means. -->
+PROV does not attempt to specify the conditions under which derivations
+exist; rather, derivation is considered to have been determined by unspecified means. 
+Thus, while a chain of usage and generation is necessary for a
+derivation to hold between entities, it is not sufficient; some
+form of influence occurring during the activities involved is also needed. 
+</p>
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"> 
+<h2>Agents and Responsibility</h2>
+
+<p>For many purposes, a key consideration
+ for deciding whether something is reliable and/or trustworthy is
+ knowing who or what <em>was reponsible</em> for its production.  Data published by
+ a respected independent organization may be considered more
+ trustworthy than that from a lobby organization; a claim by a
+ well-known scientist with an established track record may be more
+ believed than a claim by a new student; a calculation performed by an
+ established software library may be more reliable than by a one-off
+ program.</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-agent"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>   [<a href="#term-agent">Detailed specification</a>]
+ An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
+ used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  
+</p>
+
+
+<!--
+<p>
+The definition of agent intentionally stays away from using concepts such as enabling, causing, initiating, triggering, affecting, etc, because many entities also enable, cause, initiate, and affect in some way
+the activities. (Concepts such as triggers are themselves defined later in relations between entities and activities.)   So the notion of having some degree of responsibility is really what makes an agent.</p>
+-->
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example">
+<p>
+Software for checking the use of grammar in a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity;  one can also describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
+A site selling books on the Web, the services involved in the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<p>Agents can be related to entities, activities, and other agents.</p>  
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-attribution" data-withspan="true"></span>
+[<a href="#term-attribution">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example">
+<p>A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. </p>
+
+<!-- <div class="note">Proposal: remove the above para as it repeats from 2.3. Proposed text: "the <em>activity association</em> relation provides a way to indicate that an agent is responsible for an activity, possibly with an associated plan."[PM]</div> -->
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-core-association"  data-withspan="true"></span>
+[<a href="#term-Association">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example">
+<p>Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
+<ul>
+<li>creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</li>
+<li>various forms of participation in a panel discussion, including audience member, panelist, or panel chair;</li>
+<li>a public event, sponsored by a company, and hosted by a museum;</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-delegation"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>
+[<a href="#term-delegation">Detailed specification</a>]
+ The nature of this relation is intended to be broad,  including contractual relation, but also altruistic initiative by the representative agent. </p>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example">
+<p>A student publishing a web page describing an academic
+department could result in both the student and the department being
+agents associated with the activity.  It may not matter which actual
+student published a web page, but it may matter significantly that the department
+told the student to put up the web page.  
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-extended-structures"> 
+<h2>PROV Extended Structures</h2>
+
+<p>While the core of PROV focuses on essential provenance structures commonly found in provenance descriptions, extended structures 
+are designed to support more advanced uses of provenance. 
+The purpose of this section is twofold. First, mechanisms to specify these extended structures are introduced.  Second,  two further kinds of provenance structures are overviewed: they cater for provenance of provenance and collections,  respectively.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-mechanisms"> 
+<h2>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</h2>
+
+<p>Extended structures are defined by a variety of mechanisms 
+outlined in this section: subtyping, expanded relations, optional
+identification, and new relations.</p>
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping"> 
+<h2>Subtyping</h2>
+
+<p>Subtyping can be applied to core types. For example, a software agent is special kind of agent, defined as follows.</p>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-software-agent"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>
+
+
+<p>Subtyping can also be applied to  core relations. For example, a revision is a special kind of derivation, defined as follows.</p>
+
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-revision" data-withspan="true"></span></p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation"> 
+<h2>Expanded Relations</h2>
+
+<p><a class="section-ref" href="#core-structures"><span>TBD</span></a> shows that seven concepts are mapped to binary relations in the core of PROV.  However, some advanced uses of these concepts cannot be captured by a binary relation, but require relations to be expanded to n-ary relations.</p>
+
+<p>Indeed, binary relations are actually shorthands that can be 'opened up' by applications and filled in with further application details. For example, derivation is a very high level relationship between two entities: an application may decide to 'open up' that relationship in an expanded relation that describes how an entity was derived from another by virtue of listing the generation, usage, and activity involved in the 'WasDerivedFrom' relationship. Applications are free to decide which level of granularity they want describe, and   PROV gives them the way to do that.</p>
+
+
+
+<p>To illustrate expanded relations, we revisit the concept of
+association, introduced
+in <a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a> (full definition of the expanded association can be found
+in <a class="section-ref" href="#term-Association"><span>TBD</span></a>).  Agents may rely on <em>plans</em>, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
+goals in the context of an activity.
+Hence, an expanded form of
+association relation allows for a plan to be specified. Plan is defined by subtyping and 
+full association by an expanded relation, as follows. </p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-plan"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>
+</p> 
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activityAssociation"  data-withspan="true"></span>
+</p>
+
+<p>There exist no
+prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the
+actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals.  Since plans may evolve over time,
+it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are
+entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to  
+validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to  
+manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2">
+<p>An example of association between an activity and an agent involving a plan is:
+an XSLT transform (an activity) launched by a user (an agent) based on an XSL style sheet (a plan).
+
+</div>
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification"> 
+<h2>Optional Identification</h2>
+
+<p>Some concepts exhibit both a core use, expressed as
+binary relation, and an extended use, expressed as n-ary relation.  In
+some cases, mapping the concept to a relation, whether binary or
+n-ary, is not sufficient: instead, it may be required to
+identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, PROV-DM allows for 
+an optional identifier to be
+expressed to identify an instance of an association between two or
+more elements.  This optional identifier can then be used to refer to
+an instance as part of other concepts.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example">
+<p>A service may read a same configuration file on two different occasions. Each  usage can be identifed by its own identifier, allowing them to be distinguished. 
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations"> 
+<h2>Further Relations</h2>
+
+<p>Finally, PROV-DM supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations (such as <a>specialization</a>, <a>alternate</a>).</p>
+
+
+</section>
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="section-provenance-of-provnance"> 
+<h2>Provenance of Provenance</h2>
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-bundle"  data-withspan="true">
+</span>
+
+<p>
+For users to decide whether they can place their trust in
+something, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine
+the agent its provenance is attributed to, and when it was
+generated. In other words, users need to be able to determine the provenance of provenance.
+Hence, provenance is also
+regarded as an entity (of type Bundle), by which provenance of provenance can then be
+expressed.
+</p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example">
+<p>
+In a decision making situation, decision makers may be presented with the same piece of knowledge, issued by multiple sources.  In order to validate this piece of knowledge, decision makers can consider its provenance, but also the provenance of their provenance, which may help determine whether it can be trusted.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-collections"> 
+<h2>Collections</h2>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-collection"  data-withspan="true"></span> Many different types of collections exist, such as <em>sets</em>, <em>dictionaries</em>, or <em>lists</em>. 
+Using Collections, one can express the provenance of the collection itself in addition to that of the members.  </p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example">
+<p>
+An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-overview-components"> 
+<h2>Modular Organization</h2>
+
+<p>Besides the separation between core and extended structures, PROV-DM
+is further organized according to components, grouping concepts in a
+thematic manner. </p>
+
+<p> <a href="#components-overview">Table 3</a> enumerates the six components, five of which have already been implicitly overviewed in this section. All components contain extended structures, whereas only the first three contain core structures.
+
+<div id="components-overview-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="components-overview">Components Overview</caption> <!-- Table 3:  -->
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Component</td><td>Core <br>Structures</td><td>Overview</td><td>Specification</td><td>Description</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="	padding: 8px;">1</td><td style="text-align: left;">Entities and Activities</td><td>&#10004;</td><td><a href="#section-entity-activity">2.1.1</a></td><td><a href="#component1">5.1</a></td><td  style="text-align: left;">about entities and activities, and their interrelations</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>2</td><td style="text-align: left;">Derivation</td><td>&#10004;</td><td><a href="#section-derivation">2.1.2</a></td><td><a href="#component3">5.2</a></td><td  style="text-align: left;">about derivations and its subtypes</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>3</td><td style="text-align: left;">Agent and Responsibility</td><td>&#10004;</td><td><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation">2.1.3</a></td><td><a href="#component2">5.3</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to them</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>4</td><td style="text-align: left;">Bundles</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance">2.2.2</a></td><td><a href="#component4">5.4</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>5</td><td style="text-align: left;">Alternate</td><td></td><td>&mdash;</td><td><a href="#component5">5.5</a></td><td  style="text-align: left;">about relations linking entities referring the same thing</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>6</td><td style="text-align: left;">Collections</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-collections">2.2.3</a></td><td><a href="#component6">5.6</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about collections</td></tr> 
+</table>
+</div>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="informative"  id="prov-notation">  
+<h2>The Provenance Notation</h2>
+
+
+<p>To illustrate the application of PROV concepts to a concrete example (see <a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 4</a>) and to provide examples of concepts (see <a href="#data-model-components">Section 5</a>),
+we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details and for a normative reference, the reader is referred to the companion specification [[PROV-N]].
+PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>PROV-N expressions adopt a <em>functional notation</em> consisting
+of a name and a list of arguments in parentheses.</li>
+
+<li>The interpretation of PROV-N arguments is defined according to their <em>position</em> in the list of arguments. This convention allows for a compact notation. </li>
+
+<li>The PROV data model defines <em>identifiers</em> as qualified names; in PROV-N, they are expressed as a local name optionally preceded of a prefix and a colon. </li>
+
+
+
+<li>
+PROV-N <em>optional arguments</em> need not be specified:
+the general rule for optional arguments is that, if none of them are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression. However, it may be the case that only some of the optional arguments need to be specified. Because the position of the arguments in the expression matters, in this case, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The syntactic marker  '<span class="name">-</span>' is used for this purpose.
+</li>
+
+<li>Most expressions 
+include an identifier 
+and a set of attribute-value pairs; both are optional unless otherwise specified. By convention, the identifier occurs in the <em>first position</em>, and the set of attribute-value pairs in the <em>last position</em>.
+Consistent with the convention on arguments, the marker  '<span class="name">-</span>' can be used when the identifier is not available, or can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising. To further disambiguate expressions that contain an optional identifier, the optional identifier or marker must be followed by '<span class="name">;</span>'.
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n">
+<p>
+An activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span> and an attribute <span class="name">type</span> with value <span class="name">createFile</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample" >
+activity(a1, [ prov:type="createFile" ])
+</pre>
+Two entities with identifiers <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample" >
+entity(e1)
+entity(e2)
+</pre>
+The activity  <span class="name">a1</span> used  <span class="name">e1</span>, and <span class="name">e2</span> was generated by <span class="name">a1</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample" >
+used(a1, e1)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1)
+</pre>
+The same descriptions, but with an explicit identifier <span class="name">u1</span> for the usage, and the syntactic marker '<span class="name">-</span>' to mark the absence of identifier in the generation. Both are followed by  '<span class="name">;</span>'.
+<pre class="codeexample" >
+used(u1; a1, e1)
+wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, a1)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="informative" id="prov-dm-example"> 
+<h2>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</h2>
+
+<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> has introduced some provenance concepts, and how they are expressed as types or relations in the PROV data model. The purpose of this section is to put these concepts into practice in order to express the provenance of some document published on the Web.  
+With this realistic example, PROV concepts are  composed together,  and a graphical illustration shows a provenance description forming a directed graph, rooted at the entity we want to explain the provenance of, and pointing to the entities, activities, and agents it depended on. This example also shows that, sometimes, multiple provenance descriptions about the same entity can co-exist, which then justifies the need for provenance of provenance.</p>
+
+
+<p>In this example, we consider one of the many documents published by the World Wide Web Consortium, and describe its provenance. 
+Specifically, we consider the document identified by
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a>. Its provenance can be expressed from several perspectives: first,  provenance can take the authors' viewpoint; second, it can be concerned with the W3C process. Then, attribution of these two provenance descriptions is provided.</p>
+
+
+<section id="section-example-one"> 
+<h3>Example: The Authors View</h3>
+
+
+<p style="font-style:italic; " ><b>Description:</b> A document
+is edited by some editor, using contributions from various
+contributors.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<p>In this perspective, provenance of the document
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a> is concerned with the editing activity as perceived by authors.  This kind of information could be used by authors in their CV or in a narrative about this document. </p>
+
+
+
+
+<p>We paraphrase some PROV-DM descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document1-top">Figure 2</a>).
+Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.provn">here</a>.</p>
+
+<div style="text-align: center; ">
+  <figure id="prov-a-document1-top">
+  <img src="images/dm/w3c-publication1.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (1)" style="max-width: 98%; "/><br>
+<figcaption id="prov-a-document1">Provenance of a Document (part 1)  (Informative)</figcaption> <!-- Figure 2 -->
+  </figure>
+</div>
+
+
+<ul>
+<li>There was a document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which from the author's perspective was a document in its second version. 
+<pre>
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>There was an editing activity.
+<pre>
+activity(ex:edit1, [ prov:type="edit" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a <a title="concept-generation">Generation</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>
+wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+
+<li>There were some agents.
+<pre>
+agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor. The plan the agent relied upon is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Paolo, -, [ prov:role="editor" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Simon, -, [ prov:role="contributor" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+Provenance descriptions can be <em>illustrated</em> graphically. The illustration is not intended to represent all the details of the model, but it is intended to show the essence of a set of
+provenance descriptions.  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</p>
+
+<p>The graphical illustration takes the form of a graph. Entities, activities and agents are represented as nodes, with oval, rectangular, and pentagonal shapes, respectively.  Usage,
+Generation, Derivation, and Association are represented as directed edges.</p>
+
+<p>Entities are laid out according to the ordering of their generation.  We endeavor to show time progressing from left to right. This means that edges for Usage, Generation,
+Derivation, Association typically point leftwards</p>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-example-two"> 
+<h3>Example: The Process View</h3>
+
+
+<p style="font-style:italic; " ><b>Description:</b> The World Wide Web
+Consortium publishes documents according to its publication
+policy.  Working drafts are published regularly to reflect the work
+accomplished by working groups. Every publication of a working draft
+must be preceded by a "publication request" to the Webmaster.  The
+very first version of a document must also be preceded by a
+"transition request" to be approved by the W3C director.  All working
+drafts are made available at a unique URI.  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+We describe the kind of provenance record that the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">WWW Consortium</a> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with well-defined URIs (some of which refer archived email messages, available to W3C Members).</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li> Two versions of a document were involved: <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft);</li>
+<li> Both <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> were published by the WWW Consortium (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">w3:Consortium</a></span>); </li>
+<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was <span class="name">ex:act2</span>;</li>
+<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> was <span class="name">ex:act1</span>;
+</li>
+
+<li> The document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was derived from <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span>;</li>
+
+<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act1</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Oct/0141">email:2011Oct/0141</a></span>) and a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#transreq">transition request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/chairs/2011OctDec/0004">chairs:2011OctDec/0004</a></span>);</li>
+<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act2</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Dec/0111">email:2011Dec/0111</a></span>);</li>
+<li> Documents were published according to the process rules (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance">process:rec-advance</a></span>), a plan in PROV-DM terminology.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+We now paraphrase some PROV descriptions, and express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document2-top">Figure 3</a>). Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication2.provn">here</a>.
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+  <figure id="prov-a-document2-top">
+  <img src="images/dm/w3c-publication2.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (2)" style="max-width: 90%; "/><br>
+<figcaption id="prov-a-document2">Provenance of a Document (part 2) (Informative)</figcaption> <!-- figure 3 -->
+  </figure>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<ul>
+<li>There was a document, a working draft (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#WD">rec54:WD</a>), which is an entity so that we can describe its provenance. Similar descriptions exist for all entities.
+<pre>
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+<li>There was a publication activity.
+<pre>
+activity(ex:act2, [ prov:type="publish" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a <a title="concept-Generation">Generation</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>
+wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:act2, -)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+
+<li>The second draft of the document was derived from the first draft: this was a <a title="concept-Derivation">Derivation</a>.
+<pre>
+wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The activity required a publication request: this was a <a title="concept-Usage">Usage</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>
+used(ex:act2, email:2011Dec/0111, -)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an <a title="concept-activityAssociation">Activity Association</a>.
+<pre>
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:act2, w3:Consortium, process:rec-advance)
+</pre>
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<p> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available URIs, which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance <span class="name">ex:act2</span>, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix <span class="name">ex</span>.  We note that the URI scheme developed by W3C is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each URI denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  PROV-DM relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</p>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="section-example-c"> 
+<h3>Example: Attribution of Provenance</h3>
+
+<p>The two previous sections  offer two different perspectives on the provenance of a document.  PROV allows for multiple sources to provide the provenance of a subject. For users to decide whether they can place their trust in the document, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine who the provenance is attributed to, and when it was
+generated, etc. In other words, we need to be able to express the provenance of provenance.</p>
+
+<p>PROV-DM offers a construct to name a bundle of provenance descriptions (full details: <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.provn">ex:author-view</a>). </p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">
+bundle ex:author-view
+
+  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+
+
+...
+
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+Likewise, the process view can be expressed as a separate named bundle (full details: <a href="examples/w3c-publication2.provn">ex:process-view</a>).
+<pre class="codeexample">
+bundle ex:process-view
+
+   agent(w3:Consortium, [ prov:type='prov:Organization' ])
+
+...
+
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+<p>To express their respective provenance, these bundles must be seen as entities, and all PROV constructs are now available to express their provenance. In the example below, <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is attributed to the agent  <span class="name">ex:Simon</span>, whereas <span class="name">ex:process-view</span> to  <span class="name">w3:Consortium</span>.
+
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(ex:author-view, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasAttributedTo(ex:author-view, ex:Simon)
+
+entity(ex:process-view, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasAttributedTo(ex:process-view, w3:Consortium)
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="data-model-components"> 
+
+<h2>PROV-DM Types and Relations</h2>
+
+<p>Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.
+The components and their dependencies are illustrated in <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>. A component that relies on concepts defined in another is displayed above it in the figure.  So, for example, component 5 (alternate) depends on concepts defined in component 4 (bundles), itself dependent on concepts defined in component 1 (entity and activity).
+</p>
+
+<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
+<ul>
+<li><b>Component 1: entities and activities.</b> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </li>
+<li><b>Component 2: derivations.</b>  The second component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</li>
+<li><b>Component 3: agents, responsibility, and influence.</b> The third component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</li>
+<li><b>Component 4: bundles.</b> The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</li>
+<li><b>Component 5: alternate.</b> The fifth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </li>
+<li><b>Component 6: collections.</b> The sixth component is about collections. </li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<!-- TODO: update map for linking -->
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img  usemap="#componentMap" src="images/dm/components-dependencies.png" alt="PROV-DM Components"  style="max-width: 90%; " />
+<map id="componentMap" name="componentMap">
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="0,0,67,268"   alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="67,0,134,201"   alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="134,0,201,67"   alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="201,0,268,201"   alt="derivations" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="134,67,201,201"   alt="derivations" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="alternate"   href="#component5" coords="268,0,335,67" alt="alternate"   shape="rect"/>
+<area title="alternate"   href="#component5" coords="335,0,402,201" alt="alternate"   shape="rect"/>
+<area title="collections" href="#component6" coords="402,0,469,201"  alt="collections" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="67,201,469,268" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect"/>
+<area title="bundles" href="#component4" coords="268,67,402,201" alt="bundles" shape="rect"/>
+</map>
+<br>
+<figcaption id="prov-dm-components">PROV-DM Components (Informative)</figcaption>  <!-- Figure 4 -->
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indexes all relations (except <a>wasInfluencedBy</a>) according to their two primary elements (referred to as subject and object).  The table adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.
+Note that for simplicity, this table  does not include collection-oriented relations.
+Relation names appearing in bold correspond to the core structures introduced
+in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
+
+
+<div id="relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<table   class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="relations-at-a-glance">PROV-DM Relations At a Glance</caption> <!-- Table 4 -->
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="6">Object</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="2">Entity</td><td colspan="2">Activity</td><td colspan="2">Agent</td></tr> 
+<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td colspan="2"><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential">WasDerivedFrom</a><br><a>Revision</a><br><a>Quotation</a><br><a>PrimarySource</a></div><div class="component5-color"><a>AlternateOf</a><br><a>SpecializationOf</a><br><a>MentionOf</a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential"
+title="wasGeneratedBy">WasGeneratedBy</a><br><a
+title="wasInvalidatedBy">WasInvalidatedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role">R</a><br><a title="time">T</a><br><a title="location">L</a><br></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">WasAttributedTo</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential">Used</a><br><a>WasStartedBy</a><br><a>WasEndedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role">R</a><br><a title="time">T</a><br><a title="location">L</a><br></td><td colspan="2" class="component1-color"><a class="essential">WasInformedBy</a></td><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td class="component3-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role">R</a><br></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Agent</td><td colspan="2">&mdash;</td><td colspan="2">&mdash;</td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td></tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+<p>The letters 'R' and 'L' appearing in the right-hand side of some cells of <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indicate that attributes 
+<a title="role">prov:role</a> (<a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>TBD</span></a>)
+and
+<a title="location">prov:location</a> (<a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-location"><span>TBD</span></a>)
+are permitted for these relations.
+The letter 'T' indicates an OPTIONAL <a title="time">time</a> is also permitted.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>
+Some PROV-DM relations are not binary and involve extra optional element. They are summarized in  <a href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div">Table 5</a> grouping secondary objects, according to their type.  The table also adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified. None of these associations correspond to the core structures introduced
+in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
+
+
+<div id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<table   class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance">Secondary optional elements in PROV-DM Relations</caption> <!-- Table 4 -->
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px;§> "></td><td colspan="6">Secondary Object</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Entity</td><td>Activity</td><td >Agent</td></tr> 
+<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td class="component5-color"><a>MentionOf</a> (<a href="#mention.bundle">bundle</a>)</td><td class="component2-color"><a >WasDerivedFrom</a> (<a href="#derivation.activity">activity</a>)</td><td colspan="2">&mdash;</td></tr>
+<tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component3-color"><a>WasAssociatedWith</a> (<a href="#association.plan">plan</a>)</td><td class="component1-color"><a>WasStartedBy</a> (<a href="#start.starter">starter</a>)<br><a>WasEndedBy</a> (<a href="#end.ender">ender</a>)</td><td colspan="2">&mdash;</td></tr>
+<tr><td>Agent</td><td>&mdash;</td><td class="component3-color"><a>ActedOnBehalfOf</a> (<a href="#delegation.activity">activity</a>)</td><td>&mdash;</td></tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+
+<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table 6</a> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.  In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept. Concept names appearing in bold in the first column are the core structures introduced in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>. Likewise, these core structures have their names and parameters highlighted in bold in the second column (prov-n representation); expanded structures are not represented with a bold font.</p>
+
+
+<div id="prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig" style="text-align: left;">
+<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations">PROV-DM Types and Relations</caption> <!-- Table 6-->
+<tr><td><a><b>Type or Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b>Representation in the PROV-N notation</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Entity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" class="essential">entity(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1">Component 1: Entities/Activities</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" class="essential">activity(id, st, et, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Generation</a></td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy"><span class="essential">wasGeneratedBy(</span>id;<span class="essential">e,a</span>,t,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Usage</a></td><td><a title="used"><span class="essential">used(</span>id;<span class="essential">a,e</span>,t,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Communication</a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy"><span class="essential">wasInformedBy(</span>id;<span class="essential">a2,a1</span>,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Start</a></td><td><a title="wasStartedBy">wasStartedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>End</a></td><td><a title="wasEndedBy">wasEndedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Invalidation</a></td><td><a title="wasInvalidatedBy">wasInvalidatedBy(id;e,a,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="essential"><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom"><span class="essential">wasDerivedFrom(</span>id; <span class="essential">e2, e1</span>, a, g2, u1, attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td><td  rowspan="4"><a href="#component2">Component 2: Derivations</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Revision</a></td><td><a title="dfn-revision">... prov:type='prov:Revision' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Quotation</a></td><td><a title="dfn-quotation">... prov:type='prov:Quotation' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Primary Source</a></td><td><a title="dfn-primary-source">... prov:type='prov:PrimarySource' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; "><td  class="essential"><a>Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" class="essential">agent(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td  rowspan="9"><a href="#component3">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, Influence</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo"><span class="essential">wasAttributedTo(</span>id;<span class="essential">e,ag</span>,attr<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith"><span class="essential">wasAssociatedWith(</span>id;<span class="essential">a,ag</span>,pl,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Delegation</a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf"><span class="essential">actedOnBehalfOf(</span>id;<span class="essential">ag2,ag1</span>,a,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Plan</a></td><td><a title="plan">... prov:type='prov:Plan' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Person</a></td><td><a title="person">... prov:type='prov:Person' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Organization</a></td><td><a title="organization">... prov:type='prov:Organization' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a title="software-agent">SoftwareAgent</a></td><td><a title="software-agent">... prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a>Influence</a></td><td><a title="wasInfluencedBy">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr class="component4-color"><td><a title="bundle">Bundle constructor</a></td><td><a title="dfn-bundle">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</a></td><td  rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 4: Bundles</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component4-color"><td class="provType"><a title="bundle">Bundle type</a></td><td><a title="bundle">... prov:type='prov:Bundle' ...</a></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Alternate</a></td><td><a title="alternateOf">alternateOf(alt1, alt2)</a></td><td  rowspan="3"><a href="#component4">Component 5: Alternate</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Specialization</a></td><td><a title="specializationOf">specializationOf(infra, supra)</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Mention</a></td><td><a title="mentionOf">mentionOf(infra, supra,bundle)</a></td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a>Collection</a></td><td><a title="collection">... prov:type='prov:Collection' ...</a></td><td  rowspan="3"><a href="#component6">Component 6: Collections</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a title="empty collection">EmptyCollection</a></td><td><a title="empty collection">... prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component6-color"><td><a>Membership</a></td><td><a title="hadMember">hadMember(c,e)</a></td></tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+In the rest of the section, each type and relation is defined informally,
+ followed by a summary of the information used to represent the concept, and
+ illustrated with PROV-N examples.</p>
+
+
+<section id="component1"> 
+<h3>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
+
+<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity">entities</a> and <a title="activity">activities</a>, and their interrelations: Used (<a>Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a>Generation</a>), WasStartedBy (<a>Start</a>), WasEndedBy (<a>End</a>), WasInvalidatedBy (<a>Invalidation</a>), and WasInformedBy (<a>Communication</a>).  <a href="#figure-component1">Figure 5</a> uses UML to depict the first component.
+Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of two classes (<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and three binary associations between them: Used (<a>Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a>Generation</a>), and WasInformedBy (<a>Communication</a>). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [[!UML]], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations for Used (<a>Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a>Generation</a>), WasInvalidatedBy (<a>Invalidation</a>), WasStartedBy (<a>Start</a>), WasEndedBy (<a>End</a>). The figure also makes explicit associations with <em>time</em> for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.
+</p>
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/component1.png" alt="entities and activities"/><br>
+<figcaption id="figure-component1">Entities and Activities Component Overview (Informative)</figcaption> <!-- Figure 5 -->
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+   <section id="term-entity"> 
+      
+<h4>Entity</h4>
+
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-entity"></div>
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-entity">An <dfn title="dfn-Entity" id="dfn-entity">entity</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-entity">entity(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N, </span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="entity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an entity; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="entity.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about the fixed aspects of this entity.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity">
+<p>
+The following expression</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
+</pre>
+states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>,  with type <span class="name">document</span> and version number <span class="name">2</span>. The attribute <span class="name">ex:version</span> is application specific, whereas the attribute <span
+class="name">type</span> (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.4.4</a>) is reserved in the <a title="prov-namespace">PROV namespace</a>.
+<!--The following expression</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
+entity(e0, [ prov:type="File", ex:path="/shared/crime.txt", ex:creator="Alice" ])
+</pre>
+states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">e0</span>,  with type <span class="name">File</span> and path <span class="name">/shared/crime.txt</span> in the
+file system,  and creator alice. The  attributes <span class="name">path</span> and <span class="name">creator</span> are application specific, whereas the attribute <span
+class="name">type</span> is reserved in the PROV namespace.-->
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+    </section> 
+
+    <section id="term-Activity"> 
+      
+<h3>Activity</h3>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activity"></div>
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity"> An <dfn title="dfn-Activity" id="dfn-activity">activity</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-activity">activity(id, st, et, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an activity;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.startTime">startTime</span>: an OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">st</span>) for the start of the activity;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.endTime">endTime</span>: an OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">et</span>) for the end of the activity;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.attributes">attributes</span>:  an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this activity.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity">
+<p>
+The following expression</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, 2011-11-16T16:06:00,
+        [ ex:host="server.example.org", prov:type='ex:edit' ])
+</pre>
+<p>states the existence of an activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span>, start time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span>, and end time <span
+class="name">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span>, running on host <span class="name">server.example.org</span>, and of type <span class="name">edit</span>.  The attribute <span class="name">host</span>  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix <span class="name">ex</span>).  The attribute <span
+class="name">type</span> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.4.4</a>).</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<p>Further considerations:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>An activity is not an entity. This distinction is similar to the distinction between 
+'continuant' and 'occurrent' in logic [[Logic]].
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Generation">
+<h4>Generation</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-generation"></div>
+
+<p>Given that a generation is the completion of production of an entity, 
+it is instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-generation"><dfn title="wasGeneratedBy">Generation</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasGeneratedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for a generation;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for a created entity; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.activity">activity</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that creates the entity;</li>
+
+<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.time">time</span>: an OPTIONAL "generation time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity was completely created;</li>
+
+<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this generation.</li>
+</ul></div>
+<p>While each of <a href="#generation.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#generation.activity"><span class='attribute'>activity</span></a>, <a href="#generation.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#generation.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class='anexample' id="anexample-generation1">
+<p>
+The following expressions</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+  wasGeneratedBy(e1, a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52, [ ex:port="p1" ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, 2001-10-26T10:00:00, [ ex:port="p2" ])
+</pre>
+<p>state the existence of two generations (with respective times <span class="name">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span> and <span
+class="name">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span>), at which new entities,  identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, are created by an
+activity,  identified by <span class="name">a1</span>.
+The first one is available  on port <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the other is available on port <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">port</span> are application specific.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class='anexample' id="anexample-generation2">
+<p>
+In some cases, we may want to record the time at which an entity was generated without having to specify the activity that generated it. To support this requirement, the activity element in generation is optional. Hence,  the following expression indicates the time at which an entity is generated, without naming the activity that did it.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+  wasGeneratedBy(e, -, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="term-Usage">
+<h3>Usage</h3>
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-usage"></span>  (Note: This definition is formulated for a given usage; it is permitted for an activity to have used a same entity multiple times.)</p>
+
+<p>Given that a usage  is  the beginning of utilizing an entity, it is 
+instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-usage"><dfn title="used">Usage</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">used(id; a, e, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for a usage;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that used an entity;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.entity">entity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the  entity being used;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.time">time</span>: an OPTIONAL "usage time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity started to be used;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this usage.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#usage.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#usage.entity"><span class='attribute'>entity</span></a>, <a href="#usage.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#usage.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
+
+<p>
+A reference to a given entity MAY appear in multiple usages that share
+ a given activity identifier. 
+</p>
+
+
+<div class='anexample' id="anexample-usage">
+<p>The following usages</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+  used(a1, e1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ ex:parameter="p1" ])
+  used(a1, e2, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [ ex:parameter="p2" ])
+</pre>
+<p>state that the activity identified by <span class="name">a1</span> used two entities identified by <span
+class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, at times <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span>, respectively; the first
+one was found as the value of parameter <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the second was found as value of parameter <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span
+class="name">parameter</span> is application specific.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Communication">
+<h3>Communication</h3>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-communication"></div>
+
+
+<p>A communication implies that activity  <span class="name">a2</span> is dependent on another <span class="name">a1</span>, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by <span class="name">a1</span> and used by <span class="name">a2</span>.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-wasInformedBy">
+A <dfn title="wasInformedBy">communication</dfn><span class="withPn">, written as 
+<span class="pnExpression">wasInformedBy(id; a2, a1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has: 
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier  identifying the relation;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.informed">informed</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) of the informed activity;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.informant">informant</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) of the informant activity;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this communication.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication">
+<p>
+Consider two activities  <span class="name">a1</span> and <span class="name">a2</span>, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(a1, [ prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing" ])
+activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine paying" ])
+wasInformedBy(a2, a1)
+</pre>
+The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  <span class="name">a1</span> and used by  <span class="name">a2</span>; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
+</div>
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Start">
+<h4>Start</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-start"></div>
+
+<p>Given that a start is when an activity is deemed to have started, it 
+is instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-start">An activity <dfn title="wasStartedBy">start</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasStartedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="start.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the activity start;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="start.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) for the started activity;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="start.trigger">trigger</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="start.starter">starter</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (<span class="name">e</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="start.time">time</span>: the OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was started; </li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="start.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity start.
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#start.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#start.trigger"><span class='attribute'>trigger</span></a>, <a href="#start.starter"><span class='attribute'>starter</span></a>, <a href="#start.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#start.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1">
+<p>
+The following example contains the description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (a discussion), which was started at a specific time, and was triggered by an email message <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(e1, [ prov:type="email message"] )
+activity(a1, [ prov:type="Discuss" ])
+wasStartedBy(a1, e1, -, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
+</pre>
+Furthermore, if the message is also an input to the activity, this can be described as follows:
+<pre class="codeexample">
+used(a1, e1, -)
+</pre>
+<p>Alternatively, one can also describe the activity that generated the email message.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(a0, [ prov:type="Write" ])
+wasGeneratedBy(e1, a0)
+wasStartedBy(a1, e1, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
+</pre>
+<p>If <span class="name">e1</span> is not known, it would also be valid to write:
+<pre class="codeexample">
+wasStartedBy(a1, -, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2">
+<p>
+In the following example, a race is started by a bang, and responsibility for this trigger is attributed to an agent 
+ <span class="name">ex:Bob</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(ex:foot_race)
+entity(ex:bang)
+wasStartedBy(ex:foot_race, ex:bang, -, 2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00)
+agent(ex:Bob)
+wasAttributedTo(ex:bang, ex:Bob)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3">
+<p>
+In this example, filling fuel was started as a consequence of
+observing low fuel. The trigger entity is unspecified, it could
+for instance have been the low fuel warning light, the fuel tank
+indicator needle position, or the engine not running properly.
+
+
+<pre class="codeexample" id="anexample-start4">
+activity(ex:filling-fuel)
+activity(ex:observing-low-fuel)
+
+agent(ex:driver, [ prov:type='prov:Person'  )
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:filling-fuel, ex:driver)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:observing-low-fuel, ex:driver)
+
+wasStartedBy(ex:filling-fuel, -, ex:observing-low-fuel, -)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p>The relations wasStartedBy and used are orthogonal, and thus need to be expressed independently, according to the situation being described.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-End">
+<h4>End</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-end"></div>
+
+<p>Given that an end is when an activity is deemed to have ended, it is 
+instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-end">An activity <dfn title="wasEndedBy">end</dfn><span class="withAsn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasEndedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="end.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the activity end;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="end.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) for the ended activity;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="end.trigger">trigger</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity ending;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="end.ender">ender</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (<span class="name">e</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="end.time">time</span>: the OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was ended; </li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="end.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity end.
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#end.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#end.trigger"><span class='attribute'>trigger</span></a>, <a href="#end.ender"><span class='attribute'>ender</span></a>, <a href="#end.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#end.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end">
+<p>
+The following example is a description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (editing) that was ended following an approval document <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(e1, [ prov:type="approval document" ])
+activity(a1, [ prov:type="Editing" ])
+wasEndedBy(a1, e1)
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Invalidation">
+<h4>Invalidation</h4>
+
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-invalidation"></div>
+
+<p>Given that an invalidation is the start  of destruction, cessation, or 
+expiry, it is instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p>
+Entities have a duration. Generation marks the beginning of an entity, whereas invalidation marks its end. 
+An entity's lifetime can end for different reasons:</p>
+<ul>
+<li> an entity was destroyed: e.g. a painting was destroyed by fire; a Web page is taken out of a site;
+<li> an entity was consumed: e.g. Bob ate all his soup, Alice ran out of gas when driving to work;
+<li> an entity expires: e.g. a "buy one beer, get one free" offer is valid during happy hour (7-8pm);
+<li> an entity is time limited: e.g. the BBC news site on April 3rd, 2012;
+<li> an entity attribute is changing: e.g. the traffic light changed from green to red.
+</ul>
+<p>In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the third case, there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the traffic light became red and therefore is regarded as a different entity to the green light.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-invalidation"><dfn title="wasInvalidatedBy">Invalidation</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInvalidatedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for a invalidation;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier for the invalidated entity; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.activity">activity</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the activity that invalidated the entity;</li>
+
+<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.time">time</span>: an OPTIONAL "invalidation time", the time at which the entity began to be invalidated;</li>
+
+<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this invalidation.</li>
+</ul></div>
+<p>While each of <a href="#invalidation.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.activity"><span class='attribute'>activity</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#invalidation.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1">
+<p>
+<em>The Painter</em>, a Picasso painting, is known to have been destroyed in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_artworks#20th_century">plane accident</a>.
+
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(ex:The-Painter)
+agent(ex:Picasso)
+wasAttributedTo(ex:The-Painter, ex:Picasso)
+activity(ex:crash)
+wasInvalidatedBy(ex:The-Painter, ex:crash, 1998-09-03T01:31:00, [ ex:circumstances="plane accident" ])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2">
+<p>
+The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-04-03</span>
+contained a reference to a given news item
+ <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-17595024">bbc:news/uk-17595024</a>,
+but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03)
+hadMember(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, bbc:news/uk-17595024)
+wasGeneratedBy  (ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T00:00:01)
+wasInvalidatedBy(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T23:59:59)
+</pre>
+
+We refer to example
+<a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>
+ for further descriptions of the BBC Web site, and to  <a href="#term-membership">Section 5.6.2</a> for a description of the relation <a title="hadMember">hadMember</a>.
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3">
+<p>
+In this example, the  "buy one beer, get one free" offer expired at the end of the happy hour.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
+wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)
+wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
+                 -,2012-03-10T18:00:00)
+</pre>
+<p>In contrast, in the following descriptions, Bob redeemed the offer 45 minutes before it expired, and got two beers.  
+</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
+wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)
+activity(redeemOffer)
+entity(twoBeers)
+
+wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer, bob)
+used(redeemOffer,
+     buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, 
+     2012-03-10T17:15:00)
+wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
+                 redeemOffer,
+                 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
+wasGeneratedBy(twoBeers,redeemOffer)
+</pre>
+<p>We see that the offer was both used to be converted into <span class="name">twoBeers</span> and invalidated by the <span class="name">redeemOffer</span> activity: in other words, the combined usage and invalidation indicate consumption of the offer.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="component2"> 
+<h3>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
+
+
+
+<p>The third component of PROV-DM is concerned with: <a title="derivation">derivations</a> of <a title="entity">entities</a> from other entities and derivation subtypes WasRevisionOf (<a>Revision</a>), WasQuotedFrom (<a>Quotation</a>), and HasPrimarySource (<a>Primary Source</a>).
+ <a href="#figure-component2">Figure 6</a> depicts the third component
+with PROV core structures in the yellow area, including two classes
+(<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and binary association WasDerivedFrom
+(<a>Derivation</a>). PROV extended structures are found outside this
+area. UML association classes express expanded n-ary relations.
+The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that the corresponding types are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a>.
+</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/component2.png" alt="derivation"/><br>
+<figcaption id="figure-component2">Derivation Component Overview (Informative)</figcaption> <!-- Figure 6 -->
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+<section id="term-Derivation">
+<h4>Derivation</h4>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-derivation"></div>
+
+
+
+
+<p>According to <a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a>, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
+underpinning activity or activities performing the necessary action(s) resulting in such a derivation.  
+A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates two entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this activity can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the generated and used entities, respectively, can be provided, so as to make the derivation path, through usage, activity, and generation, explicit.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </p>
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivation">A <dfn title="wasDerivedFrom">derivation</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-wasDerivedFrom">wasDerivedFrom(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier  for a derivation;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the entity generated by the derivation;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the entity used by the derivation;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.activity">activity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.generation">generation</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and activity;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.usage">usage</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and activity;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation">
+<p>The following descriptions are about derivations between  <span class="name">e2</span> and  <span class="name">e1</span>, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [ prov:type="physical transform" ])
+</pre>
+<p>The following description expresses that activity  <span class="name">a</span>, 
+using the entity <span class="name">e1</span> according to usage <span class="name">u1</span>,
+ derived the
+entity <span class="name">e2</span> and generated it according to generation
+ <span class="name">g2</span>. It is followed by descriptions for generation <span class="name">g2</span> and usage <span class="name">u1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasGeneratedBy(g2; e2, a, -)
+used(u1; a, e1, -)
+</pre>
+<p>With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the preceding entity <span class="name">e1</span> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity <span class="name">e2</span> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-revision">
+<h3>Revision</h3>
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-revision"></span></p>
+
+
+<p>
+  The implication here is that
+     the resulting entity contains substantial content from the
+     original.
+A <dfn>revision</dfn> relation is a kind of <a>derivation</a> relation from a revised entity to a preceding  entity.
+The type of a revision relation is denoted by:
+<dfn title="dfn-prov:revision" id="dfn-prov:revision"><span class="name">prov:Revision</span></dfn>.
+PROV defines no revision-specific attributes.
+</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-revision">
+<p>
+Revisiting the example of <a href="#section-example-two">Section 4.2</a>,
+we can now state that the report 
+ <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> was a revision of 
+ the report <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'  ])
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'  ])
+wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, 
+               tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, 
+               [ prov:type='prov:Revision' ])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>  <!-- end revision -->
+
+<section id="term-quotation">
+<h3>Quotation</h3>
+
+<p> 
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-quotation"></span>
+</p>
+
+<p>A <dfn>quotation</dfn> relation
+ is a kind of  <a>derivation</a> relation, for which an entity was derived from a preceding entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
+The type is of a quotation derivation is denoted by:
+<dfn title="dfn-prov:quotation" id="dfn-prov:quotation"><span class="name">prov:Quotation</span></dfn>.
+PROV defines no quotation-specific attributes.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-quotation">
+<p>
+The following paragraph is a quote from one of  <a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/">the author's blogs</a>.
+<blockquote id="bl-dagstuhl"><em>
+"During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.  This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across systems and through databases and be able to understand the mathematical properties of this interconnection."</em>
+</blockquote>
+<p>If <a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/"><span class="name">wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/</span></a> denotes the original blog by agent <span class="name">ex:Paul</span>, and 
+ <a href="#bl-dagstuhl"><span class="name">dm:bl-dagstuhl</span></a> denotes the above paragraph, then the following descriptions express that the above paragraph was copied by agent <span class="name">ex:Luc</span> from a part of the blog, attributed to the agent <span class="name">ex:Paul</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/)
+entity(dm:bl-dagstuhl)
+agent(ex:Luc)
+agent(ex:Paul)
+wasDerivedFrom(dm:bl-dagstuhl,
+               wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/,
+               [ prov:type='prov:Quotation' ])
+wasAttributedTo(dm:bl-dagstuhl, ex:Luc)
+wasAttributedTo(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/, ex:Paul)
+</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+
+</section>  <!-- end quotation -->
+
+
+<section id="term-primary-source">
+<h3>Primary Source</h3>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-primary-source"></span>
+</p>
+
+<p>Because of the directness
+of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_source">primary
+sources</a>, they "speak for themselves" in ways that cannot be
+captured through the filter of secondary sources. As such, it is
+important for secondary sources to reference those primary sources
+from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be
+investigated.</p>
+
+<p>It is also important to note that a given entity might be a primary source for one entity but not another. It the reason why Primary Source is defined as a relation as opposed to a subtype of Entity.</p>
+
+<p>A <dfn>primary source</dfn> relation is a kind of a <a>derivation</a> relation from
+secondary materials to their primary sources. It is recognized that
+the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and
+should be done according to conventions accepted within the
+application's domain. 
+The type is of a  primary source derivation is denoted by:
+<dfn title="dfn-prov:primary-source" id="dfn-prov:primary-source"><span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span></dfn>.
+PROV defines no attributes specific to primary source.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-primary-source1">
+<p>
+Let us consider Charles Joseph Minard's flow map of Napoleon's March in
+1812, which was published in 1869. Although the map is not a primary source,
+Minard probably used the journal of Pierre-Irénée Jacob, pharmacist
+to Napoleon's army during the Russian campaign. This primary source relation
+can be encoded as follows.</p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813, [ prov:type="map" ])
+entity(ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII, [ prov:type="journal" ])
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813,
+               ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII,
+               [ prov:type='prov:PrimarySource' ])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>  <!-- end primary source -->
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="component3"> 
+<h3>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</h3>
+
+<p>The second component of PROV-DM, depicted in  <a href="#figure-component3">Figure 7</a>, is concerned with <a title="agent">agents</a> and the relations WasAttributedTo
+(<a>Attribution</a>), WasAssociatedWith (<a>Association</a>), ActedOnBehalfOf (<a>Delegation</a>), relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.
+ Core structures are displayed in the yellow area and include three classes and three binary associations. Outside the yellow area, extended structures comprise UML association classes to express expanded n-ary relations, and subclasses <a>Plan</a>, <a>Person</a>, <a title="software-agent">SofwareAgent</a>, and <a>Organization</a>. The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that that these are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a>
+</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/component3.png" alt="agents and responsibilities"/><br>
+<figcaption id="figure-component3">Agents and Responsibility Overview (Informative)</figcaption> <!-- Figure 7 -->
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+<p>Component 3 further defines a general notion of <a>influence</a>, a relation implied by all relations defined so far. <a href="#figure-component3b">Figure 8</a> displays one new association class, generalizing previously introduced associations.</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/Component3b.png" alt="Influence Overview"/><br>
+<figcaption id="figure-component3b">Influence Overview (Informative)</figcaption> <!-- Figure 8 -->
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+<section id="term-agent">
+<h3>Agent</h3>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-agent"></div>
+
+<p>An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
+ used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  </p>
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-agent">An <dfn title="dfn-agent" id="dfn-agent">agent</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-agent">agent(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="agent.id">id</span>: an identifier for an agent;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="agent.attributes">attributes</span>: a set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this agent.
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+
+<p>
+
+It is useful to define some basic categories of agents from an interoperability perspective.
+There are three types of agents that are common across most anticipated domains of use; it is acknowledged that these types do not cover all kinds of agent. </p>
+<ul>
+<li><span class="name">SoftwareAgent</span>
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-software-agent"></div>
+
+<p></li>
+
+<li><span class="name">Organization</span>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-organization"></div>
+
+<p></li>
+
+<li><span class="name">Person</span>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-person"></div></li> 
+</ul>
+<p>PROV defines no attributes specific to SoftwareAgent, Organization, and Person.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<p>The following expression is about an agent identified by <span class="name">e1</span>, which is a person, named Alice, with employee number 1234.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+agent(e1, [ex:employee="1234", ex:name="Alice", prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+</pre>
+<p>It is optional to specify the type of an agent. When present, it is expressed using the <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute.</p>
+</div>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-attribution">
+<h3>Attribution</h3> 
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-attribution"></div>
+
+<p>When an entity  <span class="name">e</span> is attributed to agent  <span class="name">ag</span>, entity <span class="name">e</span> was generated by some unspecified activity that in turn was associated to agent  <span class="name">ag</span>. Thus, this relation is useful when the activity is not known, or irrelevant.</p>
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-attribution">An <dfn title="wasAttributedTo">attribution</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.id">id</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier for the relation;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.entity">entity</span>: an entity identifier (<span class="name">e</span>);</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.agent">agent</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) of the agent whom the entity is ascribed to, and therefore bears some responsibility for its existence;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this attribution.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-attribution">
+<p>
+Revisiting the example of 
+<a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-one"><span>TBD</span></a>,
+we can ascribe <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> to some agents without an explicit activity. The reserved attribute <span class="name">role</span> (see <a  class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>TBD</span></a>) allows for role of the agent in the attribution to be specified.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
+wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="editorship" ])
+wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Simon, [ prov:type="authorship" ])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+</section>  <!-- end attribution -->
+
+
+<section id="term-Association">
+<h4>Association</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activityAssociation"></div>
+
+<p></p>
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-plan"></div>
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity-association">An <dfn title="wasAssociatedWith">activity association</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasAssociatedWith(id; a, ag, pl, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="association.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the association between an activity and an agent;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="association.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="association.agent">agent</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) for the agent associated with the activity;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="association.plan">plan</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">pl</span>) for the plan  the agent relied on in the context of this activity;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="association.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this association of this activity with this agent.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#association.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#association.agent"><span class='attribute'>agent</span></a>,  <a href="#association.plan"><span class='attribute'>plan</span></a>, and  <a href="#association.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
+
+
+<p>PROV defines no plan-specific attributes.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith">
+<p>In the following example, a designer agent and an operator agent are associated with an activity. The designer's goals are achieved by a workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span>, described as an entity of type <span class="name"><a>plan</a></span>.   </p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
+agent(ex:ag1,  [ prov:type="operator" ])
+agent(ex:ag2,  [ prov:type="designer" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag1, -,     [ prov:role="loggedInUser", ex:how="webapp" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag2, ex:wf, [ prov:role="designer", ex:context="project1" ])
+entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' , 
+                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
+                prov:location="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI ])
+</pre>
+Since the workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span> is itself an entity, its provenance can also be expressed in PROV-DM: it can be generated by some activity and derived from other entities,
+for instance.
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2">
+<p>In some cases, one wants to indicate a plan was followed, without having to specify which agent was involved.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, -, ex:wf)
+entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan', 
+                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
+                ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI])
+</pre>
+In this case, it is assumed that an agent exists, but it has not been specified.
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+</section>  <!-- end wasAssociatedWith -->
+
+<section id="term-delegation">
+
+<h4>Delegation</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-delegation"></div>
+
+<p>For example, a
+student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the
+department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those
+agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but
+we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what
+degree. </p>
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-delegation">
+A <dfn title="actedOnBehalfOf">delegation</dfn> link<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">actedOnBehalfOf(id; ag2, ag1, a, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the delegation link between delegate and responsible;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.delegate">delegate</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">ag2</span>) for the agent associated with an activity, acting on behalf of the responsible
+agent;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.responsible">responsible</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">ag1</span>) for the agent,  on behalf of which the delegate agent acted;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.activity">activity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) of an activity for which the delegation link holds;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this delegation link.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<p>The following fragment describes three agents: a programmer, a researcher, and a funder.  The programmer and researcher are associated with a workflow activity.  The programmer acts on behalf
+of the researcher (line-management) encoding the commands specified by the researcher; the researcher acts on behalf of the funder, who has a contractual agreement with the researcher. The terms
+'line-management' and 'contract' used in this example are domain specific.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+activity(a,[ prov:type="workflow" ])
+agent(ag1, [ prov:type="programmer" ])
+agent(ag2, [ prov:type="researcher" ])
+agent(ag3, [ prov:type="funder" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(a, ag1, [ prov:role="loggedInUser" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(a, ag2)
+wasAssociatedWith(a, ag3)
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a, [ prov:type="line-management" ])
+actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [ prov:type="contract" ])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+<!-- too strong, move to part 2.
+<p>Further considerations:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>If an activity is not specified, then the subordinate agent is considered to act on behalf of
+the responsible agent, in all the activities the subordinate agent is associated with.
+</li>
+</ul>
+-->
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-influence">
+<h3>Influence</h3>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-influence"></span>
+</p>
+
+
+<p> An influence relation between two objects <span class="name">o2</span> and  <span class="name">o1</span> is a generic dependency of <span class="name">o2</span>
+on  <span class="name">o1</span> that signifies some form of influence of <span class="name">o1</span> on <span class="name">o2</span>.</p>
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-influence">
+A <dfn title="wasInfluencedBy">Influence</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInfluencedBy(id; o2, o1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li> 
+<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.influencee">influencee</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">o2</span>) for an entity, activity, or agent;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.influencer">influencer</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">o1</span>) for an ancestor entity, activity, or agent that the former depends on;
+<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<p>
+<a>Usage</a>, <a>start</a>, <a>end</a>, <a>generation</a>, <a>invalidation</a>, <a>communication</a>, <a>derivation</a>, <a>attribution</a>, <a>association</a>, and <a>delegation</a> are also <a>influence</a>. It is RECOMMENDED to adopt these more specific relations when writing provenance descriptions. It is anticipated that the <a>Influence</a> relation may be useful to express queries over provenance information.
+</p>
+
+
+<div id="mapping-relations-to-influence-table" style="text-align: left;">
+The following table establishes the correspondence between 
+the attributes <a class='attribute' href="#influence.influencee">influencee</span></a> and <a class='attribute' href="#influence.influencer">influencer</span></a>, and attributes of
+<a>usage</a>, <a>start</a>, <a>end</a>, <a>generation</a>, <a>invalidation</a>, <a>communication</a>, <a>derivation</a>, <a>attribution</a>, <a>association</a>, and <a>delegation</a>.
+
+<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="mapping-relations-to-influence-table">Mapping Relations to Influence</caption> <!-- Table 7-->
+<tr><td><a><b>Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b><a class='attribute' href="#influence.influencee">influencee</span></a></b></td><td><b><a class='attribute' href="#influence.influencer">influencer</span></a></b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Generation</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#generation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#generation.activity">activity</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Usage</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#usage.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#usage.entity">entity</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Communication</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#communication.informed">informed</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#communication.informant">informant</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Start</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#start.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#start.trigger">trigger</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>End</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#end.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#end.trigger">trigger</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Invalidation</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#invalidation.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#invalidation.activity">activity</span></a></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component2-color"><td><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span></a></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a>Attribution</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#attribution.entity">entity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#attribution.agent">agent</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a>Association</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#association.activity">activity</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#association.agent">agent</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a>Delegation</a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#delegation.delegate">delegate</span></a></td><td><a class='attribute' href="#delegation.responsible">responsible</span></a></td></tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="influence-example">
+<p>We refer to the example of <a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-two"><span>TBD</span></a>, and specifically to <a  href="#prov-a-document2-top">Figure 3</a>.
+We could have expressed that the influence of
+<span class="name">w3:Consortium</span> 
+on <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+ wasInfluencedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)
+</pre>
+Instead, it is recommended to express the more specific description:
+<pre class="codeexample">
+ wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="component4"> 
+<h3>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
+
+
+<p>The fourth component of PROV-DM is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance. 
+<a href="#figure-component4">Figure 9</a>  depicts a UML class diagram for the fourth component.  It comprises a <a>Bundle</a> class defined as a subclass of <a>Entity</a>.
+</p>
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+
+<img src="uml/component4.png" alt="bundles"/><br>
+<figcaption id="figure-component4">Bundle Component Overview (Informative)</figcaption>
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<section id="term-bundle"> 
+
+<h3>Bundle constructor</h3>
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-bundle" >
+</span>
+ </p>
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-bundle">
+ A <dfn title="dfn-bundle" id="dfn-bundle-constructor">bundle constructor</dfn>  allows the content and the name of a bundle to be specified; it is written <span class="pnExpression">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</span> and consists of:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="bundle.constructor.id">id</span>:  an identifier for the bundle;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="bundle.constructor.descriptions">descriptions</span>: a set of provenance descriptions <span class="name">
+description_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">description_n</span>.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>A bundle's identifier <span class="name">id</span> identifies a unique set of descriptions.</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>There may be other kinds of bundles not directly expressible by this constructor, such as provenance descriptions handwritten on a letter or a whiteboard, etc.  Whatever the means by which bundles are expressed, all can be described, as in the following section.</p>
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+
+<section id="term-bundle-entity"> 
+
+<h3>Bundle Type</h3>
+
+<p>A  bundle is a named set of descriptions, but it is also an entity so that its provenance can be described.  </p>
+
+<p>PROV defines the following type for bundles:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><span class="name">prov:Bundle</span> is the type that denotes <a title="bundle">bundles</a>.
+</ul>
+<p>PROV defines no bundle-specific attributes.</p>
+
+
+<p>
+A  bundle description is of the form <span class="pnExpression">entity(id, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle', attr1=val1, ...] )</span>
+where <span class='name'>id</span> is  an identifier denoting a bundle,
+ a type <span>prov:Bundle</span> and
+an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this bundle.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>The provenance of provenance can then be described using PROV constructs, as illustrated by
+<a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>
+and
+<a href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-of-provenance">
+<p>Let us consider two entities <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
+entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
+wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
+wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
+</pre>
+
+<p>Let us assume that Bob observed the creation of <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.
+A first bundle can be expressed.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle bob:bundle1
+  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+<p>In contrast,
+Alice observed the creation of <span class="name">ex:report2</span> and its derivation from <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.
+A separate bundle can also be expressed.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle alice:bundle2
+  entity(ex:report1)
+  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+<p>The first bundle contains the descriptions corresponding to  Bob observing the creation of <span class="name">ex:report1</span>. Its provenance can be described as follows.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+entity(bob:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasGeneratedBy(bob:bundle1, -, 2012-05-24T10:30:00)
+wasAttributedTo(bob:bundle1, ex:Bob)
+</pre>
+
+<p>In contrast, the second bundle is attributed to Alice who
+observed the derivation of <span class="name">ex:report2</span> from <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+entity(alice:bundle2, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasGeneratedBy(alice:bundle2, -, 2012-05-25T11:15:00)
+wasAttributedTo(alice:bundle2, ex:Alice)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-aggregation">
+<p>A provenance aggregator could merge two bundles, resulting in a novel bundle, whose provenance is described as follows.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle agg:bundle3
+  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
+
+  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
+endBundle
+
+entity(agg:bundle3, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+agent(ex:aggregator01, [ prov:type='ex:Aggregator' ])
+wasAttributedTo(agg:bundle3, ex:aggregator01)
+wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, bob:bundle1)
+wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, alice:bundle2)
+</pre>
+<p>The new bundle is given a new identifier <span class="name">agg:bundle3</span> and is attributed to the <span class="name">ex:aggregator01</span> agent.
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+</section> 
+
+
+<section id="component5"> 
+<h3>Component 5: Alternate Entities</h3>
+
+
+<p>The fifth component of PROV-DM is concerned with
+relations SpecializationOf (<a>specialization</a>), AlternateOf (<a>alternate</a>), and MentionOf (<a>mention</a>) between entities.
+ <a href="#figure-component5">Figure 10</a> depicts
+the fifth component with a single class,  two binary associations, and a ternary association.
+</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/component5.png" alt="alternates"/><br>
+<figcaption id="figure-component5">Alternates Component Overview (Informative)</figcaption>
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>Two provenance descriptions about the same thing may emphasize differents aspects of that thing.</p>
+<div class="anexample" id="entity-example1">
+<p>User Alice writes an article. In its provenance, she wishes to refer to the precise version of the article with a date-specific IRI, as she might edit the article later. Alternatively, user Bob refers to the article in general, independently of its variants over time.</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+The PROV data model introduces relations, called specialization, alternate, and mention
+that allow entities  to be linked together. They are defined as follows. </p>
+
+
+<section id="term-specialization">
+
+<h4>Specialization</h4>
+
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-specialization"></span> 
+
+
+<p>
+Examples of aspects include a time period, an abstraction, and a context associated with the entity.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-specialization">A <dfn title="specializationOf">specialization</dfn>  relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">specializationOf(infra, supra)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="specialization.specificEntity">specificEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">infra</span>)
+of the entity that is a specialization of the general entity (<span class="name">supra</span>);</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="specialization.generalEntity">generalEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">supra</span>) of the entity that is being specialized.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>Specialization is not  defined as Influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-specialization">
+<p>
+The BBC news home page on 2012-03-23 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>
+is a specialization of the BBC news page in general
+ <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/">bbc:news/</a>. This can be expressed as follows.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+specializationOf(ex:bbcNews2012-03-23, bbc:news/)
+</pre>
+We have created a new qualified name,  <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>, in the namespace <span class="name">ex</span>, to identify the specific page carrying this day's news, which would otherwise be the generic  <span class="name">bbc:news/</span> page.
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-alternate">
+
+<h4>Alternate</h4>
+
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-alternate"></span>
+
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-alternate">An <dfn title="alternateOf">alternate</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">alternateOf(e1, e2)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="alternate.alternate1">alternate1</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the first of the two entities;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="alternate.alternate2">alternate2</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the second of the two entities.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>Alternate is not  defined as Influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</p>  
+
+<p>
+Note that <a title="alternateOf">alternateOf</a> is a necessarily very general
+relationship that, in reasoning, only states that the two
+alternate entities fix different aspects of some common thing
+(possibly evolving over time), and so there is some relevant
+connection between the provenance of the alternates. In a
+specific application context, <a title="alternateOf">alternateOf</a>, or a subtype of it,
+could allow more inferences.
+</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate">
+<p>
+A given news item on the BBC News site 
+ <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/science-environment-17526723</a> for desktop
+is an alternate of a 
+ <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723</a> for mobile devices.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, 
+       [ prov:type="a news item for desktop"])
+entity(bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723, 
+       [ prov:type="a news item for mobile devices"])
+alternateOf(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, 
+            bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate2">
+<p>
+Considering again the two versions of the technical report <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft). They are alternate of each other.
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
+entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
+</pre>
+<p>They are both specialization of the page <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a>.</p>
+</div>
+
+</section>
+>>>>>>> other
+
+
+<section id="term-mention">
+
+<h4>Mention</h4>
+
+
+<div class="note">
+<p>This feature is "<a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr#cfi">at risk</a>" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</p>
+<p>The "Mention" construct might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>An entity <span class="name">e1</span> may be mentioned in a bundle <span class="name">b</span>, which contains some
+ descriptions about this entity <span class="name">e1</span>: how <span class="name">e1</span> was generated and used, which activities <span class="name">e1</span> is involved with, the agents <span class="name">e1</span> is attributed to, etc. Other bundles may contain other descriptions about the same entity <span class="name">e1</span>.
+Some applications may want to interpret
+this entity <span class="name">e1</span> with respect to the descriptions found in the bundle <span class="name">b</span> it occurs in. To this end, PROV allows a new entity <span class="name">e2</span> to be created, which is a specialization of the preceding entity <span class="name">e1</span>, and which presents an additional aspect:  the bundle <span class="name">b</span> containing some descriptions of <span class="name">e1</span>.  With this relation, applications that process <span class="name">e2</span>
+can know that the attributes of <span class="name">e2</span> may have been computed according to the descriptions of <span class="name">e1</span> in <span class="name">b</span>.</p>
+
+
+
+<p>Thus, the following notion is a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle.
+It is a special case of specialization.</p> 
+
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-mention"></span>
+
+
+
+<p>
+An entity is interpreted with respect to a bundle's description in a
+domain specific manner.  The mention of this entity with respect to
+this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some
+domain-specific interpretation.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>A mention of an entity in a bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the  bundle that it is described in. 
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-mention">A <dfn title="mentionOf">mention</dfn>  relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">mentionOf(infra, supra, b)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">infra</span>)
+of the entity that is a mention of the general entity (<span class="name">supra</span>);</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">supra</span>) of the entity that is being mentioned.</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="mention.bundle">bundle</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">b</span>) of a bundle that contains a description of <span class="name">supra</span> and further constitutes one additional aspect presented by <span class="name">infra</span>.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>Mention is not  defined as Influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-mention-rating">
+<p>This example is concerned with a performance rating tool that reads and processes provenance to determine the performance of agents.  To keep the example simple, an agent's performance is determined by the duration of the activities it is associated with. </p>
+<p>As an illustration, we consider that two bundles <span class="name">ex:run1</span> and <span class="name">ex:run2</span> refer to an agent <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> that controlled two activities <span class="name">ex:a1</span> and <span class="name">ex:a2</span>. </p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">
+bundle ex:run1
+    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
+    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
+endBundle
+
+bundle ex:run2
+    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00, 2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
+    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
+endBundle
+</pre> 
+<p>The performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. The performance rating tool creates a new bundle <span class="name">tool:analysis01</span> containing the following. A new agent <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span> is declared as a mention of <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> as described in  bundle <span class="name">ex:run1</span>, and likewise for  <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span> with respect to <span class="name">ex:run2</span>. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to be good since the duration of <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since <span class="name">ex:a2</span>'s duration is seven hours.
+
+<pre class="codeexample">
+bundle tool:analysis01
+    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
+    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
+
+    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
+    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
+endBundle
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="aexample-mention-viz">
+<p>Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle obs:bundle1
+  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
+  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
+endBundle
+entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
+</pre>
+Bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the visualization layout of this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle tool:bundle2
+  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
+
+  entity(tool:report1, [ viz:color="orange" ])
+  mentionOf(tool:report1, ex:report1, obs:bundle1)
+
+  entity(tool:report2, [ viz:color="blue" ])              
+  mentionOf(tool:report2, ex:report2, obs:bundle1)
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+<p>In bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span>, the prefix <span class="name">viz</span> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</p>
+
+<p>Bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span> is given type <span class="name">viz:Configuration</span> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
+</p>
+
+<p>The visualisation tool
+ created  new identifiers <span class="name">tool:report1</span> and
+<span class="name">tool:report2</span>.
+They denote entities which are specializations of <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>, described in bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span>, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </p>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+<div id="glossary_div" class="remove">
+<!-- glossary loaded from glossary.js will be hooked up here,
+     class remove, will remove this element from the final output.
+-->
+</div>
+
+<<<<<<< local
+=======
+<section class="appendix">
+<h2>Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</h2>
+
+<p>PROV-DM is a conceptual data model which can be serialized in various ways. 
+The following table contains the PROV-O classes and properties, as described in [[PROV-O]], and PROV-N productions, as described in [[PROV-N]] that correspond to PROV-DM concepts.</p> 
+
+<div id="prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n-fig" style="text-align: left;">
+<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n">Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</caption> <!-- Table 10-->
+<tr><td><a><b>PROV-DM</b></a></td><td><b>PROV-O</b></td><td><b>PROV-N</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Entity">Entity</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Entity">Entity</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-entityExpression">entityExpression</a></code>
+</td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1">Component 1:<br> Entities/Activities</a></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Activity">Activity</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Entity">Activity</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-activityExpression">activityExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Generation">Generation</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasGeneratedBy">wasGeneratedBy</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Generation">Generation</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-generationExpression">generationExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Usage">Usage</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#used">used</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Usage">Usage</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-usageExpression">usageExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Communication">Communication</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasInformedBy">wasInformedBy</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Communication">Communication</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-communicationExpression">communicationExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Start">Start</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasStartedBy">wasStartedBy</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Start">Start</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-startExpression">startExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="End">End</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasEndedBy">wasEndedBy</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#End">End</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-endExpression">endExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color">
+<td><a title="Invalidation">Invalidation</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasInvalidatedBy">wasInvalidatedBy</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Invalidation">Invalidation</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-invalidationExpression">invalidationExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+
+
+
+<tr class="component2-color">
+<td><a title="Derivation">Derivation</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasDerivedFrom">wasDerivedFrom</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Derivation">Derivation</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-derivationExpression">derivationExpression</a></code></td>
+<td  rowspan="4"><a href="#component2">Component 2:<br> Derivations</a></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component2-color">
+<td class="provType"><a title="Revision">Revision</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasRevisionOf">wasRevisionOf</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Revision">Revision</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Revision">Revision</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component2-color">
+<td class="provType"><a title="Quotation">Quotation</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasQuotedFrom">wasQuotedFrom</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Quotation">Quotation</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Quotation">Quotation</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a title="Primary Source">Primary Source</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#hadPrimarySource">hadPrimarySource</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Source">Source</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Primary-Source">PrimarySource</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+
+
+
+<tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; ">
+<td><a title="Agent">Agent</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Agent">Agent</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-agentExpression">agentExpression</a></code></td>
+<td  rowspan="9"><a href="#component3">Component 3: <br>Agents, Responsibility, <br>Influence</a></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Attribution">Attribution</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasAttributedTo">wasAttributedTo</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Attribution">Attribution</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-attributionExpression">attributionExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Association">Association</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasAssociatedWith">wasAssociatedWith</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Association">Association</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-associationExpression">associationExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Delegation">Delegation</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#actedOnBehalfOf">actedOnBehalfOf</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Delegation">Delegation</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-delegationExpression">delegationExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Plan">Plan</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Plan">Plan</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Plan">Plan</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Person">Person</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Person">Person</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Person">Person</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Organization">Organization</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Organization">Organization</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Organization">Organization</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="software-agent">SoftwareAgent</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#SoftwareAgent">SoftwareAgent</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-SoftwareAgent">SoftwareAgent</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color">
+<td><a title="Influence">Influence</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#wasInfluencedBy">wasInfluencedBy</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Influence">Influence</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-influenceExpression">influenceExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+
+
+
+<tr class="component4-color">
+<td><a title="bundle">Bundle constructor</a></td>
+<td> <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#description-bundle">bundle description</a> </td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code></td>
+<td  rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 4: <br> Bundles</a></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component4-color"><td class="provType"><a title="bundle">Bundle type</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Bundle">Bundle</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Bundle">Bundle</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component5-color">
+<td><a title="Alternate">Alternate</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#alternateOf">alternateOf</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-alternateExpression">alternateExpression</a></code></td>
+<td  rowspan="3"><a href="#component4">Component 5: <br> Alternate</a></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component5-color">
+<td><a title="Specialization">Specialization</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#specializationOf">specializationOf</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-specializationExpression">specializationExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component5-color">
+<td><a title="Mention">Mention</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#mentionOf">mentionOf</a>, <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#asInBundle">asInBundle</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-mentionExpression">mentionExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
+</tr>
+
+
+
+<tr class="component6-color">
+<td><a title="Collection">Collection</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#Collection">Collection</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-Collection">Collection</a></code></td>
+<td  rowspan="3"><a href="#component6">Component 6: <br> Collections</a></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component6-color">
+<td><a title="Empty Collection">EmptyCollection</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#EmptyCollection">EmptyCollection</a></td>
+<td>type <code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#provn-type-EmptyCollection">EmptyCollection</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="component6-color">
+<td><a title="Membership">Membership</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/ontology/last-call/2012-07-03-internal-review/Overview.html#hadMember">hadMember</a></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html#prod-membershipExpression">membershipExpression</a></code></td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix"> 
+      <h2>Changes since last version</h2> 
+      <p> Please see the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ResponsesToPublicComments">Responses to Public Comments on the Last Call Working Draft</a> for more details about the justification of these changes.</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/506">ISSUE-506</a>: Updated role from author to contributor, in line with text.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/492">ISSUE-492</a>: Fixed typos in  <a href="#anexample-invalidation3" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/508">ISSUE-508</a>: Clarified the bold names and parameters  in  text preceding <a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig">Table 5</a>.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/501">ISSUE-501</a>: Put the example about driving a car to Boston in a box.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/450">ISSUE-450</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/514">ISSUE-514</a>: added table with secondary objects in relations.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/512">ISSUE-512</a>: simplied type of activity a2 to "fine paying"
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/509">ISSUE-509</a>: modified the introductory text to UML figures, so that they refer to relation names (e.g. WasStartedBy) as visualized in figures
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/515">ISSUE-515</a>: fixed typo
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/531">ISSUE-531</a>: added sentence on the use of prov:location attribute.
+
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/519">ISSUE-519</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/523">ISSUE-523</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/524">ISSUE-524</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/529">ISSUE-529</a>: changed UML diagram of figure 8 by removing explicit inheritance from influence for  usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, and delegation.  Instead, introduced correspondance table 7.  Furthermore, in response to these issues, it was made clear that PROV defines no attribute specific to subtypes such as SoftwareAgent, ..., Plan, Revision, Bundle, Collection.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/495">ISSUE-495</a>: made explicit which section, figure, table was informative or normative.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/521">ISSUE-521</a>: now states that "an agent relied on a plan" instead of "an agent adopted a plan".
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/499">ISSUE-499</a>: Made explicit that generation/usage/invalidation/start/end are implicit.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/449">ISSUE-449</a>: Clarified definition of prov:value attribute and added an example.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/495">ISSUE-495</a>: added paragraph about 'relations opening up'. Clarified the role of '-' in example. Fixed dates in biblio. Fixed space issue in prov-n examples
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/516">ISSUE-516</a>: Stating that there moust be some underpinning activity or activities for a derivation, instead of just activities.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/525">ISSUE-525</a>: Made it explicit that Membership, Alternate, Specialization are not Influence
+<li> Copied the sentence " An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
+ used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  " from the informative section into the normative section.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/504">ISSUE-504</a>: Updated definition of collection.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/503">ISSUE-503</a>: Rephrased the introduction of expanded association in section 2.2.1.2 Expanded Relations.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/514">ISSUE-514</a>: added links to the attributes listed in the secondary element table. Also removed PrimarySource, Quotation, Revision.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/502">ISSUE-502</a>: Added sentence in section 2.1.2 explaining that the focus
+      of derivation is on connecting a generated entity to a used  entity.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/526">ISSUE-526</a>: Added sentence clarifying sentence in section 5.5.2.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/462">ISSUE-462</a>: Added clarification regarding entity attributes (with respect to fixed aspects) and role of identifier with respect to equality.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/518">ISSUE-518</a>: Added clarifying sentence of primary source.
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/552">ISSUE-552</a>: Clarifying phrasing around a quotation/revision/primary-source relation is a particular case of a derivation relation ...; updated definitions for start and end.
+<li> Rephrased original entity to preceding entity.
+</ul>
+
+</section>
+
+>>>>>>> other
+
+<section class="appendix"> 
+      <h2>Acknowledgements</h2> 
+      <p> 
+
+This  document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Sandro Hawke (W3C/MIT), Ivan Herman (W3C/ERCIM), Tom Baker for their thorough reviews.
+      </p> 
+
+<p>
+Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
+
+Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
+Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
+Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
+James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
+Sam Coppens (IBBT),
+David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
+Tom De Nies (IBBT),
+Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
+Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
+Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
+Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
+James Frew (Invited expert),
+Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid),
+Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
+Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
+Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
+Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
+David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
+Sandro Hawke (W3C/MIT),
+Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
+Ivan Herman, (W3C/ERCIM),
+Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
+Hook Hua (Invited expert),
+Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
+Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
+Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
+Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Simon Miles (Invited expert),
+Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university),
+Luc Moreau (University of Southampton),
+James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University),
+Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium),
+Adam Retter (Invited Expert),
+Christine Runnegar (Invited expert),
+Satya Sahoo (Invited expert),
+David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.),
+Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium),
+Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert),
+Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester),
+Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory),
+Linda Stewart (The National Archives),
+Ed Summers (Library of Congress),
+Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.),
+Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration),
+Craig Trim (IBM Corporation),
+Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
+Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
+</p>
+    </section> 
+
+
+ </body>
+</html>