staging dm
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Tue, 12 Feb 2013 14:41:30 +0000
changeset 5551 432548f055c4
parent 5548 5544c17df0b6
child 5552 81a5f7702084
staging dm
model/diff.html
model/diff/Makefile
model/releases/PR-prov-dm-20130312/diff.html
--- a/model/diff.html	Tue Feb 12 14:38:36 2013 +0000
+++ b/model/diff.html	Tue Feb 12 14:41:30 2013 +0000
@@ -9,14 +9,8 @@
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 generating this through java script now.
 
-.anexample[data-count]::before</span> {
-    <span class="delete">margin: 1em 0em 0em;</span><span class="insert">content: "Example " attr(data-count) ;</span>
-    <span class="delete">padding:    1em;</span><span class="insert">font-family: sans-serif;
+.anexample[data-count]::before {
+    content: "Example " attr(data-count) ;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
     font-size: 1.6ex;
     font-weight: bold;
 }
@@ -1250,15 +519,15 @@
     padding-left: 1ex;
     padding-right: 1ex;
     padding-top: 1ex;
-    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;</span>
-    border: <span class="delete">2px solid #cff6d9;</span><span class="insert">1px dashed #2f6fab;</span>
-    <span class="delete">background: #e2fff0;</span><span class="insert">background-color: #f9f9f9;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
 }
 .anexample table {
-    background-color: #f9f9f9;</span>
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
 }
 
-<span class="delete">.note::before</span><span class="insert">.anexampleTitle {
+.anexampleTitle {
     font-family: sans-serif;
     font-size: 1.6ex;
     font-weight: bold;
@@ -1364,12 +633,9 @@
 }
 
 
-.interpretation-forward::before</span> {
-    content:    <span class="delete">"Note";
-    display:    block;
-    width:  150px;
-    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;</span><span class="insert">"Interpretation: ";</span>
-    font-weight:    bold;<span class="insert">
+.interpretation-forward::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
 }
 
 .structural-forward::before {
@@ -1391,9 +657,9 @@
 }
 
 
-</span></style>
-
-  <style><span class="insert">/*****************************************************************
+</style>
+
+  <style>/*****************************************************************
  * ReSpec 3 CSS
  * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
  *****************************************************************/
@@ -1407,8 +673,8 @@
 }
 
 h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
-h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {</span>
-    border: <span class="insert">none;
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
 }
 
 dfn {
@@ -1417,7 +683,7 @@
 
 a.internalDFN {
     color:  inherit;
-    border-bottom:  </span>1px solid <span class="delete">#cff6d9;</span><span class="insert">#99c;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
     text-decoration:    none;
 }
 
@@ -1470,10 +736,10 @@
     border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
 }
 
-.simple th {</span>
-    background: <span class="insert">#005a9c;
-    color:  </span>#fff;
-    padding:    3px <span class="delete">1em;</span><span class="insert">5px;
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
     text-align: left;
 }
 
@@ -1489,113 +755,25 @@
 }
 
 .simple tr:nth-child(even) {
-    background: #f0f6ff;</span>
-}
-
-/* --- <span class="delete">Best Practices</span><span class="insert">DL</span> --- */
-<span class="delete">div.practice</span><span class="insert">.section dd > p:first-child</span> {
-    <span class="delete">border: solid #bebebe 1px;
-    margin: 2em 1em 1em 2em;</span><span class="insert">margin-top: 0;</span>
-}
-
-<span class="delete">span.practicelab</span><span class="insert">.section dd > p:last-child</span> {
-    <span class="delete">margin: 1.5em 0.5em 1em 1em;
-    font-weight: bold;
-    font-style: italic;</span><span class="insert">margin-bottom: 0;</span>
-}
-
-<span class="delete">span.practicelab   </span><span class="insert">.section dd </span>{<span class="delete"> background: #dfffff; </span><span class="insert">
-    margin-bottom:  1em;
-</span>}
-
-<span class="delete">span.practicelab</span><span class="insert">.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd</span> {
-    <span class="delete">position: relative;
-    padding: 0 0.5em;
-    top: -1.5em;</span><span class="insert">margin-bottom:  0;</span>
-}<span class="delete">
-
-p.practicedesc {
-    margin: 1.5em 0.5em 1em 1em;
-}
-
[email protected] screen {
-    p.practicedesc {
-        position: relative;
-        top: -2em;
-        padding: 0;
-        margin: 1.5em 0.5em -1em 1em;
-    }
-}
-
-/* --- SYNTAX HIGHLIGHTING --- */
-pre.sh_sourceCode {
-  background-color: white;
-  color: black;
-  font-style: normal;
-  font-weight: normal;
+    background: #f0f6ff;
 }
 
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_keyword { color: #005a9c; font-weight: bold; }           /* language keywords */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_type { color: #666; }                            /* basic types */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_usertype { color: teal; }                             /* user defined types */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_string { color: red; font-family: monospace; }        /* strings and chars */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_regexp { color: orange; font-family: monospace; }     /* regular expressions */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_specialchar { color: 	#ffc0cb; font-family: monospace; }  /* e.g., \n, \t, \\ */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_comment { color: #A52A2A; font-style: italic; }         /* comments */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_number { color: purple; }                             /* literal numbers */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_preproc { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }       /* e.g., #include, import */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_symbol { color: blue; }                            /* e.g., *, + */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_function { color: black; font-weight: bold; }         /* function calls and declarations */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_cbracket { color: red; }                              /* block brackets (e.g., {, }) */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_todo { font-weight: bold; background-color: #00FFFF; }   /* TODO and FIXME */
-
-/* Predefined variables and functions (for instance glsl) */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_predef_var { color: #00008B; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_predef_func { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }
-
-/* for OOP */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_classname { color: teal; }
-
-/* line numbers (not yet implemented) */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_linenum { display: none; }
-
-/* Internet related */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_url { color: blue; text-decoration: underline; font-family: monospace; }
-
-/* for ChangeLog and Log files */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_date { color: blue; font-weight: bold; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_time, pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_file { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_ip, pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_name { color: #006400; }
-
-/* for Prolog, Perl... */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_variable { color: #006400; }
-
-/* for LaTeX */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_italics { color: #006400; font-style: italic; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_bold { color: #006400; font-weight: bold; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_underline { color: #006400; text-decoration: underline; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_fixed { color: green; font-family: monospace; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_argument { color: #006400; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_optionalargument { color: purple; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_math { color: orange; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_bibtex { color: blue; }
-
-/* for diffs */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_oldfile { color: orange; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_newfile { color: #006400; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_difflines { color: blue; }
-
-/* for css */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_selector { color: purple; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_property { color: blue; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_value { color: #006400; font-style: italic; }
-
-/* other */
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_section { color: black; font-weight: bold; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_paren { color: red; }
-pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }
-
-</span>
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
 </style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-CR"></head> 
   <body><div class="head">
   <p>
@@ -1605,37 +783,36 @@
   </p>
   <h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</h1>
   
-  <h2 id="w3c-candidate-recommendation-11-december-2012"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C<span class="delete"> Working Draft 24 July</span></abbr><span class="insert"> Candidate Recommendation 11 December</span> 2012</h2>
+  <h2 id="w3c-candidate-recommendation-11-december-2012"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation <span class="delete">12 March 2013</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012</span></h2>
   <dl>
     
       <dt>This version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</span></a></dd>
-      <dt><span class="insert">Latest published version:</span></dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</span></a></dd>
+      <dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</span></a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a></dd>
     
     
     
     
-      <dt><span class="insert">Implementation report:</span></dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html</span></a></dd>
+      <dt>Implementation report:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html</a></dd>
     
     
     
-      <dt><span class="insert">Previous version:</span></dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/</a> <a href="diff.html"><span class="insert">(colored-coded diff)</span></a></dd><span class="delete">Latest published version:</span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</span><span class="delete">Latest editor's draft:</span><span class="delete">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</span><span class="delete">Previous version:</span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</span><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">color-coded diffs</span><span class="delete">)</span>
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/</span></a> <a href="diff.html">(color-coded diff)</a></dd>
     
     
     <dt>Editors:</dt>
     <dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
 
-
     
       <dt>Contributors:</dt>
       <dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester</dd>
 <dd><span>Reza B'Far</span>, Oracle Corporation</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/">James Cheney</a>, University of Edinburgh</dd>
-<dd><span>Sam Coppens</span>, IBBT - Ghent University</dd>
+<dd><span>Sam Coppens</span>, <span class="delete">iMinds</span><span class="insert">IBBT</span> - Ghent University</dd>
 <dd><span>Stephen Cresswell</span>, legislation.gov.uk</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
 <dd><a href="http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/">Paul Groth</a>, VU University of Amsterdam</dd>
@@ -1647,7 +824,6 @@
 <dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo">Satya Sahoo</a>, Case Western Reserve University</dd>
 <dd><span>Curt Tilmes</span>, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</dd>
 
-
     
   </dl>
   
@@ -1656,15 +832,15 @@
   
     
       <p class="copyright">
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> ©  
-        2011-2012 
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
+        <span class="delete">2011-2013</span><span class="insert">2011-2012</span>
         
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>  
-        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>, 
-        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>, 
-        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. 
-        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, 
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and 
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">Beihang</span>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
       </p>
     
@@ -1702,102 +878,125 @@
 instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
 this document. </p>
 
-<p><span class="insert">The  </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV Document Overview</span></a><span class="insert"> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.</span></p>
+<p>The  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.<span class="delete">  ease consult the [</span><span class="delete">PROV-OVERVIEW</span><span class="delete">] for a guide to reading these documents. </span></p>
 
     </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
   
     
       
         <p>
-          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other 
-          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision 
-          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports 
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
           index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
         </p>
-<span class="delete">Last Call</span>
         
-<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents"><span class="insert">PROV Family of Documents</span></h4>
-This <span class="insert">document </span>is <span class="delete">the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
-This is</span><span class="insert">part of the PROV family of documents,</span> a <span class="delete">Last Call Working Draft. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">This specification identifies one  </span><span class="delete">feature at risk</span><span class="delete">: Mention (</span><span class="delete">Section 5.5.3</span><span class="delete">) might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">PROV Family of Specifications</span><span class="delete">
-This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a </span>set of <span class="delete">specifications</span><span class="insert">documents</span> defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
-interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  <span class="delete">The specifications</span><span class="insert">These documents</span> are:
+<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents <span class="delete">are listed below:</span><span class="insert">are:</span>
 <ul>
-<li> <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="delete">,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV-OVERVIEW</span></a><span class="insert"> (To be published as Note), an overview of</span> the PROV <span class="delete">data model for provenance (this document);</span>
- <span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span><span class="delete">, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model</span><span class="insert">family of documents</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW"><span class="insert">PROV-OVERVIEW</span></a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <span class="delete">PROV-N</span><span class="delete">,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a><span class="insert"> (To be published as Note),</span> a <span class="delete">notation</span><span class="insert">primer</span> for <span class="delete">provenance aimed at human consumption</span><span class="insert">the PROV data model</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-N</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">PROV-O</a><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert"> (Candidate Recommendation),</span> the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <span class="delete">PROV-AQ</span><span class="delete">, the mechanisms</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV-DM</span></a><span class="insert"> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV data model</span> for <span class="delete">accessing and querying </span>provenance<span class="insert"> (this document);</span></li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a><span class="insert"> (Candidate Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-AQ</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite>]; </li>
-<li> <span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER</span><span class="delete">,</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a><span class="insert"> (Candidate Recommendation),</span> a <span class="delete">primer for</span><span class="insert">set of constraints applying to</span> the PROV data model [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span></li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">PROV-O</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">PROV-DM</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">PROV-N</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
 <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a><span class="insert"> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]; </span></li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a><span class="insert"> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite>].</li>
-
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite><span class="delete">];</span><span class="insert">].</span></li>
 
 </ul>
-<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-documents">How to read the PROV Family of <span class="delete">Specifications</span><span class="insert">Documents</span></h4>
+<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-documents"><span class="insert">How to read the PROV Family of Documents</span></h4>
 <ul>
-<li><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW"><span class="insert">PROV-OVERVIEW</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] overviews the PROV family of documents. </span></li>
-<li>The primer <span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] </span>is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on <span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite><span class="insert">]</span> defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and <span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="insert">]</span> specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </li>
-<li><span class="insert">The XML community should focus on [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM and [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></li>
-<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on <span class="delete">PROV-AQ.</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></li>
-<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
-should focus on PROV-DM and <span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS.</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span>  <span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite><span class="insert">], [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">],</span> and <span class="delete">PROV-N</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]</span> offer examples of mapping to <span class="delete">RDF</span><span class="insert">RDF, text,</span> and <span class="delete">text,</span><span class="insert">XML,</span> respectively.</li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-AQ</span><span class="delete"> (To</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW"><span class="insert">PROV-OVERVIEW</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] overviews the PROV family of documents. </span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">The primer [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">The XML community should focus on [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also</span> be <span class="delete">published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing</span><span class="insert">found in PROV-DM</span> and <span class="delete">querying</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">Developers seeking to retrieve or publish</span> provenance<span class="insert"> should focus on</span> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite><span class="delete">]; </span><span class="insert">].</span></li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-DICTIONARY</span><span class="delete"> (To be published as Note),  introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs</span><span class="insert">Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on PROV-DM and</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-DICTIONARY</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="delete">];</span>
+ <span class="delete">PROV-DC</span><span class="delete"> (To be published as Note),</span><span class="insert">].</span>  <span class="delete">provides a mapping between PROV and Dublic Core Terms </span>[<cite><span class="delete">PROV-DC</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a></cite><span class="delete">];</span>
+ <span class="delete">PROV-LINKS</span><span class="delete"> (To be published as Note),  introduces a mechanism to link across bundles</span><span class="insert">],</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-LINKS</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="delete">].</span><span class="insert">], and [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</span></li>
 </ul>
 
-
 <h4 id="please-comment-by-january-31-2013"><span class="insert">Please Comment By January 31, 2013</span></h4><span class="insert">
 
 The Provenance Working Group seeks to gather experience from </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvImplementations"><span class="insert">implementations</span></a><span class="insert"> in order to increase confidence in the specifications and meet specific </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvCRExitCriteria"><span class="insert">exit criteria</span></a><span class="insert">. This document will remain a Candidate Recommendation until at least 31 January 31, 2013. After that date, when and if the exit criteria are met, the group intends to request </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#RecsPR"><span class="insert">Proposed Recommendation</span></a><span class="insert"> status.
 
 
 
-        </span><p>
-          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a <span class="delete">Last Call Working Draft. </span><span class="insert">Candidate Recommendation.
+        </span><p><span class="insert">
+          This document was published by the </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/"><span class="insert">Provenance Working Group</span></a><span class="insert"> as a Candidate Recommendation.
           
-            </span>This document is intended to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation. 
+            This document is intended to become a </span><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <span class="delete">Members Please Review By 09 April 2013</span>
+
+<span class="delete">The </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Director seeks review and feedback from </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Advisory Committee representatives, via their </span><span class="delete">review form</span><span class="delete"> by 09 April 2013. This will allow the Director</span><span class="insert">Recommendation.
           
-          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to  
-          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>  
-          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, 
-          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="delete"> The Last Call period ends 18 September 2012. </span>
+          If you wish</span> to <span class="delete">assess consensus and determine whether</span><span class="insert">make comments regarding this document, please send them</span> to<span class="delete"> issue this document as a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Recommendation.</span>
+
+<span class="delete">Others are encouraged by the Provenance Working Group to continue to send reports of implementation experience, and other feedback, to
+</span> 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="delete"> Reports of any success or difficulty with the test cases are encouraged. Open discussion among developers is welcome at
+</span><span class="delete">[email protected]</span><span class="delete"> 
+          (</span><span class="delete">subscribe</span><span class="delete">,
+          </span><span class="delete">archives</span><span class="delete">).</span>
+
+        <span class="delete">
+          This document was published by the </span><span class="delete">Provenance Working Group</span><span class="delete"> as a Proposed Recommendation.
+          
+            This document is intended to become a </span>
           
           
-            <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></abbr><span class="insert"> publishes a Candidate Recommendation to indicate that the document is believed
-            to be stable and to encourage implementation by the developer community. This
-            Candidate Recommendation is expected to advance to Proposed Recommendation no earlier than
-            31 January 2013.
+            <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <span class="delete">Recommendation.
           
-          </span>All feedback is welcome.
+          
+          
+          
+          
+          
+          The </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Membership</span><span class="insert">publishes a Candidate Recommendation to indicate that the document is believed
+            to be stable</span> and <span class="delete">other interested parties are invited
+          </span>to <span class="delete">review the document and send comments</span><span class="insert">encourage implementation by the developer community. This
+            Candidate Recommendation is expected</span> to
+
+          <span class="delete">[email protected]</span><span class="delete"> 
+          (</span><span class="delete">subscribe</span><span class="delete">,
+          </span><span class="delete">archives</span><span class="delete">)
+          through 09 April</span><span class="insert"> advance to Proposed Recommendation no earlier than
+            31 January</span> 2013.<span class="delete">
+          Advisory Committee Representatives should consult their
+          </span><span class="delete">WBS questionnaires</span><span class="delete">. 
+          Note that substantive technical comments were expected during the Last Call review period that ended 18 September 2012.</span><span class="insert">
+          
+          All feedback is welcome.</span>
         </p>
         
+        
+        
+          
+        
           <p>
-            Publication as a <span class="delete">Working Draft</span><span class="insert">Candidate Recommendation</span> does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership. 
-            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at  
+            Publication as a <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
             any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
           </p>
         
         
         <p>
           
-            This <span class="delete">is</span><span class="insert">document was produced by</span> a <span class="delete">Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this document has satisfied the relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to advance through the Technical Recommendation process.</span><span class="delete">This document was produced by a </span>group operating under the  
-            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>. 
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
           
           
           
             
-              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a>  
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
             
-            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for  
-            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains 
-            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the 
-            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
             6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
           
           
@@ -1807,20 +1006,7 @@
     
   
 </section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#compliance-with-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Compliance with this Document</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.1</span><span class="insert">1.2</span> </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.2</span><span class="insert">1.3</span> </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.3</span><span class="insert">1.4</span> </span>Namespaces</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>PROV Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.2 </span>Expanded Relations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.3 </span>Optional Identification</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.2 </span>Provenance of Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Modular Organization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Example: The Process View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Example: Attribution of Provenance</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>Bundle constructor</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>Bundle Type</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.1 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.2 </span>Alternate<span class="delete">5.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Mention</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.1 </span>Collection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.2 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2 </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.1 </span>prov:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.2 </span>prov:location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.3 </span>prov:role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.4 </span>prov:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.5 </span>prov:value</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.3 </span>Value</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.5 </span>Qualified Name</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Creating Valid Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-references-to-prov-o-and-prov-n" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-last-version" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">B. </span></span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">B.</span><span class="insert">C.</span> </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.</span><span class="insert">D.</span> </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.1</span><span class="insert">D.1</span> </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.2</span><span class="insert">D.2</span> </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul> 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-    </section> 
+</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#compliance-with-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>Namespaces</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>PROV Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.2 </span>Expanded Relations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.3 </span>Optional Identification</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.2 </span>Provenance of Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Modular Organization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Example: The Process View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Example: Attribution of Provenance</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>Bundle constructor</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>Bundle Type</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.1 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.2 </span>Alternate</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.1 </span>Collection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.2 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2 </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.1 </span>prov:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.2 </span>prov:location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.3 </span>prov:role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.4 </span>prov:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.5 </span>prov:value</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.3 </span>Value</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.5 </span>Qualified Name</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Creating Valid Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-references-to-prov-o-and-prov-n" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-last-version" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span><span class="delete">Change Log</span><span class="delete">B.1 </span>Changes since last version</a><span class="delete">B.2 </span><span class="delete">Changes since Last Call</span></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
 
 
 
@@ -1852,11 +1038,6 @@
 process it, and reason over it.</p>
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
 <p>
 The PROV data model distinguishes <em>core structures</em> from
 <em>extended structures</em>: core structures form the essence of
@@ -1878,12 +1059,12 @@
 </li><li> component 2: derivations of entities from others;
 </li><li> component 3: agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
 </li><li> component 4: bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance;
-</li><li> component 5: properties to link entities that refer to <span class="delete">a</span><span class="insert">the</span> same thing;
+</li><li> component 5: properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
 </li><li> component 6: collections forming a logical structure for its members.
 </li></ul>
 
 
-<p>This specification presents the concepts of the PROV <span class="delete">Data Model,</span><span class="insert">data model,</span> and
+<p>This specification presents the concepts of the PROV data model, and
 provenance types and relations, without specific concern for how they are applied.
 With these, it becomes possible to write useful provenance, and publish or embed it alongside the data it relates to. </p>
 
@@ -1896,31 +1077,28 @@
  to infer.
 </p>
 
-
-
-
 <section id="compliance-with-this-document"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span><span class="delete">Structure of</span><span class="insert">Compliance with</span> this Document</h3>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">For the purpose of compliance, the normative sections of this document
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</h3>
+
+
+<p>For the purpose of compliance, the normative sections of this document
 are 
-</span><a class="section-ref" href="#compliance-with-this-document"><span><span class="insert">Section 1.1</span></span></a><span class="insert">,
-</span><a class="section-ref" href="#conventions"><span><span class="insert">Section 1.3</span></span></a><span class="insert">,
-</span><a class="section-ref" href="#data-model-components"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and
-</span><a href="#cross-references-to-prov-o-and-prov-n"><span class="insert">Appendix A</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><ul>
-<li><span class="insert"> Information in tables is normative if it appears in a normative section. </span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> All figures (including UML diagrams) are informative. </span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> Text in boxes labeled "Example" is informative.
-</span></li></ul>
+<a class="section-ref" href="#compliance-with-this-document"><span>Section 1.1</span></a>,
+<a class="section-ref" href="#conventions"><span>Section 1.3</span></a>,
+<a class="section-ref" href="#data-model-components"><span>Section 5.</span></a>, and
+<a href="#cross-references-to-prov-o-and-prov-n">Appendix A</a>.
+</p><ul>
+<li> Information in tables is normative if it appears in a normative section. </li>
+<li> All figures (including UML diagrams) are informative. </li>
+<li> Text in boxes labeled "Example" is informative.
+</li></ul>
 </section>
 
 
 <section class="informative" id="structure-of-this-document"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Structure of this Document</span></h3><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
-
-<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> provides an overview of the PROV <span class="delete">Data Model,</span><span class="insert">data model,</span>  distinguishing a core set of types and  relations, commonly found in provenance, from extended structures catering for more specific uses. It also introduces a modular organization of the data model in components. </p>
+<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> provides an overview of the PROV data model,  distinguishing a core set of types and  relations, commonly found in provenance, from extended structures catering for more specific uses. It also introduces a modular organization of the data model in components. </p>
 
 <p><a href="#prov-notation">Section 3</a> overviews the Provenance Notation used to illustrate examples of provenance.</p>
 
@@ -1941,7 +1119,7 @@
 </section> 
 
 <section id="conventions"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.2</span><span class="insert">1.3</span> </span>Notational Conventions</h3>
+<h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</h3>
 
 
 
@@ -1960,7 +1138,7 @@
 </section> 
 
 <section class="informative" id="namespaces"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">1.3</span><span class="insert">1.4</span> </span>Namespaces</h3><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h3><span class="secno">1.4 </span>Namespaces</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 <p>
 The following namespaces prefixes are used throughout this document.
@@ -1968,11 +1146,11 @@
 </p><div style="text-align: left;">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
 <caption id="namespace-table"><span>Table 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#namespace-table"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption> 
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace <span class="delete">uri</span><span class="insert">IRI</span></b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace IRI</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration"><span>Section 5.7.4</span></a>)</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>
 <tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace  [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, <span class="delete">URIs</span><span class="insert">IRIs</span> starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent <span class="delete">URI</span><span class="insert">IRI</span> [<cite><span class="delete">URI</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite>]</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, IRIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]</td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
@@ -1984,15 +1162,15 @@
 
 
 <section class="informative" id="section-prov-overview"> 
-<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</h2><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 <p>This section introduces provenance concepts with informal explanations and illustrative
-examples. PROV distinguishes  <em>core structures</em>, forming the essence of  provenance, from <em>extended structures</em> catering for more specific uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a> and <a href="#section-extended-structures">Section 2.2</a>. Furthermore, the PROV data model is organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see <a href="#section-overview-components">Section 2.3</a>). A <em>provenance description</em> is an instance of  a <span class="insert">provenance structure, whether </span>core <span class="delete">and extended provenance structure</span><span class="insert">or extended,</span> described below.
+examples. PROV distinguishes  <em>core structures</em>, forming the essence of  provenance, from <em>extended structures</em> catering for more specific uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a> and <a href="#section-extended-structures">Section 2.2</a>. Furthermore, the PROV data model is organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see <a href="#section-overview-components">Section 2.3</a>). A <em>provenance description</em> is an instance of  a provenance structure, whether core or extended, described below.
 </p>
 
 
 <section id="core-structures"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</h3><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 <p>At its core, provenance describes the use and production of
 <em>entities</em> by <em>activities</em>, which may be 
@@ -2006,7 +1184,7 @@
 <div style="text-align: center; ">
  <span class="figure" id="prov-core-structures-top" style="max-width: 70%; ">
 <img src="uml/essentials.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; "><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="prov-core-structures">Figure 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-core-structures"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> PROV Core Structures<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span>
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-core-structures">Figure 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-core-structures"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> PROV Core Structures (Informative)</span>
   </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -2047,17 +1225,6 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 <form action="#"><p> 
 <input id="hide-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-examples','none'); set_display_by_id('show-examples','');" type="button" value="Hide Concept Examples"> 
 <input id="show-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample',''); set_display_by_id('hide-examples',''); set_display_by_id('show-examples','none');" style="display: none" type="button" value="Show Concept Examples"> 
@@ -2069,7 +1236,7 @@
 
   
     <section id="section-entity-activity"> 
-<h4><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</h4><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h4><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 
 <p>In PROV, things we want to describe the provenance of are called <em>entities</em> and have some fixed aspects. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
@@ -2083,7 +1250,7 @@
 
 
 <div class="anexample conceptexample" id="entity-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-<p>An entity may be the document at <span class="delete">URI</span><span class="insert">IRI</span> <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</a>, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</p>
+<p>An entity may be the document at IRI <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</a>, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</p>
 </div>
 
 
@@ -2096,7 +1263,7 @@
 information processing activities
  may for example move, copy, or duplicate  digital entities;
  physical activities can include
- driving a car <span class="delete">from Boston to Cambridge</span><span class="insert">between two locations</span> or printing a book.
+ driving a car between two locations or printing a book.
 </p>
 
 
@@ -2125,31 +1292,6 @@
 publication of a new version of a document.
 </p></div>
 
-<span class="delete">
-One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by
-driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.  This is answered by
-considering that a single artifact may
-correspond to several entities; in this case, a car in Boston may be a
-different entity from a car in Cambridge.  
-Thus, among other things,
-an entity "car in Boston" would be used, and a new entity "car in
-Cambridge" would be generated by this activity of driving.  The
-provenance trace of the car might include: designed in Japan,
-manufactured in Korea, shipped to Boston USA, purchased by customer,
-driven to Cambridge, serviced by engineer in Cambridge, etc., all of
-which might be important information when deciding whether or not it
-represents a sensible second-hand purchase.  Or some of it might
-alternatively be relevant when trying to determine the truth of a web
-page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
-of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
-digital artifacts.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
 
 
 
@@ -2161,8 +1303,8 @@
 </p></div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="driving-a-car"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 5</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#driving-a-car"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="driving-a-car"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#driving-a-car"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
 Let us consider the activity of driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.
 One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by this activity.
 This is answered by
@@ -2181,7 +1323,7 @@
 page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
 of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
 digital artifacts.
-</span></p>
+</p>
 </div>
 
 
@@ -2195,7 +1337,7 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">6</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#communication-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#communication-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The activity of writing a celebrity article was informed by (a
 communication instance) the activity of intercepting voicemails.
@@ -2221,16 +1363,16 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">7</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 7<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
 linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</p>
 </div>
 
 
 <p>
-<span class="insert">The focus of derivation is on connecting a generated entity to a used
+The focus of derivation is on connecting a generated entity to a used
 entity.
-</span>While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
+While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
 subtle: implicit is the notion that the generated entity was affected
 in some way by the used entity.  
 
@@ -2273,14 +1415,7 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">8</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#agent-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 8<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#agent-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 Software for checking the use of grammar in a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity;  one can also describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
 A site selling books on the Web, the services involved in the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
@@ -2295,7 +1430,7 @@
 <p><span class="glossary-ref">   <span class="dfn">Attribution</span> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </span>
 [<a href="#term-attribution">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">8</span><span class="insert">9</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attribution-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 9<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attribution-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</p>
 </div>
 
@@ -2303,17 +1438,12 @@
 Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. </p>
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
 <p>
 <span class="glossary-ref">   An activity <span class="dfn">association</span> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity.  </span>
 [<a href="#term-Association">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
 
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">9</span><span class="insert">10</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 10<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
 </p><ul>
 <li>creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</li>
@@ -2333,7 +1463,7 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">10</span><span class="insert">11</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 11<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>A student publishing a web page describing an academic
 department could result in both the student and the department being
 agents associated with the activity.  It may not matter which actual
@@ -2365,12 +1495,12 @@
 
 
 <section id="section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping"> 
-<h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</h5><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</h5><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 <p>Subtyping can be applied to core types. For example, a software agent is special kind of agent, defined as follows.</p>
 
 <span class="glossary-ref">
-   A <span class="dfn"><span class="delete">software agent</span><span class="insert">SoftwareAgent</span></span>  is running software. </span>
+   A <span class="dfn">SoftwareAgent</span>  is running software. </span>
 
 
 <p>Subtyping can also be applied to  core relations. For example, a revision is a special kind of derivation, defined as follows.</p>
@@ -2385,17 +1515,14 @@
 
 <p><a class="section-ref" href="#core-structures"><span>Section 2.1</span></a> shows that seven concepts are mapped to binary relations in the core of PROV.  However, some advanced uses of these concepts cannot be captured by a binary relation, but require relations to be expanded to n-ary relations.</p>
 
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Indeed, binary relations are actually shorthands that can be 'opened up' by applications and filled in with further application details. For example, derivation is a very high level relationship between two entities: an application may decide to 'open up' that relationship in an expanded relation that describes how an entity was derived from another by virtue of listing the generation, usage, and activity involved in the derivation relationship. Applications are free to decide which level of granularity they want describe, and   PROV gives them the way to do that.</span></p>
-
-
-
-<p>To illustrate expanded relations, we <span class="delete">consider</span><span class="insert">revisit</span> the concept of
-association, <span class="delete">described</span><span class="insert">introduced</span>
-in <a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert"> (full definition of the expanded association can be found
-in </span><a class="section-ref" href="#term-Association"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.3</span></span></a><span class="insert">).</span>  Agents may <span class="delete">adopt</span><span class="insert">rely on</span> <em>plans</em>, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
+<p>Indeed, binary relations are actually shorthands that can be 'opened up' by applications and filled in with further application details. For example, derivation is a very high level relationship between two entities: an application may decide to 'open up' that relationship in an expanded relation that describes how an entity was derived from another by virtue of listing the generation, usage, and activity involved in the derivation relationship. Applications are free to decide which level of granularity they want describe, and   PROV gives them the way to do that.</p>
+
+
+
+<p>To illustrate expanded relations, we revisit the concept of
+association, introduced
+in <a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a> (full definition of the expanded association can be found
+in <a class="section-ref" href="#term-Association"><span>Section 5.3.3</span></a>).  Agents may rely on <em>plans</em>, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
 goals in the context of an activity.
 Hence, an expanded form of
 association relation allows for a plan to be specified. Plan is defined by subtyping and 
@@ -2420,7 +1547,7 @@
 manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</p>
 
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">11</span><span class="insert">12</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 12<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>An example of association between an activity and an agent involving a plan is:
 an XSLT transform (an activity) launched by a user (an agent) based on an XSL style sheet (a plan).
 
@@ -2435,13 +1562,13 @@
 binary relation, and an extended use, expressed as n-ary relation.  In
 some cases, mapping the concept to a relation, whether binary or
 n-ary, is not sufficient: instead, it may be required to
-identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> allows for 
+identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, PROV allows for 
 an optional identifier to be
 expressed to identify an instance of an association between two or
 more elements.  This optional identifier can then be used to refer to
 an instance as part of other concepts.</p>
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">12</span><span class="insert">13</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#identifier-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 13<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#identifier-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>A service may read a same configuration file on two different occasions. Each  usage can be identifed by its own identifier, allowing them to be distinguished. 
 </p></div>
 
@@ -2453,8 +1580,7 @@
 <section id="section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations"> 
 <h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</h5>
 
-<p>Finally, <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations (such as <a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a>, <a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a>).</p>
-
+<p>Finally, PROV supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations (such as <a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a>, <a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a>).</p>
 
 
 </section>
@@ -2482,9 +1608,9 @@
 expressed.
 </p>
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">13</span><span class="insert">14</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#bundle-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 14<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#bundle-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
-In a decision making situation, decision makers may be presented with the same piece of knowledge, issued by multiple sources.  In order to validate this piece of knowledge, decision makers can consider its provenance, but also the provenance of <span class="delete">their</span><span class="insert">its</span> provenance, which may help determine whether it can be trusted.
+In a decision making situation, decision makers may be presented with the same piece of knowledge, issued by multiple sources.  In order to validate this piece of knowledge, decision makers can consider its provenance, but also the provenance of its provenance, which may help determine whether it can be trusted.
 </p>
 </div>
 </section>
@@ -2493,10 +1619,10 @@
 <h4><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</h4>
 
 <p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">   A <span class="dfn">collection</span> is an entity that provides a structure to some <span class="delete">constituents, which are</span><span class="insert">constituents that must</span> themselves<span class="insert"> be</span> entities. These constituents are said to be <span class="dfn">member<span class="delete"> of</span></span><span class="insert"> of</span> the collections.  </span> Many different types of collections exist, such as <em>sets</em>, <em>dictionaries</em>, or <em>lists</em>. 
+<span class="glossary-ref">   A <span class="dfn">collection</span> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents that must themselves be entities. These constituents are said to be <span class="dfn">member</span> of the collections.  </span> Many different types of collections exist, such as <em>sets</em>, <em>dictionaries</em>, or <em>lists</em>. 
 Using Collections, one can express the provenance of the collection itself in addition to that of the members.  </p>
 
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">14</span><span class="insert">15</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#collection-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 15<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#collection-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
 </p></div>
@@ -2525,7 +1651,7 @@
 <tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Component</td><td>Core <br>Structures</td><td>Overview</td><td>Specification</td><td>Description</td></tr> 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="	padding: 8px;">1</td><td style="text-align: left;">Entities and Activities</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-entity-activity">2.1.1</a></td><td><a href="#component1">5.1</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about entities and activities, and their interrelations</td></tr> 
-<tr><td>2</td><td style="text-align: left;">Derivation</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-derivation">2.1.2</a></td><td><a href="#component2">5.2</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about <span class="delete">derivations</span><span class="insert">derivation</span> and its subtypes</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>2</td><td style="text-align: left;">Derivation</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-derivation">2.1.2</a></td><td><a href="#component2">5.2</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about derivation and its subtypes</td></tr> 
 <tr><td>3</td><td style="text-align: left;">Agent and Responsibility</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation">2.1.3</a></td><td><a href="#component3">5.3</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to them</td></tr> 
 <tr><td>4</td><td style="text-align: left;">Bundles</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance">2.2.2</a></td><td><a href="#component4">5.4</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance</td></tr> 
 <tr><td>5</td><td style="text-align: left;">Alternate</td><td></td><td>—</td><td><a href="#component5">5.5</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about relations linking entities referring the same thing</td></tr> 
@@ -2539,11 +1665,11 @@
 
 
 <section class="informative" id="prov-notation">  
-<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</h2><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 
 <p>To illustrate the application of PROV concepts to a concrete example (see <a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 4</a>) and to provide examples of concepts (see <a href="#data-model-components">Section 5</a>),
-we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full <span class="delete">details,</span><span class="insert">details and for a normative reference,</span> the reader is referred to the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>].
+we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details and for a normative reference, the reader is referred to the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>].
 PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</p>
 <ul>
 <li>PROV-N expressions adopt a <em>functional notation</em> consisting
@@ -2567,24 +1693,22 @@
 </li>
 </ul>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">15</span><span class="insert">16</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-prov-n"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 16<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-prov-n"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 An activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span> and an attribute <span class="name">type</span> with value <span class="name">createFile</span>.
-</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, <span class="delete">[prov:type="createFile"])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type="createFile" ])</span>
+</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, [ prov:type="createFile" ])
 </pre>
 Two entities with identifiers <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>.
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(e1)
 entity(e2)
 </pre>
 The activity  <span class="name">a1</span> used  <span class="name">e1</span>, and <span class="name">e2</span> was generated by <span class="name">a1</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">used(a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2,a1)</span><span class="insert">used(a1, e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1)</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">used(a1, e1)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1)
 </pre>
 The same descriptions, but with an explicit identifier <span class="name">u1</span> for the usage, and the syntactic marker '<span class="name">-</span>' to mark the absence of identifier in the generation. Both are followed by  '<span class="name">;</span>'.
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">used(u1;a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(-;e2,a1)</span><span class="insert">used(u1; a1, e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, a1)</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">used(u1; a1, e1)
+wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, a1)
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -2594,7 +1718,7 @@
 
 
 <section class="informative" id="prov-dm-example"> 
-<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</h2><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 <p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> has introduced some provenance concepts, and how they are expressed as types or relations in the PROV data model. The purpose of this section is to put these concepts into practice in order to express the provenance of some document published on the Web.  
 With this realistic example, PROV concepts are  composed together,  and a graphical illustration shows a provenance description forming a directed graph, rooted at the entity we want to explain the provenance of, and pointing to the entities, activities, and agents it depended on. This example also shows that, sometimes, multiple provenance descriptions about the same entity can co-exist, which then justifies the need for provenance of provenance.</p>
@@ -2606,7 +1730,7 @@
 
 
 <section id="section-example-one"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</h3><p><em><span class="insert">This section is non-normative.</span></em></p>
+<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
 
 
 <p style="font-style:italic; "><b>Description:</b> A document
@@ -2622,13 +1746,13 @@
 
 
 
-<p>We paraphrase some <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document1-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 2</a>).
+<p>We paraphrase some PROV descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document1-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 2</a>).
 Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.provn">here</a>.</p>
 
 <div style="text-align: center; ">
   <span class="figure" id="prov-a-document1-top">
   <img src="images/dm/w3c-publication1.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (1)" style="max-width: 98%; "><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document1">Figure 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-a-document1"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Provenance of a Document <span class="delete">(1)</span><span class="insert">(part 1)  (Informative)</span></span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document1">Figure 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-a-document1"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Provenance of a Document (part 1)  (Informative)</span> 
   </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -2640,11 +1764,11 @@
 </li>
 
 <li>There was an editing activity.
-<pre><span class="delete">activity(ex:edit1,[prov:type="edit"])</span><span class="insert">activity(ex:edit1, [ prov:type="edit" ])</span>
+<pre>activity(ex:edit1, [ prov:type="edit" ])
 </pre>
 </li>
 
-<li>The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a <a title="concept-generation">Generation</a>.<span class="insert"> Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.</span>
+<li>The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a <a title="concept-generation">Generation</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
 <pre>wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
 </pre>
 </li>
@@ -2656,7 +1780,7 @@
 </pre>
 </li>
 
-<li>Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor.<span class="insert"> The plan the agent relied upon is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.</span>
+<li>Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor. The plan the agent relied upon is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
 <pre>wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Paolo, -, [ prov:role="editor" ])
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Simon, -, [ prov:role="contributor" ])
 </pre>
@@ -2665,7 +1789,7 @@
 
 <p>
 Provenance descriptions can be <em>illustrated</em> graphically. The illustration is not intended to represent all the details of the model, but it is intended to show the essence of a set of
-provenance <span class="delete">descriptions.</span><span class="insert">descriptions [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LAYOUT"><span class="insert">PROV-LAYOUT</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span>  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</p>
+provenance descriptions [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LAYOUT">PROV-LAYOUT</a></cite>].  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</p>
 
 <p>The graphical illustration takes the form of a graph. Entities, activities and agents are represented as nodes, with oval, rectangular, and pentagonal shapes, respectively.  Usage,
 Generation, Derivation, and Association are represented as directed edges.</p>
@@ -2688,11 +1812,11 @@
 must be preceded by a "publication request" to the Webmaster.  The
 very first version of a document must also be preceded by a
 "transition request" to be approved by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> director.  All working
-drafts are made available at a unique <span class="delete">URI.</span><span class="insert">IRI.</span>  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
+drafts are made available at a unique IRI.  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
 </p>
 
 <p>
-We describe the kind of provenance record that the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">WWW Consortium</a> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with well-defined <span class="delete">URIs</span><span class="insert">IRIs</span> (some of which refer <span class="insert">to </span>archived email messages, available to <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Members).</p>
+We describe the kind of provenance record that the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">WWW Consortium</a> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with well-defined IRIs (some of which refer to archived email messages, available to <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Members).</p>
 
 <ul>
 <li> Two versions of a document were involved: <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft);</li>
@@ -2705,7 +1829,7 @@
 
 <li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act1</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Oct/0141">email:2011Oct/0141</a></span>) and a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#transreq">transition request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/chairs/2011OctDec/0004">chairs:2011OctDec/0004</a></span>);</li>
 <li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act2</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Dec/0111">email:2011Dec/0111</a></span>);</li>
-<li> Documents were published according to the process rules (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance">process:rec-advance</a></span>), a plan in <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> terminology.</li>
+<li> Documents were published according to the process rules (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance">process:rec-advance</a></span>), a plan in PROV terminology.</li>
 </ul>
 
 <p>
@@ -2714,7 +1838,7 @@
 </p><div style="text-align: center;">
   <span class="figure" id="prov-a-document2-top">
   <img src="images/dm/w3c-publication2.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (2)" style="max-width: 90%; "><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document2">Figure 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-a-document2"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Provenance of a Document <span class="delete">(2)</span><span class="insert">(part 2) (Informative)</span></span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document2">Figure 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-a-document2"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Provenance of a Document (part 2) (Informative)</span> 
   </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -2726,11 +1850,11 @@
 </pre>
 </li>
 <li>There was a publication activity.
-<pre><span class="delete">activity(ex:act2,[prov:type="publish"])</span><span class="insert">activity(ex:act2, [ prov:type="publish" ])</span>
+<pre>activity(ex:act2, [ prov:type="publish" ])
 </pre>
 </li>
 
-<li>The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a <a title="concept-Generation">Generation</a>.<span class="insert"> Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.</span>
+<li>The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a <a title="concept-Generation">Generation</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
 <pre>wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:act2, -)
 </pre>
 </li>
@@ -2741,15 +1865,15 @@
 </pre>
 </li>
 
-<li>The activity required a publication request: this was a <a title="concept-Usage">Usage</a>.<span class="insert"> Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.</span>
+<li>The activity required a publication request: this was a <a title="concept-Usage">Usage</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
 <pre>used(ex:act2, email:2011Dec/0111, -)
 </pre>
 </li>
 
-<li>The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an <span class="delete">Activity </span><a title="concept-association">Association</a>.
+<li>The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an <a title="concept-association">Association</a>.
 <pre>wasAssociatedWith(ex:act2, w3:Consortium, process:rec-advance)
-</pre><span class="insert">
-This relation is illustrated in </span><a href="#prov-a-document2-top" class="fig-ref"><span class="insert">Figure 3</span></a><span class="insert"> with a multi-edge labelled </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith</span></span><span class="insert"> pointing to an agent and entity (representing a plan).</span>
+</pre>
+This relation is illustrated in <a href="#prov-a-document2-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 3</a> with a multi-edge labelled <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith</span> pointing to an agent and entity (representing a plan).
 </li>
 </ul>
 
@@ -2760,7 +1884,7 @@
 
 
 
-<p> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available <span class="delete">URIs,</span><span class="insert">IRIs,</span> which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance <span class="name">ex:act2</span>, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix <span class="name">ex</span>.  We note that the <span class="delete">URI</span><span class="insert">IRI</span> scheme developed by <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each <span class="delete">URI</span><span class="insert">IRI</span> denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</p>
+<p> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available IRIs, which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance <span class="name">ex:act2</span>, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix <span class="name">ex</span>.  We note that the IRI scheme developed by <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each IRI denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  PROV relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</p>
 
 
 </section>
@@ -2797,10 +1921,10 @@
 
 <p>To express their respective provenance, these bundles must be seen as entities, and all PROV constructs are now available to express their provenance. In the example below, <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is attributed to the agent  <span class="name">ex:Simon</span>, whereas <span class="name">ex:process-view</span> to  <span class="name">w3:Consortium</span>.
 
-</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:author-view, <span class="delete">[prov:type='prov:Bundle'</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:Bundle'</span> ])
+</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:author-view, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
 wasAttributedTo(ex:author-view, ex:Simon)
 
-entity(ex:process-view, <span class="delete">[prov:type='prov:Bundle'</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:Bundle'</span> ])
+entity(ex:process-view, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
 wasAttributedTo(ex:process-view, w3:Consortium)
 </pre>
 
@@ -2840,21 +1964,18 @@
 <area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="201,0,268,201" alt="derivations" shape="rect">
 <area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="134,67,201,201" alt="derivations" shape="rect">
 
-
-
 <area title="alternate" href="#component5" coords="335,0,402,201" alt="alternate" shape="rect">
 <area title="collections" href="#component6" coords="402,0,469,201" alt="collections" shape="rect">
 <area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="67,201,469,268" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect">
 <area title="bundles" href="#component4" coords="268,0,402,201" alt="bundles" shape="rect">
 </map>
 <br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="prov-dm-components">Figure 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-components"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> PROV-DM Components<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span>  
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-dm-components">Figure 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-components"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> PROV-DM Components (Informative)</span>  
 </span>
 </div>
 
 <p>
-While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indexes all relations <span class="insert">(except </span><a href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasInfluencedBy</span></a><span class="insert">) </span>according to their two primary elements (referred to as subject and object).  The table adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.<span class="delete">
-Note that for simplicity, this table  does not include collection-oriented relations.</span>
+While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indexes all relations (except <a href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN">wasInfluencedBy</a>) according to their two primary elements (referred to as subject and object).  The table adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.
 Relation names appearing in bold correspond to the core structures introduced
 in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
 
@@ -2864,7 +1985,7 @@
 <caption id="relations-at-a-glance"><span>Table 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#relations-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Relations At a Glance</caption> 
 <tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="6">Object</td></tr> 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="2">Entity</td><td colspan="2">Activity</td><td colspan="2">Agent</td></tr> 
-<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td colspan="2"><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential">WasDerivedFrom</a><br><a>Revision</a><br><a>Quotation</a><br><a>PrimarySource</a></div><div class="component5-color"><a>AlternateOf</a><br><a>SpecializationOf</a><span class="delete">MentionOf</span></div><div class="component6-color"><a><span class="insert">HadMember</span></a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby">WasGeneratedBy</a><br><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN">WasInvalidatedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN">T</a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">L</a><br></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">WasAttributedTo</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td colspan="2"><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential">WasDerivedFrom</a><br><a>Revision</a><br><a>Quotation</a><br><a>PrimarySource</a></div><div class="component5-color"><a>AlternateOf</a><br><a>SpecializationOf</a></div><div class="component6-color"><a>HadMember</a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby">WasGeneratedBy</a><br><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN">WasInvalidatedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN">T</a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">L</a><br></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">WasAttributedTo</a></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential">Used</a><br><a>WasStartedBy</a><br><a>WasEndedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN">T</a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">L</a><br></td><td colspan="2" class="component1-color"><a class="essential">WasInformedBy</a></td><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td class="component3-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Agent</td><td colspan="2">—</td><td colspan="2">—</td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
@@ -2879,31 +2000,29 @@
 </p>
 
 
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Some PROV-DM relations are not binary and involve extra optional element. They are summarized in  </span><a href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div"><span class="insert">Table 5</span></a><span class="insert"> grouping secondary objects, according to their type.  The table also adopts the same color scheme as </span><a href="#prov-dm-components"><span class="insert">Figure 4</span></a><span class="insert">, allowing components to be readily identified. None of these relations correspond to the core structures introduced
-in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
+<p>
+Some PROV-DM relations are not binary and involve extra optional element. They are summarized in  <a href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div">Table 5</a> grouping secondary objects, according to their type.  The table also adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified. None of these relations correspond to the core structures introduced
+in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
 
 
 <div id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance"><span><span class="insert">Table 5</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊:</span></span></a></sup> </span><span class="insert">Secondary optional elements in PROV-DM Relations</span></caption> 
-<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="3"><span class="insert">Secondary Object</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td><span class="insert">Entity</span></td><td><span class="insert">Activity</span></td><td><span class="insert">Agent</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td rowspan="3"><span class="insert">Subject</span></td><td><span class="insert">Entity</span></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td><td class="component2-color"><a><span class="insert">WasDerivedFrom</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a href="#derivation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a><span class="insert">)</span></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td></tr>
-<tr><td><span class="insert">Activity</span></td><td class="component3-color"><a><span class="insert">WasAssociatedWith</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a href="#association.plan"><span class="insert">plan</span></a><span class="insert">)</span></td><td class="component1-color"><a><span class="insert">WasStartedBy</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a href="#start.starter"><span class="insert">starter</span></a><span class="insert">)</span><br><a><span class="insert">WasEndedBy</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a href="#end.ender"><span class="insert">ender</span></a><span class="insert">)</span></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td></tr>
-<tr><td><span class="insert">Agent</span></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td><td class="component3-color"><a><span class="insert">ActedOnBehalfOf</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><a href="#delegation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a><span class="insert">)</span></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td></tr>
+<caption id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance"><span>Table 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Secondary optional elements in PROV-DM Relations</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="3">Secondary Object</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Entity</td><td>Activity</td><td>Agent</td></tr> 
+<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td>—</td><td class="component2-color"><a>WasDerivedFrom</a> (<a href="#derivation.activity">activity</a>)</td><td>—</td></tr>
+<tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component3-color"><a>WasAssociatedWith</a> (<a href="#association.plan">plan</a>)</td><td class="component1-color"><a>WasStartedBy</a> (<a href="#start.starter">starter</a>)<br><a>WasEndedBy</a> (<a href="#end.ender">ender</a>)</td><td>—</td></tr>
+<tr><td>Agent</td><td>—</td><td class="component3-color"><a>ActedOnBehalfOf</a> (<a href="#delegation.activity">activity</a>)</td><td>—</td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">6</span></a> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.  In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept. Concept names appearing in bold <span class="insert">in the first column </span>are the core structures introduced in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.<span class="insert"> Likewise, these core structures have their names and parameters highlighted in bold in the second column (prov-n representation); expanded structures are not represented with a bold font.</span></p>
+<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table 6</a> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.  In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept. Concept names appearing in bold in the first column are the core structures introduced in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>. Likewise, these core structures have their names and parameters highlighted in bold in the second column (prov-n representation); expanded structures are not represented with a bold font.</p>
 
 
 <div id="prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig" style="text-align: left;">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span>Table <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">6</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</caption> 
+<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span>Table 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</caption> 
 <tbody><tr><td><a><b>Type or Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b>Representation in the PROV-N notation</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
@@ -2943,7 +2062,6 @@
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 <tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Alternate</a></td><td><a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternateOf(alt1, alt2)</a></td><td rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 5: Alternate</a></td></tr>
 <tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Specialization</a></td><td><a title="specializationOf" href="#dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN">specializationOf(infra, supra)</a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">Mention</span><span class="delete">mentionOf(infra, supra,bundle)</span> 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
@@ -2962,14 +2080,14 @@
 <section id="component1"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
 
-<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> and <a title="activity" href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activities</a>, and their interrelations: <span class="insert">Used (</span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasGeneratedBy (</span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasStartedBy (</span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasEndedBy (</span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasInvalidatedBy (</span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">),</span> and <span class="insert">WasInformedBy (</span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert">).</span>  <a href="#figure-component1">Figure 5</a> uses UML to depict the first component.
-Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of two classes (<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and three binary associations between <span class="delete">them</span><span class="insert">them: Used</span> (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasGeneratedBy (</span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">),</span> and <span class="insert">WasInformedBy (</span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UML">UML</a></cite>], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations <span class="delete">(for </span><span class="insert">for Used (</span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasGeneratedBy (</span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasInvalidatedBy (</span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasStartedBy (</span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasEndedBy (</span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>). The figure also makes explicit associations with <em>time</em> for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.
+<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> and <a title="activity" href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activities</a>, and their interrelations: Used (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>), WasStartedBy (<a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>), WasEndedBy (<a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>), WasInvalidatedBy (<a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>), and WasInformedBy (<a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>).  <a href="#figure-component1">Figure 5</a> uses UML to depict the first component.
+Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of two classes (<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and three binary associations between them: Used (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>), and WasInformedBy (<a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UML">UML</a></cite>], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations for Used (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>), WasInvalidatedBy (<a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>), WasStartedBy (<a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>), WasEndedBy (<a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>). The figure also makes explicit associations with <em>time</em> for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.
 </p>
 
 <div style="text-align: center;">
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-5-entities-and-activities-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 <img src="uml/component1.png" alt="entities and activities"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component1">Figure 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component1"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Entities and Activities Component Overview<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component1">Figure 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component1"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Entities and Activities Component Overview (Informative)</span> 
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -2988,17 +2106,15 @@
 <p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-entity">An <dfn title="dfn-Entity" id="dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">entity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-entity">entity(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N, </span> has:
 <ul>
 <li><span class="attribute" id="entity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an entity; </li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about <span class="insert">the fixed aspects of </span>this entity.</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about the fixed aspects of this entity.</li>
 </ul></div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">16</span><span class="insert">17</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-entity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 17<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-entity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following expression</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
 </pre>
 states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>,  with type <span class="name">document</span> and version number <span class="name">2</span>. The attribute <span class="name">ex:version</span> is application specific, whereas the attribute <span class="name">type</span> (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.4.4</a>) is reserved in the <a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</a>.
-
-
 </div>
 
 
@@ -3020,13 +2136,13 @@
 <li><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this activity.</li>
 </ul></div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">17</span><span class="insert">18</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-activity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 18<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-activity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following expression</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">activity(a1,2011-11-16T16:05:00,2011-11-16T16:06:00,</span><span class="insert">activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, 2011-11-16T16:06:00,</span>
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, 2011-11-16T16:06:00,
         [ ex:host="server.example.org", prov:type='ex:edit' ])
 </pre>
-<p>states the existence of an activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span>, start time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span>, and end time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span>, running on host <span class="name">server.example.org</span>, and of type <span class="name">edit</span>.  The attribute <span class="name">host</span>  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix <span class="name">ex</span>).  The attribute <span class="name">type</span> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-type"><span>Section <span class="delete">5.7.4.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.4</span></span></a>).</p>
+<p>states the existence of an activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span>, start time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span>, and end time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span>, running on host <span class="name">server.example.org</span>, and of type <span class="name">edit</span>.  The attribute <span class="name">host</span>  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix <span class="name">ex</span>).  The attribute <span class="name">type</span> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-type"><span>Section 5.7.2.4</span></a>).</p>
 </div>
 
 
@@ -3046,8 +2162,8 @@
 
 <div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-generation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert">Given that a generation is the completion of production of an entity, 
-it is instantaneous.</span></p>
+<p>Given that a generation is the completion of production of an entity, 
+it is instantaneous.</p>
 
 <p>
 </p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-generation"><dfn title="wasGeneratedBy" id="dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN">Generation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasGeneratedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
@@ -3066,20 +2182,20 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">18</span><span class="insert">19</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 19<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following expressions</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">  wasGeneratedBy(e1, a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52, [ ex:port="p1" ])
   wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, 2001-10-26T10:00:00, [ ex:port="p2" ])
 </pre>
-<p>state the existence of two generations (with respective times <span class="name">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span> and <span class="name">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span>), at which new entities,  identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, <span class="delete">are</span><span class="insert">were</span> created by an
+<p>state the existence of two generations (with respective times <span class="name">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span> and <span class="name">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span>), at which new entities,  identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, were created by an
 activity,  identified by <span class="name">a1</span>.
-The first one <span class="delete">is</span><span class="insert">was</span> available  on port <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the other <span class="delete">is</span><span class="insert">was</span> available on port <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">port</span> are application specific.
+The first one was available  on port <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the other was available on port <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">port</span> are application specific.
 </p>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">19</span><span class="insert">20</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 20<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 In some cases, we may want to record the time at which an entity was generated without having to specify the activity that generated it. To support this requirement, the activity element in generation is optional. Hence,  the following expression indicates the time at which an entity is generated, without naming the activity that did it.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">  wasGeneratedBy(e, -, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
@@ -3095,11 +2211,8 @@
 
 <p><span class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-usage"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span>  (Note: This definition is formulated for a given usage; it is permitted for an activity to have used a same entity multiple times.)</p>
 
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Given that a usage  is  the beginning of utilizing an entity, it is 
-instantaneous.</span></p>
+<p>Given that a usage  is  the beginning of utilizing an entity, it is 
+instantaneous.</p>
 
 <p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-usage"><dfn title="used" id="dfn-used" class="internalDFN">Usage</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-used"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">used(id; a, e, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
 <ul>
@@ -3118,7 +2231,7 @@
 </p>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">20</span><span class="insert">21</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-usage"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 21<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-usage"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following usages</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">  used(a1, e1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ ex:parameter="p1" ])
   used(a1, e2, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [ ex:parameter="p2" ])
@@ -3158,11 +2271,11 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">21</span><span class="insert">22</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-communication"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 22<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-communication"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 Consider two activities  <span class="name">a1</span> and <span class="name">a2</span>, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
 </p><pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, [ prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing" ])
-activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine <span class="delete">paying, check writing, and mailing"</span><span class="insert">paying"</span> ])
+activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine paying" ])
 wasInformedBy(a2, a1)
 </pre>
 The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  <span class="name">a1</span> and used by  <span class="name">a2</span>; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
@@ -3172,13 +2285,10 @@
 <section id="term-Start">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</h4>
 
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have <span class="delete">started.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage or generation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to</span><span class="insert">been started by</span> an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-trigger"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity</span> that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-starter" class="internalDFN">starter</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-starter"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>, that generated the trigger. </div>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Given that a start is when an activity is deemed to have started, it 
-is instantaneous.</span></p>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-trigger"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-starter" class="internalDFN">starter</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-starter"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>, that generated the trigger. </div>
+
+<p>Given that a start is when an activity is deemed to have started, it 
+is instantaneous.</p>
 
 <p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-start">An activity <dfn title="wasStartedBy" id="dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN">start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasstartedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasStartedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
 <ul>
@@ -3194,7 +2304,7 @@
 <p>While each of <a href="#start.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#start.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="#start.starter"><span class="attribute">starter</span></a>, <a href="#start.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#start.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">22</span><span class="insert">23</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 23<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following example contains the description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (a discussion), which was started at a specific time, and was triggered by an email message <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(e1, [ prov:type="email message"] )
@@ -3214,7 +2324,7 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">23</span><span class="insert">24</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 24<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 In the following example, a race is started by a bang, and responsibility for this trigger is attributed to an agent 
  <span class="name">ex:Bob</span>.
@@ -3226,9 +2336,9 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">24</span><span class="insert">25</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 25<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
-In this example, filling <span class="insert">the </span>fuel<span class="insert"> tank</span> was started as a consequence of
+In this example, filling the fuel tank was started as a consequence of
 observing low fuel. The trigger entity is unspecified, it could
 for instance have been the low fuel warning light, the fuel tank
 indicator needle position, or the engine not running properly.
@@ -3252,13 +2362,10 @@
 <section id="term-End">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</h4>
 
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have <span class="delete">ended.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to</span><span class="insert">been ended by</span> an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-trigger"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity</span> that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-ender" class="internalDFN">ender</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-ender"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> that generated the trigger. </div>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Given that an end is when an activity is deemed to have ended, it is 
-instantaneous.</span></p>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-trigger"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-ender" class="internalDFN">ender</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-ender"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> that generated the trigger. </div>
+
+<p>Given that an end is when an activity is deemed to have ended, it is 
+instantaneous.</p>
 
 <p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-end">An activity <dfn title="wasEndedBy" id="dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN">end</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasendedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withAsn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasEndedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
 <ul>
@@ -3274,7 +2381,7 @@
 <p>While each of <a href="#end.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#end.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="#end.ender"><span class="attribute">ender</span></a>, <a href="#end.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#end.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">25</span><span class="insert">26</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-end"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 26<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-end"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following example is a description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (editing) that was ended following an approval document <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(e1, [ prov:type="approval document" ])
@@ -3290,12 +2397,8 @@
 
 <div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-invalidation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</div>
 
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Given that an invalidation is the start  of destruction, cessation, or 
-expiry, it is instantaneous.</span></p>
+<p>Given that an invalidation is the start  of destruction, cessation, or 
+expiry, it is instantaneous.</p>
 
 <p>
 Entities have a duration. Generation marks the beginning of an entity, whereas invalidation marks its end. 
@@ -3307,9 +2410,9 @@
 </li><li> an entity is time limited: e.g. the BBC news site on April 3rd, 2012;
 </li><li> an entity attribute is changing: e.g. the traffic light changed from green to red.
 </li></ul>
-<p>In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the <span class="delete">last three cases,</span><span class="insert">third case,</span> there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the<span class="insert"> 
-green</span> traffic light <span class="insert">(an entity with a fixed aspect green light) </span>became <span class="insert">the
-</span>red <span class="delete">and therefore is regarded as</span><span class="insert">traffic light (another entity with</span> a <span class="delete">different entity to the green light.</span><span class="insert">fixed aspect red light).</span>
+<p>In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the third case, there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the 
+green traffic light (an entity with a fixed aspect green light) became the
+red traffic light (another entity with a fixed aspect red light).
 </p>
 
 
@@ -3329,7 +2432,7 @@
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">26</span><span class="insert">27</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 27<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 <em>The Painter</em>, a Picasso painting, is known to have been destroyed in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_artworks#20th_century">plane accident</a>.
 
@@ -3341,7 +2444,7 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">27</span><span class="insert">28</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 28<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-04-03</span>
 contained a reference to a given news item
@@ -3354,33 +2457,32 @@
 </pre>
 
 We refer to example
-<a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example <span class="delete">42</span><span class="insert">43</span></span></a>
+<a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 43</span></a>
  for further descriptions of the BBC Web site, and to  <a href="#term-membership">Section 5.6.2</a> for a description of the relation <a title="hadMember" href="#dfn-hadmember" class="internalDFN">hadMember</a>.
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">28</span><span class="insert">29</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 29<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 In this example, the  "buy one beer, get one free" offer expired at the end of the happy hour.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(proprietor)</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)</span>
+wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)
 wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
                  -,2012-03-10T18:00:00)
 </pre>
 <p>In contrast, in the following descriptions, Bob redeemed the offer 45 minutes before it expired, and got two beers.  
 </p>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(proprietor)</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)</span>
+wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)
 activity(redeemOffer)
 entity(twoBeers)
 
-<span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer,bob)
-used(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer, bob)
-used(redeemOffer,</span>
-     <span class="delete">redeemOffer, </span><span class="insert">buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, 
-     </span>2012-03-10T17:15:00)
+wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer, bob)
+used(redeemOffer,
+     buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, 
+     2012-03-10T17:15:00)
 wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 redeemOffer, 
+                 redeemOffer,
                  2012-03-10T17:15:00)
 wasGeneratedBy(twoBeers,redeemOffer)
 </pre>
@@ -3402,10 +2504,10 @@
 
 
 
-<p>The <span class="delete">third</span><span class="insert">second</span> component of PROV-DM is concerned with: <a title="derivation" href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivations</a> of <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> from other entities and derivation subtypes <span class="insert">WasRevisionOf (</span><a>Revision</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasQuotedFrom (</span><a>Quotation</a><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">),</span> and <span class="insert">HasPrimarySource (</span><a>Primary Source</a><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert">).</span>
+<p>The second component of PROV-DM is concerned with: <a title="derivation" href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivations</a> of <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> from other entities and derivation subtypes WasRevisionOf (<a>Revision</a>), WasQuotedFrom (<a>Quotation</a>), and HasPrimarySource (<a>Primary Source</a>).
  <a href="#figure-component2">Figure 6</a> depicts the third component
 with PROV core structures in the yellow area, including two classes
-(<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and binary association<span class="insert"> WasDerivedFrom</span>
+(<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and binary association WasDerivedFrom
 (<a>Derivation</a>). PROV extended structures are found outside this
 area. UML association classes express expanded n-ary relations.
 The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that the corresponding types are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a>.
@@ -3415,7 +2517,7 @@
 <div style="text-align: center;">
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-6-derivation-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 <img src="uml/component2.png" alt="derivation"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component2">Figure 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component2"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Derivation Component Overview<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component2">Figure 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component2"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Derivation Component Overview (Informative)</span> 
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -3432,7 +2534,7 @@
 
 
 <p>According to <a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a>, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
-underpinning <span class="insert">activity or </span>activities performing the necessary <span class="delete">actions</span><span class="insert">action(s)</span> resulting in such a derivation.  
+underpinning activity or activities performing the necessary action(s) resulting in such a derivation.  
 A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates two entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this activity can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the generated and used entities, respectively, can be provided, so as to make the derivation path, through usage, activity, and generation, explicit.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </p>
 
 
@@ -3442,15 +2544,15 @@
 <li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the entity generated by the derivation;</li>
 <li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the entity used by the derivation;</li>
 <li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity">activity</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation">generation</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and <span class="delete">activity;</span><span class="insert">activity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage">usage</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and <span class="delete">activity;</span><span class="insert">activity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation">generation</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and activity (<span class="name">a</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage">usage</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and activity (<span class="name">a</span>);</li> 
 <li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</li>
 </ul>
 </div>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">29</span><span class="insert">30</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 30<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following descriptions are about derivations between  <span class="name">e2</span> and  <span class="name">e1</span>, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
 wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [ prov:type="physical transform" ])
@@ -3464,7 +2566,7 @@
 wasGeneratedBy(g2; e2, a, -)
 used(u1; a, e1, -)
 </pre>
-<p>With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the <span class="delete">original</span><span class="insert">preceding</span> entity <span class="name">e1</span> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity <span class="name">e2</span> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</p>
+<p>With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the preceding entity <span class="name">e1</span> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity <span class="name">e2</span> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</p>
 </div>
 
 
@@ -3482,19 +2584,14 @@
   The implication here is that
      the resulting entity contains substantial content from the
      original.
-<span class="delete">Revision</span><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">revision</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-revision"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation</span> is a <span class="delete">particular case</span><span class="insert">kind</span> of <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> <span class="delete">of an</span><span class="insert">relation from a revised</span> entity <span class="delete">into its revised version.</span><span class="insert">to a preceding  entity.</span>
-The type <span class="delete">is </span>of a revision <span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="insert">relation</span> is denoted by:
+A <dfn id="dfn-revision" class="internalDFN">revision</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-revision"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation is a kind of <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> relation from a revised entity to a preceding  entity.
+The type of a revision relation is denoted by:
 <dfn title="dfn-prov:revision" id="dfn-prov:revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Revision</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov:revision"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.
-<span class="insert">PROV defines no revision-specific attributes.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-revision"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">30</span><span class="insert">31</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-revision"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+PROV defines no revision-specific attributes.
+</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-revision"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 31<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-revision"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 Revisiting the example of <a href="#section-example-two">Section 4.2</a>,
 we can now state that the report 
@@ -3520,15 +2617,15 @@
 </p>
 
 <p>A <dfn id="dfn-quotation" class="internalDFN">quotation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-quotation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation
- is a <span class="delete">particular case</span><span class="insert">kind</span> of  <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> <span class="delete">in</span><span class="insert">relation, for</span> which an entity <span class="delete">is</span><span class="insert">was</span> derived from <span class="delete">an original</span><span class="insert">a preceding</span> entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
-The type <span class="delete">is </span>of a quotation <span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="insert">relation</span> is denoted by:
-<dfn title="dfn-prov:quotation" id="dfn-prov:quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Quotation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov:quotation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.<span class="insert">
-PROV defines no quotation-specific attributes.</span>
+ is a kind of  <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> relation, for which an entity was derived from a preceding entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
+The type of a quotation relation is denoted by:
+<dfn title="dfn-prov:quotation" id="dfn-prov:quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Quotation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov:quotation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.
+PROV defines no quotation-specific attributes.
 </p>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-quotation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">31</span><span class="insert">32</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-quotation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-quotation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 32<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-quotation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following paragraph is a quote from one of  <a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/">the author's blogs</a>.
 </p><blockquote id="bl-dagstuhl"><em>
@@ -3568,24 +2665,21 @@
 from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be
 investigated.</p>
 
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">It is also important to note that a given entity might be a primary source for one entity but not another. It the reason why Primary Source is defined as a relation as opposed to a subtype of Entity.</span></p>
-
-<p>A <dfn id="dfn-primary-source" class="internalDFN">primary source</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-primary-source"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation is a <span class="delete">particular case of</span><span class="insert">kind of a</span> <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> <span class="delete">of</span><span class="insert">relation from</span>
-secondary materials <span class="delete">from</span><span class="insert">to</span> their primary sources. It is recognized that
+<p>It is also important to note that a given entity might be a primary source for one entity but not another. It the reason why Primary Source is defined as a relation as opposed to a subtype of Entity.</p>
+
+<p>A <dfn id="dfn-primary-source" class="internalDFN">primary source</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-primary-source"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation is a kind of a <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> relation from
+secondary materials to their primary sources. It is recognized that
 the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and
 should be done according to conventions accepted within the
 application's domain. 
-The type <span class="delete">is </span>of a  primary source <span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="insert">relation</span> is denoted by:
-<dfn title="dfn-prov:primary-source" id="dfn-prov:primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov:primary-source"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.<span class="insert">
-PROV defines no attributes specific to primary source.</span>
+The type of a  primary source relation is denoted by:
+<dfn title="dfn-prov:primary-source" id="dfn-prov:primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov:primary-source"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.
+PROV defines no attributes specific to primary source.
 </p>
 
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-primary-source1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">32</span><span class="insert">33</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-primary-source1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-primary-source1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 33<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-primary-source1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 Let us consider Charles Joseph Minard's flow map of Napoleon's March in
 1812, which was published in 1869. Although the map is not a primary source,
@@ -3611,28 +2705,26 @@
 <section id="component3"> 
 <h3><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</h3>
 
-<p>The <span class="delete">second</span><span class="insert">third</span> component of PROV-DM, depicted in  <a href="#figure-component3">Figure 7</a>, is concerned with <a title="agent" href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">agents</a> and the <span class="delete">notions of
-</span><span class="insert">relations WasAttributedTo
-(</span><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), WasAssociatedWith (</span><a>Association</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">), ActedOnBehalfOf (</span><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a><span class="delete">,</span><span class="insert">),</span> relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.
- Core structures are displayed in the yellow area and include three classes and three binary associations. Outside the yellow area, extended structures comprise UML association classes to express expanded n-ary relations, and subclasses <a>Plan</a>, <a>Person</a>, <a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN">SofwareAgent</a>, and <a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN">Organization</a>. The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that that these are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a><span class="insert">.</span>
+<p>The third component of PROV-DM, depicted in  <a href="#figure-component3">Figure 7</a>, is concerned with <a title="agent" href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">agents</a> and the relations WasAttributedTo
+(<a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a>), WasAssociatedWith (<a>Association</a>), ActedOnBehalfOf (<a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a>), relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.
+ Core structures are displayed in the yellow area and include three classes and three binary associations. Outside the yellow area, extended structures comprise UML association classes to express expanded n-ary relations, and subclasses <a>Plan</a>, <a>Person</a>, <a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN">SofwareAgent</a>, and <a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN">Organization</a>. The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that that these are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a>.
 </p>
 
 
 <div style="text-align: center;">
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-7-agents-and-responsibility-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 <img src="uml/component3.png" alt="agents and responsibilities"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component3">Figure 7<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component3"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Agents and Responsibility Overview<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component3">Figure 7<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component3"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Agents and Responsibility Overview (Informative)</span> 
 </span>
 </div>
 
-<p>Component 3 further defines a general notion of <a>influence</a>, <span class="delete">as </span>a <span class="delete">super-relation of</span><span class="insert">relation implied by</span> all relations defined so far. <a href="#figure-component3b">Figure 8</a> displays one new association class, generalizing previously introduced associations.</p>
+<p>Component 3 further defines a general notion of <a>influence</a>, a relation implied by all relations defined so far. <a href="#figure-component3b">Figure 8</a> displays one new association class, generalizing previously introduced associations.</p>
 
 
 <div style="text-align: center;">
-
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-8-influence-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 <img src="uml/Component3b.png" alt="Influence Overview"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component3b">Figure 8<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component3b"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Influence<span class="insert"> Overview (Informative)</span></span> 
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component3b">Figure 8<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component3b"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Influence Overview (Informative)</span> 
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -3641,8 +2733,8 @@
 
 <div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-agent" class="internalDFN">agent</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-agent"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert">An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
- used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  </span></p>
+<p>An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
+ used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  </p>
 
 
 <p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-agent">An <dfn title="dfn-agent" id="dfn-agent" class="internalDFN">agent</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-agent"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-agent">agent(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
@@ -3659,7 +2751,7 @@
 There are three types of agents that are common across most anticipated domains of use; it is acknowledged that these types do not cover all kinds of agent. </p>
 <ul>
 <li><span class="name">SoftwareAgent</span>
-<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-software-agent" title="software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">software agent</span><span class="insert">SoftwareAgent</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-software-agent"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  is running software. </div>
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-software-agent" title="software-agent" class="internalDFN">SoftwareAgent</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-software-agent"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  is running software. </div>
 
 <p></p></li>
 
@@ -3673,18 +2765,12 @@
 
 <div class="glossary-ref">   Agents of type <dfn id="concept-person" title="person" class="internalDFN">Person</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-person"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  are people. </div></li> 
 </ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">PROV defines no attributes specific to SoftwareAgent, Organization, and Person.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_34"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">33</span><span class="insert">34</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_34"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>PROV defines no attributes specific to SoftwareAgent, Organization, and Person.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_34"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 34<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_34"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following expression is about an agent identified by <span class="name">e1</span>, which is a person, named Alice, with employee number 1234.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">agent(e1, [ex:employee="1234", ex:name="Alice", prov:type='prov:Person' ])
 </pre>
@@ -3709,12 +2795,11 @@
 </ul>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-attribution"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">34</span><span class="insert">35</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-attribution"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-attribution"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 35<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-attribution"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 Revisiting the example of 
 <a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-one"><span>Section 4.1</span></a>,
-we can ascribe <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> to some agents without an explicit activity.<span class="delete"> The reserved attribute </span><span class="delete">role</span><span class="delete"> (see </span><span class="delete">Section 5.7.2.3</span><span class="delete">) allows for role of the agent in the attribution to be specified.
-</span> 
+we can ascribe <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> to some agents without an explicit activity. 
 </p><pre class="codeexample">agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
 agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
 entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
@@ -3735,23 +2820,23 @@
 <div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-plan" class="internalDFN">plan</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-plan"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </div>
 
 
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity-association">An <dfn title="wasAssociatedWith" id="dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">activity </span>association</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasAssociatedWith(id; a, ag, pl, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity-association">An <dfn title="wasAssociatedWith" id="dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN">association</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasAssociatedWith(id; a, ag, pl, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
 <ul>
 <li><span class="attribute" id="association.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the association between an activity and an agent;</li> 
 <li><span class="attribute" id="association.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity;</li>
 <li><span class="attribute" id="association.agent">agent</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) for the agent associated with the activity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.plan">plan</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">pl</span>) for the plan<span class="delete"> adopted by </span>  the agent<span class="insert"> relied on</span> in the context of this activity;
+<li><span class="attribute" id="association.plan">plan</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">pl</span>) for the plan  the agent relied on in the context of this activity;
 </li><li><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this association of this activity with this agent.</li>
 </ul></div>
 
 <p>While each of <a href="#association.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#association.agent"><span class="attribute">agent</span></a>,  <a href="#association.plan"><span class="attribute">plan</span></a>, and  <a href="#association.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
 
 
-<p><span class="insert">PROV defines no plan-specific attributes.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">35</span><span class="insert">36</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-<p>In the following example, a designer agent and an operator agent are associated with an activity. The designer's goals are achieved by a workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span>, described as an <span class="delete">an </span>entity of type <span class="name"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN">plan</a></span>.   </p>
+<p>PROV defines no plan-specific attributes.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 36<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>In the following example, a designer agent and an operator agent are associated with an activity. The designer's goals are achieved by a workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span>, described as an entity of type <span class="name"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN">plan</a></span>.   </p>
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
 agent(ex:ag1,  [ prov:type="operator" ])
 agent(ex:ag2,  [ prov:type="designer" ])
@@ -3761,11 +2846,11 @@
                 ex:label="Workflow 1", 
                 prov:location="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI ])
 </pre>
-Since the workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span> is itself an entity, its provenance can also be expressed in <span class="delete">PROV-DM:</span><span class="insert">PROV:</span> it can be generated by some activity and derived from other entities,
+Since the workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span> is itself an entity, its provenance can also be expressed in PROV: it can be generated by some activity and derived from other entities,
 for instance.
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">36</span><span class="insert">37</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 37<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>In some cases, one wants to indicate a plan was followed, without having to specify which agent was involved.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
 wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, -, ex:wf)
@@ -3788,7 +2873,7 @@
 <div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-delegation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work. </div>
 
 <p>For example, a
-student acted on behalf of his <span class="insert">or her </span>supervisor, who acted on behalf of the
+student acted on behalf of his or her supervisor, who acted on behalf of the
 department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those
 agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but
 we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what
@@ -3808,7 +2893,7 @@
 </ul></div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_38"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">37</span><span class="insert">38</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_38"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_38"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 38<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_38"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following fragment describes three agents: a programmer, a researcher, and a funder.  The programmer and researcher are associated with a workflow activity.  The programmer acts on behalf
 of the researcher (line-management) encoding the commands specified by the researcher; the researcher acts on behalf of the funder, who has a contractual agreement with the researcher. The terms
 'line-management' and 'contract' used in this example are domain specific.</p>
@@ -3840,9 +2925,9 @@
 on  <span class="name">o1</span> that signifies some form of influence of <span class="name">o1</span> on <span class="name">o2</span>.</p>
 
 
-<p><span class="delete">A</span>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-influence"><span class="insert">
-An</span> <dfn title="wasInfluencedBy" id="dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN">Influence</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInfluencedBy(id; o2, o1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<p>
+</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-influence">
+An <dfn title="wasInfluencedBy" id="dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN">Influence</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInfluencedBy(id; o2, o1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
 <ul>
 <li><span class="attribute" id="influence.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier identifying the relation;</li> 
 <li><span class="attribute" id="influence.influencee">influencee</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">o2</span>) for an entity, activity, or agent;
@@ -3851,42 +2936,42 @@
 </ul></div>
 
 <p>
-<span class="insert">A </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a>start</a>, <a>end</a>, <a>generation</a>, <a>invalidation</a>, <a>communication</a>, <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a>, <a>attribution</a>, <a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN">association</a>, and <a>delegation</a> <span class="delete">are particular cases of  influence.</span><span class="insert">is also an </span><a><span class="insert">influence</span></a><span class="insert">.</span> It is <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em> to adopt these more specific relations when writing provenance descriptions. It is anticipated that the <a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN">Influence</a> relation may be useful to express queries over provenance information.
+A <a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a>start</a>, <a>end</a>, <a>generation</a>, <a>invalidation</a>, <a>communication</a>, <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a>, <a>attribution</a>, <a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN">association</a>, and <a>delegation</a> is also an <a>influence</a>. It is <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em> to adopt these more specific relations when writing provenance descriptions. It is anticipated that the <a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN">Influence</a> relation may be useful to express queries over provenance information.
 </p>
 
 
-<div id="mapping-relations-to-influence-table_text" style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">
+<div id="mapping-relations-to-influence-table_text" style="text-align: left;">
 The following table establishes the correspondence between 
-the attributes </span><a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencee"><span class="insert">influencee</span></a><span class="insert"> and </span><a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencer"><span class="insert">influencer</span></a><span class="insert">, and attributes of
-</span><a><span class="insert">usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">start</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">end</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">communication</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">attribution</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">association</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a><span class="insert">delegation</span></a><span class="insert">.</span>
+the attributes <a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencee">influencee</a> and <a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencer">influencer</a>, and attributes of
+<a>usage</a>, <a>start</a>, <a>end</a>, <a>generation</a>, <a>invalidation</a>, <a>communication</a>, <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a>, <a>attribution</a>, <a href="#concept-association" class="internalDFN">association</a>, and <a>delegation</a>.
 
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="mapping-relations-to-influence-table"><span><span class="insert">Table 7</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#mapping-relations-to-influence-table"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊:</span></span></a></sup> </span><span class="insert">Mapping Relations to Influence</span></caption> 
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b><span class="insert">Relation Name</span></b></a></td><td><b><a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencee"><span class="insert">influencee</span></a></b></td><td><b><a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencer"><span class="insert">influencer</span></a></b></td></tr>
+<caption id="mapping-relations-to-influence-table"><span>Table 7<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#mapping-relations-to-influence-table"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Mapping Relations to Influence</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b><a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencee">influencee</a></b></td><td><b><a class="attribute" href="#influence.influencer">influencer</a></b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#generation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#generation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#usage.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#usage.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#communication.informed"><span class="insert">informed</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#communication.informant"><span class="insert">informant</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#start.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#start.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#end.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#end.trigger"><span class="insert">trigger</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#invalidation.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#invalidation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#generation.entity">entity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#generation.activity">activity</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#usage.activity">activity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#usage.entity">entity</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#communication.informed">informed</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#communication.informant">informant</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#start.activity">activity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#start.trigger">trigger</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#end.activity">activity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#end.trigger">trigger</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#invalidation.entity">entity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#invalidation.activity">activity</a></td></tr>
 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
-<tr class="component2-color"><td><a><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="insert">generatedEntity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#derivation.usedEntity"><span class="insert">usedEntity</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</a></td></tr>
 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
 
-<tr class="component3-color"><td><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#attribution.entity"><span class="insert">entity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#attribution.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td><a><span class="insert">Association</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#association.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#association.agent"><span class="insert">agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#delegation.delegate"><span class="insert">delegate</span></a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#delegation.responsible"><span class="insert">responsible</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#attribution.entity">entity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#attribution.agent">agent</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a>Association</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#association.activity">activity</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#association.agent">agent</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#delegation.delegate">delegate</a></td><td><a class="attribute" href="#delegation.responsible">responsible</a></td></tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="influence-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">38</span><span class="insert">39</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#influence-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="influence-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 39<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#influence-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>We refer to the example of <a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-two"><span>Section 4.2</span></a>, and specifically to <a href="#prov-a-document2-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 3</a>.
 We could have expressed that the influence of
 <span class="name">w3:Consortium</span> 
@@ -3920,7 +3005,7 @@
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-9-bundle-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 
 <img src="uml/component4.png" alt="bundles"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component4">Figure 9<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component4"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> <span class="delete">Figure 9: </span>Bundle Component Overview<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span>
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component4">Figure 9<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component4"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Bundle Component Overview (Informative)</span>
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -3967,11 +3052,11 @@
 <ul>
 <li><span class="name">prov:Bundle</span> is the type that denotes <a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">bundles</a>.
 </li></ul>
-<p><span class="insert">PROV defines no bundle-specific attributes.</span></p>
+<p>PROV defines no bundle-specific attributes.</p>
 
 
 <p>
-A  bundle description is of the form <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">entity(id,[prov:type='prov:Bundle',</span><span class="insert">entity(id, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle',</span> attr1=val1, <span class="delete">...])</span><span class="insert">...] )</span></span>
+A  bundle description is of the form <span class="pnExpression">entity(id, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle', attr1=val1, ...] )</span>
 where <span class="name">id</span> is  an identifier denoting a bundle,
  a type <span>prov:Bundle</span> and
 an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this bundle.
@@ -3979,11 +3064,11 @@
 
 
 <p>The provenance of provenance can then be described using PROV constructs, as illustrated by
-<a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example <span class="delete">39</span><span class="insert">40</span></span></a>
+<a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 40</span></a>
 and
-<a href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example <span class="delete">40</span><span class="insert">41</span></span></a>.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">39</span><span class="insert">40</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<a href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 41</span></a>.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 40<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>Let us consider two entities <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample"> 
 entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
@@ -4016,7 +3101,7 @@
 
 <p>The first bundle contains the descriptions corresponding to  Bob observing the creation of <span class="name">ex:report1</span>. Its provenance can be described as follows.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample"> 
-entity(bob:bundle1, <span class="delete">[prov:type='prov:Bundle'])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])</span>
+entity(bob:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
 wasGeneratedBy(bob:bundle1, -, 2012-05-24T10:30:00)
 wasAttributedTo(bob:bundle1, ex:Bob)
 </pre>
@@ -4030,7 +3115,7 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-aggregation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">40</span><span class="insert">41</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-aggregation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 41<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>A provenance aggregator could merge two bundles, resulting in a novel bundle, whose provenance is described as follows.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample"> 
 bundle agg:bundle3
@@ -4052,10 +3137,6 @@
 </p></div>
 
 
-
-
-
-
 </section>
 
 
@@ -4067,26 +3148,26 @@
 
 
 <p>The fifth component of PROV-DM is concerned with
-relations <span class="insert">SpecializationOf (</span><a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="insert">) and AlternateOf (</span><a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a><span class="delete">, and </span><span class="delete">mention</span><span class="insert">)</span> between entities.
+relations SpecializationOf (<a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a>) and AlternateOf (<a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a>) between entities.
  <a href="#figure-component5">Figure 10</a> depicts
-the fifth component with a single <span class="delete">class,</span><span class="insert">class and</span>  two binary <span class="delete">associations, and a ternary association.</span><span class="insert">associations.</span>
+the fifth component with a single class and  two binary associations.
 </p>
 
 
 <div style="text-align: center;">
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-10-alternates-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 <img src="uml/component5.png" alt="alternates"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component5">Figure 10<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component5"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> <span class="delete">Figure 10: </span>Alternates Component Overview<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span>
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component5">Figure 10<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component5"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Alternates Component Overview (Informative)</span>
 </span>
 </div>
 
 
 <p>Two provenance descriptions about the same thing may emphasize differents aspects of that thing.</p>
-<div class="anexample" id="entity-example1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">41</span><span class="insert">42</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="entity-example1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 42<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>User Alice writes an article. In its provenance, she wishes to refer to the precise version of the article with a date-specific IRI, as she might edit the article later. Alternatively, user Bob refers to the article in general, independently of its variants over time.</p>
 </div>
 <p>
-The PROV data model introduces relations, called <span class="delete">specialization, alternate,</span><span class="insert">specialization</span> and <span class="delete">mention</span><span class="insert">alternate</span>
+The PROV data model introduces relations, called specialization and alternate
 that allow entities  to be linked together. They are defined as follows. </p>
 
 
@@ -4114,14 +3195,11 @@
 </ul>
 </div>
 
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A specialization is not, as  defined here, also an influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-specialization"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">42</span><span class="insert">43</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-specialization"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>A specialization is not, as  defined here, also an influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-specialization"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 43<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-specialization"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The BBC news home page on 2012-03-23 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>
 is a specialization of the BBC news page in general
@@ -4147,11 +3225,6 @@
 <span class="glossary-ref">   Two <dfn id="concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-alternate"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> entities present aspects of the same thing. These aspects may be the same or different, and the alternate entities may or may not overlap in time.  </span>
 
 
-  
-
-
-
-
 
 <p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-alternate">An <dfn title="alternateOf" id="dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternate</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-alternateof"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">alternateOf(e1, e2)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
 <ul>
@@ -4160,20 +3233,20 @@
 </ul>
 </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert">An alternate is not, as  defined  here, also an influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</span></p>  
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Note that </span><a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">alternateOf</span></a><span class="insert"> is a necessarily very general
+<p>An alternate is not, as  defined  here, also an influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</p>  
+
+<p>
+Note that <a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternateOf</a> is a necessarily very general
 relationship that, in reasoning, only states that the two
 alternate entities respectively fix some aspects of some common thing
 (possibly evolving over time), and so there is some relevant
 connection between the provenance of the alternates. In a
-specific application context, </span><a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">alternateOf</span></a><span class="insert">, or a subtype of it,
+specific application context, <a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternateOf</a>, or a subtype of it,
 could allow more inferences.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">43</span><span class="insert">44</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 44<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 A given news item on the BBC News site 
  <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/science-environment-17526723</a> for desktop
@@ -4189,142 +3262,18 @@
 </div>
 
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">44</span><span class="insert">45</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 45<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
-Considering again the two versions of the technical report <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft). They are <span class="delete">alternate</span><span class="insert">alternates</span> of each other.
+Considering again the two versions of the technical report <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft). They are alternates of each other.
 </p><pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
 entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-<span class="delete">alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)</span><span class="insert">alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)</span>
+alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
 </pre>
 <p>They are both specialization of the page <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a>.</p>
 </div>
 
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">5.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Mention</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">This feature is "</span><span class="delete">at risk</span><span class="delete">" and may be removed from this specification based on feedback. Please send feedback to [email protected]</span>
-<span class="delete">The "Mention" construct might be removed from PROV if implementation experience reveals problems with supporting this construct.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">An entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> may be mentioned in a bundle </span><span class="delete">b</span><span class="delete">, which contains some
- descriptions about this entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">: how </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> was generated and used, which activities </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> is involved with, the agents </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> is attributed to, etc. Other bundles may contain other descriptions about the same entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">.
-Some applications may want to interpret
-this entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> with respect to the descriptions found in the bundle </span><span class="delete">b</span><span class="delete"> it occurs in. To this end, PROV allows a new entity </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> to be created, which is a specialization of the original entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">, and which presents an additional aspect:  the bundle </span><span class="delete">b</span><span class="delete"> containing some descriptions of </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">.  With this relation, applications that process </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete">
-can know that the attributes of </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> may have been computed according to the descriptions of </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> in </span><span class="delete">b</span><span class="delete">.</span></section>
 </section>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Thus, the following notion is a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle.
-It is a special case of specialization.</span> 
-
-
-<span class="delete">   The </span><span class="delete">mention</span><span class="delete"> ◊</span><span class="delete"> of an entity in a bundle (containing a description of this entity) is another entity that is a specialization of the former and that presents the bundle as a further additional aspect. </span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-An entity is interpreted with respect to a bundle's description in a
-domain specific manner.  The mention of this entity with respect to
-this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some
-domain-specific interpretation.
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">A mention of an entity in a bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the  bundle that it is described in. 
-</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">A </span><span class="delete">mention</span><span class="delete"> ◊</span><span class="delete">  relation</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">mentionOf(infra, supra, b)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">specificEntity</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">infra</span><span class="delete">)
-of the entity that is a mention of the general entity (</span><span class="delete">supra</span><span class="delete">);</span>
-<span class="delete">generalEntity</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">supra</span><span class="delete">) of the entity that is being mentioned.</span>
-<span class="delete">bundle</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">b</span><span class="delete">) of a bundle that contains a description of </span><span class="delete">supra</span><span class="delete"> and further constitutes one additional aspect presented by </span><span class="delete">infra</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 45</span><span class="delete"> ◊</span>
-<span class="delete">This example is concerned with a performance rating tool that reads and processes provenance to determine the performance of agents.  To keep the example simple, an agent's performance is determined by the duration of the activities it is associated with. </span>
-<span class="delete">As an illustration, we consider that two bundles </span><span class="delete">ex:run1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex:run2</span><span class="delete"> refer to an agent </span><span class="delete">ex:Bob</span><span class="delete"> that controlled two activities </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete">. </span>
-
-<span class="delete">bundle ex:run1
-    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-
-bundle ex:run2
-    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00, 2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-</span> 
-<span class="delete">The performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. The performance rating tool creates a new bundle </span><span class="delete">tool:analysis01</span><span class="delete"> containing the following. A new agent </span><span class="delete">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span><span class="delete"> is declared as a mention of </span><span class="delete">ex:Bob</span><span class="delete"> as described in  bundle </span><span class="delete">ex:run1</span><span class="delete">, and likewise for  </span><span class="delete">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span><span class="delete"> with respect to </span><span class="delete">ex:run2</span><span class="delete">. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to be good since the duration of </span><span class="delete">ex:a1</span><span class="delete"> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since </span><span class="delete">ex:a2</span><span class="delete">'s duration is seven hours.
-
-</span><span class="delete">bundle tool:analysis01
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
-    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
-
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
-    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
-endBundle
-</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Example 46</span><span class="delete"> ◊</span>
-<span class="delete">Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
-</span><span class="delete"> 
-bundle obs:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [prov:type="report", ex:version=1])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1,-,2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-  entity(ex:report2, [prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2,-,2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
-</span><span class="delete">
-Bundle </span><span class="delete">obs:bundle1</span><span class="delete"> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the visualization layout of this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
-</span><span class="delete"> 
-bundle tool:bundle2
-  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
-
-  entity(tool:report1, [viz:color="orange"])
-  mentionOf(tool:report1, ex:report1, obs:bundle1)
-
-  entity(tool:report2, [viz:color="blue"])              
-  mentionOf(tool:report2, ex:report2, obs:bundle1)
-endBundle
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">In bundle </span><span class="delete">tool:bundle2</span><span class="delete">, the prefix </span><span class="delete">viz</span><span class="delete"> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Bundle </span><span class="delete">tool:bundle2</span><span class="delete"> is given type </span><span class="delete">viz:Configuration</span><span class="delete"> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">The visualisation tool
- created  new identifiers </span><span class="delete">tool:report1</span><span class="delete"> and
-</span><span class="delete">tool:report2</span><span class="delete">.
-They denote entities which are specializations of </span><span class="delete">ex:report1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex:report2</span><span class="delete">, described in bundle </span><span class="delete">obs:bundle1</span><span class="delete">, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+</section>
 
 
 
@@ -4342,7 +3291,7 @@
 <div style="text-align: center;">
 <span class="figure" id="fig-figure-11-collections-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
 <img src="uml/component6.png" alt="collection"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component6">Figure 11<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component6"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> <span class="delete">Figure 11: </span>Collections Component Overview<span class="insert"> (Informative)</span></span>
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component6">Figure 11<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component6"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Collections Component Overview (Informative)</span>
 </span>
 </div>
 
@@ -4350,7 +3299,7 @@
 <section id="term-collection">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.6.1 </span>Collection</h4>
 
-<span class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-collection" class="internalDFN">collection</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-collection"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is an entity that provides a structure to some <span class="delete">constituents, which</span><span class="insert">constituents that must themselves be entities. These constituents</span> are <span class="delete">themselves entities. These constituents are </span>said to be <dfn id="dfn-member" class="internalDFN">member<span class="delete"> of</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-member"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="insert"> of</span> the collections.  </span>
+<span class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-collection" class="internalDFN">collection</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-collection"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents that must themselves be entities. These constituents are said to be <dfn id="dfn-member" class="internalDFN">member</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-member"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> of the collections.  </span>
 
 <span class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN">empty collection</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-empty-collection"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is a collection without members.  </span>
 
@@ -4362,14 +3311,11 @@
 
   </li><li><span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span> denotes an empty collection.
 </li></ul>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">PROV defines no collection-specific attributes.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_46"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">47</span><span class="insert">46</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_46"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(c0, <span class="delete">[prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection'</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection'</span> ])  // c0 is an empty collection
-entity(c1, <span class="delete">[prov:type='prov:Collection'</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:Collection'</span>  ])      // c1 is a collection, with unknown content
+<p>PROV defines no collection-specific attributes.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_46"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 46<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_46"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(c0, [ prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ])  // c0 is an empty collection
+entity(c1, [ prov:type='prov:Collection'  ])      // c1 is a collection, with unknown content
 </pre>
 </div>
 
@@ -4379,7 +3325,7 @@
 <section id="term-membership">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.6.2 </span>Membership</h4>
 
-<p>A <strong>membership</strong> relation is <span class="delete">defined, to allow stating</span><span class="insert">defined</span> the  members of a <span class="delete">Collection.</span><span class="insert">Collection to be stated.</span> </p>
+<p>A <strong>membership</strong> relation is defined the  members of a Collection to be stated. </p>
 
 <span class="glossary-ref"> <dfn id="concept-membership" class="internalDFN">Membership</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-membership"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the belonging of an entity  to a collection. </span>
 
@@ -4394,14 +3340,10 @@
 </div>
 
 
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Membership is not, as defined here, also an influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_47"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">48</span><span class="insert">47</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_47"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>Membership is not, as defined here, also an influence, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example_47"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 47<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_47"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>In this example, <span class="name">c</span> is a collection known to have <span class="name">e0</span>, <span class="name">e1</span>, and <span class="name">e2</span> as members, and may have other members.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">entity(e0)
 entity(e1)
@@ -4442,11 +3384,11 @@
  name</a>. 
 </p>
 
-<p><a><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a><span class="insert">Agent</span></a><span class="insert"> have a mandatory identifier. Two entities (resp. activities, agents) are equal if they have the same identifier.</span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a><span class="insert">Association</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Influence</span></a><span class="insert"> have an optional identifier. Two generations (resp. usages, communications, etc.) are equal if they have the same identifier.
-
-</span></p></section>
+<p><a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>, and <a>Agent</a> have a mandatory identifier. Two entities (resp. activities, agents) are equal if they have the same identifier.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>, <a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>, <a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>, <a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>, <a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>, <a>Derivation</a>, <a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a>, <a>Association</a>, <a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a>, <a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN">Influence</a> have an optional identifier. Two generations (resp. usages, communications, etc.) are equal if they have the same identifier.
+
+</p></section>
 
 <section id="term-attribute">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.7.2 </span>Attribute</h4>
@@ -4459,7 +3401,7 @@
 
 <div id="attributes-at-a-glance-divz" style="text-align: left;">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="attributes-at-a-glance"><span>Table <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">8</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attributes-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Attributes At a Glance</caption> 
+<caption id="attributes-at-a-glance"><span>Table 8<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attributes-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Attributes At a Glance</caption> 
 <tbody><tr><td><b>Attribute</b></td><td><b>Allowed In</b></td><td><b>value</b></td><td><b>Section</b></td></tr> 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="label" href="#concept-label" class="internalDFN">prov:label</a></td><td><em>any construct</em></td><td>A <a>Value</a> of type <a class="section-ref" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string">xsd:string</a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-label"><span>Section 5.7.2.1</span></a> </td></tr>
@@ -4482,7 +3424,7 @@
 <span class="glossary-ref">    The attribute <dfn id="concept-label" title="label" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:label</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-label"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> provides a human-readable representation of an instance of a PROV-DM type or relation.   </span>
 The value associated with the attribute <span class="name">prov:label</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a string.</p>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_48"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">49</span><span class="insert">48</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_48"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_48"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 48<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_48"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following entity is provided with a label attribute.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample"> entity(ex:e1, [ prov:label="This is a human-readable label" ])
 </pre>
@@ -4506,9 +3448,9 @@
 The attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> is an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> attribute of <a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>, <a>Agent</a>, <a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>, <a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>, <a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>, and <a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>.  The value associated with the  attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>, expected to denote a location.
 </p>
 
-<p><span class="insert">While the attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:location</span></span><span class="insert"> is allowed for several PROV concepts, it may not make sense to use it in some cases. For example, an activity that describes the relocation of an entity will have start and end locations, as well as every place in between those points.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example-location"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">50</span><span class="insert">49</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example-location"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>While the attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> is allowed for several PROV concepts, it may not make sense to use it in some cases. For example, an activity that describes the relocation of an entity will have start and end locations, as well as every place in between those points.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="example-location"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 49<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example-location"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following expression describes entity Mona Lisa, a painting, with a location attribute. </p>
 <pre class="codeexample"> entity(ex:MonaLisa, [ prov:location="Le Louvre, Paris", prov:type="StillImage" ])
 </pre>
@@ -4529,7 +3471,7 @@
 <p>
 The attribute <span class="name">prov:role</span> is allowed to occur multiple times in a list of attribute-value pairs. The value associated with a <span class="name">prov:role</span> attribute <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>.</p>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-role"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">51</span><span class="insert">50</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-role"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-role"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 50<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-role"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following activity is associated with an agent acting as the operator. </p>
 <pre class="codeexample"> wasAssociatedWith(a, ag, [ prov:role="operator" ])
 </pre>
@@ -4550,7 +3492,7 @@
 the value associated with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value.</a> The attribute <span class="name">prov:type</span>
 is allowed to occur multiple times.</p>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="example_51"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">52</span><span class="insert">51</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_51"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_51"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 51<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_51"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following describes an agent of type software agent.</p>
 <pre class="codeexample">   agent(ag, [ prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ])
 </pre>
@@ -4560,7 +3502,7 @@
 
 
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-predefined-types"><span>Table <span class="delete">7</span><span class="insert">9</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-predefined-types"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Predefined Types</caption> 
+<caption id="prov-dm-predefined-types"><span>Table 9<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-predefined-types"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Predefined Types</caption> 
 <tbody><tr><td><b>Type</b></td><td><b>Specification</b></td><td><b>Core concept</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Bundle</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-bundle"><span>Section 5.4.1</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
@@ -4568,7 +3510,7 @@
 <tr><td><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-collection"><span>Section 5.6.1</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="organization"><span class="name">prov:Organization</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span>Section 5.3.1</span></a></td><td><a>Agent</a></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Person</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span>Section 5.3.1</span></a></td><td><a>Agent</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Plan</span></a></td> <td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-entity"><span>Section 5.1.1</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Plan</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-entity"><span>Section 5.1.1</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="primary source" href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:PrimarySource</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-primary-source"><span>Section 5.2.4</span></a></td><td><a>Derivation</a></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="Quotation"><span class="name">prov:Quotation</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-quotation"><span>Section 5.2.3</span></a></td><td><a>Derivation</a></td></tr>
 <tr><td><a title="Revision"><span class="name">prov:Revision</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-revision"><span>Section 5.2.2</span></a></td><td><a>Derivation</a></td></tr>
@@ -4581,13 +3523,13 @@
 <section id="term-attribute-value">
 <h5><span class="secno">5.7.2.5 </span>prov:value</h5>
 
-<p><span class="glossary-ref">   The attribute <dfn id="concept-value-attribute" title="value-attribute" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:value</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-value-attribute"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  provides a <span class="insert">value  that is a direct representation of an entity as a PROV-DM </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a><span class="delete"> for an entity.</span><span class="insert">.</span> </span></p>
+<p><span class="glossary-ref">   The attribute <dfn id="concept-value-attribute" title="value-attribute" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:value</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-value-attribute"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  provides a value  that is a direct representation of an entity as a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>. </span></p>
 
 
 
 <p>The attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> is an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> attribute of entity.  The value associated with the  attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>. The attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> occur at most once in a set of attribute-value pairs.</p>
 
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example <span class="delete">53</span><span class="insert">52</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 52<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>The following example illustrates the provenance of the number <span class="name">4</span> obtained by an activity that computed the length of an input string <span class="name">"abcd"</span>.
 The input and the output are expressed as entities <span class="name">ex:in</span> and <span class="name">ex:out</span>, respectively. They each have a <span class="name">prov:value</span> attribute associated with the corresponding value.
 </p>
@@ -4600,25 +3542,25 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p><span class="insert">
-Two different entities </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> have the same value for the attribute 
+<p>
+Two different entities <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> have the same value for the attribute 
 prov:value. For instance,
 when two entities, with the same prov:value, are generated by two 
 different activities, as illustrated
-by the following example.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 53</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><a href="#anexample-value1" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 52</span></span></a><span class="insert"> illustrates an entity with a given value
- </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">4</span></span><span class="insert">. This examples shows that another entity with the same value may be computed differently (by an addition).
-</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:in1, [ prov:value=3 ]) 
+by the following example.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 53<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p><a href="#anexample-value1" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 52</span></a> illustrates an entity with a given value
+ <span class="name">4</span>. This examples shows that another entity with the same value may be computed differently (by an addition).
+</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:in1, [ prov:value=3 ]) 
 entity(ex:in2, [ prov:value=1 ]) 
 entity(ex:out2, [ prov:value=4 ])      // ex:out2 also has value 4
 activity(ex:add1, [ prov:type="addition" ])
 used(ex:add1, ex:in1)
 used(ex:add1, ex:in2)
 wasGeneratedBy(ex:out2, ex:add1)
-</span></pre>
+</pre>
 </div>
 
 
@@ -4626,11 +3568,6 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
 </section>
 
 <section id="term-value">
@@ -4651,14 +3588,8 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
 <p id="conformance-to-rdf-datatypes"><b>Conformance to RDF Datatypes</b> As of the publication of this document, RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS11">RDF-CONCEPTS11</a></cite>] is not yet a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation (see <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a> for the latest version). 
-Both the <span class="delete">PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance</span> Working Group and the RDF Working Group are confident that there will be only minor changes before it becomes a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation. In order to take advantage of the anticipated corrections and new features sooner, while also providing stability in case the specification does not advance as expected, conformance to PROV as it relates to RDF Datatypes is defined as follows:</p>
+Both the Provenance Working Group and the RDF Working Group are confident that there will be only minor changes before it becomes a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation. In order to take advantage of the anticipated corrections and new features sooner, while also providing stability in case the specification does not advance as expected, conformance to PROV as it relates to RDF Datatypes is defined as follows:</p>
 
 <ul>
 <li>If RDF 1.1  Concepts and Abstract Syntax becomes a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation, all references in PROV to
@@ -4676,14 +3607,6 @@
 
 
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-value"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 54<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
 <p>
 The following examples respectively are the string "abc", the integer number 1, and the IRI "http://example.org/foo".
@@ -4703,7 +3626,7 @@
 </pre>
 </div>
 
-<p>We note that <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> <dfn title="time" id="dfn-time" class="internalDFN">time instants</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-time"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>].</p> 
+<p>We note that PROV <dfn title="time" id="dfn-time" class="internalDFN">time instants</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-time"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>].</p> 
 
 
 <div class="anexample" id="anexample-time"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 55<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-time"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
@@ -4720,7 +3643,7 @@
 <section id="term-NamespaceDeclaration">
 <h4><span class="secno">5.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</h4>
 
-<p>A<span class="delete"> PROV-DM</span> <dfn id="dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN">namespace</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is identified by an IRI [<cite><span class="delete">IRI</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">RFC3987</span></a></cite>]. In PROV-DM, attributes, identifiers, and values with <a title="qualified name" href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN">qualified names</a> as data type can be placed in a namespace using the mechanisms described in this specification. </p>
+<p>A <dfn id="dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN">namespace</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is identified by an IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]. In PROV-DM, attributes, identifiers, and values with <a title="qualified name" href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN">qualified names</a> as data type can be placed in a namespace using the mechanisms described in this specification. </p>
 
 
 <p>A <dfn id="dfn-namespaceDeclaration" class="internalDFN">namespace declaration</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this
@@ -4729,7 +3652,7 @@
 <p>A <dfn id="dfn-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" class="internalDFN">default namespace declaration</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> consists of a namespace. Every un-prefixed qualified name
 refers to default namespace declaration.</p>
 
-<p>The <dfn title="prov-namespace" id="dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov-namespace"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is identified by the <span class="delete">URI</span><span class="insert">IRI</span> <a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</a>.</p>
+<p>The <dfn title="prov-namespace" id="dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov-namespace"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is identified by the IRI <a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</a>.</p>
 
 </section>
 
@@ -4829,47 +3752,24 @@
 <section id="valid-provenance">
 <h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Creating Valid Provenance</h2>
 
-
-
-
 <p>This specification defines PROV-DM, a data model that allows 
 descriptions of the people, institutions, entities, and activities,
 involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a
 thing to be expressed.  However, with this data model, it is also possible to compose
 descriptions that would not make sense: for instance, one could
 express that an entity was used before it was generated, or that the
-activity that generated an entity <span class="delete">began its existence</span><span class="insert">started</span> after the entity
-generation.  A set of constraints have been defined for <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> and
+activity that generated an entity started after the entity
+generation.  A set of constraints have been defined for PROV and
 can be found in a companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].
 They <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be used by developers to compose provenance descriptions that are valid, and
-by implementers of reasoning engines aiming to check whether provenance descriptions have problems. 
-
-
-
-
-</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p> The example of <a href="#prov-dm-example">section 3</a> contains identifiers such as <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which denotes a specific version of a technical report.  On the other hand, <span class="delete">a URI</span><span class="insert">an IRI</span> such as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a> denotes the latest version of a document. One needs to ensure that provenance descriptions for the latter resource remain valid as the resource state changes. </p>
-
-<p>To this end, <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> allows asserters to describe "<em>partial states</em>" of entities by means of attributes and associated values. Some further constraints apply to the use of these attributes, since the values associated with them are expected to remain unchanged for some period of time. The constraints associated to attributes allow provenance descriptions to be refined, they can also be found in the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The idea of bundling provenance descriptions is crucial to the PROV approach. Indeed, it allows multiple provenance perspectives to be provided for a given entity. It is also the mechanism by which provenance of provenance can be expressed.
-Descriptions in bundles are expected to satisfy constraints specified in the companion specification [</span><span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span><span class="delete">].</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+by implementers of reasoning engines aiming to check whether provenance descriptions have problems. </p>
+
+
+
+
+<p> The example of <a href="#prov-dm-example">section 3</a> contains identifiers such as <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which denotes a specific version of a technical report.  On the other hand, an IRI such as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a> denotes the latest version of a document. One needs to ensure that provenance descriptions for the latter resource remain valid as the resource state changes. </p>
+
+<p>To this end, PROV allows asserters to describe "<em>partial states</em>" of entities by means of attributes and associated values. Some further constraints apply to the use of these attributes, since the values associated with them are expected to remain unchanged for some period of time. The constraints associated to attributes allow provenance descriptions to be refined, they can also be found in the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</p>
 
 
 
@@ -4885,7 +3785,7 @@
 
 <div id="prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n-fig" style="text-align: left;">
 <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n"><span>Table <span class="delete">8</span><span class="insert">10</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</caption> 
+<caption id="prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n"><span>Table 10<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</caption> 
 <tbody><tr><td><a><b>PROV-DM</b></a></td><td><b>PROV-O</b></td><td><b>PROV-N</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
 
@@ -4961,7 +3861,7 @@
 </tr>
 
 <tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a title="Primary Source">Primary Source</a></td>
-<td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#hadPrimarySource">hadPrimarySource</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#Source">Source</a></td>
+<td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#hadPrimarySource">hadPrimarySource</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#PrimarySource">PrimarySource</a></td>
 <td>type <code><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#provn-type-Primary-Source">PrimarySource</a></code></td>
 </tr>
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
@@ -5032,7 +3932,7 @@
 <tr class="component4-color">
 <td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">Bundle constructor</a></td>
 <td> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#description-bundle">bundle description</a> </td>
-<td><code><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-namedBundle">namedBundle</a></code></td>
+<td><code><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-bundle">bundle</a></code></td>
 <td rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 4: <br> Bundles</a></td>
 </tr>
 
@@ -5057,18 +3957,9 @@
 <td><code><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-specializationExpression">specializationExpression</a></code></td>
 </tr>
 
-
-<span class="delete">Mention</span>
-<span class="delete">mentionOf</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">asInBundle</span>
-<span class="delete">mentionExpression</span>
- 
 <tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td>
 </tr>
 
-
-
-
-
 <tr class="component6-color">
 <td><a title="Collection">Collection</a></td>
 <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#Collection">Collection</a></td>
@@ -5089,61 +3980,73 @@
 </tr>
 </tbody></table>
 </div>
-
-
-
 </section>
 
 <section class="appendix" id="changes-since-last-version"> 
-      <h2><span class="secno">B. </span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></h2> 
-      <p><span class="insert"> Please see the </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ResponsesToPublicComments"><span class="insert">Responses to Public Comments on the Last Call Working Draft</span></a><span class="insert"> for more details about the justification of these changes.</span></p>
+      <h2><span class="secno">B. </span><span class="delete">Change Log</span><span class="insert">Changes since last version</span></h2> 
+
+
+      <span class="delete">B.1 </span><span class="delete">Changes since last version</span> 
+
+
+<span class="delete"> Changed the status of this document section: added new documents to the PROV Family of Document, and removed the how to read section, referring instead to PROV-OVERVIEW.
+</span><span class="delete"> Changed all URLs to  PROV documents.
+</span>
+
+
+
+      <span class="delete">B.2 </span><span class="delete">Changes since Last Call</span> 
+      <p> Please see the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ResponsesToPublicComments">Responses to Public Comments on the Last Call Working Draft</a> for more details about the justification of these changes.</p>
 
 <ul>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/506"><span class="insert">ISSUE-506</span></a><span class="insert">: Updated role from author to contributor, in line with text.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/492"><span class="insert">ISSUE-492</span></a><span class="insert">: Fixed typos in  </span><a href="#anexample-invalidation3" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 29</span></span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/508"><span class="insert">ISSUE-508</span></a><span class="insert">: Clarified the bold names and parameters  in  text preceding </span><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig"><span class="insert">Table 5</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/501"><span class="insert">ISSUE-501</span></a><span class="insert">: Put the example about driving a car to Boston in a box.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/450"><span class="insert">ISSUE-450</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/514"><span class="insert">ISSUE-514</span></a><span class="insert">: added table with secondary objects in relations.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/512"><span class="insert">ISSUE-512</span></a><span class="insert">: simplied type of activity a2 to "fine paying"
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/509"><span class="insert">ISSUE-509</span></a><span class="insert">: modified the introductory text to UML figures, so that they refer to relation names (e.g. WasStartedBy) as visualized in figures
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/515"><span class="insert">ISSUE-515</span></a><span class="insert">: fixed typo
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/531"><span class="insert">ISSUE-531</span></a><span class="insert">: added sentence on the use of prov:location attribute.
-
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/519"><span class="insert">ISSUE-519</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/523"><span class="insert">ISSUE-523</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/524"><span class="insert">ISSUE-524</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/529"><span class="insert">ISSUE-529</span></a><span class="insert">: changed UML diagram of figure 8 by removing explicit inheritance from influence for  usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, and delegation.  Instead, introduced correspondance table 7.  Furthermore, in response to these issues, it was made clear that PROV defines no attribute specific to subtypes such as SoftwareAgent, ..., Plan, Revision, Bundle, Collection.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/495"><span class="insert">ISSUE-495</span></a><span class="insert">: made explicit which section, figure, table was informative or normative.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/521"><span class="insert">ISSUE-521</span></a><span class="insert">: now states that "an agent relied on a plan" instead of "an agent adopted a plan".
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/499"><span class="insert">ISSUE-499</span></a><span class="insert">: Made explicit that generation/usage/invalidation/start/end are implicit.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/449"><span class="insert">ISSUE-449</span></a><span class="insert">: Clarified definition of prov:value attribute and added an example.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/495"><span class="insert">ISSUE-495</span></a><span class="insert">: added paragraph about 'relations opening up'. Clarified the role of '-' in example. Fixed dates in biblio. Fixed space issue in prov-n examples
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/516"><span class="insert">ISSUE-516</span></a><span class="insert">: Stating that there moust be some underpinning activity or activities for a derivation, instead of just activities.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/525"><span class="insert">ISSUE-525</span></a><span class="insert">: Made it explicit that Membership, Alternate, Specialization are not Influence
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> Copied the sentence " An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/506">ISSUE-506</a>: Updated role from author to contributor, in line with text.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/492">ISSUE-492</a>: Fixed typos in  <a href="#anexample-invalidation3" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 29</span></a>.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/508">ISSUE-508</a>: Clarified the bold names and parameters  in  text preceding <a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig">Table 5</a>.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/501">ISSUE-501</a>: Put the example about driving a car to Boston in a box.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/450">ISSUE-450</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/514">ISSUE-514</a>: added table with secondary objects in relations.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/512">ISSUE-512</a>: simplied type of activity a2 to "fine paying"
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/509">ISSUE-509</a>: modified the introductory text to UML figures, so that they refer to relation names (e.g. WasStartedBy) as visualized in figures
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/515">ISSUE-515</a>: fixed typo
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/531">ISSUE-531</a>: added sentence on the use of prov:location attribute.
+
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/519">ISSUE-519</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/523">ISSUE-523</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/524">ISSUE-524</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/529">ISSUE-529</a>: changed UML diagram of figure 8 by removing explicit inheritance from influence for  usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, and delegation.  Instead, introduced correspondance table 7.  Furthermore, in response to these issues, it was made clear that PROV defines no attribute specific to subtypes such as SoftwareAgent, ..., Plan, Revision, Bundle, Collection.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/495">ISSUE-495</a>: made explicit which section, figure, table was informative or normative.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/521">ISSUE-521</a>: now states that "an agent relied on a plan" instead of "an agent adopted a plan".
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/499">ISSUE-499</a>: Made explicit that generation/usage/invalidation/start/end are implicit.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/449">ISSUE-449</a>: Clarified definition of prov:value attribute and added an example.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/495">ISSUE-495</a>: added paragraph about 'relations opening up'. Clarified the role of '-' in example. Fixed dates in biblio. Fixed space issue in prov-n examples
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/516">ISSUE-516</a>: Stating that there moust be some underpinning activity or activities for a derivation, instead of just activities.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/525">ISSUE-525</a>: Made it explicit that Membership, Alternate, Specialization are not Influence
+</li><li> Copied the sentence " An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
  used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  " from the informative section into the normative section.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/504"><span class="insert">ISSUE-504</span></a><span class="insert">: Updated definition of collection.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/503"><span class="insert">ISSUE-503</span></a><span class="insert">: Rephrased the introduction of expanded association in section 2.2.1.2 Expanded Relations.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/514"><span class="insert">ISSUE-514</span></a><span class="insert">: added links to the attributes listed in the secondary element table. Also removed PrimarySource, Quotation, Revision.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/502"><span class="insert">ISSUE-502</span></a><span class="insert">: Added sentence in section 2.1.2 explaining that the focus
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/504">ISSUE-504</a>: Updated definition of collection.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/503">ISSUE-503</a>: Rephrased the introduction of expanded association in section 2.2.1.2 Expanded Relations.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/514">ISSUE-514</a>: added links to the attributes listed in the secondary element table. Also removed PrimarySource, Quotation, Revision.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/502">ISSUE-502</a>: Added sentence in section 2.1.2 explaining that the focus
       of derivation is on connecting a generated entity to a used  entity.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/526"><span class="insert">ISSUE-526</span></a><span class="insert">: Added sentence clarifying sentence in section 5.5.2.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/462"><span class="insert">ISSUE-462</span></a><span class="insert">: Added clarification regarding entity attributes (with respect to fixed aspects) and role of identifier with respect to equality.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/518"><span class="insert">ISSUE-518</span></a><span class="insert">: Added clarifying sentence of primary source.
-</span></li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/552"><span class="insert">ISSUE-552</span></a><span class="insert">: Clarifying phrasing around a quotation/revision/primary-source relation is a particular case of a derivation relation ...; updated definitions for start and end.
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> Rephrased original entity to preceding entity.
-</span></li><li><span class="insert"> Moved feature at risk, Mention, to note document (prov-mention).
-</span></li></ul>
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/526">ISSUE-526</a>: Added sentence clarifying sentence in section 5.5.2.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/462">ISSUE-462</a>: Added clarification regarding entity attributes (with respect to fixed aspects) and role of identifier with respect to equality.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/518">ISSUE-518</a>: Added clarifying sentence of primary source.
+</li><li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/552">ISSUE-552</a>: Clarifying phrasing around a quotation/revision/primary-source relation is a particular case of a derivation relation ...; updated definitions for start and end.
+</li><li> Rephrased original entity to preceding entity.
+</li><li> Moved feature at risk, Mention, to note document (prov-mention).
+</li></ul>
 
 </section>
 
 
+
+
+
 <section class="appendix" id="acknowledgements"> 
-      <h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">C.</span> </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
+      <h2><span class="secno">C. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
       <p> 
 
-This  document has been produced by the <span class="delete">PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance</span> Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr><span class="insert">) and Ivan Herman (</span><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></abbr><span class="insert">/</span><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics"><span class="insert">ERCIM</span></abbr>), <span class="delete">Ivan Herman (</span><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C<span class="delete">/</span><span class="delete">ERCIM</span><span class="delete">), Tom Baker</span></abbr><span class="insert"> contacts</span> for <span class="delete">their thorough reviews.</span><span class="insert">the Provenance Working Group.</span>
+This  document has been produced by the Provenance Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>) and Ivan Herman (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>), <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> contacts for the Provenance Working Group.
       </p> 
 
 <p>
-<span class="insert">The editors acknowledge valuable contributions from the following:
+The editors acknowledge valuable contributions from the following:
 Tom Baker,
 David Booth,
 Robert Freimuth,
@@ -5156,19 +4059,19 @@
 Alan Ruttenberg,
 Reza Samavi, and
 Antoine Zimmermann.
-</span></p>
+</p>
 
 <p>
-Members of the <span class="delete">PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance</span> Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
+Members of the Provenance Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
 
 Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
 Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
 Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
 James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
-Sam Coppens (IBBT),
+Sam Coppens <span class="delete">(iMinds),</span><span class="insert">(IBBT),</span>
 David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
 Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
-Tom De Nies (IBBT),
+Tom De Nies <span class="delete">(iMinds),</span><span class="insert">(IBBT),</span>
 Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
 Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
 Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
@@ -5224,24 +4127,27 @@
 
  
 
-<section id="references" class="appendix"><h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.</span><span class="insert">D.</span> </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.1</span><span class="insert">D.1</span> </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><span class="delete">[IRI]</span><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">M. Duerst, M. Suignard. </span><span class="insert">James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><cite><span class="delete">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</span><span class="insert">Constraints of the PROV Data Model</span></cite></a><span class="delete"> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987.</span><span class="insert">. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation.</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</span> 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">[PROV-N]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><cite><span class="insert">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O"><span class="insert">[PROV-O]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><cite><span class="insert">PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</a> 
+<section id="references" class="appendix"><h2><span class="secno">D. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno">D.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> W3C <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> W3C <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> W3C <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract <span class="delete">Syntax</span><span class="insert">Syntax.</span></cite></a><span class="delete">.</span> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</a>
+ 
 </dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
-</dd><span class="delete">[UML]</span><dt id="bib-RFC3987"><span class="insert">[RFC3987]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Object Management Group </span><span class="insert">M. Dürst; M. Suignard. </span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite><span class="delete">Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</span><span class="insert">Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs).</span></cite></a><span class="delete">. version 2.0, 2005</span><span class="insert"> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987.</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</span>
-<span class="delete">[URI]</span><span class="delete">T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. </span><span class="delete">Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): generic syntax.</span><span class="delete"> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</span><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><span class="insert">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</span></a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</dt><dd>Henry S. Thompson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite>W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes.</cite></a> 5 April 2012. W3C Recommendation URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</a> 
-</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">C.2</span><span class="insert">D.2</span> </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-Logic">[Logic]</dt><dd>W. E. <span class="delete">Johnson</span><span class="insert">Johnson.</span> <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>.1924. URL: <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-Mappings">[Mappings]</dt><dd>Satya <span class="delete">Sahoo and</span><span class="insert">Sahoo;</span> Paul <span class="delete">Groth and</span><span class="insert">Groth;</span> Olaf <span class="delete">Hartig and</span><span class="insert">Hartig;</span> Simon <span class="delete">Miles and</span><span class="insert">Miles;</span> Sam <span class="delete">Coppens and</span><span class="insert">Coppens;</span> James <span class="delete">Myers and</span><span class="insert">Myers;</span> Yolanda <span class="delete">Gil and</span><span class="insert">Gil;</span> Luc <span class="delete">Moreau and</span><span class="insert">Moreau;</span> Jun <span class="delete">Zhao and</span><span class="insert">Zhao;</span> Michael <span class="delete">Panzer and</span><span class="insert">Panzer;</span> Daniel Garijo <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings"><cite>Provenance Vocabulary Mappings</cite></a>. August 2010 URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham <span class="delete">Klyne and</span><span class="insert">Klyne;</span> Paul <span class="delete">Groth (eds.) Luc Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame, and Simon Miles </span><span class="insert">Groth; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. <span class="delete">2011,</span><span class="insert">19 June 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/</span></a>
-</dd><span class="delete">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</span><dt id="bib-PROV-LAYOUT"><span class="insert">[PROV-LAYOUT]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.) </span><span class="insert">W3C PROV Working Group. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams"><cite><span class="delete">Constraints of the </span>PROV <span class="delete">Data Model</span><span class="insert">Graph Layout Conventions</span></cite></a>. <span class="delete">2011, Working Draft.</span><span class="insert">2012.</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams</span></a>
-</dd><span class="delete">[PROV-N]</span><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW"><span class="insert">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Paul Groth; </span>Luc <span class="delete">Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) James Cheney, Stian Soiland-Reyes </span><span class="insert">Moreau; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><cite><span class="delete">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</span><span class="insert">PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</span></cite></a>. <span class="delete">2011,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</span>
-<span class="delete">[PROV-O]</span><span class="delete">Timothy Lebo, Satya Sahoo and Deborah McGuinness (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, James Cheney, David Corsar, Daniel Garijo, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik </span><span class="delete">Provenance Formal Model</span><span class="delete">. 2011, Working Draft. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-PRIMER">[PROV-PRIMER]</dt><dd>Yolanda <span class="delete">Gil and</span><span class="insert">Gil;</span> Simon <span class="delete">Miles (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Helena Deus, Daniel Garijo, Graham Klyne, Paolo Missier, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik </span><span class="insert">Miles; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><cite><span class="delete">Prov</span><span class="insert">PROV</span> Model Primer</cite></a>. <span class="delete">2011,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">[PROV-XML]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><cite><span class="insert">PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS11">[RDF-CONCEPTS11]</dt><dd>Richard <span class="delete">Cyganiak and</span><span class="insert">Cyganiak;</span> David <span class="delete">Wood (eds.) RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</span><span class="insert">Wood; eds.</span> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/"><cite>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</cite></a>. <span class="insert">Working Draft. </span>URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-UML"><span class="insert">[UML]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Object Management Group </span><a href="http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/"><cite><span class="insert">Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. version 2.0, 2005 URL: </span><a href="http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/"><span class="insert">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd>M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers <span class="delete">(IRIs)</span><span class="insert">(IRIs).</span></cite></a><span class="delete">.</span> January 2005.<span class="insert"> Internet</span> RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a>
+ 
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</dt><dd>Henry S. <span class="delete">Thompson</span><span class="insert">Thompson;</span> et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite>W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: <span class="delete">Datatypes</span><span class="insert">Datatypes.</span></cite></a><span class="delete">.</span> 5 April 2012. W3C <span class="delete">Recommendation.</span><span class="insert">Recommendation</span> URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</a>
+ 
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">D.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-Logic">[Logic]</dt><dd>W. E. Johnson. <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>.1924. URL: <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-Mappings">[Mappings]</dt><dd>Satya Sahoo; Paul Groth; Olaf Hartig; Simon Miles; Sam Coppens; James Myers; Yolanda Gil; Luc Moreau; Jun Zhao; Michael Panzer; Daniel Garijo <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings"><cite>Provenance Vocabulary Mappings</cite></a>. August 2010 URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">19 June 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/</span>
+<span class="delete">[PROV-DC]</span><span class="delete">Daniel Garijo; Kai Eckert; eds. </span><span class="delete">Dublin Core to PROV Mapping</span><span class="delete">. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/</span>
+<span class="delete">[PROV-DICTIONARY]</span><span class="delete">Tom De Nies; Sam Coppens; eds. </span><span class="delete">PROV Dictionary</span><span class="delete">. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-LAYOUT">[PROV-LAYOUT]</dt><dd>W3C PROV Working Group. <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams"><cite>PROV Graph Layout Conventions</cite></a>. 2012. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/Diagrams</a>
+</dd><span class="delete">[PROV-LINKS]</span><span class="delete">Luc Moreau; Timothy Lebo; eds. </span><span class="delete">Linking Across Provenance Bundles</span><span class="delete">. 12 March 2013, Working Draft. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/</span>
+<dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-PRIMER">[PROV-PRIMER]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil; Simon Miles; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><cite>PROV Model Primer</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. <span class="delete">12 March 2013,</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012,</span> Working Draft. URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/</span></a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS11">[RDF-CONCEPTS11]</dt><dd>Richard Cyganiak; David Wood; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/"><cite>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</cite></a>. Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-UML">[UML]</dt><dd>Object Management Group <a href="http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/"><cite>Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</cite></a>. version 2.0, 2005 URL: <a href="http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</a>
 </dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
 
--- a/model/diff/Makefile	Tue Feb 12 14:38:36 2013 +0000
+++ b/model/diff/Makefile	Tue Feb 12 14:41:30 2013 +0000
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 #	htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-dm-20120503/Overview.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
 #	htmldiff ../releases/ED-prov-dm-20120614/prov-dm.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
 #	htmldiff ../releases/ED-prov-dm-20120628/prov-dm.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
+#	./htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-dm-20120724/Overview.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
 	./htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-dm-20120724/Overview.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
 
 n.diff:
@@ -10,12 +11,8 @@
 	./htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html prov-n.html > ../diff-n.html
 
 rel:
-	./htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-n-20120724/Overview.html ../releases/CR-prov-n-20121211/Overview.html  > ../diff-n.html
-	./htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-dm-20120724/Overview.html ../releases/CR-prov-dm-20121211/Overview.html > ../diff.html
-	./htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-constraints-20120911/Overview.html ../releases/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/Overview.html > ../diff-c.html
-	cp ../diff-n.html ../releases/CR-prov-n-20121211/
-	cp ../diff.html ../releases/CR-prov-dm-20121211/
-	cp ../diff-c.html ../releases/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/
+	./htmldiff ../releases/PR-prov-dm-20130312/Overview.html ../releases/CR-prov-dm-20121211/Overview.html  > ../diff.html
+	cp ../diff.html ../releases/PR-prov-dm-20130312/
 
 
 
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/model/releases/PR-prov-dm-20130312/diff.html	Tue Feb 12 14:41:30 2013 +0000
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+}
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+}
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+}
+
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+    padding:    1em;
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+}
+
+.constraint[id]::before {
+    content:    "Constraint: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.constraint::before {
+    content:    "Constraint";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
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+
+
+
+.interpretation {
+    padding:    1em;
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+}
+
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+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Interpretation: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.interpretation::before {
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+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
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+}
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+    padding:    1em;
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+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
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+
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+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.deprecatedconstraint[id]::before {
+    content:    "Deprecated: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Deprecatedconstraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.deprecatedconstraint::before {
+    content:    "Deprecated";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+}
+
+.grammar {
+    margin-top: 1ex;
+    margin-bottom: 1ex;
+    padding-left: 1ex;
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+    padding-top: 1ex;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
+    font-size: 80%;
+}
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+    font-weight: bold;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 95%;
+}
+
+.name {
+    font-family: monospace;
+}
+
+
+.xmpl {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.xmpl::before {
+    content:    "Example";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+/* 
+generating this through java script now.
+
+.anexample[data-count]::before {
+    content: "Example " attr(data-count) ;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+
+.anexample:before {
+    content: "Example:";
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+*/
+
+.anexample {
+    margin-top: 1ex;
+    margin-bottom: 1ex;
+    padding-left: 1ex;
+    padding-right: 1ex;
+    padding-top: 1ex;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
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+}
+.anexample table {
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
+}
+
+.anexampleTitle {
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
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+.anexampleTitle {
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+
+.diamond {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:100%;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="name"]:before {
+    content: "'";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="name"]:after {
+    content: "'";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="optional"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="optional"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")?";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="plus"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="plus"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")+";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="star"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="star"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")*";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="choice"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="choice"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="group"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="group"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")";
+}
+
+table {
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
+}
+
+
+.interpretation-forward::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+.structural-forward::before {
+    content:    "Structural constraint: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+.essential {
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+.provType::before {
+}
+
+.pnExpression {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:120%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+}
+
+
+</style>
+
+  <style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
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+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+
+/* --- --- */
+ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
+table.simple {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-CR"></head> 
+  <body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-candidate-recommendation-11-december-2012"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation <span class="delete">12 March 2013</span><span class="insert">11 December 2012</span></h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</span></a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Implementation report:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/reports/prov-implementations.html</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120724/</span></a> <a href="diff.html">(color-coded diff)</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
+
+    
+      <dt>Contributors:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dd><span>Reza B'Far</span>, Oracle Corporation</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/">James Cheney</a>, University of Edinburgh</dd>
+<dd><span>Sam Coppens</span>, <span class="delete">iMinds</span><span class="insert">IBBT</span> - Ghent University</dd>
+<dd><span>Stephen Cresswell</span>, legislation.gov.uk</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/">Paul Groth</a>, VU University of Amsterdam</dd>
+<dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker">Jim McCusker</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/">Simon Miles</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/">James Myers</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo">Satya Sahoo</a>, Case Western Reserve University</dd>
+<dd><span>Curt Tilmes</span>, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
+        <span class="delete">2011-2013</span><span class="insert">2011-2012</span>
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">Beihang</span>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div> 
+
+    <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
+ to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
+PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>
+provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
+PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
+PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
+(1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
+(2) derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; 
+(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing; and,
+(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+</p>
+
+<p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
+PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
+relations. The PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
+extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
+
+<p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
+First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
+provenance should follow.  Second, 
+a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
+instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
+this document. </p>
+
+<p>The  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.<span class="delete">  ease consult the [</span><span class="delete">PROV-OVERVIEW</span><span class="delete">] for a guide to reading these documents. </span></p>
+
+    </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents <span class="delete">are listed below:</span><span class="insert">are:</span>
+<ul>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">PROV-O</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">PROV-DM</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">PROV-N</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> <span class="delete">(Proposed</span><span class="insert">(Candidate</span> Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a><span class="insert"> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ"><span class="insert">PROV-AQ</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]; </span></li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite><span class="delete">];</span><span class="insert">].</span></li>
+
+</ul>
+<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-documents"><span class="insert">How to read the PROV Family of Documents</span></h4>
+<ul>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-AQ</span><span class="delete"> (To</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW"><span class="insert">PROV-OVERVIEW</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] overviews the PROV family of documents. </span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">The primer [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER"><span class="insert">PROV-PRIMER</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">The XML community should focus on [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also</span> be <span class="delete">published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing</span><span class="insert">found in PROV-DM</span> and <span class="delete">querying</span><span class="insert">[</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></li>
+<li><span class="insert">Developers seeking to retrieve or publish</span> provenance<span class="insert"> should focus on</span> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite><span class="delete">]; </span><span class="insert">].</span></li>
+<li> <span class="delete">PROV-DICTIONARY</span><span class="delete"> (To be published as Note),  introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs</span><span class="insert">Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on PROV-DM and</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-DICTIONARY</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS"><span class="insert">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span></a></cite><span class="delete">];</span>
+ <span class="delete">PROV-DC</span><span class="delete"> (To be published as Note),</span><span class="insert">].</span>  <span class="delete">provides a mapping between PROV and Dublic Core Terms </span>[<cite><span class="delete">PROV-DC</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O"><span class="insert">PROV-O</span></a></cite><span class="delete">];</span>
+ <span class="delete">PROV-LINKS</span><span class="delete"> (To be published as Note),  introduces a mechanism to link across bundles</span><span class="insert">],</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-LINKS</span><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="delete">].</span><span class="insert">], and [</span><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML"><span class="insert">PROV-XML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</span></li>
+</ul>
+
+<h4 id="please-comment-by-january-31-2013"><span class="insert">Please Comment By January 31, 2013</span></h4><span class="insert">
+
+The Provenance Working Group seeks to gather experience from </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvImplementations"><span class="insert">implementations</span></a><span class="insert"> in order to increase confidence in the specifications and meet specific </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/ProvCRExitCriteria"><span class="insert">exit criteria</span></a><span class="insert">. This document will remain a Candidate Recommendation until at least 31 January 31, 2013. After that date, when and if the exit criteria are met, the group intends to request </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#RecsPR"><span class="insert">Proposed Recommendation</span></a><span class="insert"> status.
+
+
+
+        </span><p><span class="insert">
+          This document was published by the </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/"><span class="insert">Provenance Working Group</span></a><span class="insert"> as a Candidate Recommendation.
+          
+            This document is intended to become a </span><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <span class="delete">Members Please Review By 09 April 2013</span>
+
+<span class="delete">The </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Director seeks review and feedback from </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Advisory Committee representatives, via their </span><span class="delete">review form</span><span class="delete"> by 09 April 2013. This will allow the Director</span><span class="insert">Recommendation.
+          
+          If you wish</span> to <span class="delete">assess consensus and determine whether</span><span class="insert">make comments regarding this document, please send them</span> to<span class="delete"> issue this document as a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Recommendation.</span>
+
+<span class="delete">Others are encouraged by the Provenance Working Group to continue to send reports of implementation experience, and other feedback, to
+</span> 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).<span class="delete"> Reports of any success or difficulty with the test cases are encouraged. Open discussion among developers is welcome at
+</span><span class="delete">[email protected]</span><span class="delete"> 
+          (</span><span class="delete">subscribe</span><span class="delete">,
+          </span><span class="delete">archives</span><span class="delete">).</span>
+
+        <span class="delete">
+          This document was published by the </span><span class="delete">Provenance Working Group</span><span class="delete"> as a Proposed Recommendation.
+          
+            This document is intended to become a </span>
+          
+          
+            <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <span class="delete">Recommendation.
+          
+          
+          
+          
+          
+          
+          The </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Membership</span><span class="insert">publishes a Candidate Recommendation to indicate that the document is believed
+            to be stable</span> and <span class="delete">other interested parties are invited
+          </span>to <span class="delete">review the document and send comments</span><span class="insert">encourage implementation by the developer community. This
+            Candidate Recommendation is expected</span> to
+
+          <span class="delete">[email protected]</span><span class="delete"> 
+          (</span><span class="delete">subscribe</span><span class="delete">,
+          </span><span class="delete">archives</span><span class="delete">)
+          through 09 April</span><span class="insert"> advance to Proposed Recommendation no earlier than
+            31 January</span> 2013.<span class="delete">
+          Advisory Committee Representatives should consult their
+          </span><span class="delete">WBS questionnaires</span><span class="delete">. 
+          Note that substantive technical comments were expected during the Last Call review period that ended 18 September 2012.</span><span class="insert">
+          
+          All feedback is welcome.</span>
+        </p>
+        
+        
+        
+          
+        
+          <p>
+            Publication as a <span class="delete">Proposed</span><span class="insert">Candidate</span> Recommendation does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
+</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#compliance-with-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>Namespaces</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>PROV Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.2 </span>Expanded Relations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.3 </span>Optional Identification</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.2 </span>Provenance of Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Modular Organization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Example: The Process View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Example: Attribution of Provenance</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>Bundle constructor</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>Bundle Type</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.1 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.2 </span>Alternate</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.1 </span>Collection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.2 </span>Membership</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2 </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.1 </span>prov:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.2 </span>prov:location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.3 </span>prov:role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.4 </span>prov:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.5 </span>prov:value</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.3 </span>Value</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.5 </span>Qualified Name</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Creating Valid Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-references-to-prov-o-and-prov-n" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-last-version" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span><span class="delete">Change Log</span><span class="delete">B.1 </span>Changes since last version</a><span class="delete">B.2 </span><span class="delete">Changes since Last Call</span></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+    <section id="introduction"> 
+      <h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
+</h2> 
+
+<p> 
+For the purpose of this specification, <dfn id="dfn-provenance" class="internalDFN">provenance</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-provenance"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is defined as a record that describes the people,
+institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing,
+influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.
+In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding
+whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with
+other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its
+originators when reusing it.  In an open and inclusive environment
+such as the Web, where users find information that is often contradictory or
+questionable, provenance can help those users to make trust judgements.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>
+We present the PROV data model, PROV-DM,
+a generic data model for provenance that allows  domain and application specific representations of provenance to be translated into such a data model and  <em>interchanged</em> between systems.
+Thus, heterogeneous systems can export their native provenance into such a core data model, and applications that need to make sense of provenance can then import it,
+process it, and reason over it.</p>
+
+
+<p>
+The PROV data model distinguishes <em>core structures</em> from
+<em>extended structures</em>: core structures form the essence of
+provenance information, and are commonly found in various
+domain-specific vocabularies that deal
+with provenance or similar kinds of information [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-Mappings">Mappings</a></cite>].
+Extended structures enhance and refine core
+structures with more expressive capabilities to cater for more
+advanced uses of provenance.
+The  PROV data model, comprising both core and extended structures, is a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and
+application-specific extensions to be defined.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>
+The PROV data model has a modular design and is structured according to six components covering various facets of provenance:</p>
+<ul>
+<li> component 1: entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
+</li><li> component 2: derivations of entities from others;
+</li><li> component 3: agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+</li><li> component 4: bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance;
+</li><li> component 5: properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
+</li><li> component 6: collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+</li></ul>
+
+
+<p>This specification presents the concepts of the PROV data model, and
+provenance types and relations, without specific concern for how they are applied.
+With these, it becomes possible to write useful provenance, and publish or embed it alongside the data it relates to. </p>
+
+<p>However, if something about which provenance is expressed is subject to change, then it is challenging to express its provenance precisely (e.g. the data from which a daily weather report is derived  changes from day to day).
+This is addressed in a companion
+ specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] by proposing formal constraints on
+ the way that provenance is related to the things it
+ describes (such as the use of attributes, temporal information and
+ specialization of entities), and additional conclusions that are valid
+ to infer.
+</p>
+
+<section id="compliance-with-this-document"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</h3>
+
+
+<p>For the purpose of compliance, the normative sections of this document
+are 
+<a class="section-ref" href="#compliance-with-this-document"><span>Section 1.1</span></a>,
+<a class="section-ref" href="#conventions"><span>Section 1.3</span></a>,
+<a class="section-ref" href="#data-model-components"><span>Section 5.</span></a>, and
+<a href="#cross-references-to-prov-o-and-prov-n">Appendix A</a>.
+</p><ul>
+<li> Information in tables is normative if it appears in a normative section. </li>
+<li> All figures (including UML diagrams) are informative. </li>
+<li> Text in boxes labeled "Example" is informative.
+</li></ul>
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="informative" id="structure-of-this-document"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this Document</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> provides an overview of the PROV data model,  distinguishing a core set of types and  relations, commonly found in provenance, from extended structures catering for more specific uses. It also introduces a modular organization of the data model in components. </p>
+
+<p><a href="#prov-notation">Section 3</a> overviews the Provenance Notation used to illustrate examples of provenance.</p>
+
+
+<p><a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 4</a> illustrates how the PROV data model can be used
+to express the provenance of a report published on the Web.</p>
+
+
+<p><a href="#data-model-components">Section 5</a> provides the definitions of PROV concepts, structured according to six components.</p>
+
+
+
+<p><a href="#extensibility-section">Section 6</a> summarizes PROV-DM extensibility points.</p>
+
+<p><a href="#valid-provenance">Section 7</a> introduces the idea that constraints can be applied to the PROV data model to validate provenance; these are covered in the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</p>
+
+
+</section> 
+
+<section id="conventions"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Notational Conventions</h3>
+
+
+
+<p>The key words "<em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall
+      not">shall
+      not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>",  "<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>", and
+      "<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
+      [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
+
+<p> 
+  Examples throughout this document use the PROV-N Provenance
+  Notation, briefly introduced in <a href="#prov-notation">Section 3</a> and specified fully in a separate document [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>].</p>
+
+
+
+</section> 
+
+<section class="informative" id="namespaces"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">1.4 </span>Namespaces</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p>
+The following namespaces prefixes are used throughout this document.
+
+</p><div style="text-align: left;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="namespace-table"><span>Table 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#namespace-table"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace IRI</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration"><span>Section 5.7.4</span></a>)</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace  [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, IRIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]</td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+</section> 
+
+</section> 
+
+
+
+<section class="informative" id="section-prov-overview"> 
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p>This section introduces provenance concepts with informal explanations and illustrative
+examples. PROV distinguishes  <em>core structures</em>, forming the essence of  provenance, from <em>extended structures</em> catering for more specific uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a> and <a href="#section-extended-structures">Section 2.2</a>. Furthermore, the PROV data model is organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see <a href="#section-overview-components">Section 2.3</a>). A <em>provenance description</em> is an instance of  a provenance structure, whether core or extended, described below.
+</p>
+
+
+<section id="core-structures"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p>At its core, provenance describes the use and production of
+<em>entities</em> by <em>activities</em>, which may be 
+influenced in
+various ways by <em>agents</em>.  These core types and their relationships
+are illustrated
+by
+the UML diagram of <a href="#prov-core-structures-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 1</a>.</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center; ">
+ <span class="figure" id="prov-core-structures-top" style="max-width: 70%; ">
+<img src="uml/essentials.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; "><br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-core-structures">Figure 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-core-structures"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> PROV Core Structures (Informative)</span>
+  </span>
+</div>
+
+<p>The concepts found in the core of PROV are introduced in the rest of this section.
+They are summarized in  <a href="#overview-types-and-relations">Table 2</a>, where they are categorized as
+ type or relation.
+ The first column lists concepts, the second column indicates whether a concept maps to a type or a relation, whereas the third column contains the corresponding name, as it appears in Figure 1.    Names of relations have a verbal form in the past tense to express what happened in the past, as opposed to what may or will happen. In the core of PROV, all relations are binary. 
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<div style="text-align: left;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="overview-types-and-relations"><span>Table 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#overview-types-and-relations"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Mapping of PROV core concepts to  types and relations</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>PROV Concepts</b></a></td><td><b>PROV-DM types or relations</b></td><td><b>Name</b></td><td><b>Overview</b></td></tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a>Entity</a></td><td rowspan="3" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Types</td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" href="#dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">Entity</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>Section 2.1.1</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" href="#dfn-activity" class="internalDFN">Activity</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>Section 2.1.1</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" href="#dfn-agent" class="internalDFN">Agent</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a></td><td rowspan="7" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Relations</td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN">WasGeneratedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>Section 2.1.1</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a></td><td><a title="used" href="#dfn-used" class="internalDFN">Used</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>Section 2.1.1</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy" href="#dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN">WasInformedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>Section 2.1.1</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN">WasDerivedFrom</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-derivation"><span>Section 2.1.2</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo" href="#dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN">WasAttributedTo</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a>Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr><td><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<form action="#"><p> 
+<input id="hide-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-examples','none'); set_display_by_id('show-examples','');" type="button" value="Hide Concept Examples"> 
+<input id="show-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample',''); set_display_by_id('hide-examples',''); set_display_by_id('show-examples','none');" style="display: none" type="button" value="Show Concept Examples"> 
+</p> 
+</form> 
+
+
+
+
+  
+    <section id="section-entity-activity"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+
+<p>In PROV, things we want to describe the provenance of are called <em>entities</em> and have some fixed aspects. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
+physical things such as a mountain, a building, a printed book, or a car as well as abstract concepts and ideas. 
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   An <span class="dfn">entity</span> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </span> [<a href="#term-entity">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="entity-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>An entity may be the document at IRI <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</a>, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">   An <span class="dfn">activity</span>  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  </span> [<a href="#term-Activity">Detailed specification</a>]
+Just as entities cover a broad range of notions, 
+activities can cover a broad range of
+notions:
+information processing activities
+ may for example move, copy, or duplicate  digital entities;
+ physical activities can include
+ driving a car between two locations or printing a book.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="activity-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#activity-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>An activity may be the publishing of a document on the Web, sending a twitter message, extracting metadata embedded in a file, driving a car from Boston to Cambridge, assembling a data set based on a set of measurements, performing a statistical analysis over a data set, sorting news items according to some criteria, running a SPARQL query over a triple store, or editing a file.</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>Activities and entities are associated with each other in two different ways: activities utilize entities and activities  produce entities. The act of utilizing or producing an entity may have a duration.  
+ The term 'generation' refers to the completion of the act of producing; likewise, the term 'usage' refers to the beginning of the act of utilizing entities. Thus, we define the following concepts of generation and usage. </p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   <span class="dfn">Generation</span> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </span> [<a href="#term-Generation">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   <span class="dfn">Usage</span> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span>  [<a href="#term-Usage">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="generation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>Examples of generation are the completed creation of a file by a
+program, the completed creation of a linked data set, and the completed
+publication of a new version of a document.
+</p></div>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="usage-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#usage-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>Usage examples include a procedure beginning to consume an argument, a service starting to read a value on a port, a program beginning to read a configuration
+file, or the point at which an ingredient, such as eggs, is being added in a baking activity. Usage may entirely consume an entity (e.g. eggs are no longer available after being added to
+the mix); in contrast, the same entity may be used multiple times, possibly by different activities (e.g. a file on a file system can be read indefinitely).
+</p></div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="driving-a-car"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#driving-a-car"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+Let us consider the activity of driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.
+One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by this activity.
+This is answered by
+considering that a single artifact may
+correspond to several entities; in this case, a car in Boston may be a
+different entity from the same car in Cambridge.  
+Thus, among other things,
+an entity "car in Boston" would be used, and a new entity "car in
+Cambridge" would be generated by this activity of driving.  The
+provenance trace of the car might include: designed in Japan,
+manufactured in Korea, shipped to Boston USA, purchased by customer,
+driven to Cambridge, serviced by engineer in Cambridge, etc., all of
+which might be important information when deciding whether or not it
+represents a sensible second-hand purchase.  Or some of it might
+alternatively be relevant when trying to determine the truth of a web
+page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
+of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
+digital artifacts.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>The generation of an entity by an activity and its subsequent usage by another activity is termed communication.</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   <span class="dfn">Communication</span> is the exchange of some unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </span>   [<a href="#term-Communication">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#communication-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The activity of writing a celebrity article was informed by (a
+communication instance) the activity of intercepting voicemails.
+</p></div>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+    <section id="section-derivation"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Derivation</h4>
+
+
+
+<p>Activities utilize entities and produce entities. In some cases, utilizing an entity influences the creation of another in some way. This notion of 'influence' is captured by derivations, defined as follows.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">   A <span class="dfn">derivation</span>  is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</span>
+   [<a href="#term-Derivation">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 7<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
+linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>
+The focus of derivation is on connecting a generated entity to a used
+entity.
+While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
+subtle: implicit is the notion that the generated entity was affected
+in some way by the used entity.  
+
+If an artifact
+was used by an activity that also generated a new artifact, it does not always follow
+that the second artifact was derived from the first.  In the activity
+of creating a painting, an artist may have mixed some paint that was
+never actually applied to the canvas: the painting would typically
+not be considered a derivation from the unused paint.  
+
+PROV does not attempt to specify the conditions under which derivations
+exist; rather, derivation is considered to have been determined by unspecified means. 
+Thus, while a chain of usage and generation is necessary for a
+derivation to hold between entities, it is not sufficient; some
+form of influence occurring during the activities involved is also needed. 
+</p>
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Agents and Responsibility</h4>
+
+<p>For many purposes, a key consideration
+ for deciding whether something is reliable and/or trustworthy is
+ knowing who or what <em>was reponsible</em> for its production.  Data published by
+ a respected independent organization may be considered more
+ trustworthy than that from a lobby organization; a claim by a
+ well-known scientist with an established track record may be more
+ believed than a claim by a new student; a calculation performed by an
+ established software library may be more reliable than by a one-off
+ program.</p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   An <span class="dfn">agent</span> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </span>   [<a href="#term-agent">Detailed specification</a>]
+ An agent may be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
+ used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  
+</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 8<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#agent-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+Software for checking the use of grammar in a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity;  one can also describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
+A site selling books on the Web, the services involved in the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<p>Agents can be related to entities, activities, and other agents.</p>  
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref">   <span class="dfn">Attribution</span> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </span>
+[<a href="#term-attribution">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 9<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attribution-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. </p>
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">   An activity <span class="dfn">association</span> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity.  </span>
+[<a href="#term-Association">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 10<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
+</p><ul>
+<li>creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</li>
+<li>various forms of participation in a panel discussion, including audience member, panelist, or panel chair;</li>
+<li>a public event, sponsored by a company, and hosted by a museum;</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   <span class="dfn">Delegation</span> is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work. </span>
+[<a href="#term-delegation">Detailed specification</a>]
+ The nature of this relation is intended to be broad,  including contractual relation, but also altruistic initiative by the representative agent. </p>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 11<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegation-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>A student publishing a web page describing an academic
+department could result in both the student and the department being
+agents associated with the activity.  It may not matter which actual
+student published a web page, but it may matter significantly that the department
+told the student to put up the web page.  
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-extended-structures"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>PROV Extended Structures</h3>
+
+<p>While the core of PROV focuses on essential provenance structures commonly found in provenance descriptions, extended structures 
+are designed to support more advanced uses of provenance. 
+The purpose of this section is twofold. First, mechanisms to specify these extended structures are introduced.  Second,  two further kinds of provenance structures are overviewed: they cater for provenance of provenance and collections,  respectively.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-mechanisms"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</h4>
+
+<p>Extended structures are defined by a variety of mechanisms 
+outlined in this section: subtyping, expanded relations, optional
+identification, and new relations.</p>
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping"> 
+<h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</h5><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p>Subtyping can be applied to core types. For example, a software agent is special kind of agent, defined as follows.</p>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   A <span class="dfn">SoftwareAgent</span>  is running software. </span>
+
+
+<p>Subtyping can also be applied to  core relations. For example, a revision is a special kind of derivation, defined as follows.</p>
+
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref">   A <span class="dfn">revision</span>   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </span></p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation"> 
+<h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.2 </span>Expanded Relations</h5>
+
+<p><a class="section-ref" href="#core-structures"><span>Section 2.1</span></a> shows that seven concepts are mapped to binary relations in the core of PROV.  However, some advanced uses of these concepts cannot be captured by a binary relation, but require relations to be expanded to n-ary relations.</p>
+
+<p>Indeed, binary relations are actually shorthands that can be 'opened up' by applications and filled in with further application details. For example, derivation is a very high level relationship between two entities: an application may decide to 'open up' that relationship in an expanded relation that describes how an entity was derived from another by virtue of listing the generation, usage, and activity involved in the derivation relationship. Applications are free to decide which level of granularity they want describe, and   PROV gives them the way to do that.</p>
+
+
+
+<p>To illustrate expanded relations, we revisit the concept of
+association, introduced
+in <a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>Section 2.1.3</span></a> (full definition of the expanded association can be found
+in <a class="section-ref" href="#term-Association"><span>Section 5.3.3</span></a>).  Agents may rely on <em>plans</em>, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
+goals in the context of an activity.
+Hence, an expanded form of
+association relation allows for a plan to be specified. Plan is defined by subtyping and 
+full association by an expanded relation, as follows. </p>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+   A <span class="dfn">plan</span> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </span>
+</p> 
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">   An activity <span class="dfn">association</span> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity. </span>
+</p>
+
+<p>There exist no
+prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the
+actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals.  Since plans may evolve over time,
+it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are
+entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to  
+validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to  
+manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 12<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>An example of association between an activity and an agent involving a plan is:
+an XSLT transform (an activity) launched by a user (an agent) based on an XSL style sheet (a plan).
+
+</p></div>
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification"> 
+<h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.3 </span>Optional Identification</h5>
+
+<p>Some concepts exhibit both a core use, expressed as
+binary relation, and an extended use, expressed as n-ary relation.  In
+some cases, mapping the concept to a relation, whether binary or
+n-ary, is not sufficient: instead, it may be required to
+identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, PROV allows for 
+an optional identifier to be
+expressed to identify an instance of an association between two or
+more elements.  This optional identifier can then be used to refer to
+an instance as part of other concepts.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 13<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#identifier-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>A service may read a same configuration file on two different occasions. Each  usage can be identifed by its own identifier, allowing them to be distinguished. 
+</p></div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations"> 
+<h5><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</h5>
+
+<p>Finally, PROV supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations (such as <a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a>, <a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a>).</p>
+
+
+</section>
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="section-provenance-of-provnance"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">2.2.2 </span>Provenance of Provenance</h4>
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">
+ A <span class="dfn">bundle</span> is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.  </span>
+
+</p><p>
+For users to decide whether they can place their trust in
+something, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine
+the agent its provenance is attributed to, and when it was
+generated. In other words, users need to be able to determine the provenance of provenance.
+Hence, provenance is also
+regarded as an entity (of type Bundle), by which provenance of provenance can then be
+expressed.
+</p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 14<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#bundle-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+In a decision making situation, decision makers may be presented with the same piece of knowledge, issued by multiple sources.  In order to validate this piece of knowledge, decision makers can consider its provenance, but also the provenance of its provenance, which may help determine whether it can be trusted.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-collections"> 
+<h4><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</h4>
+
+<p>
+<span class="glossary-ref">   A <span class="dfn">collection</span> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents that must themselves be entities. These constituents are said to be <span class="dfn">member</span> of the collections.  </span> Many different types of collections exist, such as <em>sets</em>, <em>dictionaries</em>, or <em>lists</em>. 
+Using Collections, one can express the provenance of the collection itself in addition to that of the members.  </p>
+
+<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 15<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#collection-example"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
+</p></div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-overview-components"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Modular Organization</h3>
+
+<p>Besides the separation between core and extended structures, PROV-DM
+is further organized according to components, grouping concepts in a
+thematic manner. </p>
+
+<p> <a href="#components-overview">Table 3</a> enumerates the six components, five of which have already been implicitly overviewed in this section. All components contain extended structures, whereas only the first three contain core structures.
+
+</p><div id="components-overview-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="components-overview"><span>Table 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#components-overview"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Components Overview</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Component</td><td>Core <br>Structures</td><td>Overview</td><td>Specification</td><td>Description</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="	padding: 8px;">1</td><td style="text-align: left;">Entities and Activities</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-entity-activity">2.1.1</a></td><td><a href="#component1">5.1</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about entities and activities, and their interrelations</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>2</td><td style="text-align: left;">Derivation</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-derivation">2.1.2</a></td><td><a href="#component2">5.2</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about derivation and its subtypes</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>3</td><td style="text-align: left;">Agent and Responsibility</td><td>✔</td><td><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation">2.1.3</a></td><td><a href="#component3">5.3</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to them</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>4</td><td style="text-align: left;">Bundles</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance">2.2.2</a></td><td><a href="#component4">5.4</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>5</td><td style="text-align: left;">Alternate</td><td></td><td>—</td><td><a href="#component5">5.5</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about relations linking entities referring the same thing</td></tr> 
+<tr><td>6</td><td style="text-align: left;">Collections</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-collections">2.2.3</a></td><td><a href="#component6">5.6</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about collections</td></tr> 
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="informative" id="prov-notation">  
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+
+<p>To illustrate the application of PROV concepts to a concrete example (see <a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 4</a>) and to provide examples of concepts (see <a href="#data-model-components">Section 5</a>),
+we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details and for a normative reference, the reader is referred to the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>].
+PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>PROV-N expressions adopt a <em>functional notation</em> consisting
+of a name and a list of arguments in parentheses.</li>
+
+<li>The interpretation of PROV-N arguments is defined according to their <em>position</em> in the list of arguments. This convention allows for a compact notation. </li>
+
+<li>The PROV data model defines <em>identifiers</em> as qualified names; in PROV-N, they are expressed as a local name optionally preceded of a prefix and a colon. </li>
+
+
+
+<li>
+PROV-N <em>optional arguments</em> need not be specified:
+the general rule for optional arguments is that, if none of them are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression. However, it may be the case that only some of the optional arguments need to be specified. Because the position of the arguments in the expression matters, in this case, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The syntactic marker  '<span class="name">-</span>' is used for this purpose.
+</li>
+
+<li>Most expressions 
+include an identifier 
+and a set of attribute-value pairs; both are optional unless otherwise specified. By convention, the identifier occurs in the <em>first position</em>, and the set of attribute-value pairs in the <em>last position</em>.
+Consistent with the convention on arguments, the marker  '<span class="name">-</span>' can be used when the identifier is not available, or can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising. To further disambiguate expressions that contain an optional identifier, the optional identifier or marker must be followed by '<span class="name">;</span>'.
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 16<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-prov-n"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+An activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span> and an attribute <span class="name">type</span> with value <span class="name">createFile</span>.
+</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, [ prov:type="createFile" ])
+</pre>
+Two entities with identifiers <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(e1)
+entity(e2)
+</pre>
+The activity  <span class="name">a1</span> used  <span class="name">e1</span>, and <span class="name">e2</span> was generated by <span class="name">a1</span>.
+<pre class="codeexample">used(a1, e1)
+wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1)
+</pre>
+The same descriptions, but with an explicit identifier <span class="name">u1</span> for the usage, and the syntactic marker '<span class="name">-</span>' to mark the absence of identifier in the generation. Both are followed by  '<span class="name">;</span>'.
+<pre class="codeexample">used(u1; a1, e1)
+wasGeneratedBy(-; e2, a1)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="informative" id="prov-dm-example"> 
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> has introduced some provenance concepts, and how they are expressed as types or relations in the PROV data model. The purpose of this section is to put these concepts into practice in order to express the provenance of some document published on the Web.  
+With this realistic example, PROV concepts are  composed together,  and a graphical illustration shows a provenance description forming a directed graph, rooted at the entity we want to explain the provenance of, and pointing to the entities, activities, and agents it depended on. This example also shows that, sometimes, multiple provenance descriptions about the same entity can co-exist, which then justifies the need for provenance of provenance.</p>
+
+
+<p>In this example, we consider one of the many documents published by the World Wide Web Consortium, and describe its provenance. 
+Specifically, we consider the document identified by
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a>. Its provenance can be expressed from several perspectives: first,  provenance can take the authors' viewpoint; second, it can be concerned with the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> process. Then, attribution of these two provenance descriptions is provided.</p>
+
+
+<section id="section-example-one"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+
+
+<p style="font-style:italic; "><b>Description:</b> A document
+is edited by some editor, using contributions from various
+contributors.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<p>In this perspective, provenance of the document
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a> is concerned with the editing activity as perceived by authors.  This kind of information could be used by authors in their CV or in a narrative about this document. </p>
+
+
+
+
+<p>We paraphrase some PROV descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document1-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 2</a>).
+Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.provn">here</a>.</p>
+
+<div style="text-align: center; ">
+  <span class="figure" id="prov-a-document1-top">
+  <img src="images/dm/w3c-publication1.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (1)" style="max-width: 98%; "><br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document1">Figure 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-a-document1"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Provenance of a Document (part 1)  (Informative)</span> 
+  </span>
+</div>
+
+
+<ul>
+<li>There was a document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which from the author's perspective was a document in its second version. 
+<pre>entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>There was an editing activity.
+<pre>activity(ex:edit1, [ prov:type="edit" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a <a title="concept-generation">Generation</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+
+<li>There were some agents.
+<pre>agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor. The plan the agent relied upon is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Paolo, -, [ prov:role="editor" ])
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Simon, -, [ prov:role="contributor" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+Provenance descriptions can be <em>illustrated</em> graphically. The illustration is not intended to represent all the details of the model, but it is intended to show the essence of a set of
+provenance descriptions [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LAYOUT">PROV-LAYOUT</a></cite>].  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</p>
+
+<p>The graphical illustration takes the form of a graph. Entities, activities and agents are represented as nodes, with oval, rectangular, and pentagonal shapes, respectively.  Usage,
+Generation, Derivation, and Association are represented as directed edges.</p>
+
+<p>Entities are laid out according to the ordering of their generation.  We endeavor to show time progressing from left to right. This means that edges for Usage, Generation,
+Derivation, Association typically point leftwards</p>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="section-example-two"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Example: The Process View</h3>
+
+
+<p style="font-style:italic; "><b>Description:</b> The World Wide Web
+Consortium publishes documents according to its publication
+policy.  Working drafts are published regularly to reflect the work
+accomplished by working groups. Every publication of a working draft
+must be preceded by a "publication request" to the Webmaster.  The
+very first version of a document must also be preceded by a
+"transition request" to be approved by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> director.  All working
+drafts are made available at a unique IRI.  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+We describe the kind of provenance record that the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">WWW Consortium</a> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with well-defined IRIs (some of which refer to archived email messages, available to <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Members).</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li> Two versions of a document were involved: <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft);</li>
+<li> Both <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> were published by the WWW Consortium (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">w3:Consortium</a></span>); </li>
+<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was <span class="name">ex:act2</span>;</li>
+<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> was <span class="name">ex:act1</span>;
+</li>
+
+<li> The document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was derived from <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span>;</li>
+
+<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act1</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Oct/0141">email:2011Oct/0141</a></span>) and a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#transreq">transition request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/chairs/2011OctDec/0004">chairs:2011OctDec/0004</a></span>);</li>
+<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act2</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Dec/0111">email:2011Dec/0111</a></span>);</li>
+<li> Documents were published according to the process rules (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance">process:rec-advance</a></span>), a plan in PROV terminology.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+We now paraphrase some PROV descriptions, and express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document2-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 3</a>). Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication2.provn">here</a>.
+
+</p><div style="text-align: center;">
+  <span class="figure" id="prov-a-document2-top">
+  <img src="images/dm/w3c-publication2.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (2)" style="max-width: 90%; "><br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document2">Figure 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-a-document2"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Provenance of a Document (part 2) (Informative)</span> 
+  </span>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<ul>
+<li>There was a document, a working draft (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#WD">rec54:WD</a>), which is an entity so that we can describe its provenance. Similar descriptions exist for all entities.
+<pre>entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+<li>There was a publication activity.
+<pre>activity(ex:act2, [ prov:type="publish" ])
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a <a title="concept-Generation">Generation</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:act2, -)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+
+<li>The second draft of the document was derived from the first draft: this was a <a title="concept-Derivation">Derivation</a>.
+<pre>wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The activity required a publication request: this was a <a title="concept-Usage">Usage</a>. Its time is not specified, hence, the marker '-'.
+<pre>used(ex:act2, email:2011Dec/0111, -)
+</pre>
+</li>
+
+<li>The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an <a title="concept-association">Association</a>.
+<pre>wasAssociatedWith(ex:act2, w3:Consortium, process:rec-advance)
+</pre>
+This relation is illustrated in <a href="#prov-a-document2-top" class="fig-ref">Figure 3</a> with a multi-edge labelled <span class="name">wasAssociatedWith</span> pointing to an agent and entity (representing a plan).
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<p> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available IRIs, which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance <span class="name">ex:act2</span>, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix <span class="name">ex</span>.  We note that the IRI scheme developed by <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each IRI denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  PROV relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</p>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="section-example-c"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Example: Attribution of Provenance</h3>
+
+<p>The two previous sections  offer two different perspectives on the provenance of a document.  PROV allows for multiple sources to provide the provenance of a subject. For users to decide whether they can place their trust in the document, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine who the provenance is attributed to, and when it was
+generated, etc. In other words, we need to be able to express the provenance of provenance.</p>
+
+<p>PROV-DM offers a construct to name a bundle of provenance descriptions (full details: <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.provn">ex:author-view</a>). </p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:author-view
+
+  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
+
+
+...
+
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+Likewise, the process view can be expressed as a separate named bundle (full details: <a href="examples/w3c-publication2.provn">ex:process-view</a>).
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:process-view
+
+   agent(w3:Consortium, [ prov:type='prov:Organization' ])
+
+...
+
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+<p>To express their respective provenance, these bundles must be seen as entities, and all PROV constructs are now available to express their provenance. In the example below, <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is attributed to the agent  <span class="name">ex:Simon</span>, whereas <span class="name">ex:process-view</span> to  <span class="name">w3:Consortium</span>.
+
+</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:author-view, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasAttributedTo(ex:author-view, ex:Simon)
+
+entity(ex:process-view, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasAttributedTo(ex:process-view, w3:Consortium)
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="data-model-components"> 
+
+<h2><span class="secno">5. </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</h2>
+
+<p>Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.
+The components and their dependencies are illustrated in <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>. A component that relies on concepts defined in another is displayed above it in the figure.  So, for example, component 5 (alternate) depends on concepts defined in component 4 (bundles), itself dependent on concepts defined in component 1 (entity and activity).
+</p>
+
+<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
+<ul>
+<li><b>Component 1: entities and activities.</b> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </li>
+<li><b>Component 2: derivations.</b>  The second component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</li>
+<li><b>Component 3: agents, responsibility, and influence.</b> The third component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</li>
+<li><b>Component 4: bundles.</b> The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</li>
+<li><b>Component 5: alternate.</b> The fifth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </li>
+<li><b>Component 6: collections.</b> The sixth component is about collections. </li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<span class="figure" id="fig-figure-4-prov-dm-components-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img usemap="#componentMap" src="images/dm/components-dependencies.png" alt="PROV-DM Components" style="max-width: 90%; ">
+<map id="componentMap" name="componentMap">
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="0,0,67,268" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect">
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="67,0,134,201" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect">
+<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component3" coords="134,0,201,67" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect">
+<area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="201,0,268,201" alt="derivations" shape="rect">
+<area title="derivations" href="#component2" coords="134,67,201,201" alt="derivations" shape="rect">
+
+<area title="alternate" href="#component5" coords="335,0,402,201" alt="alternate" shape="rect">
+<area title="collections" href="#component6" coords="402,0,469,201" alt="collections" shape="rect">
+<area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="67,201,469,268" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect">
+<area title="bundles" href="#component4" coords="268,0,402,201" alt="bundles" shape="rect">
+</map>
+<br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="prov-dm-components">Figure 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-components"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> PROV-DM Components (Informative)</span>  
+</span>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indexes all relations (except <a href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN">wasInfluencedBy</a>) according to their two primary elements (referred to as subject and object).  The table adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.
+Relation names appearing in bold correspond to the core structures introduced
+in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
+
+
+<div id="relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="relations-at-a-glance"><span>Table 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#relations-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Relations At a Glance</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="6">Object</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="2">Entity</td><td colspan="2">Activity</td><td colspan="2">Agent</td></tr> 
+<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td colspan="2"><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential">WasDerivedFrom</a><br><a>Revision</a><br><a>Quotation</a><br><a>PrimarySource</a></div><div class="component5-color"><a>AlternateOf</a><br><a>SpecializationOf</a></div><div class="component6-color"><a>HadMember</a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby">WasGeneratedBy</a><br><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN">WasInvalidatedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN">T</a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">L</a><br></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">WasAttributedTo</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential">Used</a><br><a>WasStartedBy</a><br><a>WasEndedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br><a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN">T</a><br><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">L</a><br></td><td colspan="2" class="component1-color"><a class="essential">WasInformedBy</a></td><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td class="component3-color" style="font-style: italic; "><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">R</a><br></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Agent</td><td colspan="2">—</td><td colspan="2">—</td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+<p>The letters 'R' and 'L' appearing in the right-hand side of some cells of <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indicate that attributes 
+<a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">prov:role</a> (<a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>Section 5.7.2.3</span></a>)
+and
+<a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">prov:location</a> (<a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-location"><span>Section 5.7.2.2</span></a>)
+are permitted for these relations.
+The letter 'T' indicates an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> <a title="time" href="#dfn-time" class="internalDFN">time</a> is also permitted.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>
+Some PROV-DM relations are not binary and involve extra optional element. They are summarized in  <a href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div">Table 5</a> grouping secondary objects, according to their type.  The table also adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified. None of these relations correspond to the core structures introduced
+in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
+
+
+<div id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance"><span>Table 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#secondary-elements-relations-at-a-glance"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>Secondary optional elements in PROV-DM Relations</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="3">Secondary Object</td></tr> 
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Entity</td><td>Activity</td><td>Agent</td></tr> 
+<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td>—</td><td class="component2-color"><a>WasDerivedFrom</a> (<a href="#derivation.activity">activity</a>)</td><td>—</td></tr>
+<tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component3-color"><a>WasAssociatedWith</a> (<a href="#association.plan">plan</a>)</td><td class="component1-color"><a>WasStartedBy</a> (<a href="#start.starter">starter</a>)<br><a>WasEndedBy</a> (<a href="#end.ender">ender</a>)</td><td>—</td></tr>
+<tr><td>Agent</td><td>—</td><td class="component3-color"><a>ActedOnBehalfOf</a> (<a href="#delegation.activity">activity</a>)</td><td>—</td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table 6</a> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.  In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept. Concept names appearing in bold in the first column are the core structures introduced in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>. Likewise, these core structures have their names and parameters highlighted in bold in the second column (prov-n representation); expanded structures are not represented with a bold font.</p>
+
+
+<div id="prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig" style="text-align: left;">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span>Table 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</caption> 
+<tbody><tr><td><a><b>Type or Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b>Representation in the PROV-N notation</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Entity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity">entity(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1">Component 1: Entities/Activities</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-activity">activity(id, st, et, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a></td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">wasGeneratedBy(</span>id;<span class="essential">e,a</span>,t,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a></td><td><a title="used" href="#dfn-used" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">used(</span>id;<span class="essential">a,e</span>,t,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy" href="#dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">wasInformedBy(</span>id;<span class="essential">a2,a1</span>,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a></td><td><a title="wasStartedBy" href="#dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN">wasStartedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a></td><td><a title="wasEndedBy" href="#dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN">wasEndedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a></td><td><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN">wasInvalidatedBy(id;e,a,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="essential"><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">wasDerivedFrom(</span>id; <span class="essential">e2, e1</span>, a, g2, u1, attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td><td rowspan="4"><a href="#component2">Component 2: Derivations</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Revision</a></td><td><a title="dfn-revision">... prov:type='prov:Revision' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Quotation</a></td><td><a title="dfn-quotation">... prov:type='prov:Quotation' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Primary Source</a></td><td><a title="dfn-primary-source">... prov:type='prov:PrimarySource' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+<tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; "><td class="essential"><a>Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-agent">agent(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td rowspan="9"><a href="#component3">Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, Influence</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo" href="#dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">wasAttributedTo(</span>id;<span class="essential">e,ag</span>,attr<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">wasAssociatedWith(</span>id;<span class="essential">a,ag</span>,pl,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN">Delegation</a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential">actedOnBehalfOf(</span>id;<span class="essential">ag2,ag1</span>,a,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Plan</a></td><td><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN">... prov:type='prov:Plan' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Person</a></td><td><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN">... prov:type='prov:Person' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN">Organization</a></td><td><a title="organization">... prov:type='prov:Organization' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN">SoftwareAgent</a></td><td><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN">... prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component3-color"><td><a href="#concept-influence" class="internalDFN">Influence</a></td><td><a title="wasInfluencedBy" href="#dfn-wasinfluencedby" class="internalDFN">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,attrs)</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+
+<tr class="component4-color"><td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">Bundle constructor</a></td><td><a title="dfn-bundle" href="#dfn-bundle-constructor" class="internalDFN">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</a></td><td rowspan="2"><a href="#component4">Component 4: Bundles</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component4-color"><td class="provType"><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">Bundle type</a></td><td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN">... prov:type='prov:Bundle' ...</a></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Alternate</a></td><td><a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternateOf(alt1, alt2)</a></td><td rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 5: Alternate</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Specialization</a></td><td><a title="specializationOf" href="#dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN">specializationOf(infra, supra)</a></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a>Collection</a></td><td><a title="collection" href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN">... prov:type='prov:Collection' ...</a></td><td rowspan="3"><a href="#component6">Component 6: Collections</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN">EmptyCollection</a></td><td><a title="empty collection" href="#concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN">... prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ...</a></td></tr>
+<tr class="component6-color"><td><a href="#concept-membership" class="internalDFN">Membership</a></td><td><a title="hadMember" href="#dfn-hadmember" class="internalDFN">hadMember(c,e)</a></td></tr>
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+In the rest of the section, each type and relation is defined informally,
+ followed by a summary of the information used to represent the concept, and
+ illustrated with PROV-N examples.</p>
+
+
+<section id="component1"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
+
+<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> and <a title="activity" href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activities</a>, and their interrelations: Used (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>), WasStartedBy (<a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>), WasEndedBy (<a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>), WasInvalidatedBy (<a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>), and WasInformedBy (<a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>).  <a href="#figure-component1">Figure 5</a> uses UML to depict the first component.
+Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of two classes (<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and three binary associations between them: Used (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>), and WasInformedBy (<a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</a>). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-UML">UML</a></cite>], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations for Used (<a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>), WasGeneratedBy (<a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>), WasInvalidatedBy (<a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>), WasStartedBy (<a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>), WasEndedBy (<a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>). The figure also makes explicit associations with <em>time</em> for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.
+</p>
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<span class="figure" id="fig-figure-5-entities-and-activities-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/component1.png" alt="entities and activities"><br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component1">Figure 5<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component1"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Entities and Activities Component Overview (Informative)</span> 
+</span>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+   <section id="term-entity"> 
+      
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Entity</h4>
+
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-entity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </div>
+
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-entity">An <dfn title="dfn-Entity" id="dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">entity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-entity">entity(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N, </span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an entity; </li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about the fixed aspects of this entity.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 17<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-entity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The following expression</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
+</pre>
+states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>,  with type <span class="name">document</span> and version number <span class="name">2</span>. The attribute <span class="name">ex:version</span> is application specific, whereas the attribute <span class="name">type</span> (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.4.4</a>) is reserved in the <a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</a>.
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+    </section> 
+
+    <section id="term-Activity"> 
+      
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>Activity</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-activity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  </div>
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity"> An <dfn title="dfn-Activity" id="dfn-activity" class="internalDFN">activity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-activity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-activity">activity(id, st, et, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an activity;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime">startTime</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">st</span>) for the start of the activity;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime">endTime</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">et</span>) for the end of the activity;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this activity.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 18<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-activity"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The following expression</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, 2011-11-16T16:05:00, 2011-11-16T16:06:00,
+        [ ex:host="server.example.org", prov:type='ex:edit' ])
+</pre>
+<p>states the existence of an activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span>, start time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span>, and end time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span>, running on host <span class="name">server.example.org</span>, and of type <span class="name">edit</span>.  The attribute <span class="name">host</span>  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix <span class="name">ex</span>).  The attribute <span class="name">type</span> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-type"><span>Section 5.7.2.4</span></a>).</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<p>Further considerations:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>An activity is not an entity. This distinction is similar to the distinction between 
+'continuant' and 'occurrent' in logic [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>].
+</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Generation">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Generation</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-generation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </div>
+
+<p>Given that a generation is the completion of production of an entity, 
+it is instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p>
+</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-generation"><dfn title="wasGeneratedBy" id="dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN">Generation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasGeneratedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for a generation;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for a created entity; </li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity">activity</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that creates the entity;</li>
+
+<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> "generation time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity was completely created;</li>
+
+<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this generation.</li>
+</ul></div>
+<p>While each of <a href="#generation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#generation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="#generation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 19<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The following expressions</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">  wasGeneratedBy(e1, a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52, [ ex:port="p1" ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, 2001-10-26T10:00:00, [ ex:port="p2" ])
+</pre>
+<p>state the existence of two generations (with respective times <span class="name">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span> and <span class="name">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span>), at which new entities,  identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, were created by an
+activity,  identified by <span class="name">a1</span>.
+The first one was available  on port <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the other was available on port <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">port</span> are application specific.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 20<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+In some cases, we may want to record the time at which an entity was generated without having to specify the activity that generated it. To support this requirement, the activity element in generation is optional. Hence,  the following expression indicates the time at which an entity is generated, without naming the activity that did it.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">  wasGeneratedBy(e, -, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="term-Usage">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Usage</h4>
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-usage"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span>  (Note: This definition is formulated for a given usage; it is permitted for an activity to have used a same entity multiple times.)</p>
+
+<p>Given that a usage  is  the beginning of utilizing an entity, it is 
+instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-usage"><dfn title="used" id="dfn-used" class="internalDFN">Usage</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-used"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">used(id; a, e, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for a usage;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that used an entity;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity">entity</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the  entity being used;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> "usage time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity started to be used;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this usage.</li>
+</ul></div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#usage.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#usage.entity"><span class="attribute">entity</span></a>, <a href="#usage.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+<p>
+A reference to a given entity <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> appear in multiple usages that share
+ a given activity identifier. 
+</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 21<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-usage"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>The following usages</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">  used(a1, e1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ ex:parameter="p1" ])
+  used(a1, e2, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [ ex:parameter="p2" ])
+</pre>
+<p>state that the activity identified by <span class="name">a1</span> used two entities identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, at times <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span>, respectively; the first
+one was found as the value of parameter <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the second was found as value of parameter <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">parameter</span> is application specific.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Communication">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>Communication</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-communication"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the exchange of some unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </div>
+
+
+<p>A communication implies that activity  <span class="name">a2</span> is dependent on another <span class="name">a1</span>, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by <span class="name">a1</span> and used by <span class="name">a2</span>.</p>
+
+
+
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-wasInformedBy">
+A <dfn title="wasInformedBy" id="dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN">communication</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinformedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written as 
+<span class="pnExpression">wasInformedBy(id; a2, a1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has: 
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="communication.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier  identifying the relation;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed">informed</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) of the informed activity;
+</li><li><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant">informant</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) of the informant activity;
+</li><li><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this communication.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 22<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-communication"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+Consider two activities  <span class="name">a1</span> and <span class="name">a2</span>, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
+</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(a1, [ prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing" ])
+activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine paying" ])
+wasInformedBy(a2, a1)
+</pre>
+The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  <span class="name">a1</span> and used by  <span class="name">a2</span>; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
+</div>
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Start">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-trigger"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-starter" class="internalDFN">starter</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-starter"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>, that generated the trigger. </div>
+
+<p>Given that a start is when an activity is deemed to have started, it 
+is instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-start">An activity <dfn title="wasStartedBy" id="dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN">start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasstartedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasStartedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="start.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the activity start;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="start.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) for the started activity;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger">trigger</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="start.starter">starter</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (<span class="name">e</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span>: the <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was started; </li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity start.
+</li></ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#start.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#start.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="#start.starter"><span class="attribute">starter</span></a>, <a href="#start.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#start.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 23<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The following example contains the description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (a discussion), which was started at a specific time, and was triggered by an email message <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(e1, [ prov:type="email message"] )
+activity(a1, [ prov:type="Discuss" ])
+wasStartedBy(a1, e1, -, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
+</pre>
+Furthermore, if the message is also an input to the activity, this can be described as follows:
+<pre class="codeexample">used(a1, e1, -)
+</pre>
+<p>Alternatively, one can also describe the activity that generated the email message.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">activity(a0, [ prov:type="Write" ])
+wasGeneratedBy(e1, a0)
+wasStartedBy(a1, e1, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
+</pre>
+<p>If <span class="name">e1</span> is not known, it would also be valid to write:
+</p><pre class="codeexample">wasStartedBy(a1, -, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 24<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+In the following example, a race is started by a bang, and responsibility for this trigger is attributed to an agent 
+ <span class="name">ex:Bob</span>.
+</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:foot_race)
+entity(ex:bang)
+wasStartedBy(ex:foot_race, ex:bang, -, 2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00)
+agent(ex:Bob)
+wasAttributedTo(ex:bang, ex:Bob)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 25<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+In this example, filling the fuel tank was started as a consequence of
+observing low fuel. The trigger entity is unspecified, it could
+for instance have been the low fuel warning light, the fuel tank
+indicator needle position, or the engine not running properly.
+
+
+</p><pre class="codeexample" id="anexample-start4">activity(ex:filling-fuel)
+activity(ex:observing-low-fuel)
+
+agent(ex:driver, [ prov:type='prov:Person'  )
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:filling-fuel, ex:driver)
+wasAssociatedWith(ex:observing-low-fuel, ex:driver)
+
+wasStartedBy(ex:filling-fuel, -, ex:observing-low-fuel, -)
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p>The relations wasStartedBy and used are orthogonal, and thus need to be expressed independently, according to the situation being described.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-End">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</h4>
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-trigger"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-ender" class="internalDFN">ender</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-ender"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> that generated the trigger. </div>
+
+<p>Given that an end is when an activity is deemed to have ended, it is 
+instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-end">An activity <dfn title="wasEndedBy" id="dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN">end</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasendedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withAsn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasEndedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="end.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the activity end;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="end.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) for the ended activity;
+</li><li><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger">trigger</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity ending;
+</li><li><span class="attribute" id="end.ender">ender</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (<span class="name">e</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span>: the <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was ended; </li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity end.
+</li></ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>While each of <a href="#end.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#end.trigger"><span class="attribute">trigger</span></a>, <a href="#end.ender"><span class="attribute">ender</span></a>, <a href="#end.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#end.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 26<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-end"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The following example is a description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (editing) that was ended following an approval document <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(e1, [ prov:type="approval document" ])
+activity(a1, [ prov:type="Editing" ])
+wasEndedBy(a1, e1)
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-Invalidation">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.1.8 </span>Invalidation</h4>
+
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-invalidation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</div>
+
+<p>Given that an invalidation is the start  of destruction, cessation, or 
+expiry, it is instantaneous.</p>
+
+<p>
+Entities have a duration. Generation marks the beginning of an entity, whereas invalidation marks its end. 
+An entity's lifetime can end for different reasons:</p>
+<ul>
+<li> an entity was destroyed: e.g. a painting was destroyed by fire; a Web page is taken out of a site;
+</li><li> an entity was consumed: e.g. Bob ate all his soup, Alice ran out of gas when driving to work;
+</li><li> an entity expires: e.g. a "buy one beer, get one free" offer is valid during happy hour (7-8pm);
+</li><li> an entity is time limited: e.g. the BBC news site on April 3rd, 2012;
+</li><li> an entity attribute is changing: e.g. the traffic light changed from green to red.
+</li></ul>
+<p>In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the third case, there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the 
+green traffic light (an entity with a fixed aspect green light) became the
+red traffic light (another entity with a fixed aspect red light).
+</p>
+
+
+
+<p>
+</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-invalidation"><dfn title="wasInvalidatedBy" id="dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInvalidatedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for a invalidation;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier for the invalidated entity; </li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity">activity</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the activity that invalidated the entity;</li>
+
+<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> "invalidation time", the time at which the entity began to be invalidated;</li>
+
+<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this invalidation.</li>
+</ul></div>
+<p>While each of <a href="#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute">id</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 27<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation1"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+<em>The Painter</em>, a Picasso painting, is known to have been destroyed in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_artworks#20th_century">plane accident</a>.
+
+</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:The-Painter)
+agent(ex:Picasso)
+wasAttributedTo(ex:The-Painter, ex:Picasso)
+activity(ex:crash)
+wasInvalidatedBy(ex:The-Painter, ex:crash, 1998-09-03T01:31:00, [ ex:circumstances="plane accident" ])
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 28<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation2"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-04-03</span>
+contained a reference to a given news item
+ <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-17595024">bbc:news/uk-17595024</a>,
+but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.
+</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03)
+hadMember(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, bbc:news/uk-17595024)
+wasGeneratedBy  (ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T00:00:01)
+wasInvalidatedBy(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T23:59:59)
+</pre>
+
+We refer to example
+<a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 43</span></a>
+ for further descriptions of the BBC Web site, and to  <a href="#term-membership">Section 5.6.2</a> for a description of the relation <a title="hadMember" href="#dfn-hadmember" class="internalDFN">hadMember</a>.
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 29<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>
+In this example, the  "buy one beer, get one free" offer expired at the end of the happy hour.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
+wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)
+wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
+                 -,2012-03-10T18:00:00)
+</pre>
+<p>In contrast, in the following descriptions, Bob redeemed the offer 45 minutes before it expired, and got two beers.  
+</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
+wasAttributedTo(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, proprietor)
+activity(redeemOffer)
+entity(twoBeers)
+
+wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer, bob)
+used(redeemOffer,
+     buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour, 
+     2012-03-10T17:15:00)
+wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
+                 redeemOffer,
+                 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
+wasGeneratedBy(twoBeers,redeemOffer)
+</pre>
+<p>We see that the offer was both used to be converted into <span class="name">twoBeers</span> and invalidated by the <span class="name">redeemOffer</span> activity: in other words, the combined usage and invalidation indicate consumption of the offer.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="component2"> 
+<h3><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
+
+
+
+<p>The second component of PROV-DM is concerned with: <a title="derivation" href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivations</a> of <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> from other entities and derivation subtypes WasRevisionOf (<a>Revision</a>), WasQuotedFrom (<a>Quotation</a>), and HasPrimarySource (<a>Primary Source</a>).
+ <a href="#figure-component2">Figure 6</a> depicts the third component
+with PROV core structures in the yellow area, including two classes
+(<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and binary association WasDerivedFrom
+(<a>Derivation</a>). PROV extended structures are found outside this
+area. UML association classes express expanded n-ary relations.
+The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that the corresponding types are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a>.
+</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<span class="figure" id="fig-figure-6-derivation-component-overview-informative" style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="uml/component2.png" alt="derivation"><br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component2">Figure 6<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component2"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup> Derivation Component Overview (Informative)</span> 
+</span>
+</div>
+
+<section id="term-Derivation">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Derivation</h4>
+
+
+
+
+
+<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-derivation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</div>
+
+
+
+
+<p>According to <a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a>, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
+underpinning activity or activities performing the necessary action(s) resulting in such a derivation.  
+A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates two entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this activity can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the generated and used entities, respectively, can be provided, so as to make the derivation path, through usage, activity, and generation, explicit.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </p>
+
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivation">A <dfn title="wasDerivedFrom" id="dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN">derivation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-wasDerivedFrom">wasDerivedFrom(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier  for a derivation;</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the entity generated by the derivation;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the entity used by the derivation;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity">activity</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation">generation</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and activity (<span class="name">a</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage">usage</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and activity (<span class="name">a</span>);</li> 
+<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 30<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>The following descriptions are about derivations between  <span class="name">e2</span> and  <span class="name">e1</span>, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
+wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [ prov:type="physical transform" ])
+</pre>
+<p>The following description expresses that activity  <span class="name">a</span>, 
+using the entity <span class="name">e1</span> according to usage <span class="name">u1</span>,
+ derived the
+entity <span class="name">e2</span> and generated it according to generation
+ <span class="name">g2</span>. It is followed by descriptions for generation <span class="name">g2</span> and usage <span class="name">u1</span>.</p>
+<pre class="codeexample">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
+wasGeneratedBy(g2; e2, a, -)
+used(u1; a, e1, -)
+</pre>
+<p>With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the preceding entity <span class="name">e1</span> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity <span class="name">e2</span> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-revision">
+<h4><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>Revision</h4>
+
+<p><span class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-revision" class="internalDFN">revision</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-revision"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </span></p>
+
+
+<p>
+  The implication here is that
+     the resulting entity contains substantial content from the
+     original.
+A <dfn id="dfn-revision" class="internalDFN">revision</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-revision"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> relation is a kind of <a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">derivation</a> relation from a revised entity to a preceding  entity.
+The type of a revision relation is denoted by:
+<dfn title="dfn-prov:revision" id="dfn-prov:revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Revision</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN