* re-staged
authorjcheney@inf.ed.ac.uk
Thu, 11 Apr 2013 15:35:51 +0100
changeset 6130 3edb9a029518
parent 6129 057c642b9044
child 6131 77dfd95854c9
* re-staged
semantics/releases/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430/Overview.html
semantics/releases/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430/prov-sem.pdf
--- a/semantics/releases/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430/Overview.html	Thu Apr 11 15:31:52 2013 +0100
+++ b/semantics/releases/NOTE-prov-sem-20130430/Overview.html	Thu Apr 11 15:35:51 2013 +0100
@@ -91,6 +91,12 @@
     border: 1px solid #888;
     background: #fff;
 }
+.lemma {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #888;
+    background: #fff;
+}
 
 .proof {
     padding:    1em;
@@ -741,7 +747,7 @@
 div.MathJax_MathML {display: block}
 .MathJax_mmlExBox {display: block; overflow: hidden; height: 1px; width: 60ex; padding: 0; border: 0; margin: 0}
 </style><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--></head> 
-  <body><div id="MathJax_Message" style="display: none; "></div><div class="head">
+  <body><div class="head">
   <p>
     
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
@@ -758,9 +764,6 @@
       <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-sem/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-sem/</a></dd>
     
     
-      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/semantics/prov-sem.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/semantics/prov-sem.html</a></dd>
-    
     
     
     
@@ -801,7 +804,7 @@
     
   
   <hr>
-</div> 
+</div><div id="MathJax_Message" style="display: none; "></div> 
 
     <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
 <p>
@@ -817,7 +820,7 @@
 data model (called the <dfn id="dfn-naive-semantics">naive semantics</dfn>), viewing
 PROV-DM statements as atomic formulas in the sense of first-order
 logic, and viewing the constraints and inferences specified in
-PROV-CONSTRAINTS as a first-order theory. It is shown that valid PROv
+PROV-CONSTRAINTS as a first-order theory. It is shown that valid PROV
 instances (in the sense of PROV-CONSTRAINTS) correspond to satisfiable
 theories.
 This information may be useful to researchers or users of PROV to
@@ -864,6 +867,7 @@
 </ul>
 
 
+
         <p>
           This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note.
           
@@ -919,7 +923,9 @@
       <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2> 
 
 <p>
-Provenance is a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.
+Provenance is a record that describes the people, institutions,
+entities, and activities involved in producing, influencing, or
+delivering a piece of data or a thing. [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]
 This document complements
   the PROV-DM specification [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] that defines a data model for
   provenance on the Web, and the PROV-CONSTRAINTS specification
@@ -954,7 +960,7 @@
 </section>
 <p>The PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specifications give motivating examples that
 provide an intuition about the meaning of the constructs.  For some
-concepts, such as use, start, end, generation/invalidation, and
+concepts, such as use, start, end, generation, invalidation, and
 derivation, the meaning is either obvious or situation-dependent.
 However, during the development of PROV, the importance of additional
 concepts became evident, but the intuitive meaning or correct use of
@@ -974,27 +980,27 @@
 logic, principally model theory (though our use of these tools is lightweight).  This information may be useful to users for understanding the
 intent behind certain features of PROV, to researchers investigating
 richer forms of reasoning over provenance, or to future efforts
-building upon PROV.  It is intended as an exploration of <b>one</b> semantics for PROV, not a definitive specification of the  <b>only</b>
+building upon PROV.  It is intended as an exploration of <b>one</b> semantics for PROV, <b>not</b> a definitive specification of the  <b>only</b>
 semantics of PROV.  We provide a semantics that satisfies all
 of the constraints on valid PROV instances, and such that valid PROV
 instances correspond to satisfiable theories: every valid instance has
 a model, and vice versa.</p>
 
-<p> Although it is a work in progress, the naive semantics has some appealing
+<p> The <a href="#dfn-naive-semantics" class="internalDFN">naive semantics</a> has some appealing
 properties.  Specifically, it provides a declarative counterpart to
 the operational definition of validity taken in PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  In
 the specification, validity is defined via a normalization process
 followed by constraint checking on the normal form.  This approach was adopted
 to keep the specification closer to implementations, although other
 implementations are possible and allowed.  In addition to providing a
-naive semantics, this document shows that the operational
+<a href="#dfn-naive-semantics" class="internalDFN">naive semantics</a>, this document shows that the operational
 presentation of PROV validity checking is equivalent to the
 declarative presentation adopted here.  This could help justify
 alternative approaches to validity checking.</p>
 
 <p>This document mostly considers the semantics of PROV statements and
   instances.  PROV documents can consist of multiple instances, such
-  as named bundles. The semantics does not (as yet) cover general PROV documents, but the
+  as named bundles. The semantics do not cover general PROV documents, but the
   semantics can be used on each instance in a document separately,
   just as PROV-CONSTRAINTS specifies that each instance in a document
   is to be validated separately.
@@ -1003,7 +1009,16 @@
   The semantics of extensions of PROV, such as dictionaries
   [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>] and linking across bundles [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>], are
   beyond the scope of this document.  </p>
-  
+
+
+<p>This document has been reviewed by the Working Group, but the
+theorems and proofs have not been
+formally peer-reviewed in the sense of an academic paper.  Thus, 
+the Working Group believes this document is an appropriate starting
+point for future study of the semantics of PROV, but further work may
+be needed.
+</p>
+
 <section id="structure-of-this-document"> <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Structure of this document</h3> <p>
 
 </p>
@@ -1106,7 +1121,7 @@
 <h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span> Identifiers </h3>
 
 <p>A lowercase symbol <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-3-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-3">x,y,...</script> on its own denotes an identifier.
-Identifiers may or may not be URIs.  Identifiers are viewed as
+ Identifiers are viewed as
 variables from the point of view of logic.  Identifiers denote objects, and
 two different identifiers <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-4-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-4">x</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-5-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-5">y</script> may denote equal or different objects.  We write <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-6-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-6">Identifiers</script> for the
 set of identifiers of interest in a given situation (typically, the
@@ -1120,7 +1135,9 @@
 <p>We assume a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-7-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-7">Attributes</script> of attribute labels and a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-8-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-8">Values</script>
 of possible values of attributes.  To allow for the fact that some
 attributes can have undefined or multiple values, we sometimes use the set
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-9-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-9">P(Value)</script>, that is, the set of sets of values.
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-9-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-9">P(Values)</script>, that is, the set of sets of values.  Thus, we can use the
+empty set to stand for an undefined value and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-10-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>b</mi><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-10">\{a,b\}</script> to stand for
+the set of values of a two-valued attribute.
 </p> </section>
 
 
@@ -1128,8 +1145,8 @@
 <section id="times">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span> Times </h3>
 
-<p>We assume an ordered set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-10-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">≤</mo><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-10">(Times,\leq)</script> of time instants, where
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-11-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-11">Times \subseteq Val</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-12-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">≤</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-12">\leq</script> is a linear order.
+<p>We assume an ordered set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-11-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">≤</mo><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-11">(Times,\leq)</script> of time instants, where
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-12-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-12">Times \subseteq Values</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-13-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">≤</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-13">\leq</script> is a linear order.
 </p>
 
 <!--
@@ -1159,14 +1176,14 @@
 <section id="formulas">
 <h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Atomic Formulas</h3>
 
-<p>The following atomic formulas correspond to the statements of PROV-DM.  We assume that definitions 1-4 of PROV-CONSTRAINTS have been applied in order to expand all optional parameters; thus, we use uniform notation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-13-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-13">r(id,a_1,\ldots,a_n)</script> instead of the semicolon notation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-14-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">;</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-14">r(id;a_1,\ldots,a_n)</script>.
+<p>The following atomic formulas correspond to the statements of PROV-DM.  We assume that definitions 1-4 of PROV-CONSTRAINTS have been applied in order to expand all optional parameters; thus, we use uniform notation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-14-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-14">r(id,a_1,\ldots,a_n)</script> instead of the semicolon notation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-15-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">;</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-15">r(id;a_1,\ldots,a_n)</script>.
 </p>
 <p>Each parameter is either an identifier, a constant (e.g. a time or
-  other literal value in an attribute list), or a null symbol "-".
-  Placeholder symbols <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-15-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">−</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-15">-</script> can only appear in the specified arguments
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-16-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-16">pl</script> in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-17-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-17">wasAssociatedWith</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-18-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>u</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-18">a,g,u</script> in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-19-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-19">wasDerivedFrom</script>, as shown in the grammar below.
+  other literal value in an attribute list), or a null symbol "<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-16-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">−</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-16">-</script>".
+  Placeholder symbols "<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-17-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">−</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-17">-</script>" can only appear in the specified arguments
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-18-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-18">pl</script> in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-19-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-19">wasAssociatedWith</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-20-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>u</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-20">a,g,u</script> in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-21-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-21">wasDerivedFrom</script>, as shown in the grammar below.
 </p>
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-20-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mtable columnalign="right center left" rowspacing="4pt" columnspacing="1em"><mtr><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>r</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>x</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>y</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd><mi>r</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>S</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>s</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>z</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>h</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>M</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>x</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>y</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>x</mi><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-REL"><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mtext mathvariant="normal">strictlyPrecedes</mtext></mrow></mrow><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><mi>y</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>x</mi><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-REL"><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mtext mathvariant="normal">precedes</mtext></mrow></mrow><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><mi>y</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>n</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>N</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></mtd><mtd><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mtd><mtd><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>v</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>v</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">]</mo></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo 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 \newcommand{\precedes}{~\mathrel{\textrm{precedes}}~}
 \newcommand{\strictlyPrecedes}{~\mathrel{\textrm{strictlyPrecedes}}~}
   \begin{array}{rcl}
@@ -1209,28 +1226,28 @@
 </script>
 
 <div class="remark">
-  <p>We include the standard PROV collection types (<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-21-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-21">Collection</script> and
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-22-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-22">EmptyCollection</script>) and the membership relation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-23-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>h</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>M</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-23">hadMember</script>; however,
+  <p>We include the standard PROV collection types (<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-23-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-23">Collection</script> and
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-24-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-24">EmptyCollection</script>) and the membership relation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-25-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>h</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>M</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-25">hadMember</script>; however,
   we do not model dictionaries or the insertion or deletion relations
   in PROV-DICTIONARY [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>], since these are not part
   of the PROV recommendations.  If these features are incorporated
   into future standards, their semantics (and the soundness of the
   associated constraints) should be modeled.
-  We omit the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-24-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-24">prov</script> prefixes from the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-25-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-25">Collection</script> and
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-26-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-26">EmptyCollection</script> types.
+  We omit the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-26-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-26">prov</script> prefixes from the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-27-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-27">Collection</script> and
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-28-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-28">EmptyCollection</script> types.
   </p>
 
   <p>As stated in the Introduction, we do not explicitly model
   bundles or PROV documents; however, each instance can be viewed as
   a set of formulas and can be modeled separately.  The semantics of
   the standard features of PROV can be defined without talking about
-  multiple instances; however, the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-27-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-27">mentionOf</script> relation in
+  multiple instances; however, the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-29-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-29">mentionOf</script> relation in
   PROV-LINKS [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>] is intended to support linking across
-  bundles.  Future editions of PROV may incorporate <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-28-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-28">mentionOf</script> or
+  bundles.  Future editions of PROV may incorporate <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-30-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-30">mentionOf</script> or
   other cross-instance assertions, and if so this semantics should be
   generalized in order to provide a rationale for such an
   extension and to establish the soundness of constraints associated
-  with <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-29-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-29">mentionOf</script>. </p>
+  with <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-31-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-31">mentionOf</script>. </p>
 </div>
 </section>
 
@@ -1238,8 +1255,8 @@
 <h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>First-Order Formulas</h3>
 
 <p>We also consider the usual connectives and quantifiers of
-first-order logic [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>].</p>
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-30-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mtable columnalign="right center left" rowspacing="4pt" columnspacing="1em"><mtr><mtd><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>T</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>F</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>y</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi mathvariant="normal">¬</mi><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∨</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⇒</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi mathvariant="normal">∀</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi mathvariant="normal">∃</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd></mtr></mtable></math></span></span></div><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-30">
+first-order logic.</p>
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-32-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mtable columnalign="right center left" rowspacing="4pt" columnspacing="1em"><mtr><mtd><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">::=</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">_</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>T</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>F</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>y</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi mathvariant="normal">¬</mi><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∨</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⇒</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi mathvariant="normal">∀</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd></mtr><mtr><mtd></mtd><mtd><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false">|</mo></mrow></mtd><mtd><mi mathvariant="normal">∃</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></mtd></mtr></mtable></math></span></span></div><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-32">
 \begin{array}{rcl}
   \phi &{::=}& atomic\_formula\\
 & | & True\\
@@ -1274,56 +1291,66 @@
 <section id="structures">
 <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span> Structures and Interpretations </h2>
 
-<p> In this section we define mathematical structures <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-31-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-31">W</script> that can be used to
+<p> In this section we define mathematical structures <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-33-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-33">W</script> that can be used to
 interpret PROV formulas and instances.  A structure consists of a
 collection of sets, functions and relations.  The components of a
-structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-32-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-32">W</script> are given in the rest of the section in
-<em>components</em>, highlighted in boxes.
-
-
-</p><section id="things-1">
+structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-34-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-34">W</script> are given in the rest of the section in
+<em>components</em>, highlighted in boxes.</p>
+
+<div class="remark">
+  <p>We use the term "component" here in a different sense than in
+  PROV-DM.  Here, the components are parts of a large definition,
+  whereas PROV-DM defines six components that group different parts of
+  the PROV data model.</p>
+  </div>
+
+<section id="things-1">
 <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span> Things </h3> 
 
 <p><em>Things</em>  is a set of things in the situation being modeled.
-Each thing has an associates set of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-33-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-33">Events</script> and attributes whose
-values can change over time.  Different kinds of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-34-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-34">Events</script> are specified further below.
+Each thing has an associated set of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-35-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-35">Events</script> and attributes whose
+values can change over time.  Different kinds of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-36-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-36">Events</script> are specified further below.
 </p>
-<p>To model this, a structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-35-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-35">W</script> includes:
+<p>To model this, a structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-37-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-37">W</script> includes:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="things" data-count="1" data-title="Component 1 (things)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#things">Component 1 (things)</a></div><ol>
-  <li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-36-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-36">Things</script> of things</li>
-  <li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-37-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-37">Events</script> of events</li>
-  <li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-38-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-38">events : Things \to P(Events)</script> from things to
-  sets of events.</li>
-  <li>a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-39-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-39">value : Things \times Attributes \times Events \to
+  <li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-38-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-38">Things</script> of things</li>
+  <li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-39-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-39">Events</script> of events</li>
+  <li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-40-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-40">events : Things \to P(Events)</script> from things to
+associated   sets of events.</li>
+  <li>a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-41-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-41">value : Things \times Attributes \times Events \to
   P(Values)</script> giving the possible values of each attribute of a
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-40-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-40">Thing</script> at the instant of a given event.
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-42-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-42">Thing</script> at the instant of a given event.
 </li>
 <li>Attributes are only defined during the events of a thing, that
-is, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-41-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>T</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">≠</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-41">value(T,a,evt) \neq \emptyset</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-42-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>T</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-42">evt \in events(T)</script>.
+is, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-43-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>T</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">≠</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-43">value(T,a,evt) \neq \emptyset</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-44-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>T</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-44">evt \in events(T)</script>.
 </li></ol>
 </div>
 <p>
-The range of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-43-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-43">value</script> is the set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-44-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-44">P(Values)</script>, indicating that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-45-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-45">value</script>
-is essentially a multi-valued function that returns a set of values (possibly empty).    When <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-46-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-46">value(x,a,evt) =
-\emptyset</script>, we say that attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-47-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-47">a</script> is undefined for <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-48-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-48">x</script> at event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-49-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-49">evt</script>.</p>
+The range of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-45-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-45">value</script> is the set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-46-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-46">P(Values)</script>, indicating that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-47-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-47">value</script>
+is essentially a multi-valued function that returns a set of values (possibly empty).    When <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-48-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-48">value(x,a,evt) =
+\emptyset</script>, we say that attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-49-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-49">a</script> is undefined for <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-50-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-50">x</script> at event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-51-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-51">evt</script>.</p>
 
 <p>Note that this description does not say what the structure of a
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-50-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-50">Thing</script> is, only how it may be described in terms of its events
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-52-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-52">Thing</script> is, only how it may be described in terms of its events
 and attribute values.  A thing could be a record of fixed
 attribute values; it could be a bear; it could be the Royal Society;
-it could be a transcendental number like <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-51-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">π</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-51">\pi</script>.  All that matters from
-our point of view is that we know how to map the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-52-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-52">Thing</script> to its events and attribute mapping.
+it could be a transcendental number like <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-53-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">π</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-53">\pi</script>.  All that matters from
+our point of view is that we know how to map the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-54-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-54">Thing</script> to its events and attribute mapping.
 </p>
 
 
 <p>The identity of a Thing is not observable through its attributes or
-events, so it is possible for two different <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-53-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-53">Things</script> to be indistinguishable by their
-attribute values and events.  That is, if the set of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-54-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>0</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-54">Things = \{T_0,T_1\}</script> and the attributes are
-specified as <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-55-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>0</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-55">value(T_0,a,evt) = value(T_1,a,evt)</script> for each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-56-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-56">evt\in
-Events</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-57-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-57">a \in Attributes</script>, this does not imply that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-58-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>0</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-58">T_0 = T_1</script>.
+events, so it is possible for two different <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-55-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-55">Things</script> to be indistinguishable by their
+attribute values and events.  That is, if the set of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-56-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>0</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-56">Things = \{T_0,T_1\}</script> and the attributes are
+specified as <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-57-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>0</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-57">value(T_0,a,evt) = value(T_1,a,evt)</script> for each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-58-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-58">evt\in
+Events</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-59-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-59">a \in Attributes</script>, this does not imply that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-60-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>0</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>T</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-60">T_0 = T_1</script>.
 </p>
 
+<p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-61-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-61">Things</script> are associated with certain kinds of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-62-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-62">Objects</script> called <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-63-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-63">Entities</script>, defined in
+the next subsection.  Specifically, the function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-64-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-64">thingOf</script> associates
+an <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-65-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-65">Entity</script> to a <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-66-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-66">Thing</script>.
+</p>
 
 </section>
 
@@ -1331,17 +1358,17 @@
 <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span> Objects </h3>
 
 
-<p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-59-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-59">Things</script> are things in the world that have attributes that
-  can change over time.  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-60-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-60">Things</script> may not have distinguishing features
+<p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-67-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-67">Things</script> are things in the world that have attributes that
+  can change over time.  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-68-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-68">Things</script> may not have distinguishing features
   that are readily observable and permanent.  In PROV, we do not talk
-  explicitly about <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-61-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-61">Things</script>, but instead we talk about various objects
+  explicitly about <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-69-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-69">Things</script>, but instead we talk about various objects
   that have discrete, fixed features,  and relationships among these
-  objects. Some objects, called <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-62-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-62">Entities</script>, are associated with
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-63-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-63">Things</script>, and their fixed attributes need to match those of the
-  associated <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-64-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-64">Thing</script> during their common events.  Others correspond
+  objects. Some objects, called <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-70-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-70">Entities</script>, are associated with
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-71-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-71">Things</script>, and their fixed attributes need to match those of the
+  associated <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-72-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-72">Thing</script> during their common events.  Others correspond
   to agents, activities, or identifiable interactions among them.</p>  
 
-<p>In this section, we detail the different subsets of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-65-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-65">Objects</script>, and
+<p>In this section, we detail the different subsets of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-73-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-73">Objects</script>, and
 give disjointness constraints and associated functions.  Generally, these constraints are necessary to validate
 disjointness constraints from PROV-CONSTRAINTS [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].
 </p>
@@ -1354,29 +1381,29 @@
 </p>
 
 <div class="component" id="objects" data-count="2" data-title="Component 2 (objects)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#objects">Component 2 (objects)</a></div>
-  <ol><li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-66-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-66">Objects</script> 
-</li><li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-67-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-67">events : Objects \to P(Events)</script> from objects
+  <ol><li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-74-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-74">Objects</script> 
+</li><li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-75-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-75">events : Objects \to P(Events)</script> from objects
   to associated sets of events.
-</li><li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-68-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-68">value : Objects \times Attributes \to P(Values)</script>.
+</li><li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-76-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>V</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-76">value : Objects \times Attributes \to P(Values)</script>.
 </li></ol>
 </div>
 
-<p>Intuitively, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-69-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-69">events(e)</script> is the set of events in which <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-70-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-70">e</script> participated.  The set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-71-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-71">value(e,a)</script> is the set of values of attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-72-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-72">a</script> during the object's events.
+<p>Intuitively, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-77-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-77">events(e)</script> is the set of events in which <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-78-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-78">e</script> participated.  The set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-79-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-79">value(e,a)</script> is the set of values of attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-80-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-80">a</script> during the object's events.
 </p>
 
-<p>As with <em>Things</em>, the range of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-73-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-73">value</script> is sets of values,
-making <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-74-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-74">value</script> effectively a multivalued function.  It is also
+<p>As with <em>Things</em>, the range of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-81-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-81">value</script> is sets of values,
+making <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-82-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-82">value</script> effectively a multivalued function.  It is also
 possible to have two different objects that are indistinguishable by
-their attributes and time intervals.  Objects are not things, and the
-sets of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-75-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-75">Objects</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-76-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-76">Things</script> are disjoint; however, certain objects,
+their attributes and associated events.  Objects are not things, and the
+sets of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-83-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-83">Objects</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-84-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-84">Things</script> are disjoint; however, certain objects,
 namely entities, are associated with things.
 </p>
 
 <div class="remark">
   <p>
-  Disjointness between <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-77-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-77">Objects</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-78-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-78">Things</script> is not necessary but is
+  Disjointness between <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-85-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-85">Objects</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-86-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-86">Things</script> is not necessary but is
   assumed in order to avoid confusion between the different categories
-  (time-varying <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-79-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-79">Things</script> vs fixed <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-80-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-80">Objects</script>).
+  (time-varying <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-87-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-87">Things</script> vs fixed <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-88-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-88">Objects</script>).
   </p>
   </div>
   
@@ -1387,11 +1414,11 @@
   thing. We assume:</p>
 
 <div class="component" id="entities" data-count="3" data-title="Component 3 (entities)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#entities">Component 3 (entities)</a></div>
-  <ol><li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-81-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-81">Entities \subseteq Objects</script> of entities, disjoint from <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-82-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-82">Activities</script> below.
-</li><li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-83-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-83">thingOf : Entities \to Things</script> that associates
-  each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-84-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-84">Entity</script> <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-85-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-85">e</script> with a <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-86-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-86">Thing</script>, such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-87-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-87">events(e) \subseteq
-  events(thingOf(e))</script> and for each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-88-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-88">evt \in
-  events(e)</script> and for each attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-89-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-89">a</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-90-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-90">value(e,a)
+  <ol><li> a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-89-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-89">Entities \subseteq Objects</script> of entities, disjoint from <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-90-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-90">Activities</script> below.
+</li><li> a function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-91-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-91">thingOf : Entities \to Things</script> that associates
+  each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-92-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-92">Entity</script> <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-93-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-93">e</script> with a <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-94-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-94">Thing</script>, such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-95-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-95">events(e) \subseteq
+  events(thingOf(e))</script> and for each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-96-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-96">evt \in
+  events(e)</script> and for each attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-97-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-97">a</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-98-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-98">value(e,a)
   \subseteq value(thingOf(e),a,evt)</script>.  
 </li>
 <!--<li>a relation $SpecializationOf \subseteq Entities \times Entities$
@@ -1411,44 +1438,44 @@
 
 <div class="remark"><p> Although both entities and things can have
   undefined or multiple attribute values, their meaning is slightly
-  different: for a thing, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-91-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-91">value(x,a,evt) = \emptyset</script> means that the
-  attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-92-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-92">a</script> has no value at event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-93-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-93">evt</script>, whereas for an entity,
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-94-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-94">value(x,a) = \emptyset</script> only means that the thing associated to
-  entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-95-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-95">x</script> need not have a
-  fixed value for <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-96-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-96">a</script> during the events of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-97-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-97">x</script>.  This does not imply
-  that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-98-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-98">value(thingOf(e),a,evt) = \emptyset</script> when <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-99-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-99">evt \in events(e)</script>.
+  different: for a thing, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-99-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-99">value(x,a,evt) = \emptyset</script> means that the
+  attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-100-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-100">a</script> has no value at event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-101-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-101">evt</script>, whereas for an entity,
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-102-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-102">value(x,a) = \emptyset</script> only means that the thing associated to
+  entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-103-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-103">x</script> need not have a
+  fixed value for <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-104-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-104">a</script> during the events of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-105-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-105">x</script>.  This does not imply
+  that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-106-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-106">value(thingOf(e),a,evt) = \emptyset</script> when <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-107-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-107">evt \in events(e)</script>.
   </p>
 
   <p>Furthermore, all of the attribute values of the entity must
   be present in the associated thing throughout the events of the
-  entity.  For example, suppose <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-100-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-100">value(thingOf(e),a,evt)</script> is <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-101-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>1</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-101">\{1\}</script> at
-  some event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-102-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-102"> evt \in events(e)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-103-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>2</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-103">value(thingOf(e),a,evt') = \{2\}</script> at
-  some other event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-104-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-104">evt'</script>.  Then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-105-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-105">value(e,a)</script> must be <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-106-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-106">\emptyset</script> because
+  entity.  For example, suppose <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-108-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-108">value(thingOf(e),a,evt)</script> is <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-109-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>1</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-109">\{1\}</script> at
+  some event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-110-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-110"> evt \in events(e)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-111-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>2</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-111">value(thingOf(e),a,evt') = \{2\}</script> at
+  some other event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-112-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-112">evt'</script>.  Then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-113-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-113">value(e,a)</script> must be <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-114-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-114">\emptyset</script> because
   there is no other set of values that is simultaneously contained in
-  both <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-107-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>1</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-107">\{1\}</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-108-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>2</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-108">\{2\}</script>.  </p> </div>
+  both <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-115-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>1</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-115">\{1\}</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-116-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>2</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-116">\{2\}</script>.  </p> </div>
 
 
 
 <div class="remark">
   <p>
-  In the above description of how <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-109-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-109">Entities</script> relate to <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-110-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-110">Things</script>, we
-  require  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-111-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-111">value(e,a) \subseteq
-  value(thingOf(e),a,evt)</script> whenever <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-112-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-112">evt \in events(e)</script>.  Intuitively, this means that if we are
-  talking about a <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-113-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-113">Thing</script> indirectly by describing an <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-114-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-114">Entity</script>, then
-  any attributes we ascribe to the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-115-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-115">Entity</script> must also describe the
-  associated <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-116-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-116">Thing</script> during their common events.  Attributes of both
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-117-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-117">Entities</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-118-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-118">Things</script> are multi-valued, so there is no
+  In the above description of how <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-117-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-117">Entities</script> relate to <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-118-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-118">Things</script>, we
+  require  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-119-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-119">value(e,a) \subseteq
+  value(thingOf(e),a,evt)</script> whenever <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-120-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-120">evt \in events(e)</script>.  Intuitively, this means that if we are
+  talking about a <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-121-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-121">Thing</script> indirectly by describing an <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-122-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-122">Entity</script>, then
+  any attributes we ascribe to the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-123-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-123">Entity</script> must also describe the
+  associated <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-124-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-124">Thing</script> during their common events.  Attributes of both
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-125-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-125">Entities</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-126-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-126">Things</script> are multi-valued, so there is no
   inconsistency in saying that an entity has two different values for
   some attribute.  In some
   situations, further uniqueness constraints or range constraints
   could be imposed on attributes.
   </p>
-  <p>Only <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-119-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-119">Entities</script> are associated with <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-120-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-120">Things</script>, and this
+  <p>Only <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-127-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-127">Entities</script> are associated with <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-128-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-128">Things</script>, and this
   association is
-  necessary to provide an interpretation for the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-121-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-121">alternateOf</script> and
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-122-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>z</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-122">specializationOf</script> relations.  It might also make sense
-  to associate <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-123-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-123">Agents</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-124-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-124">Activities</script>, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-125-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-125">Interactions</script> with
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-126-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-126">Things</script>, or with some other structures; however, this is not
+  necessary to provide an interpretation for the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-129-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-129">alternateOf</script> and
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-130-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>z</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-130">specializationOf</script> relations.  It might also make sense
+  to associate <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-131-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-131">Agents</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-132-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-132">Activities</script>, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-133-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-133">Interactions</script> with
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-134-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-134">Things</script>, or with some other structures; however, this is not
   necessary to model any of the current features of PROV, so in the
   interest of simplicity we do not do this.
   </p>
@@ -1459,7 +1486,7 @@
 <p>We identify a specific subset of the entities called
   <em>plans</em>:</p>
 <div class="component" id="plans" data-count="4" data-title="Component 4 (plans)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#plans">Component 4 (plans)</a></div>
- <p> A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-127-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>P</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-127">Plans \subseteq Entities</script> of plans.</p>
+ <p> A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-135-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>P</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-135">Plans \subseteq Entities</script> of plans.</p>
   </div>
 </section>
 
@@ -1468,10 +1495,9 @@
   <p>We identify another specific subset of the entities called
   <em>collections</em>, with the following associated structure:</p>
   <div class="component" id="collections" data-count="5" data-title="Component 5 (collections)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#collections">Component 5 (collections)</a></div>
-    <ul><li>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-128-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-128">Collections \subseteq Entities</script></li>
-    <li>A membership relation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-129-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-129">Contains\subseteq Collections \times Entities</script>
-  indicating when an entity is a member of another (collection)
-  entity.</li>
+    <ul><li>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-136-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-136">Collections \subseteq Entities</script></li>
+    <li>A membership function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-137-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>P</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-137">members : Collections \to P( Entities)</script>
+mapping each collection to its set of members.</li>
   </ul>
     </div>
   </section>
@@ -1481,13 +1507,14 @@
 <h4><span class="secno">3.2.2 </span> Activities </h4>
 
 
-<p>An <em>activity</em> is an object that encompasses a set of events.  We introduce:
+<p>An <em>activity</em> is an object corresponding to a continuing
+    process rather than an evolving thing.  We introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="activities" data-count="6" data-title="Component 6 (activities)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#activities">Component 6 (activities)</a></div>
-  <ol><li>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-130-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-130">Activities \subseteq Objects</script> of activities.</li>
-  <li>Functions <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-131-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-131">startTime : Activities \to Times</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-132-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-132">endTime
+  <ol><li>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-138-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-138">Activities \subseteq Objects</script> of activities.</li>
+  <li>Functions <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-139-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-139">startTime : Activities \to Times</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-140-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-140">endTime
   :Activities \to Times</script> giving the start and end time of each activity.</li>
-  <li> Activities are disjoint from Entities: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-133-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-133">Entities\cap Activities
+  <li> Activities are disjoint from Entities: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-141-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-141">Entities\cap Activities
   = \emptyset</script>.</li>
   </ol>
 </div></section>
@@ -1504,7 +1531,7 @@
   entities and activities are disjoint.  We introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="agents" data-count="7" data-title="Component 7 (agents)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#agents">Component 7 (agents)</a></div>
-  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-134-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-134">Agents \subseteq Objects</script> of agents.</p>
+  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-142-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-142">Agents \subseteq Objects</script> of agents.</p>
   </div>
   <div class="remark">
     <p>There is no requirement that every agent is either an activity
@@ -1515,26 +1542,26 @@
 <section id="influences-1">
 <h4><span class="secno">3.2.4 </span> Influences </h4>
 
-<p>We consider a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-135-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-135">Influences \subseteq Objects</script> which has disjoint
+<p>We consider a set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-143-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-143">Influences \subseteq Objects</script> which has disjoint
   subsets
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-136-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-136">Events</script> connecting entities and activities,
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-137-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-137">Associations</script> between agents and activities,
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-138-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-138">Attributions</script> between entities and agents,
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-139-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-139">Communications</script> between pairs of activities,
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-140-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-140">Delegations</script> between pairs of agents, and
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-141-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-141">Derivations</script> that describe chains of generation and usage
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-144-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-144">Events</script> connecting entities and activities,
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-145-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-145">Associations</script> between agents and activities,
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-146-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-146">Attributions</script> between entities and agents,
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-147-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-147">Communications</script> between pairs of activities,
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-148-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-148">Delegations</script> between pairs of agents, and
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-149-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-149">Derivations</script> that describe chains of generation and usage
   steps.  These kinds of influences are discussed further below.  Influences are disjoint from entities, activities and agents.
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="influences" data-count="8" data-title="Component 8 (influences)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#influences">Component 8 (influences)</a></div>
-  <ol><li> A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-142-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-142">Influences = Events \cup Associations \cup
+  <ol><li> A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-150-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-150">Influences = Events \cup Associations \cup
   Communications \cup Delegations \cup Derivations \subseteq Objects</script>
 </li>
-<li> The sets <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-143-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-143">Events</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-144-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-144">Associations</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-145-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-145">Communications</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-146-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-146">Delegations</script>
-  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-147-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-147">Derivations</script> are all pairwise disjoint.
+<li> The sets <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-151-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-151">Events</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-152-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-152">Associations</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-153-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-153">Communications</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-154-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-154">Delegations</script>
+  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-155-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-155">Derivations</script> are all pairwise disjoint.
 </li><li> Influences are disjoint from entities, agents and
-activities:  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-148-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-148">Influences \cap (Entities \cup Activities \cup Agents) = \emptyset</script>
+activities:  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-156-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-156">Influences \cap (Entities \cup Activities \cup Agents) = \emptyset</script>
 </li>
-<li>An associated function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-149-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-149">influenced : Influences \to
+<li>An associated function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-157-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-157">influenced : Influences \to
   Objects \times Objects</script> giving the source and target of each influence.</li>
 </ol>
 </div>
@@ -1543,37 +1570,37 @@
 <section id="events-1">
 <h5><span class="secno">3.2.4.1 </span> Events </h5>
 
-<p>An <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-150-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-150">Event</script> is an influence whose events is a single time
-instant, and relates an activity to an entity (which could be an
+<p>An <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-158-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-158">Event</script> is an instantaneous influence that relates an activity
+to an entity (either of which could also be an
 agent).  Events have types including usage, generation, invalidation, starting and ending.  Events are instantaneous.  We introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="events" data-count="9" data-title="Component 9 (events)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#events">Component 9 (events)</a></div>
-<ol><li> A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-151-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-151">Events \subseteq Influences</script> of events, partitioned
-  into disjoint subsets <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-152-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>S</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-152">Starts, Ends, Generations, Usages,
+<ol><li> A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-159-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-159">Events \subseteq Influences</script> of events, partitioned
+  into disjoint subsets <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-160-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>S</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-160">Starts, Ends, Generations, Usages,
   Invalidations</script>.
-</li><li> A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-153-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-153">time : Events \to Times</script>.
+</li><li> A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-161-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-161">time : Events \to Times</script>.
 </li>
-<li> A quasi-ordering on events <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-154-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">⪯⊂</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-154">\preceq \subset Events \times
-Events</script>.  We write <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-155-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">≺</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-155">e \prec e'</script> when <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-156-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-156">e \preceq e'</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-157-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">⪯̸</mo><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-157">e'
+<li> A quasi-ordering on events <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-162-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">⪯⊂</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-162">\preceq \subset Events \times
+Events</script>.  We write <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-163-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">≺</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-163">e \prec e'</script> when <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-164-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-164">e \preceq e'</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-165-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">⪯̸</mo><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-165">e'
 \not\preceq e</script> hold.
 </li>
-<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-158-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>S</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-158">started : Starts \to Activities \times Entities \times
-Activities</script>, such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-159-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-159">started(st) = (a,e,a')</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-160-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-160">start \in
+<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-166-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>S</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-166">started : Starts \to Activities \times Entities \times
+Activities</script>, such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-167-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-167">started(start) = (a,e,a')</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-168-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-168">start \in
 events(a) \cap events(e) \cap events(a')</script>.
 </li>
-<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-161-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-161">ended : Ends \to Activities \times Entities \times Activities</script>, such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-162-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-162">ended(end) = (a,e,a')</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-163-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-163">end \in
+<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-169-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-169">ended : Ends \to Activities \times Entities \times Activities</script>, such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-170-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-170">ended(end) = (a,e,a')</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-171-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-171">end \in
 events(a) \cap events(e) \cap events(a')</script>.
 </li>
-<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-164-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-164">used : Usages \to Activities \times Entities</script> such
-that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-165-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-165">used(use) = (a,e)</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-166-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-166">use \in
+<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-172-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-172">used : Usages \to Activities \times Entities</script> such
+that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-173-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-173">used(use) = (a,e)</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-174-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-174">use \in
 events(a) \cap events(e)</script>.
 </li>
-<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-167-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-167">generated : Generations \to Entities \times
-Activities</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-168-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-168">generated(gen) = (a,e)</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-169-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-169">gen \in
+<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-175-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-175">generated : Generations \to Entities \times
+Activities</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-176-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-176">generated(gen) = (a,e)</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-177-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-177">gen \in
 events(a) \cap events(e)</script>.
 </li>
-<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-170-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-170">invalidated : Invalidations \to Entities \times
-Activities</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-171-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-171">invalidated(inv) = (a,e)</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-172-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-172">inv \in
+<li>A function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-178-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-178">invalidated : Invalidations \to Entities \times
+Activities</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-179-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-179">invalidated(inv) = (a,e)</script> implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-180-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∩</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-180">inv \in
 events(a) \cap events(e)</script>.
 </li>
 </ol>
@@ -1583,12 +1610,12 @@
 
 <h5><span class="secno">3.2.4.2 </span> Associations </h5>
 
-<p>An <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-173-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-173">Association</script> is an influence relating an agent to an activity
+<p>An <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-181-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-181">Association</script> is an influence relating an agent to an activity
 and optional plan.  To model associations, we introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="associations" data-count="10" data-title="Component 10 (associations)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#associations">Component 10 (associations)</a></div>
-  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-174-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-174">Associations \subseteq Influences</script> with associated
-  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-175-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>P</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>s</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">⊥</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-175">associatedWith : Associations \to  Agents \times Activities \times Plans_\bot</script>.
+  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-182-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-182">Associations \subseteq Influences</script> with associated
+  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-183-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>P</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>s</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">⊥</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-183">associatedWith : Associations \to  Agents \times Activities \times Plans_\bot</script>.
 </p>
   </div>
   </section>
@@ -1596,23 +1623,23 @@
 
 <h5><span class="secno">3.2.4.3 </span> Attributions </h5>
 
-<p>An <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-176-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-176">Attribution</script> is an influence relating an entity to an agent.  To model attributions, we introduce:
+<p>An <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-184-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-184">Attribution</script> is an influence relating an entity to an agent.  To model attributions, we introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="attributions" data-count="11" data-title="Component 11 (attributions)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#attributions">Component 11 (attributions)</a></div>
-  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-177-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-177">Attributions \subseteq Influences</script> with associated
-  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-178-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-178">attributedTo : Attributions \to Entities \times Agents</script>.
+  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-185-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-185">Attributions \subseteq Influences</script> with associated
+  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-186-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-186">attributedTo : Attributions \to Entities \times Agents</script>.
 </p>
   </div>
   
 </section>
   <section id="communications-1">
   <h5><span class="secno">3.2.4.4 </span>Communications</h5>
-  <p>A <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-179-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-179">Communication</script> is an influence indicating exchange of
+  <p>A <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-187-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-187">Communication</script> is an influence indicating exchange of
   information between activities.  To model communications, we introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="communications" data-count="12" data-title="Component 12 (communications)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#communications">Component 12 (communications)</a></div>
-  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-180-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-180">Communications \subseteq Influences</script> with associated
-  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-181-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-181">communicated : Communications \to Activities \times Activities</script>.
+  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-188-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-188">Communications \subseteq Influences</script> with associated
+  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-189-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-189">communicated : Communications \to Activities \times Activities</script>.
 </p>
   </div>
   
@@ -1620,12 +1647,12 @@
 </section>
   <section id="delegations-1">
   <h5><span class="secno">3.2.4.5 </span>Delegations</h5>
-<p>A <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-182-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-182">Delegation</script> is an influence relating  two agents.  To
+<p>A <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-190-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-190">Delegation</script> is an influence relating  two agents.  To
   model delegations, we introduce:
 </p>
 <div class="component" id="delegations" data-count="13" data-title="Component 13 (delegations)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegations">Component 13 (delegations)</a></div>
-  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-183-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-183">Delegations \subseteq Influences</script> and associated function
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-184-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-184">actedFor : Delegations \to Agents \times Agents \times Activities</script>
+  <p>A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-191-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-191">Delegations \subseteq Influences</script> and associated function
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-192-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">×</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-192">actedFor : Delegations \to Agents \times Agents \times Activities</script>
 </p>
   </div>
   
@@ -1634,60 +1661,60 @@
   
   <h5><span class="secno">3.2.4.6 </span> Derivations </h5>
 
-<p>A <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-185-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-185">Derivation</script> is an influence chaining one or more
+<p>A <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-193-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-193">Derivation</script> is an influence chaining one or more
   generation and use steps.  To model derivations, we introduce an
   auxiliary notion of <em>derivation path</em>.  These paths are of the form </p>
 
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-186-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>g</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>u</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mn>0</mn></msub></math></span></span></div><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-186">ent_n\cdot g_n\cdot  act_n\cdot  u_n\cdot  ent_{n-1}\cdot  ...\cdot
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-194-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>g</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>u</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mn>0</mn></msub></math></span></span></div><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-194">ent_n\cdot g_n\cdot  act_n\cdot  u_n\cdot  ent_{n-1}\cdot  ...\cdot
 ent_1\cdot  g_1\cdot  act_1\cdot  u_1\cdot  ent_0</script>
 
-<p>where the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-187-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-187">ent_i</script> are entities, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-188-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-188">act_i</script> are activities, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-189-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>g</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-189">g_i</script> are generations, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-190-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>u</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-190">u_i</script> are usages.
+<p>where the <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-195-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-195">ent_i</script> are entities, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-196-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><msub><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-196">act_i</script> are activities, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-197-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>g</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-197">g_i</script> are generations, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-198-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>u</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-198">u_i</script> are usages.
 </p>
 <p>Formally, we consider the (regular) language:
 </p>
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-191-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">+</mo></msup></math></span></span></div><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-191">DerivationPaths = Entities \cdot (Generations \cdot Activities \cdot
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><div class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-199-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">+</mo></msup></math></span></span></div><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-199">DerivationPaths = Entities \cdot (Generations \cdot Activities \cdot
 Usages \cdot Entities)^+</script>
 <p>with the constraints that for each derivation path:
 </p>
 <ul>
-<li>for each substring <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-192-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-192">ent\cdot g \cdot act</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-193-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-193">generated(g) = (ent,act)</script>, and
+<li>for each substring <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-200-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-200">ent\cdot g \cdot act</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-201-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-201">generated(g) = (ent,act)</script>, and
 </li>
-<li>for each substring <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-194-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-194">act \cdot u \cdot ent</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-195-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-195">used(u) = (act,ent)</script>.
+<li>for each substring <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-202-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-202">act \cdot u \cdot ent</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-203-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-203">used(u) = (act,ent)</script>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 
 <div class="component" id="derivations" data-count="14" data-title="Component 14 (derivations)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivations">Component 14 (derivations)</a></div>
-<p>  A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-196-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-196">Derivations \subseteq Influences</script> with an associated
-  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-197-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-197">derivationPath : Derivations \to
+<p>  A set <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-204-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊆</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-204">Derivations \subseteq Influences</script> with an associated
+  function <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-205-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-205">derivationPath : Derivations \to
 DerivationPaths</script>  linking each derivation to a derivation path.  </p>
 <p></p>
 </div>
 
 <div class="remark">
   <p>
-  The <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-198-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-198">derivationPath</script> function links each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-199-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-199"> d \in Derivations</script> to a
+  The <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-206-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-206">derivationPath</script> function links each <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-207-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-207"> d \in Derivations</script> to a
   derivation path.  A derivation has exactly one associated derivation
   path.  However, if the PROV-N statement <span class="name">wasDerivedFrom(e_2,e_1,-,-,-)</span> is asserted in an
-  instance, there may be multiple derivation paths linking <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-200-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-200">e_2</script> to
-  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-201-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-201">e_1</script>, each corresponding to a different path, identified by different
-  derivations <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-202-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-202">d \in Derivations</script>.
+  instance, there may be multiple derivation paths linking <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-208-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-208">e_2</script> to
+  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-209-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-209">e_1</script>, each corresponding to a different path, identified by different
+  derivations <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-210-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-210">d \in Derivations</script>.
   </p>
 
   <p>A derivation path implies the existence of at least one chained generation
   and use step.  However, not all such potential derivation paths are associated
   with derivations; there can (and in general will) be many such paths
   that are not associated with derivation steps.  In other words, because we require derivations to be
-  explicitly assocated with derivation paths, it is not sound to infer
+  explicitly associated with derivation paths, it is not sound to infer
   the existence of a derivation from the existence of an 
   alternating generation/use chain.
   </p>
 <p>
   The reason why we need paths and not just individual derivation
-  steps is to reflect that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-203-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-203">wasDerivedFrom(id,e_2,e_1,-,-,-,attrs)</script> formulas can
+  steps is to reflect that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-211-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-211">wasDerivedFrom(id,e_2,e_1,-,-,-,attrs)</script> formulas can
   represent multiple derivation steps.  However, there is no way to
-  express a multi-step derivation path in PROV: any valid PROV
-  instance turns out to have a model in which all derivation paths are
+  force a derivation to take multiple steps.  Any valid PROV
+  instance has a model in which all derivation paths are
   one-step.</p></div>
   
 </section>
@@ -1705,138 +1732,143 @@
     
   <ol>
     <li id="axiom1">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-204-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-204">generated(g) = (e,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-205-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-205">used(u) = (a_2,e)</script> then there
-    exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-206-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-206">c \in Communications</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-207-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-207">communicated(c) = (a_2,a_1)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-212-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-212">generated(g) = (e,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-213-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-213">used(u) = (a_2,e)</script> then there
+    exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-214-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-214">c \in Communications</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-215-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-215">communicated(c) = (a_2,a_1)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom2">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-208-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-208">e \in Entities</script> then there exist <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-209-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-209">gen,inv,a,a'</script> such that
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-210-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-210">generated(gen) = (e,a)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-211-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-211">invalidated(inv) = (e,a')</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-216-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-216">e \in Entities</script> then there exist <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-217-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-217">gen,inv,a,a'</script> such that
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-218-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-218">generated(gen) = (e,a)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-219-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-219">invalidated(inv) = (e,a')</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom3">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-212-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-212">started(start) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then there exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-213-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-213">gen</script> such
-    that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-214-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-214">generated(gen) = (e,a_1)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-220-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-220">started(start) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then there exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-221-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-221">gen</script> such
+    that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-222-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-222">generated(gen) = (e,a_1)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom4">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-215-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-215">ended(end) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then there exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-216-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-216">gen</script> such
-    that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-217-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-217">generated(gen) = (e,a_1)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-223-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-223">ended(end) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then there exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-224-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-224">gen</script> such
+    that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-225-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-225">generated(gen) = (e,a_1)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom5">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-218-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-218">d \in Derivations</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-219-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>R</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-219">prov:Revision \in
-    value(d,prov:type)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-220-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-220">derivationPath(deriv) = e_2 \cdot w \cdot
-    e_1</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-221-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-221">thingOf(e_1) = thingOf(e_2)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-226-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-226">d \in Derivations</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-227-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>R</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-227">prov:Revision \in
+    value(d,prov:type)</script> and there exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-228-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">∪</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi><msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∗</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-228">w \in (Generations \cup
+    Activities \cup Uses \cup Entities)^* </script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-229-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-229">derivationPath(deriv) = e_2 \cdot w \cdot
+    e_1 \in DerivationPaths</script>  then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-230-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-230">thingOf(e_1) = thingOf(e_2)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom6">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-222-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-222">attributedTo(att) = (e,ag)</script> then there exist <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-223-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-223">gen</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-224-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-224">assoc</script>
-    such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-225-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-225">generated(gen) = (e,a)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-226-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-226">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-231-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-231">attributedTo(att) = (e,ag)</script> then there exist <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-232-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-232">gen</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-233-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-233">assoc</script>
+    and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-234-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-234">a</script>
+    such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-235-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-235">generated(gen) = (e,a)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-236-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-236">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom7">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-227-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-227">actedFor(deleg) = (ag_2,ag_1,act)</script> then there exist
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-228-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-228">assoc_1,assoc_2,pl_1,pl_2</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-229-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-229">associatedWith(assoc_1) = (ag_1,act,pl_1)</script>
-    and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-230-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-230">associatedWith(assoc_2) = (ag_2,act,pl_2)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-237-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-237">actedFor(deleg) = (ag_2,ag_1,act)</script> then there exist
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-238-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-238">assoc_1,assoc_2,pl_1,pl_2</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-239-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-239">associatedWith(assoc_1) = (ag_1,act,pl_1)</script>
+    and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-240-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><msub><mi>c</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-240">associatedWith(assoc_2) = (ag_2,act,pl_2)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom8">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-231-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-231">generated(id) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-232-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-232">influenced(id) = (e,a)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-241-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-241">generated(id) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-242-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-242">influenced(id) = (e,a)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom9">
-        If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-233-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-233">used(id) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-234-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-234">influenced(id) = (e,a)</script>.
+        If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-243-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-243">used(id) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-244-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-244">influenced(id) = (e,a)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom10">
-            If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-235-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-235">communicated(id) = (a_2,a_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-236-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-236">influenced(id) = (a_2,a_1)</script>.
+            If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-245-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-245">communicated(id) = (a_2,a_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-246-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-246">influenced(id) = (a_2,a_1)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom11">
-     If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-237-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-237">started(id) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-238-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-238">influenced(id) = (a_2,e)</script>.
+     If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-247-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-247">started(id) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-248-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-248">influenced(id) = (a_2,e)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom12">
-         If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-239-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-239">ended(id) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-240-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-240">influenced(id) = (a_2,e)</script>.
+         If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-249-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-249">ended(id) = (a_2,e,a_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-250-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-250">influenced(id) = (a_2,e)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom13">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-241-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-241">invalidated(id) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-242-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-242">influenced(id) = (e,a)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-251-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-251">invalidated(id) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-252-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-252">influenced(id) = (e,a)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom14">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-243-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-243">derivationPath(id) = e_2 \cdot w \cdot e_1</script> then
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-244-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-244">influenced(id) = (e_2,e_1)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-253-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-253">derivationPath(id) = e_2 \cdot w \cdot e_1</script> then
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-254-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-254">influenced(id) = (e_2,e_1)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom15">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-245-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-245">attributedTo(id) = (e,ag)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-246-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-246">influenced(id) = (e,ag)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-255-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-255">attributedTo(id) = (e,ag)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-256-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-256">influenced(id) = (e,ag)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom16">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-247-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-247">associatedWith(id) = (a,ag,pl)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-248-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-248">influenced(id) = (a,ag)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-257-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-257">associatedWith(id) = (a,ag,pl)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-258-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-258">influenced(id) = (a,ag)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom17">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-249-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-249">actedFor(id) = (ag_2,ag_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-250-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-250">influenced(id) = (ag_2,ag_1)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-259-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-259">actedFor(id) = (ag_2,ag_1)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-260-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-260">influenced(id) = (ag_2,ag_1)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom18">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-251-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msup><mi>n</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-251">generated(gen) = (e,a) = generated(gen')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-252-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msup><mi>n</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-252">gen = gen'</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-261-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msup><mi>n</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-261">generated(gen) = (e,a) = generated(gen')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-262-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msup><mi>n</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-262">gen = gen'</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom19">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-253-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>v</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-253">invalidated(inv) = (e,a) = invalidated(inv')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-254-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>v</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-254">inv=inv'</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-263-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>v</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-263">invalidated(inv) = (e,a) = invalidated(inv')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-264-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>v</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-264">inv=inv'</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom20">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-255-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-255">started(st) = (a,e_1,a')</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-256-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-256">started(st') = (a,e_2,a')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-257-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>s</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-257">st=st'</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-265-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-265">started(st) = (a,e_1,a')</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-266-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-266">started(st') = (a,e_2,a')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-267-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>s</mi><msup><mi>t</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-267">st=st'</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom21">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-258-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-258">ended(end) = (a,e_1,a')</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-259-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>d</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-259">ended(end') = (a,e_2,a')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-260-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>d</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-260">end=end'</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-268-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-268">ended(end) = (a,e_1,a')</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-269-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>d</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-269">ended(end') = (a,e_2,a')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-270-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><msup><mi>d</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-270">end=end'</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom22">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-261-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-261">started(st) = (a,e)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-262-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-262">st \preceq evt</script> for all <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-263-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-263">evt \in
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-271-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-271">started(st) = (a,e,a')</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-272-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-272">st \preceq evt</script> for all <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-273-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-273">evt \in
     events(a) - Invalidations</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom23">
-        If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-264-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-264">ended(end) = (a,e,a') </script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-265-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-265">evt \preceq end</script> for all
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-266-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-266">evt \in events(a) - Invalidations</script>.
+        If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-274-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-274">ended(end) = (a,e,a') </script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-275-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-275">evt \preceq end</script> for all
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-276-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">−</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-276">evt \in events(a) - Invalidations</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom24">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-267-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-267">generated(gen) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-268-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-268">gen \preceq evt</script> for all <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-269-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-269">evt \in events(e)</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-277-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-277">generated(gen) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-278-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-278">gen \preceq evt</script> for all <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-279-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-279">evt \in events(e)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom25">
-        If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-270-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-270">invalidated(inv) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-271-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-271">evt\preceq inv</script> for all
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-272-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-272">evt \in events(e)</script>.
+        If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-280-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-280">invalidated(inv) = (e,a)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-281-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-281">evt\preceq inv</script> for all
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-282-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-282">evt \in events(e)</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom26">
-    For any derivation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-273-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-273">deriv</script>, with path <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-274-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>w</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-274">derivationPath(deriv) = w</script>,
-    if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-275-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-275">e_2 \cdot g \cdot a \cdot u \cdot e_1 </script> is a substring of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-276-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-276">w</script>
-    where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-277-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-277">e_1,e_2 \in Entities</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-278-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-278">g \in Generations</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-279-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-279">u \in Usages</script>
-    and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-280-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-280">a \in Activities</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-281-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-281">u \preceq g</script>.
+    For any derivation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-283-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-283">deriv</script>, with path <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-284-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>w</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-284">derivationPath(deriv) = w</script>,
+    if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-285-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-285">e_2 \cdot g \cdot a \cdot u \cdot e_1 </script> is a substring of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-286-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-286">w</script>
+    where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-287-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-287">e_1,e_2 \in Entities</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-288-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-288">g \in Generations</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-289-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>U</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-289">u \in Usages</script>
+    and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-290-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-290">a \in Activities</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-291-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>g</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-291">u \preceq g</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom27">
-    For any derivation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-282-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-282">deriv</script>, with path <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-283-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-283">derivationPath(deriv) = e_2
-    \cdot w \cdot e_1</script>, if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-284-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-284">generated(gen_1) = (e_1,a_1)</script> and
-    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-285-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-285">generated(gen_2) = (e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-286-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">≺</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-286">gen_1 \prec gen_2</script>.  
+    For any derivation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-292-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-292">deriv</script>, with path <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-293-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>P</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><mi>w</mi><mo stretchy="false">⋅</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-293">derivationPath(deriv) = e_2
+    \cdot w \cdot e_1</script>, if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-294-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-294">generated(gen_1) = (e_1,a_1)</script> and
+    <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-295-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-295">generated(gen_2) = (e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-296-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">≺</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-296">gen_1 \prec gen_2</script>.  
     </li>
     <li id="axiom28">
-    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-287-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-287">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-288-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-288">started(start) = (a,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-289-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-289">invalidated(inv) =
-    (ag,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-290-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-290">start \preceq inv</script>.
+    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-297-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-297">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-298-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-298">started(start) = (a,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-299-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-299">invalidated(inv) =
+    (ag,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-300-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-300">start \preceq inv</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom29">
-    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-291-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-291">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-292-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-292">generated(gen) =
-    (ag,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-293-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-293">ended(end) = (a,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-294-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-294">gen \preceq end</script>.
+    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-301-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-301">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-302-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-302">generated(gen) =
+    (ag,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-303-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-303">ended(end) = (a,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-304-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-304">gen \preceq end</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom30">
-    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-295-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-295">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-296-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-296">started(start) = (a,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-297-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-297">ended(end) =
-    (ag,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-298-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-298">start \preceq end</script>.
+    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-305-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-305">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-306-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-306">started(start) = (a,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-307-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-307">ended(end) =
+    (ag,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-308-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-308">start \preceq end</script>.
     </li>
     <li id="axiom31">
-    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-299-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-299">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-300-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-300">started(start) =
-    (ag,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-301-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-301">ended(end) = (a,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-302-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-302">start \preceq end</script>.
+    If  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-309-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>l</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-309">associatedWith(assoc) = (a,ag,pl)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-310-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-310">started(start) =
+    (ag,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-311-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-311">ended(end) = (a,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-312-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-312">start \preceq end</script>.
     </li>
        <li id="axiom32">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-303-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-303">attributedTo(attrib) = (e,ag)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-304-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-304">generated(gen_1) =
-    (ag_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-305-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-305">generated(gen_2) = (e,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-306-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-306">gen_1 \preceq gen_2</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-313-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-313">attributedTo(attrib) = (e,ag)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-314-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-314">generated(gen_1) =
+    (ag_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-315-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-315">generated(gen_2) = (e,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-316-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><msub><mi>n</mi><mn>2</mn></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-316">gen_1 \preceq gen_2</script>.
     </li>
        <li id="axiom33">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-307-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-307">attributedTo(attrib) = (e,ag)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-308-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-308">started(start) =
-    (ag_1,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-309-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-309">generated(gen) = (e,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-310-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-310">start \preceq gen</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-317-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-317">attributedTo(attrib) = (e,ag)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-318-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-318">started(start) =
+    (ag_1,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-319-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-319">generated(gen) = (e,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-320-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-320">start \preceq gen</script>.
     </li>
        <li id="axiom34">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-311-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-311">actedFor(deleg) = (ag_2,ag_1,a)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-312-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-312">generated(gen) =
-    (ag_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-313-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-313">invalidated(inv) = (ag_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-314-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-314">gen \preceq inv</script>.
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-321-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-321">actedFor(deleg) = (ag_2,ag_1,a)</script>  and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-322-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-322">generated(gen) =
+    (ag_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-323-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-323">invalidated(inv) = (ag_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-324-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-324">gen \preceq inv</script>.
     </li>
        <li id="axiom35">
-    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-315-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-315">actedFor(deleg) = (ag_2,ag_1,a)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-316-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-316">started(start) =
-    (ag_1,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-317-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-317">ended(end) = (ag_2,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-318-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-318">start \preceq
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-325-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-325">actedFor(deleg) = (ag_2,ag_1,a)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-326-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-326">started(start) =
+    (ag_1,e_1,a_1)</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-327-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>g</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>e</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>a</mi><mn>2</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-327">ended(end) = (ag_2,e_2,a_2)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-328-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">⪯</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-328">start \preceq
     end</script>.
     </li>
-    </ol>
+    <li id="axiom36">
+    If <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-329-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-329">e \in Entity</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-330-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>p</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>v</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-330">prov:emptyCollection \in
+    value(e,prov:type)</script> then <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-331-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>C</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-331">e \in Collections</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-332-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∅</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-332">members(e) = \emptyset</script>.
+    </li></ol>
 </div>
 
     <p>These properties are called <em>axioms</em>, and they are
@@ -1852,17 +1884,21 @@
   should be a constraint analogous to Constraint 34 that specifies
   that any invalidation event in which an activity participates must
   follow the activity's start event(s) and precede its end
-  event(s).</p>
+  event(s).
+  </p>
+  <p>Here, we exempt invalidations from axioms 22 and 23 in order to
+  simplify the proof of weak completeness.</p>
+  
   </div>
   </section>
   
 <section id="putting-it-all-together">
 <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span> Putting it all together </h3>
 
-<p>A <em>PROV structure</em> <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-319-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-319">W</script> is a collection of sets, functions, and relations containing all of the above
+<p>A <em>PROV structure</em> <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-333-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-333">W</script> is a collection of sets, functions, and relations containing all of the above
 described components and satisfying all of the associated properties
-and axions.  If we need to talk about the objects or relations of
-more than one structure then we may write <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-320-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>W</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo>.</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-320">W_1.Objects</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-321-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>W</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo>.</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-321">W_1.Things</script>,
+and axioms.  If we need to talk about the objects or relations of
+more than one structure then we may write <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-334-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>W</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo>.</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-334">W_1.Objects</script>, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-335-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>W</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo>.</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-335">W_1.Things</script>,
 etc.; otherwise, to
 decrease notational clutter, when we consider a fixed structure then the names of the sets, relations and functions above refer to the components of that model.
 </p>
@@ -1871,9 +1907,9 @@
 <p>
 Some features of PROV structures are relatively obvious or routine,
 corresponding directly to features of PROV and associated inferences.
-For example, the functions <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-322-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-322">used, generated, invalidated, started,
+For example, the functions <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-336-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>u</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-336">used, generated, invalidated, started,
 ended</script> mapping events to their associated entities or activities, and
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-323-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-323">communicated, associatedWith, attributedTo, actedFor</script> associating
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-337-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>c</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>W</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>o</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>F</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>r</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-337">communicated, associatedWith, attributedTo, actedFor</script> associating
 other types of influences with appropriate data. 
 </p>
   <p>
@@ -1883,11 +1919,11 @@
 paths are one such distinctive feature; they correspond to an
 intuition that derivations may describe one or multiple generation-use
 steps leading from one entity to another.  Another distinctive feature
-is the use of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-324-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-324">Things</script>, which correspond to changing, real-world
-things, as opposed to <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-325-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-325">Entities</script>, which correspond to limited views or
-perspectives on <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-326-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-326">Things</script>, with some fixed aspects.  The semantic
-structures of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-327-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-327">Things</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-328-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-328">Entities</script> provides a foundation for the
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-329-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-329">alternateOf</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-330-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>z</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-330">specializationOf</script> relations.
+is the use of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-338-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-338">Things</script>, which correspond to changing, real-world
+things, as opposed to <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-339-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-339">Entities</script>, which correspond to limited views or
+perspectives on <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-340-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-340">Things</script>, with some fixed aspects.  The semantic
+structures of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-341-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-341">Things</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-342-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-342">Entities</script> provide a foundation for the
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-343-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-343">alternateOf</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-344-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>z</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>O</mi><mi>f</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-344">specializationOf</script> relations.
 </p>
   
 
@@ -1897,10 +1933,10 @@
 <h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span> Interpretations </h3>
 
 <p>We need to link identifiers to the objects they denote.  We do this using a function which we shall call an <em>interpretation</em>.
- An interpretation is a function  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-331-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-331">\rho : Identifiers \to Objects</script> describing
+ An interpretation is a function  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-345-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">:</mo><mi>I</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-345">\rho : Identifiers \to Objects</script> describing
 which object is the target of each identifier. The mapping from
  identifiers to objects may <b>not</b> change over time; only
- <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-332-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-332">Objects</script> can be denoted by <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-333-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-333">Identifiers</script>.
+ <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-346-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-346">Objects</script> can be denoted by <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-347-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>f</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-347">Identifiers</script>.
 </p>
 </section>
 
@@ -1909,59 +1945,59 @@
 <section id="semantics">
 <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span> Semantics </h2>
 
-<p>In what follows, let <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-334-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-334">W</script> be a fixed structure with the associated sets and relations discussed in the previous section, and let <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-335-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-335">\rho</script> be an interpretation of identifiers as objects in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-336-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-336">W</script>.
+<p>In what follows, let <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-348-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-348">W</script> be a fixed structure with the associated sets and relations discussed in the previous section, and let <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-349-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-349">\rho</script> be an interpretation of identifiers as objects in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-350-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-350">W</script>.
 The annotations [WF] refer to well-formedness constraints that correspond to typing constraints.
 </p>
 
 <section id="satisfaction">
 <h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span> Satisfaction </h3>
 
-<p>Consider a formula <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-337-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-337">\phi</script>, a structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-338-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-338">W</script> and an interpretation
- <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-339-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-339">\rho</script>.
-We define notation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-340-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-340">W,\rho \models \phi</script> which means that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-341-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-341">\phi</script> is
- satisfied in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-342-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-342">W,\rho</script>. For atomic formulas, the definition of the
+<p>Consider a formula <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-351-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-351">\phi</script>, a structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-352-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-352">W</script> and an interpretation
+ <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-353-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-353">\rho</script>.
+We define notation <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-354-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-354">W,\rho \models \phi</script> which means that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-355-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-355">\phi</script> is
+ satisfied in <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-356-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-356">W,\rho</script>. For atomic formulas, the definition of the
  satisfaction relation is given in the next few subsections.  We give
  the standard definition of the semantics of the other formulas:
 </p>
 
 <div class="semantics" id="first-order-logic-semantics" data-count="16" data-title="Semantics 16 (first-order-logic-semantics)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#first-order-logic-semantics">Semantics 16 (first-order-logic-semantics)</a></div>
 <ol>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-343-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-343">W,\rho \models True</script> always holds.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-344-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>F</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-344">W,\rho \models False</script> never holds.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-345-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-345">W,\rho \models x = y</script> holds if and only if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-346-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-346">\rho(x) =
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-357-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-357">W,\rho \models True</script> always holds.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-358-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>F</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-358">W,\rho \models False</script> never holds.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-359-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-359">W,\rho \models x = y</script> holds if and only if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-360-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-360">\rho(x) =
     \rho(y)</script>.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-347-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">¬</mi><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-347">W,\rho \models \neg \phi</script> holds if and only if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-348-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-348">W,\rho \models
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-361-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">¬</mi><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-361">W,\rho \models \neg \phi</script> holds if and only if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-362-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-362">W,\rho \models
   \phi</script> does not hold.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-349-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-349">W,\rho \models \phi \wedge \psi</script> holds if and only if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-350-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-350">W,\rho \models
-  \phi</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-351-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-351">W,\rho \models \psi</script>.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-352-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mo stretchy="false">∨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-352">W,\rho \models \phi \vee \psi</script> holds if either <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-353-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-353">W,\rho \models \phi</script>
-  or <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-354-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-354">W,\rho \models \psi</script>.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-355-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⇒</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-355">W,\rho \models \phi \Rightarrow \psi</script> holds if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-356-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-356">W,\rho \models \phi</script>
-  implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-357-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-357">W,\rho \models \psi</script>.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-358-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∃</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-358">W,\rho \models \exists x. \phi</script> holds if there exists some <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-359-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-359">obj \in
-  Objects</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-360-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">:=</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">]</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-360">W,\rho[x:=obj] \models \phi</script>.</li>
-  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-361-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∀</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-361">W,\rho \models \forall x. \phi</script> holds if there for every <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-362-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-362">obj \in
-  Objects</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-363-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">:=</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">]</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-363">W,\rho[x:=obj] \models \phi</script>.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-363-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-363">W,\rho \models \phi \wedge \psi</script> holds if and only if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-364-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-364">W,\rho \models
+  \phi</script> and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-365-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-365">W,\rho \models \psi</script>.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-366-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mo stretchy="false">∨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-366">W,\rho \models \phi \vee \psi</script> holds if either <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-367-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-367">W,\rho \models \phi</script>
+  or <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-368-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-368">W,\rho \models \psi</script>.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-369-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⇒</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-369">W,\rho \models \phi \Rightarrow \psi</script> holds if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-370-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-370">W,\rho \models \phi</script>
+  implies <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-371-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ψ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-371">W,\rho \models \psi</script>.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-372-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∃</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-372">W,\rho \models \exists x. \phi</script> holds if there exists some <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-373-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-373">obj \in
+  Objects</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-374-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">:=</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">]</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-374">W,\rho[x:=obj] \models \phi</script>.</li>
+  <li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-375-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">∀</mi><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-375">W,\rho \models \forall x. \phi</script> holds if there for every <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-376-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-376">obj \in
+  Objects</script> we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-377-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">:=</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">]</mo><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-377">W,\rho[x:=obj] \models \phi</script>.</li>
   </ol></div>
 
 <div class="remark">
   <p>In the semantics above, note that the domain of quantification is
-  the set of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-364-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-364">Objects</script>; that is, quantifiers range over entities,
+  the set of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-378-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>O</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-378">Objects</script>; that is, quantifiers range over entities,
   activities, agents, or influences (which are in turn further
-  subdivided into types of influences).  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-365-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-365">Things</script> and relations
+  subdivided into types of influences).  <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-379-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>T</mi><mi>h</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-379">Things</script> and relations
   cannot be referenced directly by identifiers.  
 </p>
   </div>
 
   <div class="remark">
-    <p>A PROV instance <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-366-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-366">I</script> consists of a set of statements, each of
+    <p>A PROV instance <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-380-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-380">I</script> consists of a set of statements, each of
     which can be translated to an atomic formula following the
     definitional rules in PROV-CONSTRAINTS, possibly by introducing
     fresh existential variables.  Thus, we can view an
-    instance <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-367-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-367">I</script> as a set of atomic formulas <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-368-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-368">\{\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_n\}</script>, or equivalently a
-    single formula <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-369-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="normal">∃</mi><msub><mi>x</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>x</mi><mi>k</mi></msub><mo>.</mo><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><mo stretchy="false">⋯</mo><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mi>n</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-369">\exists x_1,\ldots,x_k.~\phi_1 \wedge \cdots
-    \wedge \phi_n</script>, where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-370-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>x</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>x</mi><mi>k</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-370">x_1,\ldots,x_k</script> are the existential
-    variables of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-371-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-371">I</script>.
+    instance <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-381-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-381">I</script> as a set of atomic formulas <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-382-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mi>n</mi></msub><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-382">\{\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_n\}</script>, or equivalently a
+    single formula <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-383-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="normal">∃</mi><msub><mi>x</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>x</mi><mi>k</mi></msub><mo>.</mo><mtext>&nbsp;</mtext><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><mo stretchy="false">⋯</mo><mo stretchy="false">∧</mo><msub><mi mathvariant="italic">ϕ</mi><mi>n</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-383">\exists x_1,\ldots,x_k.~\phi_1 \wedge \cdots
+    \wedge \phi_n</script>, where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-384-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><msub><mi>x</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo stretchy="false">…</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msub><mi>x</mi><mi>k</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-384">x_1,\ldots,x_k</script> are the existential
+    variables of <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-385-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>I</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-385">I</script>.
     </p>
     </div>
 
@@ -1971,9 +2007,9 @@
 <h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span> Attribute matching </h3>
 
 
-<p>We say that an object <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-372-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-372">obj</script> matches attributes <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-373-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo stretchy="false">]</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-373">[attr_1=val_1,...]</script> in structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-374-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-374">W</script> provided:
-for each attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-375-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-375">attr_i</script>, we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-376-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>W</mi><mo>.</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-376">val_i \in W.value(obj,attr_i)</script>.
-This is sometimes abbreviated as: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-377-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-377">match(W,obj,attrs)</script>.
+<p>We say that an object <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-386-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-386">obj</script> matches attributes <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-387-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mo stretchy="false">[</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mn>1</mn></msub><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo>.</mo><mo stretchy="false">]</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-387">[attr_1=val_1,...]</script> in structure <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-388-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-388">W</script> provided:
+for each attribute <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-389-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi></msub></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-389">attr_i</script>, we have <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-390-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><msub><mi>l</mi><mi>i</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>W</mi><mo>.</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><msub><mi>r</mi><mi>i</mi></msub><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-390">val_i \in W.value(obj,attr_i)</script>.
+This is sometimes abbreviated as: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-391-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>b</mi><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-391">match(W,obj,attrs)</script>.
 </p>
     
 </section>
@@ -1985,16 +2021,16 @@
 
 <h4><span class="secno">4.3.1 </span> Entity </h4>
 
-<p>An entity formula is of the form <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-378-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-378">entity(id,attrs)</script> where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-379-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-379">id</script> denotes an entity.
+<p>An entity formula is of the form <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-392-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-392">entity(id,attrs)</script> where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-393-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-393">id</script> denotes an entity.
 </p>
-<p>Entity formulas <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-380-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-380">entity(id,attrs)</script> can be interpreted as follows:
+<p>Entity formulas <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-394-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-394">entity(id,attrs)</script> can be interpreted as follows:
 </p>
 <div class="semantics" id="entity-semantics" data-count="17" data-title="Semantics 17 (entity-semantics)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-semantics">Semantics 17 (entity-semantics)</a></div>
- <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-381-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-381">W,\rho \models entity(id,attrs)</script> holds if and only if:</p>
+ <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-395-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-395">W,\rho \models entity(id,attrs)</script> holds if and only if:</p>
 <ol>
-<li>[WF] <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-382-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-382">id</script> denotes an entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-383-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-383">ent = \rho(id) \in Entities</script>
+<li>[WF] <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-396-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-396">id</script> denotes an entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-397-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-397">ent = \rho(id) \in Entities</script>.
 </li>
-<li>the attributes match: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-384-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-384">match(W,ent, attrs)</script>.
+<li>the attributes match: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-398-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-398">match(W,ent, attrs)</script>.
 </li>
 </ol>
 
@@ -2002,7 +2038,7 @@
 </div>
 <div class="remark">
 <p>Not all of the attributes of an entity object are
-  required to be present in an entity formula about that object.  For example, the following formulas all hold if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-385-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-385">x</script> denotes an entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-386-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-386">e</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-387-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>4</mn><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mn>5</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>6</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-387">value(e,a) = \{4,5\}, value(e,b) = \{6\}</script> hold:
+  required to be present in an entity formula about that object.  For example, the following formulas all hold if <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-399-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>x</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-399">x</script> denotes an entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-400-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-400">e</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-401-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>4</mn><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mn>5</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>v</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi><mi>u</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo><mn>6</mn><mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-401">value(e,a) = \{4,5\}, value(e,b) = \{6\}</script> hold:
 </p><pre> entity(x,[])
  entity(x,[a=5])
  entity(x,[a=4,a=5])
@@ -2020,42 +2056,52 @@
 
 <h4><span class="secno">4.3.2 </span> Activity </h4>
 
-<p>An activity formula  is of the form <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-388-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-388">activity(id,st,et,attrs)</script>
-where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-389-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-389">id</script> is a identifier referring to the activity, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-390-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-390">st</script> is a start
-time and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-391-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-391">et</script> is an end time, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-392-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-392">attrs</script> are the attributes of
-activity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-393-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-393">id</script>.
+<p>An activity formula  is of the form <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-402-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-402">activity(id,st,et,attrs)</script>
+where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-403-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-403">id</script> is a identifier referring to the activity, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-404-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-404">st</script> is a start
+time and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-405-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-405">et</script> is an end time, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-406-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-406">attrs</script> are the attributes of
+activity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-407-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-407">id</script>.
 </p>
 <div class="semantics" id="activity-semantics" data-count="18" data-title="Semantics 18 (activity-semantics)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#activity-semantics">Semantics 18 (activity-semantics)</a></div>
-  <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-394-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-394">W,\rho \models activity(id,st,et,attrs)</script>
+  <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-408-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-408">W,\rho \models activity(id,st,et,attrs)</script>
   holds if and only if:</p>
 <ol>
-<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-395-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-395">id</script> maps to an activity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-396-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-396">act = \rho(id) \in Activities</script>
-</li>
-<li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-397-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-397">\rho(st) \in Times</script> is the activity's start time, that is:
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-398-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-398">startTime(id) = \rho(st)</script>
+<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-409-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-409">id</script> maps to an activity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-410-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-410">act = \rho(id) \in Activities</script>.
 </li>
-<li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-399-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-399">\rho(et)</script> is the activity's end time, that is: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-400-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-400">endTime(id) = \rho(et)</script>
+<li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-411-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-411">\rho(st) \in Times</script> is the activity's start time, that is:
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-412-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-412">startTime(act) = \rho(st)</script>.
 </li>
-<li>There exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-401-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-401">start,e,a</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-402-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-402">started(start) = (act,e,a)</script>.</li>
-<li>There exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-403-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-403">end,e',a'</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-404-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-404">ended(end) = (act,e',a')</script>.</li>
-<li>The attributes match: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-405-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-405">match(W,act,attrs)</script>.
+<li><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-413-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-413">\rho(et)</script> is the activity's end time, that is: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-414-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-414">endTime(act) = \rho(et)</script>.
+</li>
+<li>There exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-415-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-415">start,e,a</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-416-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>s</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-416">started(start) = (act,e,a)</script>,
+and for all such start events $startTime(act) = time(start).</li>
+<li>There exists <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-417-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-417">end,e',a'</script> such that <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-418-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>e</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><msup><mi>a</mi><mo>′</mo></msup><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-418">ended(end) = (act,e',a')</script>, and
+for all such end events <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-419-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-419">endTime(act) = time(end)</script>.</li>
+<li>The attributes match: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-420-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-420">match(W,act,attrs)</script>.
 </li>
 </ol>
 </div>
+
+<div class="remark">
+  <p>The above definition is complicated for two reasons.  First, we
+  need to ensure that every activity has a start and end event.
+  Second, when an <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-421-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>y</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-421">activity</script> formula is asserted, we need to make sure
+  all of the associated start and end event times match.
+  </p>
+  </div>
 </section>
 <section id="agent">
 
 <h4><span class="secno">4.3.3 </span> Agent </h4>
 
-<p>An agent formula is of the form <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-406-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-406">agent(id,attrs)</script> where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-407-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-407">id</script> denotes the agent and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-408-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-408">attrs</script> describes additional attributes.
+<p>An agent formula is of the form <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-422-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-422">agent(id,attrs)</script> where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-423-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-423">id</script> denotes the agent and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-424-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-424">attrs</script> describes additional attributes.
 </p>
 <div class="semantics" id="agent-semantics" data-count="19" data-title="Semantics 19 (agent-semantics)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#agent-semantics">Semantics 19 (agent-semantics)</a></div>
-  <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-409-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-409">W,\rho \models agent(id,attrs)</script> holds if and only if:
+  <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-425-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-425">W,\rho \models agent(id,attrs)</script> holds if and only if:
   </p>
   <ol>
-    <li>[WF] <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-410-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-410">id</script> denotes an agent <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-411-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-411">ag = \rho(id) \in Agents</script>
+    <li>[WF] <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-426-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-426">id</script> denotes an agent <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-427-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-427">ag = \rho(id) \in Agents</script>.
     </li>
-    <li>The attributes match: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-412-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-412">match(W,ag,attrs)</script>.
+    <li>The attributes match: <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-428-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>m</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-428">match(W,ag,attrs)</script>.
     </li>
   </ol>
 </div>
@@ -2070,25 +2116,25 @@
 <h4><span class="secno">4.4.1 </span> Generation </h4>
 
 <p>The generation formula is of the form
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-413-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-413">wasGeneratedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</script> where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-414-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-414">id</script> is an event identifier,
-<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-415-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-415">e</script> is an entity identifier, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-416-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-416">a</script> is an activity identifier, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-417-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-417">attrs</script> is
-a set of attribute-value pairs, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-418-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-418">t</script> is a time.
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-429-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-429">wasGeneratedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</script> where <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-430-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-430">id</script> is an event identifier,
+<span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-431-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-431">e</script> is an entity identifier, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-432-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-432">a</script> is an activity identifier, <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-433-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-433">attrs</script> is
+a set of attribute-value pairs, and <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-434-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-434">t</script> is a time.
 </p>
 <div class="semantics" id="generation-semantics" data-count="20" data-title="Semantics 20 (generation-semantics)"><div class="ruleTitle"><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-semantics">Semantics 20 (generation-semantics)</a></div>
- <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-419-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-419">W,\rho \models
+ <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-435-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>W</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">⊨</mo><mi>w</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>s</mi><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>d</mi><mi>B</mi><mi>y</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">,</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>s</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-435">W,\rho \models
   wasGeneratedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</script>  holds if and only if:
 </p><ol>
-<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-420-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-420">id</script> denotes a generation event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-421-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-421">evt = \rho(id) \in Generations</script>.
-</li>
-<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-422-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-422">e</script> denotes an entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-423-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-423">ent = \rho(e) \in Entities</script>.
+<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-436-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-436">id</script> denotes a generation event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-437-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>i</mi><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>G</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>o</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-437">evt = \rho(id) \in Generations</script>.
 </li>
-<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-424-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-424">a</script> denotes an activity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-425-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>A</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-425">act = \rho(a) \in Activities</script>.
+<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-438-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-438">e</script> denotes an entity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-439-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-439">ent = \rho(e) \in Entities</script>.
 </li>
-<li>The event <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-426-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-426">evt</script> occurred at time <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-427-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">∈</mo><mi>T</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>s</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-427">\rho(t) \in Times</script>, i.e. <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-428-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>t</mi><mi>i</mi><mi>m</mi><mi>e</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>e</mi><mi>v</mi><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">=</mo><mi mathvariant="italic">ρ</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>t</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-428">time(evt) = \rho(t)</script>.
+<li>[WF] The identifier <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-440-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi></math></span></span></span><script type="math/tex" id="MathJax-Element-440">a</script> denotes an activity <span class="MathJax_Preview"></span><span class="MathJax_MathML" id="MathJax-Element-441-Frame" style="font-size: 100%; "><span class="MathJax_MathContainer" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; white-space: nowrap; "><span style="display: inline-block; "><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi><mi>t</mi><mo