prov-links staging
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Fri, 30 Nov 2012 12:51:29 +0000
changeset 5210 2e849153ed7f
parent 5209 1031ba86069b
child 5212 50e7dddc7476
child 5217 efeb84a75f0d
prov-links staging
links/releases/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/Overview.html
links/releases/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/figures/component5.png
links/releases/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/figures/component5.svg
links/releases/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/figures/mention-prov-o.graffle
links/releases/WD-prov-links-20121211/Overview.html
links/releases/WD-prov-links-20121211/figures/component5.png
links/releases/WD-prov-links-20121211/figures/component5.svg
links/releases/WD-prov-links-20121211/figures/mention-prov-o.graffle
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/links/releases/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/Overview.html	Fri Nov 30 12:51:29 2012 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,1438 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
+<head> 
+    <title>Linking Across Provenance Bundles</title> 
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ 
+
+
+
+<style type="text/css">
+      .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
+
+  .entity {
+          border: 1px solid navy;
+          margin:5px 0px 5px 0px;
+          padding: 5px;    
+      }
+
+    
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+          border-top: 1px dashed gray;
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+          background-color: rgb(242, 243, 244);
+          margin-top:5px;
+          padding-bottom:5px;
+      }
+
+      .description dl {
+          background-color: rgb(242, 243, 244);
+      }
+
+      .description ul {
+          padding-left: 12px;
+          margin-top: 0px;
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+code {
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+
+/* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
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+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #BFEFFF;
+}
+
+.pending::before {
+    content:    "Pending Review";
+    display:    block;
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+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
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+    background: #fff;
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+    content:    "Resolved";
+    display:    block;
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+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
+}
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+    content:    "Syntax";
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+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
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+
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+
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+    padding:    1em;
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+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
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+    content:    "Interpretation: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Interpretation: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.interpretation::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation";
+    display:    block;
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
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+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
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+    content:    "Deprecated: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Deprecatedconstraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
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+    content:    "Deprecated";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
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+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
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+    font-style:    italic;
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+.dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
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+
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+}
+
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+    color: blue;
+}
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+    margin-top: 1ex;
+    margin-bottom: 1ex;
+    padding-left: 1ex;
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+    padding-top: 1ex;
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+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
+    font-size: 95%;
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+    font-size: 95%;
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+    font-family: roman;
+    font-style:italic;
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+
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+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
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+    content:    "Example";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
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+    padding-top: 1ex;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
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+    font-weight: bold;
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+}
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+.pnExpression {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:120%;
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+
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+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="optional"]:before {
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+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
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+div[class="grammar"] span[class="optional"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")?";
+}
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+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="plus"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
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+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")+";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="star"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="star"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")*";
+}
+
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+    font-size:130%;
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+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
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+}
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+    font-family: monospace;
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+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
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+}
+
+table {
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+}
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+}
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+}
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+ background-color: rgba(0,170,0,0.2);
+}
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+ background-color: rgba(204,255,0,0.2);
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+}
+
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+ background-color: rgba(244,105,14,0.2);
+}
+
+.interpretation-forward::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+.structural-forward::before {
+    content:    "Structural constraint: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+
+code {
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+}
+
+.ruleTitle {
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+
+
+
+.remark {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px dashed #000;
+    background: #F0F0F0;
+}
+
+.remark::before {
+    content:    "Remark";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #000;
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+}
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+}
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+}
+table.thinborder td {
+	border-width: 1px;
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+	border-color: gray;
+}
+
+
+</style>
+
+
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+/*
+	Written by Jonathan Snook, http://www.snook.ca/jonathan
+	Add-ons by Robert Nyman, http://www.robertnyman.com
+	Author says "The credit comment is all it takes, no license. Go crazy with it!"
+	From http://www.robertnyman.com/2005/11/07/the-ultimate-getelementsbyclassname/
+*/
+
+function getElementsByClassName(oElm, strTagName, oClassNames){
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+}
+</script> 
+
+
+    
+    
+     
+  <style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
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+a.externalDFN {
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+a.bibref {
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+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
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+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+
+/* --- --- */
+ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
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+}
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+.simple th {
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+}
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+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
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+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
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+}
+div.issue, div.note {
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+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
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+span.note, span.issue { padding: .1em .5em .15em; }
+
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+.note {
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+    background: #e9fbe9;
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+
+
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WG-NOTE"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--></head> 
+  <body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">Linking Across Provenance Bundles</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-working-group-note-11-december-2012"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Group Note 11 December 2012</h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-links/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-links/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/links/prov-links.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/links/prov-links.html</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href=""></a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
+        2012
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div> 
+
+    <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to
+form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#dfn-bundle">Bundles</a>,
+defined in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] as sets of provenance descriptions, were
+introduced in PROV as the mechanism by which provenance of provenance
+can be expressed.  Bundles, whose validity is established
+independently of each other [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], are essentially
+independent of each other, acting as islands of provenance
+descriptions.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In  applications where provenance is created by multiple parties over time, it is useful for provenance descriptions created by one party to link to provenance descriptions created by another party. Such a mechanism would allow the "stitching" of provenance descriptions together. Given that provenance descriptions are expected to be contained in bundles, this would require a capability to link entity descriptions across bundles. To address this requirement, this document introduces a relation <a>Mention</a> allowing an entity description to be linked to another entity description occurring in another bundle.
+</p>
+
+<p>The  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.</p>
+
+    </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are:
+<ul>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">PROV-O</a> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">PROV-DM</a> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">PROV-N</a> (Candidate Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Candidate Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/">PROV-AQ</a> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
+<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-links-20121211/">PROV-LINKS</a> (To be published as Note),  introduces a mechanism to link across bundles (this document).</li>
+
+</ul>
+<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-documentation">How to read the PROV Family of Documentation</h4>
+<ul>
+<li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] overviews the PROV family of documents. </li>
+<li>The primer [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>] is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </li>
+<li>The XML community should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</li>
+<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>].</li>
+<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
+</ul>
+
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a First Public Working Group Note.
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          All feedback is welcome.
+        </p>
+        
+          <p>
+            Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Conceptual Definition of Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mention-ontology" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Ontological Definition of Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mention-xml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>XML Schema for Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mention-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints associated with Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<section id="introduction"> 
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2> 
+
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">Provenance</a>
+is a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and
+activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece
+of data or a thing. The specifications [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>],
+[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] have respectively defined the PROV
+ontology, the PROV conceptual model, the PROV notation, and the PROV
+XML schema, allowing provenance descriptions to be expressed,
+represented in various representations, and interchanged between systems across the Web. 
+</p>
+
+<p>The provenance of information is crucial in deciding whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its originators when reusing it.  To support this, provenance itself should be trusted, and therefore, provenance of provenance is itself a critical aspect of an information infrastructure such as the Web. To this end, PROV introduces the concept of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-bundle">Bundle</a>: defined as a set of provenance descriptions,  it is a mechanism by which provenance of provenance can be expressed (see also <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#Bundle">Bundle</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/#term-Bundle">Bundle</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>]). With bundles, blobs of provenance descriptions can be given names and can themselves be regarded as entities, whose provenance can in turn be described using PROV. These blobs of provenance descriptions are independent of each other, as illustrated by [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] which determines their <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/#bundle-constraints">validity</a> by examining them in isolation of each other. </p>
+
+
+<p>In a distributed environment, it is common to encounter applications that involve multiple parties: it is a common situation that some party creates some data and its provenance, whereas another party consumes the data and its provenance. In such a situation, the consumer, when it in turn generates provenance, often wants to augment the descriptions of entities generated by another producer.  For the consumer, it is not suitable to repeat the provenance created by the producer, and augment it according to their need. Instead, a consumer wants to <em>refer</em> to the description as created by the producer <em>in situ</em>, i.e. in its bundle, and <em>specialize it</em>, allowing the consumer to add their own view on this entity. Such a capability would allow parties to "stitch together" provenance descriptions that would otherwise be disconnected.</p> 
+
+<p>This document introduces a new concept <a>Mention</a> allowing an entity to be described as the specialization of another entity, itself described in another bundle. The document provides not only a conceptual definition  of <a>Mention</a>, but also the corresponding ontological, schema, and notational definitions, for the various representations of PROV. It also includes constraints that apply to this construct specifically. It is our aim to promote  interoperability by defining <a>Mention</a> conceptually and in the representations of PROV.</p>
+
+<div class="note"><div class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><div class="">The concept <a>Mention</a> is experimental, and for this reason was not defined in PROV recommendation-track documents. The Provenance Working Group is seeking feedback from the community on its usefulness in practical scenarios.
+</div></div>
+</section> 
+
+<section id="term-mention"> 
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Conceptual Definition of Mention</h2> 
+
+
+
+<p>An entity <span class="name">e1</span> may be mentioned in a bundle <span class="name">b</span>, which contains some
+ descriptions about this entity <span class="name">e1</span>: how <span class="name">e1</span> was generated and used, which activities <span class="name">e1</span> is involved with, the agents <span class="name">e1</span> is attributed to, etc. 
+Other bundles may contain other descriptions about the same entity <span class="name">e1</span>.
+Some applications may want to augment
+the descriptions of entity <span class="name">e1</span>  found in  bundle <span class="name">b</span> with other information.
+To this end, PROV allows a new entity <span class="name">e2</span> to be created and defined as a specialization of the preceding entity <span class="name">e1</span>, and which presents at least an additional aspect:  the bundle <span class="name">b</span> containing some descriptions of <span class="name">e1</span>.  With this relation, applications that process <span class="name">e2</span>
+can know that the attributes of <span class="name">e2</span> may have been computed according to the descriptions of <span class="name">e1</span> in <span class="name">b</span>.
+(The term 'aspect' should be understood  informally as "a particular part or feature of something"; the term is used in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]'s definitions of 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-entity">entity</a> (Section 5.1.1),
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-specialization">specialization</a> (Section 5.5.1),
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-alternate">alternate</a> (Section 5.5.2),  and in 
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/#entities-activities-and-agents">section 2.1</a> of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>]).
+</p>
+
+
+<p>
+ <a href="#figure-component5">Figure 1</a> depicts
+the relation MentionOf (<a href="#concept-mention" class="internalDFN">mention</a>) as a ternary relation.
+</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<span class="figure" id="fig-figure-1-uml-diagram-for-mention" style="max-width: 95%; ">
+<img src="figures/component5.png" alt="mention"><br>
+<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component5">Figure 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component5"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup>  UML Diagram for Mention</span>
+</span>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>Thus, Mention is a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle.
+It is a special case of specialization.</p> 
+
+
+<span class="glossary-ref">   The <dfn id="concept-mention" class="internalDFN">mention</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-mention"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> of an entity in a bundle (containing a description of this entity) is another entity that is a specialization of the former and that presents at least the bundle as a further additional aspect. </span>
+
+
+
+<p>
+An entity is interpreted with respect to a bundle's description in a
+domain specific manner.  The mention of this entity with respect to
+this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some
+domain-specific interpretation.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>A mention of an entity in a bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the  bundle that it is described in. 
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-mention">A <dfn title="mentionOf" id="dfn-mentionof" class="internalDFN">mention</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-mentionof"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">mentionOf(infra, supra, b)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">infra</span>)
+of the entity that is a mention of the general entity (<span class="name">supra</span>);</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">supra</span>) for an entity that appears in bundle <span class="name">b</span>.</li>
+<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle">bundle</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">b</span>) of a bundle that contains a description of <span class="name">supra</span> and further constitutes one additional aspect presented by <span class="name">infra</span>.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>Like <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#dfn-specialization">specialization</a>, a mention is not, as  defined here, an <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#dfn-influence">influence</a>, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.
+Its grammar, in the provenance notation, is written as follows.</p>
+
+<table class="grammar">
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr style="vertical-align: baseline; "> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" data-name="prod-mentionExpression"></a><span class="prodNo"></span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">mentionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"mentionOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+<tbody class="prod"> <tr style="vertical-align: baseline; "> <td><a id="prod-bIdentifier" data-name="prod-bIdentifier"></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">bIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
+</table>
+
+
+<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a Mention maps to a syntax element, in the provenance notation.</p>
+<div style="text-align: left; ">
+<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
+<tbody><tr><td><b><a href="#dfn-mentionof">Mention</a></b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
+<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" data-id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td><a href="#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" data-id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+<tr><td><a href="#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" data-id="mention.bundle">bundle</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
+
+</tbody></table>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>
+Let us consider a bundle and the expression <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span> occuring in this bundle.   The entity <span class="name">e1</span> may described im multiple other bundle <span class="name">b<sub>i</sub></span>.
+From <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span>, one cannot infer <span class="name">mentionOf(e2,e1,b)</span> for a given <span class="name">b</span>, since it is unknown which  <span class="name">b<sub>i</sub></span>'s descriptions were used to computed additional aspects of   <span class="name">e2</span>. Hence, <span class="name">mentionOf</span> has to be asserted. </p>
+
+<p><a href="#mention-constraints" class="section-ref"><span>Section 5.</span></a> presents constraints applicable to <a>Mention</a>, and in particular, the fact that an entity can be a <a href="#mention.specificEntity">specific entity</a> of a <a>Mention</a> at most once.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="anexample-mention-rating"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-mention-rating"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>This example is concerned with a performance rating tool that reads and processes provenance to determine the performance of agents.  To keep the example simple, an agent's performance is determined by the duration of the activities it is associated with. </p>
+<p>As an illustration, we consider that two bundles <span class="name">ex:run1</span> and <span class="name">ex:run2</span> refer to an agent <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> that controlled two activities <span class="name">ex:a1</span> and <span class="name">ex:a2</span>. </p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:run1
+    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
+    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
+endBundle
+
+bundle ex:run2
+    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00, 2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
+    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
+endBundle
+</pre> 
+<p>The performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. The performance rating tool creates a new bundle <span class="name">tool:analysis01</span> containing the following. A new agent <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span> is declared as a mention of <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> as described in  bundle <span class="name">ex:run1</span>, and likewise for  <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span> with respect to <span class="name">ex:run2</span>. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to be good since the duration of <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since <span class="name">ex:a2</span>'s duration is seven hours. The attribute <span class="name">perf:rating</span> is an example of additional attribute of the specialized agents <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span> and <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span>.</p>
+
+<pre class="codeexample">bundle tool:analysis01
+    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
+    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
+
+    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
+    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
+endBundle
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div class="anexample" id="aexample-mention-viz"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#aexample-mention-viz"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<p>Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
+</p><pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle obs:bundle1
+  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
+  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
+  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
+  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
+endBundle
+entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
+</pre>
+Bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the visualization layout of this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
+<pre class="codeexample"> 
+bundle tool:bundle2
+  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
+  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
+
+  entity(tool:report1, [ viz:color="orange" ])
+  mentionOf(tool:report1, ex:report1, obs:bundle1)
+
+  entity(tool:report2, [ viz:color="blue" ])              
+  mentionOf(tool:report2, ex:report2, obs:bundle1)
+endBundle
+</pre>
+
+<p>In bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span>, the prefix <span class="name">viz</span> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</p>
+
+<p>This example is typical of a common situation in distributed environments, where the consumer and producer of provenance are different.</p>
+
+<p>Bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span> is given type <span class="name">viz:Configuration</span> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
+</p>
+
+<p>The visualisation tool
+ created  new identifiers <span class="name">tool:report1</span> and
+<span class="name">tool:report2</span>.
+They denote entities which are specializations of <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>, described in bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span>, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </p>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="mention-ontology"> 
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Ontological Definition of Mention</h2> 
+
+<p>The ternary relation <a href="#dfn-mentionof" class="internalDFN">mentionOf</a> is encoded as two properties: 
+<a href="#mentionOf">prov:mentionOf</a> and
+<a href="#asInBundle">prov:asInBundle</a>, defined as follows.</p>
+
+<div class="entity" id="mentionOf">
+    <h2 id="property--prov-mentionof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
+      Property: <a href="#mentionOf"><span title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#mentionOf" class="dotted">prov:mentionOf</span></a> <sup title="object property" class="type-op">op</sup>
+
+    </h2>
+    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#mentionOf</p>
+
+
+    <div class="description">
+      <div class="comment "><p>When :x prov:mentionOf :y and :y is described in Bundle :b, the triple :x prov:asInBundle :b is also asserted to cite the Bundle in which :y was described.</p>
+      </div>
+      <div class="comment "><p>prov:asInBundle is used to cite the Bundle in which the generalization was mentioned.</p>
+      </div>
+      <dl>
+
+        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>
+              <a class="owlclass" href="#specializationOf" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a> <sup title="object property" class="type-op">op</sup>
+            </li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+
+        <dt>has domain</dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>
+              <a class="owlclass" href="#Entity" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
+            </li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+
+        <dt>has range</dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>
+              <a class="owlclass" href="#Entity" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
+            </li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+
+      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
+      <dd>
+         <a href="#term-mention" title="prov-dm">mention</a>      </dd>
+
+      </dl>
+    </div>
+  </div>
+
+
+<div class="entity" id="asInBundle">
+    <h2 id="property--prov-asinbundle-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
+      Property: <a href="#asInBundle"><span title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#asInBundle" class="dotted">prov:asInBundle</span></a> <sup title="object property" class="type-op">op</sup>
+    </h2>
+    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#asInBundle</p>
+
+
+    <div class="description">
+      <div class="comment "><p>When :x prov:mentionOf :y and :y is described in Bundle :b, the triple :x prov:asInBundle :b is also asserted to cite the Bundle in which :y was described.</p>
+      </div>
+      <dl>
+        <dt>has domain</dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>
+              <a class="owlclass" href="#Entity" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
+            </li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+
+        <dt>has range</dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>
+              <a class="owlclass" href="#Bundle" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle">prov:Bundle</a>
+            </li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+
+      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
+      <dd>
+         <a href="#term-mention" title="prov-dm">mention</a>      </dd>
+
+      </dl>
+    </div>
+  </div>
+
+<div class="anexample" typeof="prov:Entity" data-about="#example-for-property-mentionOf" id="example_3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+      <span resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#mentionOf" data-rel="dcterms:subject"></span>
+
+<p>We revisit <a href="#anexample-mention-rating" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 1</span></a>, encoding in RDF the rating of Bob in the context of the second activity.</p>
+
+      <pre property="prov:value" resource="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/examples/eg-24-prov-o-html-examples/rdf/create/rdf/property_mentionOf.ttl" data-rel="prov:wasQuotedFrom">@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
[email protected] xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
[email protected] owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
[email protected] prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
[email protected] tool: &lt;http://example.com/tool/&gt; .
[email protected] perf: &lt;http://example.com/performance/&gt; .
[email protected] :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
+
+:run2 {
+   :activity_2
+      a prov:Activity;
+      prov:startedAtTime "2011-11-17T10:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
+      prov:endedAtTime   "2011-11-17T17:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime; 
+      prov:wasAssociatedWith :bob;
+   .
+}
+
+tool:analysis_01 {
+   tool:bob-2011-11-17
+      a prov:Agent;
+      prov:mentionOf  :bob;
+      prov:asInBundle :run2;
+      perf:rating     perf:very-slow;
+   .
+}
+
+# This is inferred from prov:mentionOf
+tool:bob-2011-11-17 prov:specializationOf :bob . 
+
+# This is inferred from prov:specializationOf
+tool:bob-2011-11-17 prov:alternateOf      :bob . 
+</pre>
+    </div>
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="mention-xml"> 
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>XML Schema for Mention</h2> 
+
+
+
+<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="Mention"&gt;
+  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name="specificEntity" type="prov:EntityRef"/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name="generalEntity" type="prov:EntityRef"/&gt;
+    &lt;xs:element name="bundle" type="prov:EntityRef"/&gt;
+  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
+&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="mentionOf" type="prov:Mention"/&gt;
+</pre>
+<div class="anexample" id="example_4"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
+<pre>&lt;prov:document
+    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
+    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
+    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
+    xmlns:perf="http://example.com/ns/perf#"
+    xmlns:tool="http://example.com/ns/tool#"&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:bundle prov:id="ex:run1"&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2011-11-16T16:00:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
+      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2011-11-16T17:00:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName"&gt;controller&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:bundle prov:id="ex:run2"&gt;
+    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:a2"&gt;
+      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2011-11-17T10:00:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
+      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2011-11-17T17:00:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
+
+    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a2" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName"&gt;controller&lt;/prov:role&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
+  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;
+
+  &lt;prov:bundle prov:id="tool:analysis01"&gt;
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="tool:Bob-2011-11-16"&gt;
+      &lt;ex:perfrating&gt;good&lt;/ex:perfrating&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+    <b>&lt;prov:mentionOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="tool:Bob-2011-11-16" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:bundle prov:ref="ex:run1" /&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:mentionOf&gt;</b>
+
+    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="tool:Bob-2011-11-17"&gt;
+      &lt;ex:perfrating&gt;bad&lt;/ex:perfrating&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
+
+    <b>&lt;prov:mentionOf&gt;
+      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="tool:Bob-2011-11-17" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
+      &lt;prov:bundle prov:ref="ex:run2" /&gt;
+    &lt;/prov:mentionOf&gt;</b>
+  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;
+
+&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre></div>
+</section> 
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<section id="mention-constraints"> 
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints associated with Mention</h2> 
+
+
+
+
+
+    <p id="mention-specialization-inference_text">If one entity is a mention of another in a bundle, then the former is also a specialization of the latter:</p>
+    
+       <div class="inference" id="mention-specialization-inference">
+<p>
+<span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">mentionOf(e2,e1,b)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span>.</p>
+    </div> 
+
+
+
+
+<div id="unique-mention_text">
+<p>An entity can be the subject of at most one mention relation.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+<div class="constraint" id="unique-mention">
+<p>
+<span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">mentionOf(e, e1, b1)</span> and <span class="name">mentionOf(e, e2, b2)</span>,
+<span class="conditional">THEN</span>  <span class="name">e1</span>=<span class="name">e2</span> and <span class="name">b1</span>=<span class="name">b2</span>.</p>
+</div> 
+
+
+
+</section> 
+
+
+
+<section class="appendix" id="acknowledgements"> 
+      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
+      <p> 
+
+This  document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Ivan Herman (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>).
+      </p> 
+
+<p>
+Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
+
+Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
+Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
+Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
+James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
+Sam Coppens (IBBT),
+David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
+Tom De Nies (IBBT),
+Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
+Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
+Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
+Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
+James Frew (Invited expert),
+Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid),
+Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
+Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
+Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
+Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
+David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
+Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>),
+Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
+Ivan Herman, (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>),
+Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
+Hook Hua (Invited expert),
+Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
+Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
+Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
+Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Simon Miles (Invited expert),
+Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university),
+Luc Moreau (University of Southampton),
+James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University),
+Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
+Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium),
+Adam Retter (Invited Expert),
+Christine Runnegar (Invited expert),
+Satya Sahoo (Invited expert),
+David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.),
+Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium),
+Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert),
+Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester),
+Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory),
+Linda Stewart (The National Archives),
+Ed Summers (Library of Congress),
+Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
+Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.),
+Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration),
+Craig Trim (IBM Corporation),
+Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
+Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
+Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
+</p>
+    </section> 
+
+
+ 
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 19 June 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-PRIMER">[PROV-PRIMER]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil; Simon Miles; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><cite>PROV Model Primer</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/</a>
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
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+		</array>
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+		<array>
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+		<key>Frame</key>
+		<string>{{394, 116}, {1286, 872}}</string>
+		<key>ListView</key>
+		<true/>
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+		<key>RightSidebar</key>
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+		<true/>
+		<key>SidebarWidth</key>
+		<integer>120</integer>
+		<key>VisibleRegion</key>
+		<string>{{-295, -22}, {1166, 778}}</string>
+		<key>Zoom</key>
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+	</dict>
+</dict>
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-  <body><div class="head">
-  <p>
-    
-      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
-    
-  </p>
-  <h1 class="title" id="title">Linking Across Provenance Bundles</h1>
-  
-  <h2 id="w3c-working-group-note-11-december-2012"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Group Note 11 December 2012</h2>
-  <dl>
-    
-      <dt>This version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-prov-links-20121211/</a></dd>
-      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-links/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-links/</a></dd>
-    
-    
-      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
-      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/links/prov-links.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/links/prov-links.html</a></dd>
-    
-    
-    
-    
-    
-      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
-      <dd><a href=""></a></dd>
-    
-    
-    <dt>Editors:</dt>
-    <dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
-
-    
-  </dl>
-  
-  
-  
-  
-    
-      <p class="copyright">
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
-        2012
-        
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
-        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
-        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
-        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved.
-        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
-        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
-      </p>
-    
-  
-  <hr>
-</div> 
-
-    <section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
-<p>
-Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
-involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to
-form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#dfn-bundle">Bundles</a>,
-defined in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] as sets of provenance descriptions, were
-introduced in PROV as the mechanism by which provenance of provenance
-can be expressed.  Bundles, whose validity is established
-independently of each other [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>], are essentially
-independent of each other, acting as islands of provenance
-descriptions.
-</p>
-
-<p>
-In  applications where provenance is created by multiple parties over time, it is useful for provenance descriptions created by one party to link to provenance descriptions created by another party. Such a mechanism would allow the "stitching" of provenance descriptions together. Given that provenance descriptions are expected to be contained in bundles, this would require a capability to link entity descriptions across bundles. To address this requirement, this document introduces a relation <a>Mention</a> allowing an entity description to be linked to another entity description occurring in another bundle.
-</p>
-
-<p>The  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.</p>
-
-    </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
-  
-    
-      
-        <p>
-          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
-          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
-          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
-          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
-        </p>
-        
-<h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
-This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
-interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are:
-<ul>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">PROV-O</a> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">PROV-DM</a> (Candidate Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">PROV-N</a> (Candidate Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Candidate Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/">PROV-AQ</a> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
-<li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-links-20121211/">PROV-LINKS</a> (To be published as Note),  introduces a mechanism to link across bundles (this document).</li>
-
-</ul>
-<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-documentation">How to read the PROV Family of Documentation</h4>
-<ul>
-<li>[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] overviews the PROV family of documents. </li>
-<li>The primer [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>] is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL2 ontology. For further details, [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. </li>
-<li>The XML community should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</li>
-<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>].</li>
-<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
-should focus on [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
-</ul>
-
-        <p>
-          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a First Public Working Group Note.
-          
-          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
-          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
-          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
-          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).
-          
-          
-          All feedback is welcome.
-        </p>
-        
-          <p>
-            Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
-            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
-            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
-          </p>
-        
-        
-        <p>
-          
-            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
-            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
-          
-          
-          
-            
-              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
-            
-            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
-            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
-            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
-            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
-            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
-          
-          
-        </p>
-        
-      
-    
-  
-</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Conceptual Definition of Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mention-ontology" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Ontological Definition of Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mention-xml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>XML Schema for Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mention-constraints" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints associated with Mention</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section> 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<section id="introduction"> 
-<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2> 
-
-<p>
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">Provenance</a>
-is a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and
-activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece
-of data or a thing. The specifications [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>], [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>],
-[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>], and [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>] have respectively defined the PROV
-ontology, the PROV conceptual model, the PROV notation, and the PROV
-XML schema, allowing provenance descriptions to be expressed,
-represented in various representations, and interchanged between systems across the Web. 
-</p>
-
-<p>The provenance of information is crucial in deciding whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its originators when reusing it.  To support this, provenance itself should be trusted, and therefore, provenance of provenance is itself a critical aspect of an information infrastructure such as the Web. To this end, PROV introduces the concept of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-bundle">Bundle</a>: defined as a set of provenance descriptions,  it is a mechanism by which provenance of provenance can be expressed (see also <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/#Bundle">Bundle</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-O">PROV-O</a></cite>] and <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/#term-Bundle">Bundle</a> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>]). With bundles, blobs of provenance descriptions can be given names and can themselves be regarded as entities, whose provenance can in turn be described using PROV. These blobs of provenance descriptions are independent of each other, as illustrated by [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>] which determines their <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/#bundle-constraints">validity</a> by examining them in isolation of each other. </p>
-
-
-<p>In a distributed environment, it is common to encounter applications that involve multiple parties: it is a common situation that some party creates some data and its provenance, whereas another party consumes the data and its provenance. In such a situation, the consumer, when it in turn generates provenance, often wants to augment the descriptions of entities generated by another producer.  For the consumer, it is not suitable to repeat the provenance created by the producer, and augment it according to their need. Instead, a consumer wants to <em>refer</em> to the description as created by the producer <em>in situ</em>, i.e. in its bundle, and <em>specialize it</em>, allowing the consumer to add their own view on this entity. Such a capability would allow parties to "stitch together" provenance descriptions that would otherwise be disconnected.</p> 
-
-<p>This document introduces a new concept <a>Mention</a> allowing an entity to be described as the specialization of another entity, itself described in another bundle. The document provides not only a conceptual definition  of <a>Mention</a>, but also the corresponding ontological, schema, and notational definitions, for the various representations of PROV. It also includes constraints that apply to this construct specifically. It is our aim to promote  interoperability by defining <a>Mention</a> conceptually and in the representations of PROV.</p>
-
-<div class="note"><div class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><div class="">The concept <a>Mention</a> is experimental, and for this reason was not defined in PROV recommendation-track documents. The Provenance Working Group is seeking feedback from the community on its usefulness in practical scenarios.
-</div></div>
-</section> 
-
-<section id="term-mention"> 
-<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Conceptual Definition of Mention</h2> 
-
-
-
-<p>An entity <span class="name">e1</span> may be mentioned in a bundle <span class="name">b</span>, which contains some
- descriptions about this entity <span class="name">e1</span>: how <span class="name">e1</span> was generated and used, which activities <span class="name">e1</span> is involved with, the agents <span class="name">e1</span> is attributed to, etc. 
-Other bundles may contain other descriptions about the same entity <span class="name">e1</span>.
-Some applications may want to augment
-the descriptions of entity <span class="name">e1</span>  found in  bundle <span class="name">b</span> with other information.
-To this end, PROV allows a new entity <span class="name">e2</span> to be created and defined as a specialization of the preceding entity <span class="name">e1</span>, and which presents at least an additional aspect:  the bundle <span class="name">b</span> containing some descriptions of <span class="name">e1</span>.  With this relation, applications that process <span class="name">e2</span>
-can know that the attributes of <span class="name">e2</span> may have been computed according to the descriptions of <span class="name">e1</span> in <span class="name">b</span>.
-(The term 'aspect' should be understood  informally as "a particular part or feature of something"; the term is used in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]'s definitions of 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-entity">entity</a> (Section 5.1.1),
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-specialization">specialization</a> (Section 5.5.1),
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#concept-alternate">alternate</a> (Section 5.5.2),  and in 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/#entities-activities-and-agents">section 2.1</a> of [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>]).
-</p>
-
-
-<p>
- <a href="#figure-component5">Figure 1</a> depicts
-the relation MentionOf (<a href="#concept-mention" class="internalDFN">mention</a>) as a ternary relation.
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<span class="figure" id="fig-figure-1-uml-diagram-for-mention" style="max-width: 95%; ">
-<img src="figures/component5.png" alt="mention"><br>
-<span class="figcaption" id="figure-component5">Figure 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#figure-component5"><span class="diamond"> ◊:</span></a></sup>  UML Diagram for Mention</span>
-</span>
-</div>
-
-
-<p>Thus, Mention is a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle.
-It is a special case of specialization.</p> 
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">   The <dfn id="concept-mention" class="internalDFN">mention</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-mention"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup> of an entity in a bundle (containing a description of this entity) is another entity that is a specialization of the former and that presents at least the bundle as a further additional aspect. </span>
-
-
-
-<p>
-An entity is interpreted with respect to a bundle's description in a
-domain specific manner.  The mention of this entity with respect to
-this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some
-domain-specific interpretation.
-</p>
-
-
-<p>A mention of an entity in a bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the  bundle that it is described in. 
-</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-mention">A <dfn title="mentionOf" id="dfn-mentionof" class="internalDFN">mention</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-mentionof"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup>  relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">mentionOf(infra, supra, b)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">infra</span>)
-of the entity that is a mention of the general entity (<span class="name">supra</span>);</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">supra</span>) for an entity that appears in bundle <span class="name">b</span>.</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="mention.bundle">bundle</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">b</span>) of a bundle that contains a description of <span class="name">supra</span> and further constitutes one additional aspect presented by <span class="name">infra</span>.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>Like <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#dfn-specialization">specialization</a>, a mention is not, as  defined here, an <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/#dfn-influence">influence</a>, and therefore does not have an id and attributes.
-Its grammar, in the provenance notation, is written as follows.</p>
-
-<table class="grammar">
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr style="vertical-align: baseline; "> <td><a id="prod-mentionExpression" data-name="prod-mentionExpression"></a><span class="prodNo"></span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">mentionExpression</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content">"mentionOf" "(" <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></span> "," <span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></span> ")"</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-<tbody class="prod"> <tr style="vertical-align: baseline; "> <td><a id="prod-bIdentifier" data-name="prod-bIdentifier"></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="production prod">bIdentifier</code></td> <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;::=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td> <td><code class="content"><span class="prod"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-identifier">identifier</a></span></code></td> </tr> </tbody>
-</table>
-
-
-<p>The following table summarizes how each constituent of a Mention maps to a syntax element, in the provenance notation.</p>
-<div style="text-align: left; ">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<tbody><tr><td><b><a href="#dfn-mentionof">Mention</a></b></td><td><b>Non-Terminal</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="#mention.specificEntity"><span class="attribute" data-id="mention.specificEntity">specificEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr><td><a href="#mention.generalEntity"><span class="attribute" data-id="mention.generalEntity">generalEntity</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/#prod-eIdentifier">eIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td><a href="#mention.bundle"><span class="attribute" data-id="mention.bundle">bundle</span></a></td><td><code class="content"><a class="grammarRef" href="#prod-bIdentifier">bIdentifier</a></code></td></tr>
-
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-
-<p>
-Let us consider a bundle and the expression <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span> occuring in this bundle.   The entity <span class="name">e1</span> may described im multiple other bundle <span class="name">b<sub>i</sub></span>.
-From <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span>, one cannot infer <span class="name">mentionOf(e2,e1,b)</span> for a given <span class="name">b</span>, since it is unknown which  <span class="name">b<sub>i</sub></span>'s descriptions were used to computed additional aspects of   <span class="name">e2</span>. Hence, <span class="name">mentionOf</span> has to be asserted. </p>
-
-<p><a href="#mention-constraints" class="section-ref"><span>Section 5.</span></a> presents constraints applicable to <a>Mention</a>, and in particular, the fact that an entity can be a <a href="#mention.specificEntity">specific entity</a> of a <a>Mention</a> at most once.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-mention-rating"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 1<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-mention-rating"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-<p>This example is concerned with a performance rating tool that reads and processes provenance to determine the performance of agents.  To keep the example simple, an agent's performance is determined by the duration of the activities it is associated with. </p>
-<p>As an illustration, we consider that two bundles <span class="name">ex:run1</span> and <span class="name">ex:run2</span> refer to an agent <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> that controlled two activities <span class="name">ex:a1</span> and <span class="name">ex:a2</span>. </p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">bundle ex:run1
-    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, 2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-
-bundle ex:run2
-    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00, 2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2, ex:Bob, [prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-</pre> 
-<p>The performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. The performance rating tool creates a new bundle <span class="name">tool:analysis01</span> containing the following. A new agent <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span> is declared as a mention of <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> as described in  bundle <span class="name">ex:run1</span>, and likewise for  <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span> with respect to <span class="name">ex:run2</span>. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to be good since the duration of <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since <span class="name">ex:a2</span>'s duration is seven hours. The attribute <span class="name">perf:rating</span> is an example of additional attribute of the specialized agents <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span> and <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span>.</p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">bundle tool:analysis01
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
-    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
-
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
-    mentionOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="aexample-mention-viz"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 2<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#aexample-mention-viz"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-<p>Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
-</p><pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle obs:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
-</pre>
-Bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the visualization layout of this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle tool:bundle2
-  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
-
-  entity(tool:report1, [ viz:color="orange" ])
-  mentionOf(tool:report1, ex:report1, obs:bundle1)
-
-  entity(tool:report2, [ viz:color="blue" ])              
-  mentionOf(tool:report2, ex:report2, obs:bundle1)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>In bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span>, the prefix <span class="name">viz</span> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</p>
-
-<p>This example is typical of a common situation in distributed environments, where the consumer and producer of provenance are different.</p>
-
-<p>Bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span> is given type <span class="name">viz:Configuration</span> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
-</p>
-
-<p>The visualisation tool
- created  new identifiers <span class="name">tool:report1</span> and
-<span class="name">tool:report2</span>.
-They denote entities which are specializations of <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>, described in bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span>, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </p>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-
-<section id="mention-ontology"> 
-      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Ontological Definition of Mention</h2> 
-
-<p>The ternary relation <a href="#dfn-mentionof" class="internalDFN">mentionOf</a> is encoded as two properties: 
-<a href="#mentionOf">prov:mentionOf</a> and
-<a href="#asInBundle">prov:asInBundle</a>, defined as follows.</p>
-
-<div class="entity" id="mentionOf">
-    <h2 id="property--prov-mentionof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
-      Property: <a href="#mentionOf"><span title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#mentionOf" class="dotted">prov:mentionOf</span></a> <sup title="object property" class="type-op">op</sup>
-
-    </h2>
-    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#mentionOf</p>
-
-
-    <div class="description">
-      <div class="comment "><p>When :x prov:mentionOf :y and :y is described in Bundle :b, the triple :x prov:asInBundle :b is also asserted to cite the Bundle in which :y was described.</p>
-      </div>
-      <div class="comment "><p>prov:asInBundle is used to cite the Bundle in which the generalization was mentioned.</p>
-      </div>
-      <dl>
-
-        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
-        <dd>
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              <a class="owlclass" href="#specializationOf" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a> <sup title="object property" class="type-op">op</sup>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-        </dd>
-
-        <dt>has domain</dt>
-        <dd>
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              <a class="owlclass" href="#Entity" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-        </dd>
-
-        <dt>has range</dt>
-        <dd>
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              <a class="owlclass" href="#Entity" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-        </dd>
-
-      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
-      <dd>
-         <a href="#term-mention" title="prov-dm">mention</a>      </dd>
-
-      </dl>
-    </div>
-  </div>
-
-
-<div class="entity" id="asInBundle">
-    <h2 id="property--prov-asinbundle-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
-      Property: <a href="#asInBundle"><span title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#asInBundle" class="dotted">prov:asInBundle</span></a> <sup title="object property" class="type-op">op</sup>
-    </h2>
-    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#asInBundle</p>
-
-
-    <div class="description">
-      <div class="comment "><p>When :x prov:mentionOf :y and :y is described in Bundle :b, the triple :x prov:asInBundle :b is also asserted to cite the Bundle in which :y was described.</p>
-      </div>
-      <dl>
-        <dt>has domain</dt>
-        <dd>
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              <a class="owlclass" href="#Entity" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-        </dd>
-
-        <dt>has range</dt>
-        <dd>
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              <a class="owlclass" href="#Bundle" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle">prov:Bundle</a>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-        </dd>
-
-      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
-      <dd>
-         <a href="#term-mention" title="prov-dm">mention</a>      </dd>
-
-      </dl>
-    </div>
-  </div>
-
-<div class="anexample" typeof="prov:Entity" data-about="#example-for-property-mentionOf" id="example_3"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 3<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_3"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-      <span resource="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#mentionOf" data-rel="dcterms:subject"></span>
-
-<p>We revisit <a href="#anexample-mention-rating" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example 1</span></a>, encoding in RDF the rating of Bob in the context of the second activity.</p>
-
-      <pre property="prov:value" resource="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/examples/eg-24-prov-o-html-examples/rdf/create/rdf/property_mentionOf.ttl" data-rel="prov:wasQuotedFrom">@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
[email protected] xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
[email protected] owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
[email protected] prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
[email protected] tool: &lt;http://example.com/tool/&gt; .
[email protected] perf: &lt;http://example.com/performance/&gt; .
[email protected] :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
-
-:run2 {
-   :activity_2
-      a prov:Activity;
-      prov:startedAtTime "2011-11-17T10:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
-      prov:endedAtTime   "2011-11-17T17:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime; 
-      prov:wasAssociatedWith :bob;
-   .
-}
-
-tool:analysis_01 {
-   tool:bob-2011-11-17
-      a prov:Agent;
-      prov:mentionOf  :bob;
-      prov:asInBundle :run2;
-      perf:rating     perf:very-slow;
-   .
-}
-
-# This is inferred from prov:mentionOf
-tool:bob-2011-11-17 prov:specializationOf :bob . 
-
-# This is inferred from prov:specializationOf
-tool:bob-2011-11-17 prov:alternateOf      :bob . 
-</pre>
-    </div>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="mention-xml"> 
-      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>XML Schema for Mention</h2> 
-
-
-
-<p>Type definition in XML Schema:</p><pre class="schema-type">&lt;xs:complexType xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="Mention"&gt;
-  &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
-    &lt;xs:element name="specificEntity" type="prov:EntityRef"/&gt;
-    &lt;xs:element name="generalEntity" type="prov:EntityRef"/&gt;
-    &lt;xs:element name="bundle" type="prov:EntityRef"/&gt;
-  &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
-&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
-</pre>
-<p>Usage in XML:</p><pre class="schema-usage">&lt;xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="mentionOf" type="prov:Mention"/&gt;
-</pre>
-<div class="anexample" id="example_4"><div class="anexampleTitle">Example 4<sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_4"><span class="diamond"> ◊</span></a></sup></div>
-<pre>&lt;prov:document
-    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
-    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
-    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
-    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
-    xmlns:perf="http://example.com/ns/perf#"
-    xmlns:tool="http://example.com/ns/tool#"&gt;
-
-  &lt;prov:bundle prov:id="ex:run1"&gt;
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2011-11-16T16:00:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
-      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2011-11-16T17:00:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
-
-    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName"&gt;controller&lt;/prov:role&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;
-
-  &lt;prov:bundle prov:id="ex:run2"&gt;
-    &lt;prov:activity prov:id="ex:a2"&gt;
-      &lt;prov:startTime&gt;2011-11-17T10:00:00&lt;/prov:startTime&gt;
-      &lt;prov:endTime&gt;2011-11-17T17:00:00&lt;/prov:endTime&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:activity&gt;
-
-    &lt;prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-      &lt;prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a2" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName"&gt;controller&lt;/prov:role&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:wasAssociatedWith&gt;
-  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;
-
-  &lt;prov:bundle prov:id="tool:analysis01"&gt;
-    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="tool:Bob-2011-11-16"&gt;
-      &lt;ex:perfrating&gt;good&lt;/ex:perfrating&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
-
-    <b>&lt;prov:mentionOf&gt;
-      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="tool:Bob-2011-11-16" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:bundle prov:ref="ex:run1" /&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:mentionOf&gt;</b>
-
-    &lt;prov:agent prov:id="tool:Bob-2011-11-17"&gt;
-      &lt;ex:perfrating&gt;bad&lt;/ex:perfrating&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:agent&gt;
-
-    <b>&lt;prov:mentionOf&gt;
-      &lt;prov:specificEntity prov:ref="tool:Bob-2011-11-17" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:generalEntity prov:ref="ex:Bob" /&gt;
-      &lt;prov:bundle prov:ref="ex:run2" /&gt;
-    &lt;/prov:mentionOf&gt;</b>
-  &lt;/prov:bundle&gt;
-
-&lt;/prov:document&gt;</pre></div>
-</section> 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<section id="mention-constraints"> 
-      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Constraints associated with Mention</h2> 
-
-
-
-
-
-    <p id="mention-specialization-inference_text">If one entity is a mention of another in a bundle, then the former is also a specialization of the latter:</p>
-    
-       <div class="inference" id="mention-specialization-inference">
-<p>
-<span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">mentionOf(e2,e1,b)</span> <span class="conditional">THEN</span> <span class="name">specializationOf(e2,e1)</span>.</p>
-    </div> 
-
-
-
-
-<div id="unique-mention_text">
-<p>An entity can be the subject of at most one mention relation.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="constraint" id="unique-mention">
-<p>
-<span class="conditional">IF</span> <span class="name">mentionOf(e, e1, b1)</span> and <span class="name">mentionOf(e, e2, b2)</span>,
-<span class="conditional">THEN</span>  <span class="name">e1</span>=<span class="name">e2</span> and <span class="name">b1</span>=<span class="name">b2</span>.</p>
-</div> 
-
-
-
-</section> 
-
-
-
-<section class="appendix" id="acknowledgements"> 
-      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
-      <p> 
-
-This  document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to  Ivan Herman (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>).
-      </p> 
-
-<p>
-Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:
-
-Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
-Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
-Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
-James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
-Sam Coppens (IBBT),
-David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
-Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
-Tom De Nies (IBBT),
-Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
-Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
-Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
-Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
-Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
-James Frew (Invited expert),
-Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
-Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid),
-Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
-Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
-Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
-Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
-David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
-Sandro Hawke (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>),
-Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
-Ivan Herman, (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>/<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr>),
-Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
-Hook Hua (Invited expert),
-Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
-Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
-Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
-Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-Simon Miles (Invited expert),
-Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university),
-Luc Moreau (University of Southampton),
-James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University),
-Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
-Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium),
-Adam Retter (Invited Expert),
-Christine Runnegar (Invited expert),
-Satya Sahoo (Invited expert),
-David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.),
-Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium),
-Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert),
-Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester),
-Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory),
-Linda Stewart (The National Archives),
-Ed Summers (Library of Congress),
-Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
-Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.),
-Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration),
-Craig Trim (IBM Corporation),
-Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
-Jun Zhao (University of Oxford),
-Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).
-</p>
-    </section> 
-
-
- 
-
-<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-PROV-AQ">[PROV-AQ]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Paul Groth; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. 19 June 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-aq-20120619/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney; Paolo Missier; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-constraints-20121211/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-DM">[PROV-DM]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/"><cite>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-dm-20121211/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau; Paolo Missier; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-n-20121211/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd>Timothy Lebo; Satya Sahoo; Deborah McGuinness; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/"><cite>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">[PROV-OVERVIEW]</dt><dd>Paul Groth; Luc Moreau; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/"><cite>PROV-OVERVIEW: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-PRIMER">[PROV-PRIMER]</dt><dd>Yolanda Gil; Simon Miles; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/"><cite>PROV Model Primer</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-primer-20121211/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-XML">[PROV-XML]</dt><dd>Hook Hua; Curt Tilmes; Stephan Zednik; eds. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/"><cite>PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema</cite></a>. 11 December 2012, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-xml-20121211/</a>
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-		<key>Style</key>
-		<dict>
-			<key>shadow</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Draws</key>
-				<string>NO</string>
-			</dict>
-			<key>stroke</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Draws</key>
-				<string>NO</string>
-			</dict>
-		</dict>
-	</dict>
-	<key>BaseZoom</key>
-	<integer>0</integer>
-	<key>CanvasOrigin</key>
-	<string>{0, 0}</string>
-	<key>ColumnAlign</key>
-	<integer>1</integer>
-	<key>ColumnSpacing</key>
-	<real>36</real>
-	<key>CreationDate</key>
-	<string>2012-11-11 20:25:11 +0000</string>
-	<key>Creator</key>
-	<string>lebot</string>
-	<key>DisplayScale</key>
-	<string>1 0/72 in = 1 0/72 in</string>
-	<key>GraphDocumentVersion</key>
-	<integer>8</integer>
-	<key>GraphicsList</key>
-	<array>
-		<dict>
-			<key>Class</key>
-			<string>LineGraphic</string>
-			<key>Head</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>ID</key>
-				<integer>856</integer>
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-			<key>ID</key>
-			<integer>857</integer>
-			<key>Points</key>
-			<array>
-				<string>{144.77065662228318, 77.52652866694288}</string>
-				<string>{167.14285062709018, 83.146080130790608}</string>
-				<string>{162.30322687431669, 101.35875822265692}</string>
-				<string>{125.64739610230785, 90.482761274452116}</string>
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-			<key>Style</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>stroke</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Color</key>
-					<dict>
-						<key>b</key>
-						<string>0.501961</string>
-						<key>g</key>
-						<string>0.501961</string>
-						<key>r</key>
-						<string>0.501961</string>
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-					<key>HeadArrow</key>
-					<string>FilledArrow</string>
-					<key>Legacy</key>
-					<true/>
-					<key>LineType</key>
-					<integer>1</integer>
-					<key>TailArrow</key>
-					<string>0</string>
-					<key>Width</key>
-					<real>2</real>
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-				<integer>842</integer>
-				<key>Info</key>
-				<integer>7</integer>
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-			<string>ShapedGraphic</string>
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-				<dict>
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-					<string>0</string>
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-				<key>Font</key>
-				<string>Georgia</string>
-				<key>NSKern</key>
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-				<key>Size</key>
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-			<array>
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-				<string>{0.039331435999999997, -0.5}</string>
-				<string>{-0.28893053892616649, -0.49999999999999956}</string>
-				<string>{-2.3841858000000002e-07, -2.3841858000000002e-07}</string>
-				<string>{0.49999988000000001, -9.536743200000001e-07}</string>
-				<string>{0.49999976000000002, 0.10706591999999999}</string>
-				<string>{0.49999976000000002, -0.089067459000000002}</string>
-				<string>{-0.50000023999999998, 0.24999975999999999}</string>
-				<string>{-0.49697614000000001, -0.25000023999999998}</string>
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-			<key>Shape</key>
-			<string>Rectangle</string>
-			<key>Style</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>fill</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Color</key>
-					<dict>
-						<key>b</key>
-						<string>0.871251</string>
-						<key>g</key>
-						<string>0.994861</string>
-						<key>r</key>
-						<string>1</string>
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-				<key>shadow</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Draws</key>
-					<string>NO</string>
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-				<key>stroke</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Color</key>
-					<dict>
-						<key>b</key>
-						<string>0.6</string>
-						<key>g</key>
-						<string>0.6</string>
-						<key>r</key>
-						<string>0.6</string>
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-					<key>CornerRadius</key>
-					<real>17</real>
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-			</dict>
-			<key>Text</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Text</key>
-				<string>{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\cocoartf1187\cocoasubrtf340
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-			<string>YES</string>
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-			<string>LineGraphic</string>
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-			<array>
-				<string>{12.358700000000001, 4.7106804999999996}</string>
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-				<string>{13.047700000000001, -4.6650995999999996}</string>
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-				<integer>842</integer>
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-				<integer>6</integer>
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-			<key>Rotation</key>
-			<real>90</real>
-			<key>Style</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>stroke</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Bezier</key>
-					<true/>
-					<key>Color</key>
-					<dict>
-						<key>b</key>
-						<string>0.501961</string>
-						<key>g</key>
-						<string>0.501961</string>
-						<key>r</key>
-						<string>0.501961</string>
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-					<key>HeadArrow</key>
-					<string>FilledArrow</string>
-					<key>Legacy</key>
-					<true/>
-					<key>LineType</key>
-					<integer>1</integer>
-					<key>TailArrow</key>
-					<string>0</string>
-					<key>Width</key>
-					<real>2</real>
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-			<key>Tail</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>ID</key>
-				<integer>842</integer>
-				<key>Info</key>
-				<integer>12</integer>
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-			<key>Bounds</key>
-			<string>{{181.75275747418596, 39.365223589566568}, {87, 19}}</string>
-			<key>Class</key>
-			<string>ShapedGraphic</string>
-			<key>FitText</key>
-			<string>YES</string>
-			<key>Flow</key>
-			<string>Resize</string>
-			<key>FontInfo</key>
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-				<key>Color</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>w</key>
-					<string>0</string>
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-				<key>Font</key>
-				<string>Georgia</string>
-				<key>NSKern</key>
-				<real>0.0</real>
-				<key>Size</key>
-				<real>16</real>
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-			<key>ID</key>
-			<integer>831</integer>
-			<key>Shape</key>
-			<string>Rectangle</string>
-			<key>Style</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>shadow</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Draws</key>
-					<string>NO</string>
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-				<key>stroke</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Draws</key>
-					<string>NO</string>
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-			<key>Text</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Text</key>
-				<string>{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\cocoartf1187\cocoasubrtf340
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-			<string>{{14, 16.717516445313265}, {130.28572082519531, 98.285713195800781}}</string>
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-				<string>Georgia</string>
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-			<string>YES</string>
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-				<string>{-0.13149363754976684, -0.49722411081515494}</string>
-				<string>{-0.2014582147646915, -0.5}</string>
-				<string>{-1.1920929000000001e-07, 0}</string>
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-				<string>{0.5, -0.11640215}</string>
-				<string>{0.5, 0.11640263000000001}</string>
-				<string>{-0.46656287000000002, -0.47617738999999998}</string>
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-				<string>{-0.49999999999999956, -0.03033487510684596}</string>
-				<string>{-0.4002385751381714, 0.49440574036245555}</string>
-				<string>{0.29789435283643129, 0.50000000000000022}</string>
-				<string>{0.15661640333194349, 0.49440574036245599}</string>
-				<string>{-0.15129217691539787, 0.50000000000000022}</string>
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-			<key>Shape</key>
-			<string>Rectangle</string>
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-				<dict>
-					<key>Color</key>
-					<dict>
-						<key>b</key>
-						<string>0.871251</string>
-						<key>g</key>
-						<string>0.994861</string>
-						<key>r</key>
-						<string>1</string>
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-				<key>shadow</key>
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-					<key>Draws</key>
-					<string>NO</string>
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-				<key>stroke</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Color</key>
-					<dict>
-						<key>b</key>
-						<string>0.6</string>
-						<key>g</key>
-						<string>0.6</string>
-						<key>r</key>
-						<string>0.6</string>
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-					<key>CornerRadius</key>
-					<real>17</real>
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-			<key>Text</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Text</key>
-				<string>{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\cocoartf1187\cocoasubrtf340
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-			<key>TextPlacement</key>
-			<integer>0</integer>
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-			<key>Bounds</key>
-			<string>{{171.6099897349352, 88.084180673132238}, {86, 19}}</string>
-			<key>Class</key>
-			<string>ShapedGraphic</string>
-			<key>FitText</key>
-			<string>YES</string>
-			<key>Flow</key>
-			<string>Resize</string>
-			<key>FontInfo</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Color</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>w</key>
-					<string>0</string>
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-				<key>Font</key>
-				<string>Georgia</string>
-				<key>NSKern</key>
-				<real>0.0</real>
-				<key>Size</key>
-				<real>16</real>
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-			<key>ID</key>
-			<integer>855</integer>
-			<key>Shape</key>
-			<string>Rectangle</string>
-			<key>Style</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>shadow</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Draws</key>
-					<string>NO</string>
-				</dict>
-				<key>stroke</key>
-				<dict>
-					<key>Draws</key>
-					<string>NO</string>
-				</dict>
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-			<key>Text</key>
-			<dict>
-				<key>Pad</key>
-				<integer>2</integer>
-				<key>Text</key>
-				<string>{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\cocoartf1187\cocoasubrtf340
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-				<integer>0</integer>
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-			<key>Wrap</key>
-			<string>NO</string>
-		</dict>
-	</array>
-	<key>GridInfo</key>
-	<dict/>
-	<key>GuidesLocked</key>
-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>GuidesVisible</key>
-	<string>YES</string>
-	<key>HPages</key>
-	<integer>1</integer>
-	<key>ImageCounter</key>
-	<integer>1</integer>
-	<key>KeepToScale</key>
-	<false/>
-	<key>Layers</key>
-	<array>
-		<dict>
-			<key>Lock</key>
-			<string>NO</string>
-			<key>Name</key>
-			<string>Layer 1</string>
-			<key>Print</key>
-			<string>YES</string>
-			<key>View</key>
-			<string>YES</string>
-		</dict>
-	</array>
-	<key>LayoutInfo</key>
-	<dict>
-		<key>Animate</key>
-		<string>NO</string>
-		<key>circoMinDist</key>
-		<real>18</real>
-		<key>circoSeparation</key>
-		<real>0.0</real>
-		<key>layoutEngine</key>
-		<string>dot</string>
-		<key>neatoSeparation</key>
-		<real>0.0</real>
-		<key>twopiSeparation</key>
-		<real>0.0</real>
-	</dict>
-	<key>LinksVisible</key>
-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>MagnetsVisible</key>
-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>MasterSheets</key>
-	<array/>
-	<key>ModificationDate</key>
-	<string>2012-11-11 20:25:42 +0000</string>
-	<key>Modifier</key>
-	<string>lebot</string>
-	<key>NotesVisible</key>
-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>Orientation</key>
-	<integer>2</integer>
-	<key>OriginVisible</key>
-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>PageBreaks</key>
-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>PrintInfo</key>
-	<dict>
-		<key>NSBottomMargin</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>float</string>
-			<string>41</string>
-		</array>
-		<key>NSHorizonalPagination</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>coded</string>
-			<string>BAtzdHJlYW10eXBlZIHoA4QBQISEhAhOU051bWJlcgCEhAdOU1ZhbHVlAISECE5TT2JqZWN0AIWEASqEhAFxlwCG</string>
-		</array>
-		<key>NSLeftMargin</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>float</string>
-			<string>18</string>
-		</array>
-		<key>NSPaperSize</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>size</string>
-			<string>{612, 792}</string>
-		</array>
-		<key>NSPrintReverseOrientation</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>int</string>
-			<string>0</string>
-		</array>
-		<key>NSRightMargin</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>float</string>
-			<string>18</string>
-		</array>
-		<key>NSTopMargin</key>
-		<array>
-			<string>float</string>
-			<string>18</string>
-		</array>
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-	<key>PrintOnePage</key>
-	<false/>
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-	<string>NO</string>
-	<key>RowAlign</key>
-	<integer>1</integer>
-	<key>RowSpacing</key>
-	<real>36</real>
-	<key>SheetTitle</key>
-	<string>Canvas 1</string>
-	<key>SmartAlignmentGuidesActive</key>
-	<string>YES</string>
-	<key>SmartDistanceGuidesActive</key>
-	<string>YES</string>
-	<key>UniqueID</key>
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-	<key>UseEntirePage</key>
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-	<integer>1</integer>
-	<key>WindowInfo</key>
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-		<key>CurrentSheet</key>
-		<integer>0</integer>
-		<key>ExpandedCanvases</key>
-		<array>
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-				<string>Canvas 1</string>
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-		<string>{{394, 116}, {1286, 872}}</string>
-		<key>ListView</key>
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-		<key>RightSidebar</key>
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-		<key>Sidebar</key>
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-		<key>SidebarWidth</key>
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-		<key>VisibleRegion</key>
-		<string>{{-295, -22}, {1166, 778}}</string>
-		<key>Zoom</key>
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