prov-dictionary note create
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Sun, 24 Jun 2012 08:26:42 -0700
changeset 3439 120efb4c6e36
parent 3438 76883d08f270
child 3440 0bc745f5631a
prov-dictionary note create
model/prov-collections.html
model/prov-dictionary.html
--- a/model/prov-collections.html	Sun Jun 24 08:20:44 2012 -0700
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,3833 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html
->
-
-<html><head> 
-    <title>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</title> 
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-      var addExtraReferences = function() {
-          for (var k in extraReferences)
-              berjon.biblio[k] = extraReferences[k];
-      };
-      var extraReferences = {
-        "CLOCK":
-         "Lamport, L. "+
-         "<a href=\"http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf\"><cite>Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system</cite></a>."+
-         "Communications of the ACM 21 (7): 558–565. 1978. "+
-         "URL: <a href=\"http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf\">http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf</a> " +
-         "DOI: doi:10.1145/359545.359563.",
-        "CSP":
-         "Hoare, C. A. R. "+
-         "<a href=\"http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf\"><cite>Communicating Sequential Processes</cite></a>."+
-         "Prentice-Hall. 1985"+
-         "URL: <a href=\"http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf\">http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf</a>",
-        "Logic":
-          "W. E. Johnson "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html\"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>."+
-          "1924. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html\">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>",
-        "PROV-SEM":
-          "James Cheney "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman\"><cite>Formal Semantics Strawman</cite></a>. "+
-          "2011, Work in progress. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman\">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman</a>",
-
-        "PROV-PRIMER":
-          "Yolanda Gil and Simon Miles (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Helena Deus, Daniel Garijo, Graham Klyne, Paolo Missier, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/\"><cite>Prov Model Primer</cite></a>. "+
-          "2011, Working Draft. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</a>",
-
-        "PROV-O":
-          "Satya Sahoo and Deborah McGuinness (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, James Cheney, Daniel Garijo, Timothy Lebo, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/\"><cite>Provenance Formal Model</cite></a>. "+
-          "2011, Working Draft. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</a>",
-
-
-        "PROV-CONSTRAINTS":
-          "James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.) "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/\"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. "+
-          "2011, Working Draft. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a>",
-
-        "PROV-N":
-          "Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/\"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. "+
-          "2011, Working Draft. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a>",
-
-        "PROV-AQ":
-          "Graham Klyne and Paul Groth (eds.) Luc Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame, and Simon Miles "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/\"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. "+
-          "2011, Working Draft. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</a>",
-
-        "UML":
-          "Object Management Group "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/\"><cite>Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</cite></a>. "+
-          "version 2.0, 2005 "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/\">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</a>",
-
-        "RDF-CONCEPTS11":
-          "RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/\"><cite>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</cite></a>. "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>",
-
-        "Mappings":
-          "Satya Sahoo and Paul Groth and Olaf Hartig and Simon Miles and Sam Coppens and James Myers and Yolanda Gil and Luc Moreau and Jun Zhao and Michael Panzer and Daniel Garijo "+
-          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings\"><cite>Provenance Vocabulary Mappings</cite></a>. "+
-          "August 2010 "+
-          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings\">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</a>",
-
-
-
-      };
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-          // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
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- 
-          // if your specification has a subtitle that goes below the main
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- 
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-              { name: "Paolo Missier", url: "http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier",
-                company: "Newcastle University" },
-          ],
- 
-          // authors, add as many as you like. 
-          // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
-          // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
- 
-          authors:  [
-              { name: "Khalid Belhajjame", url: "http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame",
-                company: "University of Manchester" },
-              { name: "Reza B'Far",
-                company: "Oracle Corporation" },
-              { name: "Stephen Cresswell",
-                company: "legislation.gov.uk"},
-              { name: "Tom De Nies", url:"http://users.ugent.be/~tdenies/",
-                company: "IBBT - Ghent University"},
-              { name: "Yolanda Gil",
-                company: "Invited Expert", url:"http://www.isi.edu/~gil/"},
-              { name: "Paul Groth", url: "http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/",
-                company: "VU University of Amsterdam" },
-              { name: "Graham Klyne",
-                company: "University of Oxford" },
-              { name: "Timothy Lebo", url: "http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo",
-                company: "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute" },
-              { name: "Jim McCusker", url: "http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker",
-                company: "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute" },
-              { name: "Simon Miles", 
-                company: "Invited Expert", url:"http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/" },
-              { name: "James Myers", url:"http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/",
-                company: "Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute"},
-              { name: "Satya Sahoo", url:"http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo",
-                company: "Case Western Reserve University" },
-              { name: "Curt Tilmes", 
-                company: "National Aeronautics and Space Administration" },
-          ],
-          
-          // name of the WG
-          wg:           "Provenance Working Group",
-          
-          // URI of the public WG page
-          wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/",
-          
-          // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
-          wgPublicList: "public-prov-comments",
-          
-          // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
-          // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
-          // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
-          // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
-          // Team Contact.
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-
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-  <body> 
-
-    <section id="abstract">
-<p>
-Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people,
-involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
- to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
-PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the W3C
-provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
-PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
-extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
-PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
-(1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-(2) derivations of entities from entities;
-(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
-(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
-(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
-</p>
-
-<p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
-PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
-relations. PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
-extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
-
-<p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
-First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
-provenance should follow.  Second, 
-a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
-instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
-this document. </p>
-
-    </section> 
-
-<section id="sotd">
-<h4>Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
-<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
-Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
-the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review, before the implementation phase.</p>
-<h4>Please Comment By (date TBD)</h4>
-<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
-The end date of the Last Call review period is TBD, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
-</p>
-
-<h4>PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
-This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
-interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
-<ul>
-<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
-<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption;</li>
-<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an OWL-RL ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
-<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
-<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
-</ul>
-<h4>How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
-<ul>
-<li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
-<li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
-<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
-<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
-should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
-</ul>
-</section>
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-    <section id="introduction"> 
-      <h2>Introduction<br>
-</h2> 
-
-<p> 
-For the purpose of this specification, <dfn>provenance</dfn> is defined as a record that describes the people,
-institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing,
-influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.
-In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding
-whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with
-other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its
-originators when reusing it.  In an open and inclusive environment
-such as the Web, where users find information that is often contradictory or
-questionable, provenance can help those users to make trust judgements.
-</p>
-
-
-<p>
-We present the PROV data model,
-a generic data model for provenance that allows  domain and application specific representations of provenance to be translated into such a data model and  <em>interchanged</em> between systems.
-Thus, heterogeneous systems can export their native provenance into such a core data model, and applications that need to make sense of provenance can then import it,
-process it, and reason over it.</p>
-
-<!--
-<p>A set of specifications, referred to as the PROV family of specifications, define the various aspects
-that are necessary to achieve this vision in an interoperable
-way:</p>
-<ul>
-<li>A data model for provenance, which is presented in three documents:
-<ul>
-<li> PROV-DM: the provenance data model, informally described (this document);
-<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS: constraints underpinning the data model [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]];
-<li> PROV-N: a notation to express instances of that data model for human consumption [[PROV-N]];
-</ul> 
-</li>
-<li>PROV-O: the PROV ontology, an OWL-RL ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [[PROV-O]];</li>
-<li>PROV-AQ: the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [[PROV-AQ]];</li>
-<li>PROV-PRIMER: a primer for the PROV approach [[PROV-PRIMER]];</li>
-<li>PROV-SEM: semantics of the PROV-DM data model [[PROV-SEM]];</li>
-<li>PROV-XML: an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
-</ul>
--->
-
-
-<p>
-The PROV data model distinguishes <em>core structures</em> from
-<em>extended structures</em>: core structures form the essence of
-provenance information, and are commonly found in various
-domain-specific vocabularies that deal
-with provenance or similar kinds of information [[Mappings]].
-Extended structures enhance and refine core
-structures with more expressive capabilities to cater for more
-advanced uses of provenance.
-The  PROV data model, comprising both core and extended structures, is a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and
-application-specific extensions to be defined.
-</p>
-
-
-<p>
-The PROV data model has a modular design and is structured according to six components covering various facets of provenance:</p>
-<ul>
-<li> component 1: entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-<li> component 2: derivations of entities from others;
-<li> component 3: agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-<li> component 4: bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance;
-<li> component 5: properties to link entities that refer to a same thing;
-<li> component 6: collections forming a logical structure for its members.
-</ul>
-
-
-<p>This specification presents the concepts of the PROV Data Model, and
-provenance types and relations, without specific concern for how they are applied.
-With these, it becomes possible to write useful provenance, and publish or embed it alongside the data it relates to. </p>
-
-<p>However, if something about which provenance is expressed is subject to change, then it is challenging to express its provenance precisely (e.g. the data from which a daily weather report is derived  changes from day to day).
-This is addressed in a companion
- specification [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]] by proposing formal constraints on
- the way that provenance is related to the things it
- describes (such as the use of attributes, temporal information and
- specialization of entities), and additional conclusions that are valid
- to infer.
-</p>
-
-
-<section id="structure-of-this-document"> 
-<h3>Structure of this Document</h3>
-
-<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> provides an overview of the PROV Data Model,  distinguishing a core set of types and  relations, commonly found in provenance, from extended structures catering for more specific uses. It also introduces a modular organization of the data model in components. </p>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-notation">Section 3</a> overviews the Provenance Notation used to illustrate examples of provenance.</p>
-
-
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 4</a> illustrates how the PROV data model can be used
-to express the provenance of a report published on the Web.</p>
-
-
-<p><a href="#data-model-components">Section 5</a> provides the definitions of PROV concepts, structured according to six components.</p>
-
-
-
-<p><a href="#extensibility-section">Section 6</a> summarizes PROV-DM extensibility points.</p>
-
-<p><a href="#valid-provenance">Section 7</a> introduces the idea that constraints can be applied to the PROV data model to validate provenance; these are covered in the companion specification [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]].</p>
-
-
-</section> 
-
-<section id="conventions"> 
-<h3>Notational Conventions</h3>
-
-
-
-<p>The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
-      NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and
-      "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
-      [[!RFC2119]].</p>
-
-
-<p>
-The following namespaces prefixes are used throughout this document.
-
-<div style="text-align: left;">
-<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="namespace-table">Table 1: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption>
-<tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration"><span>TBD</span></a>)</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]]</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace  [[!RDF-CONCEPTS]]</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br/> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br/> some application-dependent URI [[!URI]]</td></tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p> 
-  Examples throughout this document use the PROV-N Provenance
-  Notation, briefly introduced in <a href="#prov-notation">Section 3</a> and specified fully in a separate document [[PROV-N]].</p>
-
-
-</section> 
-
-</section> 
-
-
-
-<section id='section-prov-overview'> 
-<h1>PROV Overview</h1>
-
-<p>This section introduces provenance concepts with informal explanations and illustrative
-examples. PROV distinguishes  <em>core structures</em>, forming the essence of  provenance, from <em>extended structures</em> catering for more advanced uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a> and <a href="#section-extended-structures">Section 2.2</a>. Furthermore, the PROV data model is organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see <a href="#section-overview-components">Section 2.3</a>). A <em>provenance description</em> is an instance of  a core and extended provenance structure described below.
-</p>
-
-
-<section id='core-structures'> 
-<h1>PROV Core Structures</h1>
-
-<p>At its core, provenance describes the use and production of
-<em>entities</em> by <em>activities</em>, which may be 
-influenced in
-various ways by <em>agents</em>.  These core types and their relationships
-are illustrated
-by
-the UML diagram of <a href="#prov-core-structures-top">Figure 1</a>.</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center; ">
-  <figure style="max-width: 70%; " id="prov-core-structures-top">
-<!--     <img src="../images/OverviewDiagram.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; "  /> -->
-<img src="uml/essentials.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; "  />
-<figcaption id="prov-core-structures">Figure 1: PROV Core Structures</figcaption>
-  </figure>
-</div>
-
-<p>The concepts found in the core of PROV are introduced in the rest of this section.
-They are summarized in  <a href="#overview-types-and-relations">Table 2</a>, where they are categorized as
- type or relation.
- The first column lists concepts, the second column indicates whether a concept maps to a type or a relation, whereas the third column contains the corresponding name.    Names of relations have a verbal form in the past tense to express what happened in the past, as opposed to what may or will happen. In the core of PROV, all relations are binary. 
-</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div style="text-align: left;">
-<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="overview-types-and-relations">Table 2: Mapping of PROV core concepts to  types and relations</caption>
-<tr><td><a><b>PROV Concepts</b></a></td><td><b>PROV-DM types or relations</b></td><td><b>Name</b></td><td><b>Overview</b></td></tr>
-<tr>
-<td><a>Entity</a></td><td rowspan="3" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Types</td><td><a title="dfn-Entity">Entity</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity">Activity</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent">Agent</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr>
-<td><a>Generation</a></td><td rowspan="7" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Relations</td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy">wasGeneratedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Usage</a></td><td><a title="used">Used</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Communication</a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy">WasInformedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom">WasDerivedFrom</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-derivation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo">WasAttributedTo</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>Delegation</a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a></td></tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<!--
-<p><a href="#prov-core-structures">Figure 1</a> is not intended to be complete: it only illustrates  types and relations introduced in this section (<a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a>), exploited in the example discussed in <a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 3</a>, and explained in detail in <a href="#data-model-components">Section 4</a>.
-Names of relations depicted in <a href="#prov-core-structures">Figure 1</a> 
-are listed in
-the third column of <a href="#overview-types-and-relations">Table 2</a>. These names are part of a textual notation to write instances of the PROV data model, which we introduce in the next section. </p>
-
--->
-
-
-
-
-
-<form action="#"><p> 
-<input id="hide-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-examples','none'); set_display_by_id('show-examples','');" type="button"
-value="Hide Concept Examples" /> 
-<input id="show-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample',''); set_display_by_id('hide-examples',''); set_display_by_id('show-examples','none');" style="display: none"
-type="button" value="Show Concept Examples" /> 
-</p> 
-</form> 
-
-
-
-
-  
-    <section id='section-entity-activity'> 
-<h2>Entity and Activity</h2>
-
-
-<p>In PROV, things we want to describe the provenance of are called <em>entities</em> and have some fixed aspect. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
-physical things such as a mountain, a building, a printed book, or a car as well as abstract concepts and ideas. 
-</p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-entity"  data-withspan="true">
-</span> [<a href="#term-entity">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="entity-example">
-<p>An entity may be the document at URI <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</a>, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activity"  data-withspan="true"></span> [<a href="#term-Activity">Detailed specification</a>]
-Just as entities cover a broad range of notions, 
-activities can cover a broad range of
-notions:
-information processing activities
- may for example move, copy, or duplicate  digital entities;
- physical activities can include
- driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.
-</p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="activity-example">
-<p>An activity may be the publishing of a document on the Web, sending a twitter message, extracting metadata embedded in a file, driving a car from Boston to Cambridge, assembling a data set based on a set of measurements, performing a statistical analysis over a data set, sorting news items according to some criteria, running a SPARQL query over a triple store, or editing a file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<p>Activities and entities are associated with each other in two different ways: activities utilize entities and activities  produce entities. The act of utilizing or producing an entity may have a duration.  
- The term 'generation' refers to the completion of the act of producing; likewise, the term 'usage' refers to the beginning of the act of utilizing entities. Thus, we define the following concepts of generation and usage. </p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-generation"  data-withspan="true">
-</span> [<a href="#term-Generation">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-usage"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>  [<a href="#term-Usage">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="generation-example">
-<p>Examples of generation are the completed creation of a file by a
-program, the completed creation of a linked data set, and the completed
-publication of a new version of a document.
-</div>
-
-<p>
-One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by
-driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.  This is answered by
-considering that a single artifact may
-correspond to several entities; in this case, a car in Boston may be a
-different entity from a car in Cambridge.  
-Thus, among other things,
-an entity "car in Boston" would be used, and a new entity "car in
-Cambridge" would be generated by this activity of driving.  The
-provenance trace of the car might include: designed in Japan,
-manufactured in Korea, shipped to Boston USA, purchased by customer,
-driven to Cambridge, serviced by engineer in Cambridge, etc., all of
-which might be important information when deciding whether or not it
-represents a sensible second-hand purchase.  Or some of it might
-alternatively be relevant when trying to determine the truth of a web
-page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
-of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
-digital artifacts.
-</p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="usage-example">
-<p>Usage examples include a procedure beginning to consume an argument, a service starting to read a value on a port, a program beginning to read a configuration
-file, or the point at which an ingredient, such as eggs, is being added in a baking activity. Usage may entirely consume an entity (e.g. eggs are no longer available after being added to
-the mix); in contrast, the same entity may be used multiple times, possibly by different activities (e.g. a file on a file system can be read indefinitely).
-</div>
-
-
-<p>The generation of an entity by an activity and its subsequent usage by another activity is termed communication.</p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-communication"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>   [<a href="#term-Communication">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example">
-<p>
-The activity of writing a celebrity article was informed by (a
-communication instance) the activity of intercepting voicemails.
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-    <section id="section-derivation"> 
-<h2>Derivation</h2>
-
-
-
-<p>Activities utilize entities and produce entities. In some cases, utilizing an entity influences the creation of another in some way. This notion of 'influence' is captured by derivations, defined as follows.
-</p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-derivation"  data-withspan="true"></span>
-   [<a href="#term-Derivation">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example">
-<p>Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
-linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-<p>
-While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
-subtle: implicit is the notion that the generated entity was affected
-in some way by the used entity.  
-
-If an artifact
-was used by an activity that also generated a new artifact, it does not always follow
-that the second artifact was derived from the first.  In the activity
-of creating a painting, an artist may have mixed some paint that was
-never actually applied to the canvas: the painting would typically
-not be considered a derivation from the unused paint.  
-<!-- The provenance
-model does not attempt to define what constitutes derivation; rather,
-it is considered to be something that is asserted, having been
-determined by unspecified means. -->
-PROV does not attempt to specify the conditions under which derivations
-exist; rather, derivation is considered to have been determined by unspecified means. 
-Thus, while a chain of usage and generation is necessary for a
-derivation to hold between entities, it is not sufficient; some
-form of influence occurring during the activities involved is also needed. 
-</p>
-</section>
-
-
-
-<section id="section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"> 
-<h2>Agents and Responsibility</h2>
-
-<p>For many purposes, a key consideration
- for deciding whether something is reliable and/or trustworthy is
- knowing who or what <em>was reponsible</em> for its production.  Data published by
- a respected independent organization may be considered more
- trustworthy that that from a lobby organization; a claim by a
- well-known scientist with an established track record may be more
- believed than a claim by a new student; a calculation performed by an
- established software library may be more reliable than by a one-off
- program.</p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-agent"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>   [<a href="#term-agent">Detailed specification</a>]
- An agent MAY be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
- used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  
-</p>
-
-
-<!--
-<p>
-The definition of agent intentionally stays away from using concepts such as enabling, causing, initiating, triggering, affecting, etc, because many entities also enable, cause, initiate, and affect in some way
-the activities. (Concepts such as triggers are themselves defined later in relations between entities and activities.)   So the notion of having some degree of responsibility is really what makes an agent.</p>
--->
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example">
-<p>
-Software for checking the use of grammar in a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity;  one can also describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
-A site selling books on the Web, the services involved in the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
-</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<p>Agents can be related to entities, activities, and other agents.</p>  
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-attribution" data-withspan="true"></span>
-[<a href="#term-attribution">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example">
-<p>A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</p>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. </p>
-
-<!-- <div class="note">Proposal: remove the above para as it repeats from 2.3. Proposed text: "the <em>activity association</em> relation provides a way to indicate that an agent is responsible for an activity, possibly with an associated plan."[PM]</div> -->
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-core-association"  data-withspan="true"></span>
-[<a href="#term-Association">Detailed specification</a>]</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example">
-<p>Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
-<ul>
-<li>creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</li>
-<li>various forms of participation in a panel discussion, including audience member, panelist, or panel chair;</li>
-<li>a public event, sponsored by a company, and hosted by a museum;</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-delegation"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>
-[<a href="#term-delegation">Detailed specification</a>]
- The nature of this relation is intended to be broad,  including contractual relation, but also altruistic initiative by the representative agent. </p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example">
-<p>A student publishing a web page describing an academic
-department could result in both the student and the department being
-agents associated with the activity.  It may not matter which actual
-student published a web page, but it may matter significantly that the department
-told the student to put up the web page.  
-</p>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="section-extended-structures"> 
-<h2>PROV Extended Structures</h2>
-
-<p>While the core of PROV focuses on essential provenance structures commonly found in provenance descriptions, extended structures 
-are designed to support more advanced uses of provenance. 
-The purpose of this section is twofold. First, mechanisms to specify these extended structures are introduced.  Second,  two further kinds of provenance structures are overviewed: they cater for provenance of provenance and collections,  respectively.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<section id="section-prov-extended-mechanisms"> 
-<h2>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</h2>
-
-<p>Extended structures are defined by a variety of mechanisms 
-outlined in this section: subtyping, expanded relations, optional
-identification, and new relations.</p>
-
-
-<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping"> 
-<h2>Subtyping</h2>
-
-<p>Subtyping can be applied to core types. For example, a software agent is special kind of agent, defined as follows.</p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-software-agent"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>
-
-
-<p>Subtyping can also be applied to  core relations. For example, a revision is a special kind of derivation, defined as follows.</p>
-
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-revision" data-withspan="true"></span></p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation"> 
-<h2>Expanded Relations</h2>
-
-<p><a class="section-ref" href="#core-structures"><span>TBD</span></a> shows that seven concepts are mapped to binary relations in the core of PROV.  However, some advanced uses of these concepts cannot be captured by a binary relation, but require relations to be expanded to n-ary relations.</p>
-
-
-<p>To illustrate expanded relations, we consider the concept of
-association, described
-in <a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span>TBD</span></a>.  Agents may adopt <em>plans</em>, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
-goals in the context of an activity.
-Hence, an expanded form of
-association relation allows for a plan to be specified. Plan is defined by subtyping and 
-full association by an expanded relation, as follows. </p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-plan"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>
-</p> 
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activityAssociation"  data-withspan="true"></span>
-</p>
-
-<p>There exist no
-prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the
-actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals.  Since plans may evolve over time,
-it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are
-entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to  
-validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to  
-manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2">
-<p>An example of association between an activity and an agent involving a plan is:
-an XSLT transform (an activity) launched by a user (an agent) based on an XSL style sheet (a plan).
-
-</div>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification"> 
-<h2>Optional Identification</h2>
-
-<p>Some concepts exhibit both a core use, expressed as
-binary relation, and an extended use, expressed as n-ary relation.  In
-some cases, mapping the concept to a relation, whether binary or
-n-ary, is not sufficient: instead, it may be required to
-identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, PROV-DM allows for 
-an optional identifier to be
-expressed to identify an instance of an association between two or
-more elements.  This optional identifier can then be used to refer to
-an instance as part of other concepts.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example">
-<p>A service may read a same configuration file on two different occasions. Each  usage can be identifed by its own identifier, allowing them to be distinguished. 
-</div>
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-
-<section id="section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations"> 
-<h2>Further Relations</h2>
-
-<p>Finally, PROV-DM supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations.</p>
-
-
-</section>
-</section>
-
-
-
-<section id="section-provenance-of-provnance"> 
-<h2>Provenance of Provenance</h2>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-bundle"  data-withspan="true">
-</span>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example">
-<p>
-For users to decide whether they can place their trust in
-a resource, they may want to analyze the resource's provenance, but also determine
-who its provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated. In other words, users need to be able to determine the provenance of provenance.
-Hence, provenance is also
-regarded as an entity (of type Bundle), by which provenance of provenance can then be
-expressed.
-</p>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-<section id="section-collections"> 
-<h2>Collections</h2>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-collection"  data-withspan="true"></span> Many different types of collections exist, such as a <em>sets</em>, <em>dictionaries</em>, or <em>lists</em>. 
-Using Collections, one can express the provenance of the collection itself in addition to that of the members. The provenance of the collection is the history of all insertions into and deletions from the collection. This may be complemented by explicit membership statements which enumerate the contents of the collection. </p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example">
-<p>
-An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
-</div>
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="section-overview-components"> 
-<h2>Modular Organization</h2>
-
-<p>Besides the separation between core and extended structures, PROV-DM
-is further organized according to components, grouping concepts in a
-thematic manner. </p>
-
-<p> <a href="#components-overview">Table 3</a> enumerates the six components, five of which have already been implicitly overviewed in this section. All components specify extended structures, whereas only the first three  define core structures.
-
-<div id="components-overview-div" style="text-align: center;">
-<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="components-overview">Table 3: Components Overview</caption>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Component</td><td>Core <br>Structures</td><td>Overview</td><td>Specification</td><td>Description</td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="	padding: 8px;">1</td><td style="text-align: left;">Entities and Activities</td><td>&#10004;</td><td><a href="#section-entity-activity">2.1.1</a></td><td><a href="#component1">5.1</a></td><td  style="text-align: left;">about entities and activities, and their interrelations</td></tr> 
-<tr><td>2</td><td style="text-align: left;">Derivation</td><td>&#10004;</td><td><a href="#section-derivation">2.1.2</a></td><td><a href="#component3">5.2</a></td><td  style="text-align: left;">about derivations and its subtypes</td></tr> 
-<tr><td>3</td><td style="text-align: left;">Agent and Responsibility</td><td>&#10004;</td><td><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation">2.1.3</a></td><td><a href="#component2">5.3</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to them</td></tr> 
-<tr><td>4</td><td style="text-align: left;">Alternate</td><td></td><td>&mdash;</td><td><a href="#component4">5.4</a></td><td  style="text-align: left;">about relations linking entities referring the same thing</td></tr> 
-<tr><td>5</td><td style="text-align: left;">Bundles</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance">2.2.2</a></td><td><a href="#component5">5.5</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance</td></tr> 
-<tr><td>6</td><td style="text-align: left;">Collections</td><td></td><td><a href="#section-collections">2.2.3</a></td><td><a href="#component6">5.6</a></td><td style="text-align: left;">about collections and concepts capturing their transformation, such as insertion and removal</td></tr> 
-</table>
-</div>
-
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="prov-notation"> 
-<h2>The Provenance Notation</h2>
-
-
-<p>To illustrate the application of PROV concepts to a concrete example (see <a href="#prov-dm-example">Section 4</a>) and to provide examples of concepts (see <a href="#data-model-components">Section 5</a>),
-we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details, the reader is referred to the companion specification [[PROV-N]].
-PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</p>
-<ul>
-<li>PROV-N expressions adopt a <em>functional notation</em> consisting
-of a name and a list of arguments in parentheses.</li>
-
-<li>The interpretation of PROV-N arguments is defined according to their <em>position</em> in the list of arguments. This convention allows for a compact notation. </li>
-
-<li>
-PROV-N <em>optional arguments</em> need not be specified:
-the general rule for optional arguments is that, if none of them are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression. However, it may be the case that only some of the optional arguments need to be specified. Because the position of the arguments in the expression matters, in this case, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The syntactic marker  '<span class="name">-</span>' is used for this purpose.
-</li>
-
-<li>Most expressions 
-include an identifier 
-and a set of attribute-value pairs; both are optional unless otherwise specified. By convention, the identifier occurs in the <em>first position</em>, and the set of attribute-value pairs in the <em>last position</em>.
-Consistent with the convention on arguments, the marker  '<span class="name">-</span>' can be used when the identifier is not available, or can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising. To further disambiguate expressions that contains an optional identifier, the optional identifier or marker must be followed by '<span class="name">;</span>'.
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n">
-<p>
-An activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span> and an attribute <span class="name">type</span> with value <span class="name">createFile</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample" >
-activity(a1, [prov:type="createFile"])
-</pre>
-Two entities with identifiers <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample" >
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-</pre>
-The activity  <span class="name">a1</span> used  <span class="name">e1</span>, and <span class="name">e2</span> was generated by <span class="name">a1</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample" >
-used(a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2,a1)
-</pre>
-The same descriptions, but with an explicit identifier <span class="name">u1</span> for the usage, and the syntactic marker '<span class="name">-</span>' to mark the absence of identifier in the generation. Both are followed by  '<span class="name">;</span>'.
-<pre class="codeexample" >
-used(u1;a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(-;e2,a1)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="prov-dm-example"> 
-<h2>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</h2>
-
-<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> has introduced some provenance concepts, and how they are expressed as types or relations in the PROV data model. The purpose of this section is to put these concepts into practice in order to express the provenance of some document published on the Web.  
-With this realistic example, PROV concepts are  composed together,  and a graphical illustration shows a provenance description forming a directed graph, rooted at the entity we want to explain the provenance of, and pointing to the entities, activities, and agents it depended on. This example also shows that, sometimes, multiple provenance descriptions about the same entity can co-exist, which then justifies the need for provenance of provenance.</p>
-
-
-<p>In this example, we consider one of the many documents published by the World Wide Web Consortium, and describe its provenance. 
-Specifically, we consider the document identified by
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a>. Its provenance can be expressed from several perspectives: first,  provenance can take the authors' viewpoint; second, it can be concerned with the W3C process. Then, attribution of these two provenance descriptions is provided.</p>
-
-
-<section id="section-example-one"> 
-<h3>The Authors View</h3>
-
-
-<p style="font-style:italic; " ><b>Description:</b> A document
-is edited by some editor, using contributions from various
-contributors.
-</p>
-
-
-
-<p>In this perspective, provenance of the document
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a> is concerned with the editing activity as perceived by authors.  This kind of information could be used by authors in their CV or in a narrative about this document. </p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>We paraphrase some PROV-DM descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document1-top">Figure 2</a>).
-Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication3.pn">here</a>.</p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center; ">
-  <figure id="prov-a-document1-top">
-  <img src="images/w3-publication3.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (1)" style="max-width: 98%; "/>
-<figcaption id="prov-a-document1">Figure 2: Provenance of a Document (1)</figcaption>
-  </figure>
-</div>
-
-
-<ul>
-<li>There was a document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which from the author's perspective was a document in its second version. 
-<pre>
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>There was an editing activity.
-<pre>
-activity(ex:edit1,[prov:type="edit"])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a <a title="concept-generation">Generation</a>.
-<pre>
-wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-
-<li>There were some agents.
-<pre>
-agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor.
-<pre>
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Paolo, -, [ prov:role="editor" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Simon, -, [ prov:role="contributor" ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-Provenance descriptions can be <em>illustrated</em> graphically. The illustration is not intended to represent all the details of the model, but it is intended to show the essence of a set of
-provenance descriptions.  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</p>
-
-<p>The graphical illustration takes the form of a graph. Entities, activities and agents are represented as nodes, with oval, rectangular, and pentagonal shapes, respectively.  Usage,
-Generation, Derivation, and Association are represented as directed edges.</p>
-
-<p>Entities are laid out according to the ordering of their generation.  We endeavor to show time progressing from left to right. This means that edges for Usage, Generation,
-Derivation, Association typically point leftwards</p>
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="section-example-two"> 
-<h3>The Process View</h3>
-
-
-<p style="font-style:italic; " ><b>Description:</b> The World Wide Web
-Consortium publishes documents according to its publication
-policy.  Working drafts are published regularly to reflect the work
-accomplished by working groups. Every publication of a working draft
-must be preceded by a "publication request" to the Webmaster.  The
-very first version of a document must also be preceded by a
-"transition request" to be approved by the W3C director.  All working
-drafts are made available at a unique URI.  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
-</p>
-
-<p>
-We describe the kind of provenance record that the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">WWW Consortium</a> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with well-defined URIs (some of which refer archived email messages, available to W3C Members).</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li> Two versions of a document were involved: <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft);</li>
-<li> Both <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> were published by the WWW Consortium (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">w3:Consortium</a></span>); </li>
-<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was <span class="name">ex:act2</span>;</li>
-<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> was <span class="name">ex:act1</span>;
-</li>
-
-<li> The document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was derived from <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span>;</li>
-
-<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act1</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Oct/0141">email:2011Oct/0141</a></span>) and a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#transreq">transition request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/chairs/2011OctDec/0004">chairs:2011OctDec/0004</a></span>);</li>
-<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act2</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Dec/0111">email:2011Dec/0111</a></span>);</li>
-<li> Documents were published according to the process rules (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance">process:rec-advance</a></span>), a plan in PROV-DM terminology.</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-We now paraphrase some PROV descriptions, and express them with the PROV-N notation, and depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document2-top">Figure 3</a>). Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.pn">here</a>.
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-  <figure id="prov-a-document2-top">
-  <img src="images/w3-publication1.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (2)" style="max-width: 90%; "/>
-<figcaption id="prov-a-document2">Figure 3: Provenance of a Document (2)</figcaption>
-  </figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<ul>
-<li>There was a document, a working draft (<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#WD">rec54:WD</a>), which is an entity so that we can describe its provenance. Similar descriptions exist for all entities.
-<pre>
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-<li>There was a publication activity.
-<pre>
-activity(ex:act2,[prov:type="publish"])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a <a title="concept-Generation">Generation</a>.
-<pre>
-wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:act2, -)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-
-<li>The second draft of the document was derived from the first draft: this was a <a title="concept-Derivation">Derivation</a>.
-<pre>
-wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The activity required a publication request: this was a <a title="concept-Usage">Usage</a>.
-<pre>
-used(ex:act2, email:2011Dec/0111, -)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an <a title="concept-activityAssociation">Activity Association</a>.
-<pre>
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:act2, w3:Consortium, process:rec-advance)
-</pre>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available URIs, which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance <span class="name">ex:act2</span>, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix <span class="name">ex</span>.  We note that the URI scheme developed by W3C is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each URI denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  PROV-DM relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</p>
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="section-example-c"> 
-<h3>Attribution of Provenance</h3>
-
-<p>The two previous sections  offer two different perspectives on the provenance of a document.  PROV allows for multiple sources to provide the provenance of a subject. For users to decide whether they can place their trust in the document, they may want to analyze its provenance, but also determine who the provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated, etc. In other words, we need to be able to express the provenance of provenance.</p>
-
-<p>PROV-DM offers a construct to name a bundle of provenance descriptions (full details: <a href="examples/w3c-publication3.pn">ex:author-view</a>). </p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">
-bundle ex:author-view
-
-  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-
-
-...
-
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-Likewise, the process view can be expressed as a separate named bundle (full details: <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.pn">ex:process-view</a>).
-<pre class="codeexample">
-bundle ex:process-view
-
-   agent(w3:Consortium, [ prov:type='prov:Organization' ])
-
-...
-
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>To express their respective provenance, these bundles must be seen as entities, and all PROV constructs are now available to express their provenance. In the example below, <span class="name">ex:author-view</span> is attributed to the agent  <span class="name">ex:Simon</span>, whereas <span class="name">ex:process-view</span> to  <span class="name">w3:Consortium</span>.
-
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(ex:author-view, [prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(ex:author-view, ex:Simon)
-
-entity(ex:process-view, [prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(ex:process-view, w3:Consortium)
-</pre>
-
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="data-model-components"> 
-
-<h2>PROV-DM Types and Relations</h2>
-
-<p>Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.
-The components and their dependencies are illustrated in <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>. A component that relies on concepts defined in another is displayed above it in the figure.  So, for example, component 6 (collections) depends on concepts defined in component 3 (derivation), itself dependen on concepts defined in component 1 (entity and activity).
-</p>
-
-<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
-<ul>
-<li><b>Component 1: entities and activities.</b> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </li>
-<li><b>Component 2: derivations.</b>  The second component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</li>
-<li><b>Component 3: agents and responsibility.</b> The third component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</li>
-<li><b>Component 4: bundles.</b> The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</li>
-<li><b>Component 5: alternate.</b> The fifth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </li>
-<li><b>Component 6: collections.</b> The sixth component is about collections and concepts capturing their transformation, such as insertion and removal. </li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<!-- TODO: update map for linking -->
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<img  usemap="#componentMap" src="images/components-dependencies.png" alt="PROV-DM Components"  style="max-width: 90%; " />
-<map id="componentMap" name="componentMap">
-<area title="collections" href="#component5" coords="220,0,440,70"  alt="collections" shape="rect"/>
-<area title="alternate"   href="#component4" coords="450,0,510,140" alt="alternate"   shape="rect"/>
-<area title="annotations" href="#component6" coords="530,0,590,220" alt="annotations" shape="rect"/>
-<area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="80,150,510,220" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect"/>
-<area title="derivations" href="#component3" coords="80,0,210,70"   alt="derivations" shape="rect"/>
-<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component2" coords="0,0,70,220"   alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect"/>
-</map>
-<figcaption id="prov-dm-components">Figure 4: PROV-DM Components</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table 4</a> indexes all relations according to their two primary elements (referred to as subject and object).  The table adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.
-Note that for simplicity, this table  does not include collection-oriented relations.
-Relation names appearing in bold correspond to the core structures introduced
-in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
-
-
-<div id="relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
-<table   class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="relations-at-a-glance">Table 4: PROV-DM Relations At a Glance</caption>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="6">Object</td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="2">Entity</td><td colspan="2">Activity</td><td colspan="2">Agent</td></tr> 
-<tr><td rowspan="3">Subject</td><td>Entity</td><td colspan="2"><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential">WasDerivedFrom</a><br><a>WasRevisionOf</a><br><a>WasQuotedFrom</a><br><a>HadPrimarySource</a></div><div class="component5-color"><a>AlternateOf</a><br><a>SpecializationOf</a><br><a>ContextualizationOf</a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential"
-title="wasGeneratedBy">WasGeneratedBy</a><br><a
-title="wasInvalidatedBy">WasInvalidatedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; ">R<br>T<br>L<br></td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">WasAttributedTo</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Activity</td><td class="component1-color"><a class="essential">Used</a><br><a>WasStartedBy</a><br><a>WasEndedBy</a></td><td class="component1-color" style="font-style: italic; ">R<br>T<br>L<br></td><td colspan="2" class="component1-color"><a class="essential">WasInformedBy</a></td><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential">WasAssociatedWith</a></td><td class="component3-color" style="font-style: italic; ">R<br></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Agent</td><td colspan="2">&mdash;</td><td colspan="2">&mdash;</td><td class="component3-color" colspan="2"><a class="essential">ActedOnBehalfOf</a></td></tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table 5</a> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.  In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept. Concept names appearing in bold are the core structures introduced in <a href="#core-structures">Section 2.1</a>.</p>
-
-
-<div id="prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig" style="text-align: left;">
-<table  class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table 5: PROV-DM Types and Relations</caption>
-<tr><td><a><b>Type or Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b>Representation in the PROV-N notation</b></td><td><b>Component</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Entity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" class="essential">entity(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1">Component 1: Entities/Activities</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" class="essential">activity(id, st, et, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Generation</a></td><td><a title="WasGeneratedBy"><span class="essential">wasGeneratedBy(</span>id;<span class="essential">e,a</span>,t,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Usage</a></td><td><a title="used"><span class="essential">used(</span>id;<span class="essential">a,e</span>,t,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a>Communication</a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy">wasInformedBy(id;a2,a1,attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Start</a></td><td><a title="wasStartedBy">wasStartedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>End</a></td><td><a title="wasEndedBy">wasEndedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a>Invalidation</a></td><td><a title="wasInvalidatedBy">wasInvalidatedBy(id;e,a,t,attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="essential"><a>Derivation</a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom"><span class="essential">wasDerivedFrom(</span>id; <span class="essential">e2, e1</span>, a, g2, u1, attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td><td  rowspan="5"><a href="#component2">Component 2: Derivations</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Revision</a></td><td><a title="WasRevisionOf">... prov:type='prov:WasRevisionOf' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Quotation</a></td><td><a title="WasQuotedFrom">... prov:type='prov:WasQuotedFrom' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a>Primary Source</a></td><td><a title="HadPrimarySource">... prov:type='prov:HadPrimarySource' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td><a>Influence</a></td><td><a title="wasInfluencedBy">wasInfluencedBy(id;e2,e1,attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-<tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; "><td  class="essential"><a>Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" class="essential">agent(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td  rowspan="8"><a href="#component3">Component 3: Agents/Responsibility</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo"><span class="essential">wasAttributedTo(</span>id;<span class="essential">e,ag</span>,attr<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith"><span class="essential">wasAssociatedWith(</span>id;<span class="essential">a,ag</span>,pl,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a>Delegation</a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf"><span class="essential">actedOnBehalfOf(</span>id;<span class="essential">ag2,ag1</span>,a,attrs<span class="essential">)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Plan</a></td><td><a title="plan">... prov:type='prov:Plan' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Person</a></td><td><a title="person">... prov:type='prov:Person' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a>Organization</a></td><td><a title="organization">... prov:type='prov:Organization' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="provType"><a title="software-agent">SoftwareAgent</a></td><td><a title="software-agent">... prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component4-color"><td><a title="bundle">Bundle constructor</a></td><td><a title="dfn-bundle">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</a></td><td  rowspan="2"><a href="#component5">Component 4: Bundles</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component4-color"><td class="provType"><a title="bundle">Bundle type</a></td><td><a title="bundle">... prov:type='prov:Bundle' ...</a></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Alternate</a></td><td><a title="alternateOf">alternateOf(alt1, alt2)</a></td><td  rowspan="3"><a href="#component4">Component 5: Alternate</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Specialization</a></td><td><a title="specializationOf">specializationOf(sub, super,bundle)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a>Contextualization</a></td><td><a title="contextualizationOf">contextualizationOf(i2, i1,bundle)</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a>Collection</a></td><td><a title="collection">... prov:type='prov:Collection' ...</a></td><td  rowspan="7"><a href="#component6">Component 6: Collections</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a>Collection Membership</a></td><td><a title="memberOf">memberOf(c, {e_1, ..., e_n})</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a>Dictionary</a></td><td><a title="dictionary">... prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a title="empty dictionary">EmptyDictionary</a></td><td><a title="empty dictionary">... prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ...</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a>Insertion</a></td><td><a title="derivedByInsertionFrom">derivedByInsertionFrom(id; c2, c1, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a>Removal</a></td><td><a title="derivedByRemovalFrom">derivedByRemovalFrom(id; c2, c1, {key_1, ... key_n}, attrs)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a>Dictionary Membership</a></td><td><a title="memberOf-d">memberOf(d, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)})</a></td></tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-In the rest of the section, each type and relation is defined informally,
- followed by a summary of the information used to represent the concept, and
- illustrated with PROV-N examples.</p>
-
-
-<section id="component1"> 
-<h3>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
-
-<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity">entities</a> and <a title="activity">activities</a>, and their interrelations: <a>Usage</a>, <a>Generation</a>, <a>Start</a>, <a>End</a>, <a>Invalidation</a>, and <a>Communication</a>.  <a href="#figure-component1">Figure 5</a> uses UML to depict the first component.
-Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of two classes (<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and three binary associations between them (<a>Usage</a>, <a>Generation</a>, and <a>Communication</a>). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [[!UML]], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations (for <a>Usage</a>, <a>Generation</a>, <a>Invalidation</a>, <a>Start</a>, <a>End</a>). The figure also makes explicit associations with <em>time</em> for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.
-</p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-<!--<img src="images/Entities-Activities.png" alt="entities and activities"/> -->
-<img src="uml/component1.png" alt="entities and activities"/>
-<figcaption id="figure-component1">Figure 5: Entities and Activities Component Overview</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-   <section id="term-entity"> 
-      
-<h4>Entity</h4>
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-entity"></div>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-entity">An <dfn title="dfn-Entity" id="dfn-entity">entity</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-entity">entity(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N, </span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="entity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an entity; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="entity.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this entity.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity">
-<p>
-The following expression</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
-</pre>
-states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>,  with type <span class="name">document</span> and version number <span class="name">2</span>. The attribute <span class="name">ex:version</span> is application specific, whereas the attribute <span
-class="name">type</span> (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.4.4</a>) is reserved in the <a title="prov-namespace">PROV namespace</a>.
-<!--The following expression</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
-entity(e0, [ prov:type="File", ex:path="/shared/crime.txt", ex:creator="Alice" ])
-</pre>
-states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">e0</span>,  with type <span class="name">File</span> and path <span class="name">/shared/crime.txt</span> in the
-file system,  and creator alice. The  attributes <span class="name">path</span> and <span class="name">creator</span> are application specific, whereas the attribute <span
-class="name">type</span> is reserved in the PROV namespace.-->
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-    </section> 
-
-    <section id="term-Activity"> 
-      
-<h3>Activity</h3>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activity"></div>
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity"> An <dfn title="dfn-Activity" id="dfn-activity">activity</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-activity">activity(id, st, et, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an activity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.startTime">startTime</span>: an OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">st</span>) for the start of the activity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.endTime">endTime</span>: an OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">et</span>) for the end of the activity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="activity.attributes">attributes</span>:  an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this activity.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity">
-<p>
-The following expression</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(a1,2011-11-16T16:05:00,2011-11-16T16:06:00,
-        [ ex:host="server.example.org", prov:type='ex:edit' ])
-</pre>
-<p>states the existence of an activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span>, start time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span>, and end time <span
-class="name">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span>, running on host <span class="name">server.example.org</span>, and of type <span class="name">edit</span>.  The attribute <span class="name">host</span>  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix <span class="name">ex</span>).  The attribute <span
-class="name">type</span> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section 5.7.4.4</a>).</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>Further considerations:</p>
-<ul>
-<li>An activity is not an entity. This distinction is similar to the distinction between 
-'continuant' and 'occurrent' in logic [[Logic]].
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-Generation">
-<h4>Generation</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-generation"></div>
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-generation"><dfn title="wasGeneratedBy">Generation</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasGeneratedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for a generation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for a created entity; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.activity">activity</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that creates the entity;</li>
-
-<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.time">time</span>: an OPTIONAL "generation time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity was completely created;</li>
-
-<li><span class='attribute' id="generation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this generation.</li>
-</ul></div>
-<p>While each of <a href="#generation.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#generation.activity"><span class='attribute'>activity</span></a>, <a href="#generation.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#generation.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class='anexample' id="anexample-generation1">
-<p>
-The following expressions</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-  wasGeneratedBy(e1, a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52, [ ex:port="p1" ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1, 2001-10-26T10:00:00, [ ex:port="p2" ])
-</pre>
-<p>state the existence of two generations (with respective times <span class="name">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span> and <span
-class="name">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span>), at which new entities,  identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, are created by an
-activity,  identified by <span class="name">a1</span>.
-The first one is available  on port <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the other is available on port <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">port</span> are application specific.
-</p>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class='anexample' id="anexample-generation2">
-<p>
-In some cases, we may want to record the time at which an entity was generated without having to specify the activity that generated it. To support this requirement, the activity element in generation is optional. Hence,  the following expression indicates the time at which an entity is generated, without naming the activity that did it.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-  wasGeneratedBy(e, -, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="term-Usage">
-<h3>Usage</h3>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-usage"></div>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-usage"><dfn title="used">Usage</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">used(id; a, e, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for a usage;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that used an entity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.entity">entity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the  entity being used;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.time">time</span>: an OPTIONAL "usage time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity started to be used;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="usage.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this usage.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<p>While each of <a href="#usage.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#usage.entity"><span class='attribute'>entity</span></a>, <a href="#usage.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#usage.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
-
-<p>
-A reference to a given entity MAY appear in multiple usages that share
- a given activity identifier. 
-</p>
-
-
-<div class='anexample' id="anexample-usage">
-<p>The following usages</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-  used(a1, e1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ ex:parameter="p1" ])
-  used(a1, e2, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [ ex:parameter="p2" ])
-</pre>
-<p>state that the activity identified by <span class="name">a1</span> used two entities identified by <span
-class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, at times <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span>, respectively; the first
-one was found as the value of parameter <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the second was found as value of parameter <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span
-class="name">parameter</span> is application specific.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-Communication">
-<h3>Communication</h3>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-communication"></div>
-
-
-<p>A communication implies that activity  <span class="name">a2</span> is dependent on another <span class="name">a1</span>, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by <span class="name">a1</span> and used by <span class="name">a2</span>.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-wasInformedBy">
-A <dfn title="wasInformedBy">communication</dfn><span class="withPn">, written as 
-<span class="pnExpression">wasInformedBy(id; a2, a1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has: 
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier  identifying the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.informed">informed</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) of the informed activity;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.informant">informant</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) of the informant activity;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="communication.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this communication.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication">
-<p>
-Consider two activities  <span class="name">a1</span> and <span class="name">a2</span>, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing" ])
-activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine paying, check writing, and mailing" ])
-wasInformedBy(a2, a1)
-</pre>
-The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  <span class="name">a1</span> and used by  <span class="name">a2</span>; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
-</div>
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-Start">
-<h4>Start</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-start"></div>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-start">An activity <dfn title="wasStartedBy">start</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasStartedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="start.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the activity start;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="start.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) for the started activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="start.trigger">trigger</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="start.starter">starter</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (<span class="name">e</span>);</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="start.time">time</span>: the OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was started; </li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="start.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity start.
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>While each of <a href="#start.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#start.trigger"><span class='attribute'>trigger</span></a>, <a href="#start.starter"><span class='attribute'>starter</span></a>, <a href="#start.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#start.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1">
-<p>
-The following example contains the description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (a discussion), which was started at a specific time, and was triggered by an email message <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(e1, [ prov:type="email message"] )
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="Discuss" ])
-wasStartedBy(a1, e1, -, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</pre>
-Furthermore, if the message is also an input to the activity, this can be described as follows:
-<pre class="codeexample">
-used(a1, e1, -)
-</pre>
-<p>Alternatively, one can also describe the activity that generated the email message.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(a0, [ prov:type="Write" ])
-wasGeneratedBy(e1, a0)
-wasStartedBy(a1, e1, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</pre>
-<p>If <span class="name">e1</span> is not known, it would also have valid to write:
-<pre class="codeexample">
-wasStartedBy(a1, -, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2">
-<p>
-In the following example, a race is started by a bang, and responsibility for this trigger is attributed to an agent 
- <span class="name">ex:Bob</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(ex:foot_race)
-entity(ex:bang)
-wasStartedBy(ex:foot_race, ex:bang, -, 2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00)
-agent(ex:Bob)
-wasAttributedTo(ex:bang, ex:Bob)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3">
-<p>
-In this example, filling fuel was started as a consequence of
-observing low fuel. The trigger entity is unspecified, it could
-for instance have been the low fuel warning light, the fuel tank
-indicator needle position, or the engine not running properly.
-
-
-<pre class="codeexample" id="anexample-start4">
-activity(ex:filling-fuel)
-activity(ex:observing-low-fuel)
-
-agent(ex:driver, [ prov:type='prov:Person'  )
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:filling-fuel, ex:driver)
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:observing-low-fuel, ex:driver)
-
-wasStartedBy(ex:filling-fuel, -, ex:observing-low-fuel, -)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>The relations wasStartedBy and used are orthogonal, and thus need to be expressed independently, according to the situation being described.</p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-End">
-<h4>End</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-end"></div>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-end">An activity <dfn title="wasEndedBy">end</dfn><span class="withAsn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasEndedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="end.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the activity end;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="end.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a2</span>) for the ended activity;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="end.trigger">trigger</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity ending;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="end.ender">ender</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a1</span>) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (<span class="name">e</span>);</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="end.time">time</span>: the OPTIONAL time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was ended; </li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="end.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity end.
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>While each of <a href="#end.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#end.trigger"><span class='attribute'>trigger</span></a>, <a href="#end.ender"><span class='attribute'>ender</span></a>, <a href="#end.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#end.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end">
-<p>
-The following example is a description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (editing) that was ended following an approval document <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(e1, [ prov:type="approval document" ])
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="Editing" ])
-wasEndedBy(a1, e1)
-</pre>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-Invalidation">
-<h4>Invalidation</h4>
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-invalidation"></div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-Entities have a duration. Generation marks the beginning of an entity, whereas invalidation marks its end. 
-An entity's lifetime can end for different reasons:</p>
-<ul>
-<li> an entity was destroyed: e.g. a painting was destroyed by fire; a Web page is taken out of a site;
-<li> an entity was consumed: e.g. Bob ate all his soup, Alice ran out of gas when driving to work;
-<li> an entity expires: e.g. a "buy one beer, get one free" offer is valid during happy hour (7-8pm);
-<li> an entity is time limited: e.g. the BBC news site on April 3rd, 2012;
-<li> an entity attribute is changing: e.g. the traffic light changed from green to red.
-</ul>
-<p>In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the last three cases, there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the traffic light became red and therefore is regarded as a different entity to the green light.
-</p>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-invalidation"><dfn title="wasInvalidatedBy">Invalidation</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInvalidatedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for a invalidation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier for the invalidated entity; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.activity">activity</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the activity that invalidated the entity;</li>
-
-<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.time">time</span>: an OPTIONAL "invalidation time", the time at which the entity began to be invalidated;</li>
-
-<li><span class='attribute' id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this invalidation.</li>
-</ul></div>
-<p>While each of <a href="#invalidation.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.activity"><span class='attribute'>activity</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.time"><span class='attribute'>time</span></a>, and  <a href="#invalidation.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1">
-<p>
-<em>The Painter</em>, a Picasso painting, is known to have been destroyed in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_artworks#20th_century">plane accident</a>.
-
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(ex:The-Painter)
-agent(ex:Picasso)
-wasAttributedTo(ex:The-Painter, ex:Picasso)
-activity(ex:crash)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:The-Painter, ex:crash, 1998-09-02, [ ex:circumstances="plane accident" ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2">
-<p>
-The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-04-03</span>
-contained a reference to a given news item
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-17595024">bbc:news/uk-17595024</a>,
-but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03)
-memberOf(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, {("item1", bbc:news/uk-17595024)})
-wasGeneratedBy  (ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T00:00:01)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T23:59:59)
-</pre>
-
-We refer to example
-<a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>
- for further descriptions of the BBC Web site, and to  <a href="#term-dictionary-membership">Section 5.6.5</a> for a description of the relation <a title="memberOf-d">memberOf</a>.
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3">
-<p>
-In this example, the  "buy one beer, get one free" offer expired at the end of the happy hour.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-wasAttributedTo(proprietor)
-wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 -,2012-03-10T18:00:00)
-</pre>
-<p>In contrast, in the following descriptions, Bob redeemed the offer 45 minutes before it expired, and got two beers.  
-</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-wasAttributedTo(proprietor)
-activity(redeemOffer)
-entity(twoBeers)
-
-wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer,bob)
-used(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-     redeemOffer, 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
-wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 redeemOffer, 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
-wasGeneratedBy(twoBeers,redeemOffer)
-</pre>
-<p>We see that the offer was both used to be converted into <span class="name">twoBeers</span> and invalidated by the <span class="name">redeemOffer</span> activity: in other words, the combined usage and invalidation indicate consumption of the offer.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="component2"> 
-<h3>Component 2: Derivations</h3>
-
-
-
-<p>The third component of PROV-DM is concerned with: <a title="derivation">derivations</a> of <a title="entity">entities</a> from others; derivation subtypes <a>Revision</a>, <a>Quotation</a>, and <a>Primary Source</a>; derivation-related <a>Influence</a>. 
- <a href="#figure-component2">Figure 6</a> depicts the third component
-with PROV core structures in the yellow area, including two classes
-(<a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>) and binary association
-(<a>Derivation</a>). PROV extended structures are found outside this
-area. UML association classes express expanded n-ary relations.
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-<!-- <img src="images/Derivation.png" alt="derivation"/> -->
-<img src="uml/component2.png" alt="derivation"/>
-<figcaption id="figure-component2">Figure 6: Derivation Component Overview</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-<section id="term-Derivation">
-<h4>Derivation</h4>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-derivation"></div>
-
-
-
-
-<p>According to <a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a>, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
-underpinning activities performing the necessary actions resulting in such a derivation.  
-A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates two entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this activity can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the generated and used entities, respectively, can be provided, so as to make the derivation path, through usage, activity, and generation, explicit.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </p>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivation">A <dfn title="wasDerivedFrom">derivation</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-wasDerivedFrom">wasDerivedFrom(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier  for a derivation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.generatedEntity">generatedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the entity generated by the derivation;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.usedEntity">usedEntity</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the entity used by the derivation;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.activity">activity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.generation">generation</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.usage">usage</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="derivation.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation">
-<p>The following descriptions are about derivations between  <span class="name">e2</span> and  <span class="name">e1</span>, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [ prov:type="physical transform" ])
-</pre>
-<p>The following description expresses that activity  <span class="name">a</span>, 
-using the entity <span class="name">e1</span> according to usage <span class="name">u1</span>,
- derived the
-entity <span class="name">e2</span> and generated it according to generation
- <span class="name">g2</span>. It is followed by descriptions for generation <span class="name">g2</span> and usage <span class="name">u1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasGeneratedBy(g2; e2, a, -)
-used(u1; a, e1, -)
-</pre>
-<p>With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the original entity <span class="name">e1</span> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity <span class="name">e2</span> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-revision">
-<h3>Revision</h3>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-revision"></span></p>
-
-
-<p>
-  The implication here is that
-     the resulting entity contains substantial content from the
-     original.
-Revision is a particular case of <a>derivation</a> of an entity into its revised version.
-The type is of a revision derivation is denoted by:
-<dfn title="WasRevisionOf"><span class="name">prov:WasRevisionOf</span></dfn>.
-</p>
-
-<!-- <p> A <dfn title="wasRevisionOf">revision</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasRevisionOf(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.id">id</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier for the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.newer">newer</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the revised  entity;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.older">older</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the older entity;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.activity">activity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.generation">generation</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.usage">usage</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="revision.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
--->
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-revision">
-<p>
-Revisiting the example of <a href="#section-example-two">Section 4.2</a>,
-we can now state that the report 
- <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> was a revision of 
- the report <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'  ])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'  ])
-wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type='prov:WasRevisionOf' ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>  <!-- end revision -->
-
-<section id="term-quotation">
-<h3>Quotation</h3>
-
-<p> 
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-quotation"></span>
-</p>
-
-<p>Quotation
- is a particular case of  <a>derivation</a> in which an entity is derived from an original entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
-The type is of a quotation derivation is denoted by:
-<dfn title="WasQuotedFrom"><span class="name">prov:WasQuotedFrom</span></dfn>.
-</p>
-
-
-<!--
-<p>Quotation
- is a particular case of  <a>derivation</a> in which entity <span class="name">e2</span> is derived from an original entity <span class="name">e1</span> by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
-  A <dfn title="wasQuotedFrom">quotation</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasQuotedFrom(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.id">id</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier for the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.quote">quote</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) for the entity that represents the quote (the partial copy);
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.original">original</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) for the original entity being quoted;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.activity">activity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.generation">generation</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">g2</span>) for the generation involving the generated entity (<span class="name">e2</span>) and activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.usage">usage</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">u1</span>) for the usage involving the used entity (<span class="name">e1</span>) and activity;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="quotation.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-
-</ul>
--->
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-quotation">
-<p>
-The following paragraph is a quote from one of  <a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/">the author's blogs</a>.
-<blockquote id="bl-dagstuhl"><em>
-"During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.  This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across systems and through databases and be able to understand the mathematical properties of this interconnection."</em>
-</blockquote>
-<p>If <a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/"><span class="name">wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/</span></a> denotes the original blog by agent <span class="name">ex:Paul</span>, and 
- <a href="#bl-dagstuhl"><span class="name">dm:bl-dagstuhl</span></a> denotes the above paragraph, then the following descriptions express that the above paragraph was copied by agent <span class="name">ex:Luc</span> from a part of the blog, attributed to the agent <span class="name">ex:Paul</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/)
-entity(dm:bl-dagstuhl)
-agent(ex:Luc)
-agent(ex:Paul)
-wasDerivedFrom(dm:bl-dagstuhl,
-               wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/,
-               [ prov:type='prov:WasQuotedFrom' ])
-wasAttributedTo(dm:bl-dagstuhl, ex:Luc)
-wasAttributedTo(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/, ex:Paul)
-</pre>
-
-</div>
-
-
-</section>  <!-- end quotation -->
-
-
-<section id="term-primary-source">
-<h3>Primary Source</h3>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-primary-source"></span>
-</p>
-
-<p>Because of the directness of primary sources, they "speak for
-themselves" in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of
-secondary sources. As such, it is important for secondary sources to
-reference those primary sources from which they were derived, so that
-their reliability can be investigated.</p>
-
-
-<p>A <dfn>primary source</dfn> relation is a particular case of <a>derivation</a> of
-secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that
-the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and
-should be done according to conventions accepted within the
-application's domain. 
-The type is of a  primary source derivation is denoted by:
-<dfn title="HadPrimarySource"><span class="name">prov:HadPrimarySource</span></dfn>.
-</p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-primary-source1">
-<p>
-Let us consider Charles Joseph Minard's flow map of Napoleon's March in
-1812, which was published in 1869. Although the map is not a primary source,
-Minard probably used the journal of Pierre-Irénée Jacob, pharmacist
-to Napoleon's army during the Russian campaign. This primary source relation
-can be encoded as follows.</p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813, [ prov:type="map" ])
-entity(ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII, [ prov:type="journal" ])
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813,
-               ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII,
-               [ prov:type='prov:HadPrimarySource' ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>  <!-- end primary source -->
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="component3"> 
-<h3>Component 3: Agents and Responsibility</h3>
-
-<p>The second component of PROV-DM, depicted in  <a href="#figure-component3">Figure 7</a>, is concerned with <a title="agent">agents</a> and the notions of
-<a>Attribution</a>, <a>Association</a>, <a>Delegation</a>, relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.
- Core structures are displayed in the yellow area and include three classes and three binary associations. Outside the yellow area, extended structures comprise and UML association classes to express expanded n-ary relations, and subclasses <a>Plan</a>, <a>Person</a>, <a title="software-agent">SofwareAgent</a>, and <a>Organization</a>. The subclasses are marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type" to indicate that that these are valid values for the attribute <a href="#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a>
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-<!-- <img src="images/Agents-Responsibility.png" alt="agents and responsibilities"/> -->
-<img src="uml/component3.png" alt="agents and responsibilities"/>
-<figcaption id="figure-component3">Figure 7: Agents and Responsibility Component Overview</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-<img src="uml/Component3b.svg" alt="Influence"/>
-<figcaption id="figure-component3b">Figure 7b: Influence</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-<section id="term-agent">
-<h3>Agent</h3>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-agent"></div>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-agent">An <dfn title="dfn-agent" id="dfn-agent">agent</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-agent">agent(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="agent.id">id</span>: an identifier for an agent;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="agent.attributes">attributes</span>: a set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this agent.
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-
-<p>
-
-It is useful to define some basic categories of agents from an interoperability perspective.
-There are three types of agents that are common across most anticipated domains of use; it is acknowledged that these types do not cover all kinds of agent. </p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="name">SoftwareAgent</span>
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-software-agent"></div>
-
-<p></li>
-
-<li><span class="name">Organization</span>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-organization"></div>
-
-<p></li>
-
-<li><span class="name">Person</span>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-person"></div></li> 
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<p>The following expression is about an agent identified by <span class="name">e1</span>, which is a person, named Alice, with employee number 1234.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-agent(e1, [ex:employee="1234", ex:name="Alice", prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-</pre>
-<p>It is optional to specify the type of an agent. When present, it is expressed using the <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute.</p>
-</div>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-attribution">
-<h3>Attribution</h3> 
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-attribution"></div>
-
-<p>When an entity  <span class="name">e</span> is attributed to agent  <span class="name">ag</span>, entity <span class="name">e</span> was generated by some unspecified activity that in turn was associated to agent  <span class="name">ag</span>. Thus, this relation is useful when the activity is not known, or irrelevant.</p>
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-attribution">An <dfn title="wasAttributedTo">attribution</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.id">id</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier for the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.entity">entity</span>: an entity identifier (<span class="name">e</span>);</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.agent">agent</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) of the agent whom the entity is ascribed to, and therefore bears some responsibility for its existence;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="attribution.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this attribution.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-attribution">
-<p>
-Revisiting the example of 
-<a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-one"><span>TBD</span></a>,
-we can ascribe <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> to some agents without an explicit activity. The reserved attribute <span class="name">role</span> (see <a  class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>TBD</span></a>) allows for role of the agent in the attribution to be specified.
-<pre class="codeexample">
-agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD' ])
-wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="editorship" ])
-wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Simon, [ prov:type="authorship" ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-</section>  <!-- end attribution -->
-
-
-<section id="term-Association">
-<h4>Association</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-activityAssociation"></div>
-
-<p></p>
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-plan"></div>
-
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity-association">An <dfn title="wasAssociatedWith">activity association</dfn><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasAssociatedWith(id; a, ag, pl, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="association.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the association between an activity and an agent;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="association.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="association.agent">agent</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) for the agent associated with the activity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="association.plan">plan</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">pl</span>) for the plan adopted by the agent in the context of this activity;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="association.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this association of this activity with this agent.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<p>While each of <a href="#association.id"><span class='attribute'>id</span></a>, <a href="#association.agent"><span class='attribute'>agent</span></a>,  <a href="#association.plan"><span class='attribute'>plan</span></a>, and  <a href="#association.attributes"><span class='attribute'>attributes</span></a> is OPTIONAL, at least one of them MUST be present.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith">
-<p>In the following example, a designer agent and an operator agent are associated with an activity. The designer's goals are achieved by a workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span>, described as an an entity of type <span class="name"><a>plan</a></span>.   </p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
-agent(ex:ag1,  [ prov:type="operator" ])
-agent(ex:ag2,  [ prov:type="designer" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag1, -,     [ prov:role="loggedInUser", ex:how="webapp" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag2, ex:wf, [ prov:role="designer", ex:context="project1" ])
-entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan' , 
-                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-                ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI ])
-</pre>
-Since the workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span> is itself an entity, its provenance can also be expressed in PROV-DM: it can be generated by some activity and derived from other entities,
-for instance.
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2">
-<p>In some cases, one wants to indicate a plan was followed, without having to specify which agent was involved.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, -, ex:wf)
-entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan', 
-                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-                ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI])
-</pre>
-In this case, it is assumed that an agent exists, but it has not been specified.
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</section>  <!-- end wasAssociatedWith -->
-
-<section id="term-delegation">
-
-<h4>Delegation</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-delegation"></div>
-
-<p>For example, a
-student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the
-department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those
-agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but
-we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what
-degree. </p>
-
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-delegation">
-A <dfn title="actedOnBehalfOf">delegation</dfn> link<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">actedOnBehalfOf(id; ag2, ag1, a, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier for the delegation link between delegate and responsible;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.delegate">delegate</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">ag2</span>) for the agent associated with an activity, acting on behalf of the responsible
-agent;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.responsible">responsible</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">ag1</span>) for the agent,  on behalf of which the delegate agent acted;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.activity">activity</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) of an activity for which the delegation link holds;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="delegation.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this delegation link.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<p>The following fragment describes three agents: a programmer, a researcher, and a funder.  The programmer and researcher are associated with a workflow activity.  The programmer acts on behalf
-of the researcher (line-management) encoding the commands specified by the researcher; the researcher acts on behalf of the funder, who has a contractual agreement with the researcher. The terms
-'line-management' and 'contract' used in this example are domain specific.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-activity(a,[ prov:type="workflow" ])
-agent(ag1, [ prov:type="programmer" ])
-agent(ag2, [ prov:type="researcher" ])
-agent(ag3, [ prov:type="funder" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag1, [ prov:role="loggedInUser" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag2)
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag3)
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a, [ prov:type="line-management" ])
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [ prov:type="contract" ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<!-- too strong, move to part 2.
-<p>Further considerations:</p>
-<ul>
-<li>If an activity is not specified, then the subordinate agent is considered to act on behalf of
-the responsible agent, in all the activities the subordinate agent is associated with.
-</li>
-</ul>
--->
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-influence">
-<h3>Influence</h3>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-influence"></span>
-</p>
-
-
-<p> An influence relation between two objects <span class="name">o2</span> and  <span class="name">o1</span> is a generic dependency of <span class="name">o2</span>
-on  <span class="name">o1</span> that signifies some form of influence of <span class="name">o1</span> on <span class="name">o2</span>.</p>
-
-
-<p>A <dfn title="wasInfluencedBy">Influence</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">wasInfluencedBy(id; o2, o1, attrs)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.influencee">influencee</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">o2</span>) for an entity, activity, or agent;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.influencer">influencer</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">o1</span>) for an ancestor entity, activity, or agent that the former depends on;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="influence.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-<a>Usage</a>, <a>start</a>, <a>end</a>, <a>generation</a>, <a>invalidation</a>, <a>derivation</a>, <a>attribution</a>, <a>association</a>, and <a>delegation</a> are particular cases of  influence. It is RECOMMENDED to adopt these more specific relations when writing provenance description. It is anticipated that the <a>Influence</a> relation may be useful to express queries over provenance information.
-</p>
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<p>We refer to the example of <a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-two"><span>TBD</span></a>, and specifically to <a  href="#prov-a-document2-top">Figure 3</a>.
-We could have expressed that the influence of
-<span class="name">w3:Consortium</span> 
-on <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>.
-<pre class="codeexample">
- wasInfluencedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)
-</pre>
-Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to express the more specific description:
-<pre class="codeexample">
- wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-
-<section id="component4"> 
-<h3>Component 4: Bundles</h3>
-
-
-<p>The fourth component of PROV-DM is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance. 
-<a href="#figure-component4">Figure 8</a>  depicts a UML class diagram for the fourth component.  It comprises a <a>Bundle</a> class and a subclass of <a>Entity</a>.
-</p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component4.png" alt="bundles"/>
-<figcaption id="figure-component4">Figure 8: Bundle Component Overview</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<section id="term-bundle"> 
-
-<h3>Bundle constructor</h3>
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-bundle" >
-</span>
- </p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-bundle">
- A <dfn title="dfn-bundle" id="dfn-bundle-declaration">bundle constructor</dfn>  allows the content and the name of a bundle to be specified; it is written <span class="pnExpression">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</span> and consists of:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="bundle.declaration.id">id</span>:  an identifier for the bundle;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="bundle.declaration.descriptions">descriptions</span>: a set of provenance descriptions <span class="name">
-description_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">description_n</span>.</li>
-</ul>
-<p>A bundle's identifier <span class="name">id</span> identifies a unique set of descriptions.</p>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-
-
-
-
-<section id="term-bundle-entity"> 
-
-<h3>Bundle Type</h3>
-
-<p>A  bundle is a named set of descriptions, but it is also an entity so that its provenance can be described.  </p>
-
-PROV defines the following type for bundles:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="name">prov:Bundle</span> is the type that denotes <a title="bundle">bundles</a>.
-</ul>
-
-
-<p>
-A  bundle description is of the form <span class="pnExpression">entity(id,[prov:type='prov:Bundle', attr1=val1, ...])</span>
-where <span class='name'>id</span> is  an identifier denoting a bundle,
- a type <span>prov:Bundle</span> and
-an OPTIONAL set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this bundle.
-</p>
-
-
-<p>The provenance of provenance can then be described using PROV constructs, as illustrated by
-<a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>
-and
-<a href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-of-provenance">
-<p>Let us consider two entities <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-</pre>
-
-<p>Let us assume that Bob observed the creation of <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.
-A first bundle can be expressed.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle bob:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>In contrast,
-Alice observed the creation of <span class="name">ex:report2</span> and its derivation from <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.
-A separate bundle can also be expressed.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle alice:bundle2
-  entity(ex:report1)
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>The first bundle contains the descriptions corresponding to  Bob observing the creation of <span class="name">ex:report1</span>. Its provenance can be described as follows.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-entity(bob:bundle1, [prov:type='prov:Bundle'])
-wasGeneratedBy(bob:bundle1, -, 2012-05-24T10:30:00)
-wasAttributedTo(bob:bundle1, ex:Bob)
-</pre>
-
-<p>In contrast, the second bundle is attributed to Alice who
-observed the derivation of <span class="name">ex:report2</span> from <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-entity(alice:bundle2, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasGeneratedBy(alice:bundle2, -, 2012-05-25T11:15:00)
-wasAttributedTo(alice:bundle2, ex:Alice)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-aggregation">
-<p>A provenance aggregator could merge two bundles, resulting in a novel bundle, whose provenance is described as follows.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle agg:bundle3
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-
-entity(agg:bundle3, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-agent(ex:aggregator01, [ prov:type='ex:Aggregator' ])
-wasAttributedTo(agg:bundle3, ex:aggregator01)
-wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, bob:bundle1)
-wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, alice:bundle2)
-</pre>
-<p>The new bundle is given a new identifier <span class="name">agg:bundle3</span> and is attributed to the <span class="name">ex:aggregator01</span> agent.
-</div>
-
-
-</section>
-
-<!-- <section id="term-hasProvenanceIn"> 
-
-<h3>Provenance Locator</h3>
-
-
-In <a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span>Example REF</span></a>, we initially presented a scenario involving two entities <span class="name">report1</span> and <span class="name">report2</span>, and showed how their descriptions can be organized into two bundles.  There is no explicit indication that the second bundle "is a continuation" of the description offered by the first bundle.  Given that bundles may be retrieved separately [[PROV-AQ]], it is not obvious for a provenance consumer to navigate descriptions across bundles.  To aid consumers,
- Alice may wish to express that there is further provenance information about <span class="name">report1</span> in bundle <span class="name">bob:bundle1</span>.  To this end, PROV introduces the notion of provenance locator, inspired by [[PROV-AQ]].
-
-
-<p><div class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-provenance-locator"></div>
-
-<p>
-
-
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-hasProvenanceIn">
-A <dfn title="hasProvenanceIn">provenance locator</dfn>,
-written
-<span class="pnExpression">hasProvenanceIn(id, subject, bundle, target, attrs)</span>, has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="prov.locator.id">id</span>: an identifier for a provenance locator; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="prov.locator.subject">subject</span>:  an identifier denoting something (entity, activity, agent, or relation instance);</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="prov.locator.bundle">bundle</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">bundle</span>) for a bundle;
-<li><span class='attribute' id="prov.locator.target">target</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">target</span>) denoting  something described in another set of descriptions (referred to as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/#dfn-target-uri">Target-URI</a> in [[PROV-AQ]]);
-<li><span class='attribute' id="prov.locator.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this locator; it optionally includes
-<a href="#term-attribute-service-uri"><span class="name">prov:service-uri</span></a> 
-or
-<a href="#term-attribute-provenance-uri"><span class="name">prov:provenance-uri</span></a>.</li>
-</ul>
-<p>If the target is not specified, it is assumed that target is the same identifier as subject.
-</div>
-
-<p>When the subject and optional target denote entities,
-a provenance locator not only provides a <em>located context</em>, but it also expresses an <a>alternate</a> relation between the entity denoted by <span class="name">subject</span> and the  entity described in the located context. This is an alternate since the entity denoted by <span class="name">subject</span> in the current context presents other aspects than the entity in the located one.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-locator">
-<p>According to the following provenance locator, provenance descriptions about <span class="name">ex:report1</span> can be found in bundle <span class="name">bob:bundle1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-hasProvenanceIn(ex:report1, bob:bundle1, -)
-</pre>
-<p>According to the following provenance locator, provenance descriptions about <span class="name">ex:report1</span> can be found in bundle <span class="name">bob:bundle1</span>, which is available from the provenance service identified by the provided URI.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-hasProvenanceIn(ex:report1, bob:bundle1, -, [ prov:service-uri="http://example.com/service" %% xsd:anyURI ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-locator2">
-<p>Let us again consider the same scenario involving two entities <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>.</p>
-<p>The first bundle can be expressed with all Bob's observations about the creation of <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.
-</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle bob:bundle4
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>Likewise, Alice's observation about the derivation of  <span class="name">ex:report2</span>  from <span class="name">ex:report1</span>, is expressed in a separate bundle.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle alice:bundle5
-  entity(ex:report1)
-  hasProvenanceIn(ex:report1, bob:bundle4, -)
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-<p>In bundle <span class="name">alice:bundle5</span>, there is a description for entity <span class="name">ex:report1</span>, and 
-a provenance locator pointing to bundle <span class="name">bob:bundle4</span>.  
-The locator indicates that some provenance description for <span class="name">ex:report1</span> can be found in bundle <span class="name">bob:bundle4</span>. The purpose of the locator is twofold. First, it allows for <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/#incremental-provenance-retrieval">incremental navigation</a> of provenance [[PROV-AQ]].  Second, it makes entity <span class="name">ex:report1</span> described in <span class="name">alice:bundle5</span> an <a>alternate</a> of <span class="name">ex:report1</span> described in <span class="name">bob:bundle4</span>.
-</p>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-locator3">
-<p>Alternatively, Alice may have decided to use a different identifier for <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle alice:bundle6
-  entity(alice:report1)
-  hasProvenanceIn(alice:report1, bob:bundle4, ex:report1)
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, alice:report1)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-<p>Alice can specify the <a href="#prov.locator.target">target</a> in the provenance locator to be  <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.
-With such a statement, Alice states that provenance information about <span class="name">alice:report1</span> can be found in bundle
-<span class="name">bob:bundle4</span> under the name <span class="name">ex:report1</span>.  In effect, <span class="name">alice:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report1</span> are declared to be alternate.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="aexample-note">
-<p>Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle obs:bundle7
-  entity(ex:report1, [prov:type="report", ex:version=1])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1,-,2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-  entity(ex:report2, [prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2,-,2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:d; ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-entity(obs:bundle7, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle7, ex:observer01)
-</pre>
-Bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle7</span> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the tool configuration for this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle tool:bundle8
-  entity(tool:bundle8, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle8, viz:Visualizer)
-
-  entity(ex:report1, [viz:color="orange"])              // ex:report1 is a reused identifier
-  hasProvenanceIn(ex:report1, obs:bundle7, -)
-
-  entity(tool:r2, [viz:color="blue"])                   // tool:r2  is a new identifier
-  hasProvenanceIn(tool:r2, obs:bundle7, ex:report2)
-
-  wasDerivedBy(ex:d; ex:report2, ex:report1, [viz:style="dotted"])
-  hasProvenanceIn(ex:d, obs:bundle7, -)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>In bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle8</span>, the prefix <span class="name">viz</span> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</p>
-
-<p>Bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle8</span> is given type <span class="name">viz:Configuration</span> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
-</p>
-
-<p>For the purpose of illustration, we show that the visualisation tool
-reused identifier <span class="name">ex:report1</span>, but created a new identifier <span class="name">tool:r2</span>.
-They denote entities which are alternates of with <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>, described in bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle7</span>, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.  
-Likewise, the derivation has a style attribute. </p>
-
-<p>According to their definition,
-derivations have an <a href="#derivation.id">optional identifier</a>. 
-To express an alternate for a derivation, we need to be able to reference it, by means of an identifier. Hence, it is necessary for it to have an identifier in the first place (<span class="name">ex:d</span>).</p>
-</div>
-
-</section>
--->
-
-</section> 
-
-
-<section id="component5"> 
-<h3>Component 5: Alternate Entities</h3>
-
-
-<p>The fifth component of PROV-DM is concerned with
-relations <a>specialization</a>, <a>alternate</a> and <a>contextualization</a> between entities.
- <a href="#figure-component5">Figure 9</a> depicts
-the fifth component with a single class,  two binary associations, and a ternary association.
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-<!-- <img src="images/Alternates.png" alt="alternates"/> -->
-<img src="uml/component5.png" alt="alternates"/>
-<figcaption id="figure-component5">Figure 9: Alternates Component Overview</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-<p>Two provenance descriptions about the same thing may emphasize differents aspects of that thing.</p>
-<div class="anexample" id="entity-example1">
-<p>User Alice writes an article. In its provenance, she wishes to refer to the precise version of the article with a date-specific IRI, as she might edit the article later. Alternatively, user Bob refers to the article in general, independently of its variants over time.</p>
-</div>
-<p>
-The PROV data model introduces relations, called specialization, alternate, and contextualization,
-that allow entities  to be linked together. They are defined as follows. </p>
-
-
-<section id="term-specialization">
-
-<h4>Specialization</h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-specialization"></span> 
-
-
-<p>
-Examples of aspects include a time period, an abstraction, and a context associated with the entity.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-specialization">A <dfn title="specializationOf">specialization</dfn>  relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">specializationOf(infra, supra, b)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="specialization.specificEntity">specificEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">infra</span>) of the specialized entity;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="specialization.generalEntity">generalEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">supra</span>) of the entity that is being specialized.</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="specialization.bundle">bundle</span>: an OPTIONAL identifier (<span class="name">b</span>) of a bundle that contains a description of entity <span class="name">supra</span>, and that constitutes an additional aspect of the specialized entity <span class="name">infra</span>.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="note">
-The attribute <a href="#specialization.bundle">bundle</a> is a <b>FEATURE AT RISK</b>. 
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-specialization">
-<p>
-The BBC news home page on 2012-03-23 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>
-is a specialization of the BBC news page in general
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/">bbc:news/</a>. This can be expressed as follows.
-<pre class="codeexample">
-specializationOf(ex:bbcNews2012-03-23, bbc:news/)
-</pre>
-We have created a new qualified name,  <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>, in the namespace <span class="name">ex</span>, to identify the specific page carrying this day's news, which would otherwise be the generic  <span class="name">bbc:news/</span> page.
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<!--
-<p>To promote take up of these relations, it is not specified whether they are transitive or symmetric.  We anticipate that applications will specialize these relations according to their needs. </p>
--->
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-alternate">
-
-<h4>Alternate</h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-alternate"></span>
-
-
-  
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-alternate">An <dfn title="alternateOf">alternate</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">alternateOf(e1, e2)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="alternate.alternate1">alternate1</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the first of the two entities;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="alternate.alternate2">alternate2</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the second of the two entities.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate">
-<p>
-A given news item on the BBC News site 
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/science-environment-17526723</a> for desktop
-is an alternate of a 
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723</a> for mobile devices.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, [ prov:type="a news item for desktop"])
-entity(bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723, [ prov:type="a news item for mobile devices"])
-alternateOf(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate2">
-<p>
-Considering again the two versions of the technical report <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft). They are alternate of each other.
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-</pre>
-<p>They are both specialization of the page <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a>.</p>
-</div>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-contextualization">
-
-<h4>Contextualization</h4>
-
-<p>The following notion is a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle (referred to as remote bundle). In contrast, the bundle in which this relation occurs is referred to as local bundle.</p> 
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-contextualization"></span>
-
-
-<p>A bundle's
-descriptions provide a context in which to interpret an entity in a
-domain-specific manner.  The contextualization of this entity with respect to this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some domain-specific interpretation.
-</p>
-
-<!--
-
-<p>A contextualization of an entity in a bundle implies the specialization of this entity by "fixing" the bundle that it is in. 
-</p>
-
--->
-
-
-<p>A contextualization of an entity in a remote bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the remote bundle that it is described in. 
-</p>
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-contextualization">A <dfn title="contextualizationOf">contextualization</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">contextualizationOf(l, e, b)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="contextualization.local">local</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">l</span>) for an entity in the local bundle (not explicitly identified) presenting the aspects of <span class="name">e</span> in remote bundle <span class="name">b</span> ;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="contextualization.contextualized">contextualized</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) of an entity in some remote bundle <span class="name">b</span>;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="contextualization.context">bundle</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">b</span>) for a remote bundle.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-contextualization1">
-<p>In the following example, two bundles <span class="name">ex:run1</span> and <span class="name">ex:run2</span> refer to an agent <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> that controlled two activities <span class="name">ex:a1</span> and <span class="name">ex:a2</span>. </p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample">
-bundle ex:run1
-    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1,ex:Bob,[prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-
-bundle ex:run2
-    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00,2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2,ex:Bob,[prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-</pre> 
-<p>A performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. The performance rating tool creates a new bundle <span class="name">tool:analysis01</span> containing the following. A new agent <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span> is declared as a contextualization of <span class="name">ex:Bob</span> as described in remote bundle <span class="name">ex:run1</span>, and likewise for  <span class="name">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span> with respect to <span class="name">ex:run2</span>. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to be good since the duration of <span class="name">ex:a1</span> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since <span class="name">ex:a2</span>'s duration is seven hours.
-
-<pre class="codeexample">
-bundle tool:analysis01
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
-    contextualizationOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
-
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
-    contextualizationOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="aexample-contextualization-viz">
-<p>Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle obs:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [prov:type="report", ex:version=1])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1,-,2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-  entity(ex:report2, [prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2,-,2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
-</pre>
-Bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the tool configuration for this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-bundle tool:bundle2
-  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
-
-  entity(tool:report1, [viz:color="orange"])
-  contextualizationOf(tool:report1, obs:bundle1, ex:report1)
-
-  entity(tool:report2, [viz:color="blue"])              
-  contextualizationOf(tool:report2, obs:bundle1, ex:report2)
-endBundle
-</pre>
-
-<p>In bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span>, the prefix <span class="name">viz</span> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</p>
-
-<p>Bundle <span class="name">tool:bundle2</span> is given type <span class="name">viz:Configuration</span> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
-</p>
-
-<p>The visualisation tool
- created  new identifiers <span class="name">tool:report1</span> and
-<span class="name">tool:report2</span>.
-They denote entities which are specializations of <span class="name">ex:report1</span> and <span class="name">ex:report2</span>, described in bundle <span class="name">obs:bundle1</span>, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </p>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="component6"> 
-<h3>Component 6: Collections</h3>
-
-<p>The sixth component of PROV-DM is concerned with the notion of collections. 
-A collection is an entity that has some members. The members are themselves entities, and therefore their provenance can be expressed. Some applications need to be able to express the provenance of the collection  itself: e.g. who maintains the collection (attribution), which members it contains as it evolves, and how it was assembled. The purpose of Component 6 is to define the types and relations that are useful to express the provenance of collections. In PROV, the concept of Collection is implemented by means of dictionaries, which we introduce in this section. </p>
-
-<p><a href="#figure-component6">Figure 10</a> depicts
-the sixth component with four new classes (Collection, Dictionary, EmptyDictionary, and Pair) and three associations (insertion, removal, and memberOf).
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-<!-- <img src="images/Dictionaries.png" alt="dictionaries"/> -->
-<img src="uml/component6.png" alt="dictionaries"/>
-
-<figcaption id="figure-component6">Figure 10: Collections Component Overview</figcaption>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-<p>The intent of these relations and types is to express the <em>history of changes that occurred to a collection</em>. 
-Changes to collections are about the insertion of entities into, and the removal of entities from the collection.
-Indirectly, such history provides a way to reconstruct the contents of the collection.</p>
-
-<section id="term-collection">
-<h3>Collection</h3>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-collection"></span>
-
-<p>A collection is a multiset of entities (it is a multiset, rather than a set, because it may not be possible to verify that two distinct entity identitifiers do not denote, in fact, the same entity).</p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-empty-collection"></span>
-
-
-<p>PROV-DM defines the following types related to collections:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li> <span class="name">prov:Collection</span>  denotes an entity of type Collection, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst collections;
-
-  <li><span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span> denotes an empty collection.
-</ul>
-
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(c0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ])  // c0 is an empty collection
-entity(c1, [prov:type='prov:Collection'  ])      // c1 is a collection, with unknown content
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>In PROV, the concept of Collection is  provided as an extensibility point for specialized kinds of collections. One of these, Dictionary, is defined next. </p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-collection-membership">
-<h3>Collection Memberhsip</h3>
-
-<p>A <strong>collection membership</strong> relation is defined, to allow stating the  members of a Collection. </p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-collection-membership"></span>
-
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf">
- A <dfn title="memberOf">membership</dfn> relation, written <span class="pnExpression">memberOf(id; c, {e_1, ..., e_n}, cplt, attrs)</span>, has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.collection">collection</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">c</span>) for the collection whose members are asserted; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.entity-set">entity-set</span>: a set of entities  <span class="name">e_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">e_n</span> that are members of the collection;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.complete">complete</span>: an OPTIONAL boolean 
-<a title="value">Value</a> (<span class="name">cplt</span>). It is interpreted as follows:
-<ul>
-<li>if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the entity-set;
-<li>if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the entity-set;
-<li>if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the entity-set, and it MAY include more.
-</ul>
-
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-
-</div>
-
-<p id="complete-attribute-note">
-Note that the attribute <a href="#membership.complete">complete</a> indicates that the <a title="memberOf">membership</a> relation provides a complete description of the collection membership. It is possible for  different provenance descriptions to provide different membership statements regarding the same collection. The resolution of any potential conflict amongst such membership statements is defined by applications.</p>
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-dictionary">
-<h3>Dictionary</h3>
-
-<p>PROV-DM defines a specific type of collection, specified as follows.</p>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-dictionary"></span>
-
-<p>Conceptually, a dictionary has a logical structure consisting of key-entity pairs. This structure is often referred to as a <em>map</em>, and is a generic indexing mechanism that can abstract commonly used data structures, including associative lists, relational tables, ordered lists, and more. The specification of such specialized structures in terms of key-value pairs is out of the scope of this document.</p>
-
-<p>A given dictionary forms a given structure for its members.  A different structure (obtained either by insertion or removal of members) constitutes a different dictionary. Hence,
- for the purpose of provenance, a dictionary entity is viewed as a snapshot of a structure. Insertion and removal operations result in new snapshots, each snapshot forming an identifiable dictionary entity.</p>
-
-<!--
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-empty-dictionary"></span>
--->
-
-
-<p>Following the earlier definitions for generic collections,  PROV-DM defines the following types related to dictionaries:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li> <span class="name">prov:Dictionary</span> is a subtype of <span class="name">prov:Collection</span>. It denotes an entity of type dictionary, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst dictionaries;
-
-  <li><span class="name">prov:EmptyDictionary</span> is a subtype of <span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span>. It denotes an empty dictionary.
-</ul>
-
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(d0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])  // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary'  ])      // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-</section>  <!-- end of dictionary-types -->
-
-<section id="term-dictionary-membership">
-<h3>Dictionary Membership</h3>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-dictionary-membership"></span>
-
-The <strong>dictionary  membership</strong> has the same purpose as the <a href="#term-collection-membership">collection membership</a> relation, but it applies to entities having <span class="name">prov:type = 'prov:Dictionary'</span>. It allows stating the members of a Dictionary.
-
-<!--
-<p>
-The insertion and removal  relations make insertions and removals explicit as part of the history of a dictionary. This, however, requires explicit reference to the dictionary that existed prior to each operation. The membership relation removes this need, allowing the membership of a dictionary to be expressed without having to introduce a prior dictionary.</p>
--->
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf-d">
- A <dfn title="memberOf-d">membership</dfn> relation, written <span class="pnExpression">memberOf(id; c, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, cplt, attrs)</span>, has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.dictionary">dictionary</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">c</span>) for the dictionary whose members are asserted; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.key-entity-set">key-entity-set</span>: a set of key-entity pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> that are members of the dictionary;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.complete">complete</span>: an OPTIONAL boolean 
-<a title="value">Value</a> (<span class="name">cplt</span>). It is interpreted as follows:
-<ul>
-<li>if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the key-entity-set;
-<li>if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the key-entity-set;
-<li>if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the key-entity-set, and it MAY include more.
-</ul>
-
-<!-- if true, it indicates that no other member belongs to the dictionary;  if false, it indicates that other members belong to the dictionary; if unspecified, other members MAY belong to the dictionary; -->
-<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-
-</div>
-
-<p id="complete-attribute-note-d">
-The attribute <a href="#membership-d.complete">complete</a> is interpreted as for  the general <a href="#term-collection">collection membership</a> relation. 
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])    // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])    // d2 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-
-memberOf(d1, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)} )  
-memberOf(d2, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)}, true)  
-
-</pre>
-From these descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li> <span class="name">d1</span>  has  the following pairs as members: <span class="name">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span>, and may contain others.
-<li> <span class="name">d2</span>  exactly has  the following pairs as members: <span class="name">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span>, and does not contain any other.
-</ul>
-<p> Thus, the membership of <span class="name">d1</span> is only partially known.</p>
-</div>
-
-</section>  <!-- Membership -->
-
-
-<section id="term-dictionary-insertion">
-<h3>Dictionary Insertion</h3>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-insertion"></span>
-
-<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivedByInsertionFrom">
-<p>An <dfn title="derivedByInsertionFrom">Insertion</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">derivedByInsertionFrom(id; d2, d1, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, attrs)</span>,</span> has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.after">after</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d2</span>) for the dictionary <em>after</em> insertion; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.before">before</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d1</span>) for the dictionary <em>before</em> insertion;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.key-entity-set">key-entity-set</span>: the inserted key-entity pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> in which each <span class="name">key_i</span> is a <a>value</a>, and <span class="name">e_i</span> is an identifier  for the entity that has been inserted with the key;
- each <span class="name">key_i</span> is expected to be unique for the key-entity-set;
-</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-An Insertion relation <span class="name">derivedByInsertionFrom(id; d2, d1,  {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)})</span> states that  <span class="name">d2</span> is the dictionary
-following the insertion of pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> into dictionary  <span class="name">d1</span>.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(d0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-entity(e3)
-entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
-entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)})       
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k3", e3)})    
-</pre>
-From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li>   <span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
-<li>   <span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2) }</span>
-<li>   <span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", e3) }</span>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>Insertion provides an "update semantics" for the keys that are already present in a dictionary,
-since a new pair replaces an existing pair with the same key in the new dictionary. This is illustrated by the following example.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(d0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-entity(e3)
-entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
-entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)})       
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k1", e3)})    
-</pre>
-   This is a case of <em>update</em> of <span class="name">e1</span> to <span class="name">e3</span> for the same key, <span class="name">"k1"</span>. <br/>
-  From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li>   <span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
-<li>   <span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2) }</span>
-<li>   <span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e3), ("k2", e2) }</span>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-</section>  <!-- insertion -->
-
-
-<section id="term-dictionary-removal">
-<h3>Dictionary Removal</h3>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-removal"></span>
-
-
-<p>
-<div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivedByRemovalFrom">
-<p> A <dfn title="derivedByRemovalFrom">Removal</dfn> relation, written <span class="pnExpression">derivedByRemovalFrom(id; d2, d1, {key_1, ... key_n}, attrs)</span>, has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.after">after</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d2</span>) for the dictionary  <em>after</em> the deletion; </li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.before">before</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d1</span>)  for the dictionary <em>before</em> the deletion;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.key-set">key-set</span>: a set of deleted keys  <span class="name">key_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">key_n</span>, for which each <span class="name">key_i</span> is a <a>value</a>;</li>
-<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>A Removal relation <span class="name">derivedByRemovalFrom(id; d2,d1, {key_1, ..., key_n})</span> states that  <span class="name">d2</span> is  the  dictionary following the removal of the set of pairs corresponding to keys  <span class="name">key_1...key_n</span> from  <span class="name">d1</span>.
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(d0, [prov:type="prov:EmptyDictionary"])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-entity(e3)
-entity(d1, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"])
-entity(d2, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"])
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2",e2)})       
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k3", e3)})
-derivedByRemovalFrom(d3, d2, {"k1", "k3"})   
-</pre>
-From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
-<li><span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)  }</span>
-<li><span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", e3) }</span>
-<li><span class="name">d3</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k2", e2) }</span>
-</ul>
-
-  
-</div>
-
-</section>  <!-- removal -->
-
-
-<p>Further considerations: </p>
-
-<ul>
-
-<!--
-<li>The state of a dictionary (i.e., the set of key-entity pairs it contains) at a given point in a sequence of operations is never stated explicitly. Rather, it can be obtained by querying the chain of derivations involving insertions and removals. Entity type <span class="name">emptyDictionary</span> can be used in this context as it marks the start of a sequence of dictionary operations.</li>
--->
-
-<li>The representation of a dictionary through these relations makes no assumption regarding the underlying data structure used to store and manage dictionaries. In particular, no assumptions are needed regarding the mutability of a data structure that is subject to updates. Entities, however, are immutable and this applies  to those entities that represent dictionaries. This is reflected in the constraints listed in [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]].  </li>
-</ul>
-
-  
-</section>   <!-- end dictionaries-->
-
-
-
-
-
-<section  id="second-class-elements">
-<h3>Further Elements of PROV-DM</h3>
-
-This section introduces further elements of PROV-DM.
-
-
-
-
-<section id="term-identifier">
-<h4>Identifier</h4>
-
-<p>
-An <dfn id="dfn-identifier">identifier</dfn> is a <a>qualified
- name</a>. 
-</p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-attribute">
-<h4>Attribute</h4>
-
-<p>An <dfn title="dfn-attribute" id="dfn-attribute">attribute</dfn> is a <a>qualified name</a>. 
-
-
-<p>The PROV data model introduces a pre-defined set of attributes in the <a title="prov-namespace">PROV namespace</a>, which we define below. 
-This specification does not provide any interpretation for any attribute declared in any other namespace.</p>
-
-<div id="attributes-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: left;">
-<table   class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="attributes-at-a-glance">Table 6: PROV-DM Attributes At a Glance</caption>
-<tr><td><b>Attribute</b></td><td><b>Allowed In</b></td><td><b>value</b></td><td><b>Section</b></td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="label">prov:label</a></td><td><em>any construct</em></td><td>A <a>Value</a> of type <a class="section-ref" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string">xsd:string</a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-label"><span>TBD</span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="location">prov:location</a></td><td><a>Entity</a>, <a>Activity</a>, <a>Usage</a>, and <a>Generation</a>.</td><td>A <a title="value">Value</a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-location"><span>TBD</span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="role">prov:role</a></td><td><a>Usage</a>, <a>Generation</a>, <a>Invalidation</a>, <a>Association</a>, <a>Start</a>, and <a>End</a></td><td>A <a title="value">Value</a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>TBD</span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="type">prov:type</a></td><td><em>any construct</em></td><td>A <a title="value">Value</a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-type"><span>TBD</span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="value-attribute">prov:value</a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td><td>A <a title="value">Value</a></td><td><a  class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-value"><span>TBD</span></a> </td></tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-<section id="term-attribute-label">
-<h4>prov:label</h4>
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-label"></span>
-The value associated with the attribute <span class="name">prov:label</span> MUST be a string.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<p>The following entity is provided with a label attribute.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
- entity(ex:e1, [ prov:label="This is a human-readable label" ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="term-attribute-location">
-<h4>prov:location</h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-location"></span>
-As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate,
-address, landmark, and so forth. This  document does not specify how to concretely express  locations, but instead provide a mechanism to introduce locations, by means of a reserved attribute. </p> 
-
-
-<p>
-The attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> is an OPTIONAL attribute of entity, activity, usage, and generation.  The value associated with the  attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> MUST be a PROV-DM <a title="value">Value</a>, expected to denote a location.
-</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example-location">
-<p>The following expression describes entity Mona Lisa, a painting, with a location attribute. </p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
- entity(ex:MonaLisa, [ prov:location="Le Louvre, Paris", prov:type="StillImage" ])
-</pre>
-<p>The following expression describes a cell, at coordinates (5,5), with value 10. </p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
- entity(ex:cell, [ prov:location="(5,5)", prov:value="10" %% xsd:integer ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-
-
-<section id="term-attribute-role">
-<h4>prov:role</h4>
-
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-role"></span></p>
-
-<p>
-The attribute <span class="name">prov:role</span> is allowed to occur multiple times in a list of attribute-value pairs. The value associated with a <span class="name">prov:role</span> attribute MUST be a PROV-DM <a title="value">Value</a>.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-role">
-<p>The following activity is associated with an agent acting as the operator. </p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
- wasAssociatedWith(a, ag, [ prov:role="operator" ])
-</pre>
-<p>In the following expression, the activity <span class="name">ex:div01</span> used entity <span class="name">ex:cell</span> in the role of divisor.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-used(ex:div01, ex:cell, [ prov:role="divisor" ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-attribute-type">
-<h4>prov:type</h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-type"></span></p>
-
-<p>
-PROV-DM liberally
-defines a type as a category of things having common characteristics. PROV-DM is agnostic about the representation of types, and only states that
-the value associated with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute MUST be a PROV-DM <a title="value">Value.</a> The attribute <span class="name">prov:type</span>
-is allowed to occur multiple times.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<p>The following describes an agent of type software agent.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-   agent(ag, [ prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>The following types are pre-defined in PROV, and are valid values for the <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute.</p>
-
-
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-predefined-types">Table 7: PROV-DM Predefined Types</caption>
-<tr><td><b>Type</b></td><td><b>Specification</b></td><td><b>Core concept</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="bundle"><span class="name">prov:Bundle</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-bundle"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="collection"><span class="name">prov:Collection</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-collection"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="dictionary"><span class="name">prov:Dictionary</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-dictionary"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="empty dictionary"><span class="name">prov:EmptyDictionary</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-dictionary"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="primary source"><span class="name">prov:HadPrimarySource</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-primary-source"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Derivation</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="organization"><span class="name">prov:Organization</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Agent</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="person"><span class="name">prov:Person</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Agent</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="plan"><span class="name">prov:Plan</span></a></td> <td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-entity"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Entity</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="software-agent"><span class="name">prov:SoftwareAgent</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Agent</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="Quotation"><span class="name">prov:WasQuotedFrom</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-quotation"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Derivation</a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="Revision"><span class="name">prov:WasRevisionOf</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-revision"><span>TBD</span></a></td><td><a>Derivation</a></td></tr>
-</table>
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="term-attribute-value">
-<h4>prov:value</h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-value-attribute"></span></p>
-
-
-
-<p>The attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> is an OPTIONAL attribute of entity.  The value associated with the  attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> MUST be a PROV-DM <a title="value">Value</a>. The attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> MAY occur at most once in a set of attribute-value pairs.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample">
-<p>The following example illustrates the provenance of the number <span class="name">4</span> obtained by an activity that computed the length of an input string <span class="name">"abcd"</span>.
-The input and the output are expressed as entities <span class="name">ex:in</span> and <span class="name">ex:out</span>, respectively. They each have a <span class="name">prov:value</span> attribute associated with the corresponding value.
-</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">
-entity(ex:in, [ prov:value="abcd" ]) 
-entity(ex:out, [ prov:value=4 ]) 
-activity(ex:len, [ prov:type="string-length" ])
-used(ex:len, ex:in)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:out, ex:len)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:out, ex:in)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="note">Should we also have prov:encoding?</div>
-
-</section>
-
-<!--
-<section id="term-attribute-provenance-uri">
-<h4>prov:provenance-uri</h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-provenance-uri"></span> (See  <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/#dfn-provenance-uri">Provenance-URI</a> in [[PROV-AQ]].) </p>
-
-<p> The attribute <dfn title="provenance-uri-attribute"><span class="name">prov:provenance-uri</span></dfn> provides
-  an OPTIONAL <a>provenance-URI</a>.</p>
-
-
-<p>The attributes <a href="#term-attribute-service-uri"><span class="name">prov:service-uri</span></a> 
-and
-<a href="#term-attribute-provenance-uri"><span class="name">prov:provenance-uri</span></a> are mutually exclusive.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-uri">
-<p>According to the following provenance locator, provenance descriptions about <span class="name">ex:report1</span> can be found in bundle <span class="name">bob:bundle1</span>, which is available from the provenance service identified by the provided URI.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-hasProvenanceIn(ex:report1, bob:bundle1, -, [ prov:provenance-uri="http://example.com/service" %% xsd:anyURI ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-<section id="term-attribute-service-uri">
-<h4>prov:service-uri</h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-provenance-service"></span> (See <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/#dfn-provenance-service">provenance service</a> in [[PROV-AQ]].)</p>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-service-uri"></span> (See <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/#dfn-service-uri">Service-URI</a> in [[PROV-AQ]].)</p>
-
-
-<p> The attribute <dfn title="service-uri-attribute"><span class="name">prov:service-uri</span></dfn> provides
-  an OPTIONAL <a>service-URI</a> </p>
-
-
-<p>The attributes <a href="#term-attribute-service-uri"><span class="name">prov:service-uri</span></a> 
-and
-<a href="#term-attribute-provenance-uri"><span class="name">prov:provenance-uri</span></a> are mutually exclusive.</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-service-uri">
-<p>According to the following provenance locator, provenance descriptions about <span class="name">ex:report1</span> can be found in the resource identified by the provided URI.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-hasProvenanceIn(ex:report1, [ prov:service=uri="http://example.com/some-provenance.pn" %% xsd:anyURI ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-</section>
-
--->
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-value">
-<h4>Value</h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-value"></span> Values can occur in attribute-value pairs. </p>
-
-<p>Each kind of such values is called a <em>datatype</em>.
- Use of the following data types is RECOMMENDED. </p>
-<ul>
-<li> The RDF-compatible [[!RDF-CONCEPTS]]  built-in types taken from 
-the set of XML Schema Datatypes [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]];</li>
-<li> Qualified names introduced in this specification;</li>
-<li> RDF literal types for html and xml [[!RDF-CONCEPTS]].</li>
-</ul>
-<p>
-The normative definitions of these datatypes are provided by their respective specifications.  An informative list of these datatypes appears in Table 8.
-</p>
-
-<p>PROV accepts the RDF-Compatible XSD types that RDF enumerates in
-its own specification [[!RDF-CONCEPTS]].  New RDF releases
-[[RDF-CONCEPTS11]] may extend the list of datatypes, and PROV would
-naturally accept those too.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<table   class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-data-types">Table 8: Informative List of PROV-DM Data Types</caption>
-
-
-    <tbody><tr><th></th><th>Datatype</th><th>Value space</th></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="4">Core types</th><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="name">xsd:string</span></a></td><td>Character strings</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#boolean"><span class="name">xsd:boolean</span></a></td><td>true, false</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#decimal"><span class="name">xsd:decimal</span></a></td><td>Arbitrary-precision decimal numbers</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#integer"><span class="name">xsd:integer</span></a></td><td>Arbitrary-size integer numbers</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2">IEEE floating-point<br>numbers</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#double"><span class="name">xsd:double</span></a></td><td>64-bit floating point numbers incl. ±Inf, ±0, NaN</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#float"><span class="name">xsd:float</span></a></td><td>32-bit floating point numbers incl. ±Inf, ±0, NaN</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="4">Time and date</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#date"><span class="name">xsd:date</span></a></td><td>Dates (yyyy-mm-dd) with or without timezone</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#time"><span class="name">xsd:time</span></a></td><td>Times (hh:mm:ss.sss…) with or without timezone</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTime"><span class="name">xsd:dateTime</span></a></td><td>Date and time with or without timezone</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTimeStamp"><span class="name">xsd:dateTimeStamp</span></a></td><td>Date and time with required timezone</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="8">Recurring and<br>partial dates</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gYear"><span class="name">xsd:gYear</span></a></td><td>Gregorian calendar year</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gMonth"><span class="name">xsd:gMonth</span></a></td><td>Gregorian calendar month</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gDay"><span class="name">xsd:gDay</span></a></td><td>Gregorian calendar day of the month</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gYearMonth"><span class="name">xsd:gYearMonth</span></a></td><td>Gregorian calendar year and month</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gMonthDay"><span class="name">xsd:gMonthDay</span></a></td><td>Gregorian calendar month and day</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#duration"><span class="name">xsd:duration</span></a></td><td>Duration of time</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#yearMonthDuration"><span class="name">xsd:yearMonthDuration</span></a></td><td>Duration of time (months and years only)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dayTimeDuration"><span class="name">xsd:dayTimeDuration</span></a></td><td>Duration of time (days, hours, minutes, seconds only)</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="12">Limited-range<br>integer numbers</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#byte"><span class="name">xsd:byte</span></a></td><td>-128…+127 (8 bit)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#short"><span class="name">xsd:short</span></a></td><td>-32768…+32767 (16 bit)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int"><span class="name">xsd:int</span></a></td><td>-2147483648…+2147483647 (32 bit)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#long"><span class="name">xsd:long</span></a></td><td>-9223372036854775808…+9223372036854775807 (64 bit)</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedByte"><span class="name">xsd:unsignedByte</span></a></td><td>0…255 (8 bit)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedShort"><span class="name">xsd:unsignedShort</span></a></td><td>0…65535 (16 bit)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedInt"><span class="name">xsd:unsignedInt</span></a></td><td>0…4294967295 (32 bit)</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedLong"><span class="name">xsd:unsignedLong</span></a></td><td>0…18446744073709551615 (64 bit)</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#positiveInteger"><span class="name">xsd:positiveInteger</span></a></td><td>Integer numbers &gt;0</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nonNegativeInteger"><span class="name">xsd:nonNegativeInteger</span></a></td><td>Integer numbers ≥0</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#negativeInteger"><span class="name">xsd:negativeInteger</span></a></td><td>Integer numbers &lt;0</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nonPositiveInteger"><span class="name">xsd:nonPositiveInteger</span></a></td><td>Integer numbers ≤0</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2">Encoded binary data</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#hexBinary"><span class="name">xsd:hexBinary</span></a></td><td>Hex-encoded binary data</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#base64Binary"><span class="name">xsd:base64Binary</span></a></td><td>Base64-encoded binary data</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="6">Miscellaneous<br>XSD types</th>
-     <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#language"><span class="name">xsd:language</span></a></td><td>Language tags per [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#normalizedString"><span class="name">xsd:normalizedString</span></a></td><td>Whitespace-normalized strings</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#token"><span class="name">xsd:token</span></a></td><td>Tokenized strings</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKEN"><span class="name">xsd:NMTOKEN</span></a></td><td>XML NMTOKENs</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#Name"><span class="name">xsd:Name</span></a></td><td>XML Names</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NCName"><span class="name">xsd:NCName</span></a></td><td>XML NCNames</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2">Qualified<br>Names or URIs</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#anyURI"><span class="name">xsd:anyURI</span></a></td><td>Absolute or relative URIs and IRIs</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="name">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></td><td>PROV qualified name</td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2">RDF XML/HTML Literals</th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/#section-XMLLiteral"><span class="name">rdf:XMLLiteral</span></a></td><td>XML content as a value</td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML"><span class="name">rdf:HTML</span></a></td><td>HTML content as a value</td></tr>
-
-</td>
-    </tbody></table>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value">
-<p>
-The following examples respectively are the string "abc", the integer number 1, and the IRI "http://example.org/foo".
-<pre class="codeexample">
-  "abc"
-  "1" %% xsd:integer
-  "http://example.org/foo" %% xsd:anyURI
-</pre>
-<p>The following example shows a value of type <span class="name">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span> (see
-<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</a></span> [[PROV-N]]).
-The prefix <span class="name">ex</span>  MUST be bound to a <a>namespace</a> declared in a <a>namespace declaration</a>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  "ex:value" %% prov:QUALIFIED_NAME
-</pre>
-Alternatively, the same value can be expressed using the following convenience notation.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  'ex:value'
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>We note that PROV-DM <dfn title="dfn-time">time instants</dfn> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]].</p> 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-time">
-<p>
-In the following example, the generation time of entity <span class="name">e1</span> is expressed according to 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTime">xsd:dateTime</a>  [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]].</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  wasGeneratedBy(e1,a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-NamespaceDeclaration">
-<h3>Namespace Declaration</h3>
-
-<p>A PROV-DM <dfn id="dfn-namespace">namespace</dfn> is identified by an IRI [[!IRI]]. In PROV-DM, attributes, identifiers, and values with <a title="qualified name">qualified names</a> as data type can be placed in a namespace using the mechanisms described in this specification. </p>
-
-
-<p>A <dfn id="dfn-namespaceDeclaration">namespace declaration</dfn> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this
-declaration refers to this namespace. </p>
-
-<p>A <dfn id="dfn-defaultNamespaceDeclaration">default namespace declaration</dfn> consists of a namespace. Every un-prefixed qualified name
-refers to default namespace declaration.</p>
-
-<p>The <dfn title="prov-namespace">PROV namespace</dfn> is identified by the URI <a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</a>.</p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="term-qualified-name">
-<h4>Qualified Name</h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-qualifiedName"></span>
-
-<p>PROV-DM stipulates that a qualified name can be mapped into an IRI
- by concatenating the IRI associated with the prefix and the local part.</p>
-
-<p>A qualified name's prefix is OPTIONAL. If a prefix occurs in a
- qualified name, it refers to a <a>namespace</a> declared in a namespace declaration.  In the absence of prefix, the qualified name 
- refers to the <a title="default namespace declaration">default namespace</a>.</p>
-
-</section>
-
-</section>
- 
-
-
-</section>
-
-
-<!-- end sec. 5 -->
-
-    <section id="extensibility-section"> 
-<h2>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</h2>
-
-
-<p>The PROV data model provides extensibility points that allow designers to specialize it for specific applications or domains. We summarize these extensibility points here. </p>
-
-
-<p>The <a title="prov-namespace">PROV namespace</a> declares a set of reserved attributes catering for extensibility: <a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="name">prov:type</span></a>, <a href="#term-attribute-role"><span class="name">prov:role</span></a>, <a href="#term-attribute-location"><span
-class="name">prov:location</span></a>.</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>Sub-types and sub-relations can be expressed by means of the reserved attribute 
-<a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="name">prov:type</span></a>.
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-sub-relation">
-<p>
-In the following example,  <span class="name">e2</span> is a translation of <span class="name">e1</span>,
-expressed as a sub-type of derivation.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  wasDerivedFrom(e2,e1, [prov:type='ex:Translation' ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-sub-type">
-<p>
-In the following example,  <span class="name">e</span> is described as a Car, a type of entity.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  entity(e, [prov:type='ex:Car' ])
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</li>
-
-<li>Application and domain specific roles can be expressed by means of the reserved attribute 
-<a href="#term-attribute-role"><span class="name">prov:role</span></a>.
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage-with-role">
-<p>
-In the following example,  two computers  <span class="name">ex:laptop4</span> and <span class="name">ex:desktop9</span> are used in different roles in a work activity.
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  activity(ex:work)
-  entity(ex:laptop4)
-  entity(ex:desktop9)
-  used(ex:work, ex:laptop4,  [prov:role="day-to-day machine"])
-  used(ex:work, ex:desktop9, [prov:role="backup machine"])
-</pre>
-</div>
-</li>
-
-
-<li> Attribute-value lists occur in all types and most relations of the data model.  Applications designers are free to introduce further application-specific attributes. Attributes for a given application can be distinguished by qualifying them with a prefix denoting a namespace
-declared in a namespace declaration. New namespaces and associated prefixes can be declared, allowing attributes and names to be qualified. 
-</li>
-
-
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>The PROV data model is designed to be application and technology independent, but implementers are welcome and encouraged to specialize PROV-DM to specific domains and applications.  To ensure interoperability, specializations of
-the PROV data model that exploit the extensibility points summarized in this section MUST preserve the semantics specified in this document and in [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]]. </p>
-
-
-
-    </section> 
-
-
-
-<section id="valid-provenance">
-<h4>Creating Valid Provenance</h4>
-
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>This specification defines PROV-DM, a data model that allows 
-descriptions of the people, institutions, entities, and activities,
-involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a
-thing to be expressed.  However, with this data model, it is also possible to compose
-descriptions that would not make sense: for instance, one could
-express that an entity was used before it was generated, or that the
-activity that generated an entity began its existence after the entity
-generation.  A set of constraints have been defined for PROV-DM and
-can be found in a companion specification [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]].
-They SHOULD be used by developers to compose provenance descriptions that are valid, and
-by implementers of reasoning engines aiming to check whether provenance descriptions have problems. </li>
-
-
-
-<li>
-<p> The example of <a href="#prov-dm-example">section 3</a> contains identifiers such as <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which denotes a specific version of a technical report.  On the other hand, a URI such as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a> denotes the latest version of a document. One needs to ensure that provenance descriptions for the latter resource remain valid as the resource state changes. </p>
-
-<p>To this end, PROV-DM allows asserters to describe "<em>partial states</em>" of entities by means of attributes and associated values. Some further constraints apply to the use of these attributes, since the values associated with them are expected to remain unchanged for some period of time. The constraints associated to attributes allow provenance descriptions to be refined, they can also be found in the companion specification [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]].</p>
-
-
-</li>
-
-
-<li>
-<p>The idea of bundling provenance descriptions is crucial to the PROV approach. Indeed, it allows multiple provenance perspectives to be provided for a given entity. It is also the mechanism by which provenance of provenance can be expressed.
-Descriptions in bundles are expected to satisfy constraints specified in the companion specification [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]].</p>
-</li>
-
-
-</ul>
-
-
-</section>
-
-<div id="glossary_div" class="remove">
-<!-- glossary loaded from glossary.js will be hooked up here,
-     class remove, will remove this element from the final output.
--->
-</div>
-
-<section class="appendix"> 
-      <h2>Acknowledgements</h2> 
-      <p> 
-        WG membership to be listed here.
-      </p> 
-    </section> 
-
- </body>
-</html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/model/prov-dictionary.html	Sun Jun 24 08:26:42 2012 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,801 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html
+>
+
+<html><head> 
+    <title>PROV Dictionary</title> 
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> 
+    <!-- 
+      === NOTA BENE ===
+      For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+      out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+     -->
+
+<!-- see http://www.somacon.com/p141.php for table configuration -->
+    <style type="text/css">
+      .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
+
+.diamond {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-style: normal;
+    font-size:100%;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+}
+
+table.thinborder {
+	border-width: 1px;
+	border-spacing: 0px;
+	border-style: none;
+	border-color: gray;
+	border-collapse: collapse;
+}
+table.thinborder th {
+	border-width: 1px;
+	padding: 0px;
+	border-style: solid;
+	border-color: gray;
+	-moz-border-radius: ;
+}
+table.thinborder td {
+	border-width: 1px;
+	padding: 2px;
+	border-style: solid;
+	border-color: gray;
+	-moz-border-radius: ;
+}
+</style>
+
+    <script src="http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/js/respec.js" class="remove"></script> 
+    <script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.7.1/jquery.min.js" class="remove"></script>
+    <script src="http://www.w3.org/2007/OWL/toggles.js"></script> 
+
+    <script src="glossary.js" class="remove"></script>
+
+    <script class="remove">
+      function updateGlossaryRefs() {
+        $('.glossary-ref').each(function(index) {
+          var ref=$(this).attr('data-ref');
+          var span=$(this).attr('data-withspan')
+          $(this).removeAttr('data-withspan');
+          $(this).removeAttr('data-ref');
+
+          $('#'+ref+'.glossary').contents().clone().appendTo($(this));
+//          $(this).attr("prov:hadOriginalSource",glossary_hg);
+          if (span) {
+            $(this).children('dfn').replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').addClass('dfn').append($(this).contents())});
+          }
+        });
+      }
+
+        // function to replace figcaption since not allowed by prov rules, and not transformed by respec.js
+      function updateFigCaptions() {
+        $('figcaption').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
+
+
+          $(this).replaceWith(function(){return $('<p>').append($('<span>').addClass('figcaption').attr('id',myid).append($(this).contents()))});
+        });
+      }
+
+        // function to replace figure since not allowed by prov rules, and not transformed by respec.js
+      function updateFigures() {
+        $('figure').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
+          var mystyle=$(this).attr('style');
+
+             console.log( "figure " + myid + " " + $(this).contents());
+
+          $(this).replaceWith(function(){
+                                          var aNewElement=$('<span>').addClass('figure').append($(this).contents());
+                                          if (myid) {
+                                            aNewElement.attr('id',myid)
+                                          }                                          
+                                          if (mystyle) {
+                                            aNewElement.attr('style',mystyle)
+                                          }                                          
+                                          return aNewElement });
+
+
+
+        //          $(this).replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').addClass('figure').attr('id',myid).attr('style',mystyle).append($(this).contents())});
+             console.log( "figure " + myid);
+        });
+      }
+
+      function updateExamples() {
+        var count=1;
+        $('.anexample').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).attr('id');
+          var mycount=count++;
+
+          if (myid==undefined) {
+            myid='example_' + mycount;
+            $(this).attr('id',myid);
+          }
+
+          
+          $(this).attr('data-count', mycount).prepend($('<div>').addClass('anexampleTitle')
+                                                          //.append($('<a>').addClass('internalDFN').attr('href','#'+myid).append("Example " + mycount))
+              .append("Example " + mycount)
+              .append($('<sup>').append($('<a>').addClass('internalDFN').attr('href','#'+myid).append($('<span>').addClass('diamond').append(" &#9674;"))))
+              );
+
+
+          //console.log( "example for " + myid + " " + mycount);
+
+        });
+      }
+
+              
+
+      function updateDfn() {
+        var count=1;
+        $('dfn').each(function(index) {
+
+          var myid=$(this).addClass('internalDFN').attr('id');
+
+          $(this).after($('<sup>').append($('<a>').addClass('internalDFN').attr('href','#'+myid).append($('<span>').addClass('diamond').append(" &#9674;"))));  //&#9674;//&#9830;
+          
+//              console.log( "dfn for " + myid + " ");
+
+        });
+      }
+
+
+      function updateExamplesRefs() {
+        $('.anexample-ref').each(function(index) {
+
+          myhref=$(this).attr('href');
+
+              //console.log( "example ref for " + myhref);
+
+          mycount=$(myhref).attr('data-count');
+
+              //console.log( "example ref for " + myhref + " " + mycount);
+
+          $(this).children('span').replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').append("Example " + mycount)});
+
+        });
+
+        $('.anexample').each(function(index) {
+          $(this).removeAttr('data-count');
+        });
+
+      }
+
+
+      function updateSectionRefs() {
+
+         $('.section-ref').each(function(index) {
+
+          myhref=$(this).attr('href');
+
+          console.log( "section ref for " + myhref);
+
+          if (myhref.startsWith("#")) {
+
+
+            //Problem, this returns all span.secno elements, and concatenates their text
+                    // I shoul just get the first one
+            mysectionNumber=$(myhref).find('span.secno').first().text().trim();
+
+                    
+
+
+             console.log( "section ref for " + myhref + " " + mysectionNumber);
+
+             $(this).children('span').replaceWith(function(){return $('<span>').append("Section " + mysectionNumber)});
+
+           }
+
+        });
+      }
+
+
+
+      $(document).ready(function(){
+        // if glossary is in a string:
+        $('#glossary_div').html(glossary_string)
+        updateGlossaryRefs();
+        updateFigCaptions();
+        updateExamples();
+        updateExamplesRefs();
+
+                      if (typeof String.prototype.startsWith != 'function') {
+                      String.prototype.startsWith = function (str){
+                      return this.indexOf(str) == 0;
+                      };
+                      }
+
+      });
+
+    </script>
+
+    <script class="remove"> 
+      var addExtraReferences = function() {
+          for (var k in extraReferences)
+              berjon.biblio[k] = extraReferences[k];
+      };
+      var extraReferences = {
+        "CLOCK":
+         "Lamport, L. "+
+         "<a href=\"http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf\"><cite>Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system</cite></a>."+
+         "Communications of the ACM 21 (7): 558–565. 1978. "+
+         "URL: <a href=\"http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf\">http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/time-clocks.pdf</a> " +
+         "DOI: doi:10.1145/359545.359563.",
+        "CSP":
+         "Hoare, C. A. R. "+
+         "<a href=\"http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf\"><cite>Communicating Sequential Processes</cite></a>."+
+         "Prentice-Hall. 1985"+
+         "URL: <a href=\"http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf\">http://www.usingcsp.com/cspbook.pdf</a>",
+        "Logic":
+          "W. E. Johnson "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html\"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>."+
+          "1924. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html\">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>",
+        "PROV-SEM":
+          "James Cheney "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman\"><cite>Formal Semantics Strawman</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Work in progress. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman\">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman</a>",
+
+        "PROV-PRIMER":
+          "Yolanda Gil and Simon Miles (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Helena Deus, Daniel Garijo, Graham Klyne, Paolo Missier, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/\"><cite>Prov Model Primer</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</a>",
+
+        "PROV-O":
+          "Satya Sahoo and Deborah McGuinness (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, James Cheney, Daniel Garijo, Timothy Lebo, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/\"><cite>Provenance Formal Model</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</a>",
+
+
+        "PROV-CONSTRAINTS":
+          "James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.) "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/\"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a>",
+
+        "PROV-N":
+          "Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/\"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a>",
+
+        "PROV-AQ":
+          "Graham Klyne and Paul Groth (eds.) Luc Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame, and Simon Miles "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/\"><cite>Provenance Access and Query</cite></a>. "+
+          "2011, Working Draft. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</a>",
+
+        "UML":
+          "Object Management Group "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/\"><cite>Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</cite></a>. "+
+          "version 2.0, 2005 "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/\">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</a>",
+
+        "RDF-CONCEPTS11":
+          "RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/\"><cite>RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</cite></a>. "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>",
+
+        "Mappings":
+          "Satya Sahoo and Paul Groth and Olaf Hartig and Simon Miles and Sam Coppens and James Myers and Yolanda Gil and Luc Moreau and Jun Zhao and Michael Panzer and Daniel Garijo "+
+          "<a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings\"><cite>Provenance Vocabulary Mappings</cite></a>. "+
+          "August 2010 "+
+          "URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings\">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</a>",
+
+
+
+      };
+      var respecConfig = {
+          // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
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+          
+          // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
+          shortName:            "prov-dm",
+ 
+          // if your specification has a subtitle that goes below the main
+          // formal title, define it here
+      subtitle   :  "all material related to dictionary ",
+
+ 
+          // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
+//          publishDate:  "2012-05-03",
+ 
+          // if the specification's copyright date is a range of years, specify
+          // the start date here:
+//          copyrightStart: "2011",
+ 
+          // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
+          // and its maturity status
+//          previousPublishDate:  "2012-05-03",
+//          previousMaturity:  "WD",
+ 
+          // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
+          edDraftURI:           "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dictionary.html",
+ 
+          // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
+          // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
+ 
+          // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
+          // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
+          extraCSS:             ["http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css", "./extra-dm.css"],
+ 
+          // editors, add as many as you like
+          // only "name" is required
+          editors:  [
+              { name: "TBD", 
+                 },
+
+          ],
+ 
+          // authors, add as many as you like. 
+          // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
+          // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
+ 
+          authors:  [],
+          
+          // name of the WG
+          wg:           "Provenance Working Group",
+          
+          // URI of the public WG page
+          wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/",
+          
+          // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
+          wgPublicList: "public-prov-comments",
+          
+          // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
+          // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
+          // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
+          // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
+          // Team Contact.
+          wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status",
+
+          // Add extraReferences to bibliography database
+          preProcess: [addExtraReferences],
+
+          postProcess: [updateSectionRefs, updateDfn, updateFigures],
+      };
+    </script> 
+  </head> 
+  <body> 
+
+    <section id="abstract">
+<p>
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people,
+involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
+ to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
+PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the W3C
+provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
+PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
+PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
+(1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
+(2) derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
+(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
+(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+</p>
+
+<p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
+PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
+relations. PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
+extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
+
+<p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
+First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
+provenance should follow.  Second, 
+a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
+instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
+this document. </p>
+
+    </section> 
+
+<section id="sotd">
+<h4>Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
+<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
+Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
+the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review, before the implementation phase.</p>
+<h4>Please Comment By (date TBD)</h4>
+<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
+The end date of the Last Call review period is TBD, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
+</p>
+
+<h4>PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
+<ul>
+<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption;</li>
+<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an OWL-RL ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
+<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
+<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
+</ul>
+<h4>How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+<ul>
+<li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
+<li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
+<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
+<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+    <section id="introduction"> 
+      <h2>Introduction<br>
+</section>
+
+
+
+<section id="data-model-components"> 
+
+<h2>PROV-DM Types and Relations</h2>
+
+<p>Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.
+The components and their dependencies are illustrated in <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>. A component that relies on concepts defined in another is displayed above it in the figure.  So, for example, component 6 (collections) depends on concepts defined in component 3 (derivation), itself dependen on concepts defined in component 1 (entity and activity).
+</p>
+
+<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
+<ul>
+<li><b>Component 1: entities and activities.</b> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </li>
+<li><b>Component 2: derivations.</b>  The second component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</li>
+<li><b>Component 3: agents and responsibility.</b> The third component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</li>
+<li><b>Component 4: bundles.</b> The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</li>
+<li><b>Component 5: alternate.</b> The fifth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </li>
+<li><b>Component 6: collections.</b> The sixth component is about collections and concepts capturing their transformation, such as insertion and removal. </li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+
+<section id="component6"> 
+<h3>Component 6: Collections</h3>
+
+<p>The sixth component of PROV-DM is concerned with the notion of collections. 
+A collection is an entity that has some members. The members are themselves entities, and therefore their provenance can be expressed. Some applications need to be able to express the provenance of the collection  itself: e.g. who maintains the collection (attribution), which members it contains as it evolves, and how it was assembled. The purpose of Component 6 is to define the types and relations that are useful to express the provenance of collections. In PROV, the concept of Collection is implemented by means of dictionaries, which we introduce in this section. </p>
+
+<p><a href="#figure-component6">Figure 10</a> depicts
+the sixth component with four new classes (Collection, Dictionary, EmptyDictionary, and Pair) and three associations (insertion, removal, and memberOf).
+</p>
+
+
+<div style="text-align: center;">
+<figure>
+<!-- <img src="images/Dictionaries.png" alt="dictionaries"/> -->
+<img src="uml/component6.png" alt="dictionaries"/>
+
+<figcaption id="figure-component6">Figure 10: Collections Component Overview</figcaption>
+</figure>
+</div>
+
+
+<p>The intent of these relations and types is to express the <em>history of changes that occurred to a collection</em>. 
+Changes to collections are about the insertion of entities into, and the removal of entities from the collection.
+Indirectly, such history provides a way to reconstruct the contents of the collection.</p>
+
+<section id="term-collection">
+<h3>Collection</h3>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-collection"></span>
+
+<p>A collection is a multiset of entities (it is a multiset, rather than a set, because it may not be possible to verify that two distinct entity identitifiers do not denote, in fact, the same entity).</p>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-empty-collection"></span>
+
+
+<p>PROV-DM defines the following types related to collections:</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li> <span class="name">prov:Collection</span>  denotes an entity of type Collection, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst collections;
+
+  <li><span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span> denotes an empty collection.
+</ul>
+
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(c0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ])  // c0 is an empty collection
+entity(c1, [prov:type='prov:Collection'  ])      // c1 is a collection, with unknown content
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+<p>In PROV, the concept of Collection is  provided as an extensibility point for specialized kinds of collections. One of these, Dictionary, is defined next. </p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-collection-membership">
+<h3>Collection Memberhsip</h3>
+
+<p>A <strong>collection membership</strong> relation is defined, to allow stating the  members of a Collection. </p>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-collection-membership"></span>
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf">
+ A <dfn title="memberOf">membership</dfn> relation, written <span class="pnExpression">memberOf(id; c, {e_1, ..., e_n}, cplt, attrs)</span>, has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.collection">collection</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">c</span>) for the collection whose members are asserted; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.entity-set">entity-set</span>: a set of entities  <span class="name">e_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">e_n</span> that are members of the collection;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.complete">complete</span>: an OPTIONAL boolean 
+<a title="value">Value</a> (<span class="name">cplt</span>). It is interpreted as follows:
+<ul>
+<li>if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the entity-set;
+<li>if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the entity-set;
+<li>if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the entity-set, and it MAY include more.
+</ul>
+
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</div>
+
+<p id="complete-attribute-note">
+Note that the attribute <a href="#membership.complete">complete</a> indicates that the <a title="memberOf">membership</a> relation provides a complete description of the collection membership. It is possible for  different provenance descriptions to provide different membership statements regarding the same collection. The resolution of any potential conflict amongst such membership statements is defined by applications.</p>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="term-dictionary">
+<h3>Dictionary</h3>
+
+<p>PROV-DM defines a specific type of collection, specified as follows.</p>
+
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-dictionary"></span>
+
+<p>Conceptually, a dictionary has a logical structure consisting of key-entity pairs. This structure is often referred to as a <em>map</em>, and is a generic indexing mechanism that can abstract commonly used data structures, including associative lists, relational tables, ordered lists, and more. The specification of such specialized structures in terms of key-value pairs is out of the scope of this document.</p>
+
+<p>A given dictionary forms a given structure for its members.  A different structure (obtained either by insertion or removal of members) constitutes a different dictionary. Hence,
+ for the purpose of provenance, a dictionary entity is viewed as a snapshot of a structure. Insertion and removal operations result in new snapshots, each snapshot forming an identifiable dictionary entity.</p>
+
+<!--
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-empty-dictionary"></span>
+-->
+
+
+<p>Following the earlier definitions for generic collections,  PROV-DM defines the following types related to dictionaries:</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li> <span class="name">prov:Dictionary</span> is a subtype of <span class="name">prov:Collection</span>. It denotes an entity of type dictionary, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst dictionaries;
+
+  <li><span class="name">prov:EmptyDictionary</span> is a subtype of <span class="name">prov:EmptyCollection</span>. It denotes an empty dictionary.
+</ul>
+
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(d0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])  // d0 is an empty dictionary
+entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary'  ])      // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+</section>  <!-- end of dictionary-types -->
+
+<section id="term-dictionary-membership">
+<h3>Dictionary Membership</h3>
+
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-dictionary-membership"></span>
+
+The <strong>dictionary  membership</strong> has the same purpose as the <a href="#term-collection-membership">collection membership</a> relation, but it applies to entities having <span class="name">prov:type = 'prov:Dictionary'</span>. It allows stating the members of a Dictionary.
+
+<!--
+<p>
+The insertion and removal  relations make insertions and removals explicit as part of the history of a dictionary. This, however, requires explicit reference to the dictionary that existed prior to each operation. The membership relation removes this need, allowing the membership of a dictionary to be expressed without having to introduce a prior dictionary.</p>
+-->
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf-d">
+ A <dfn title="memberOf-d">membership</dfn> relation, written <span class="pnExpression">memberOf(id; c, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, cplt, attrs)</span>, has:
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.dictionary">dictionary</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">c</span>) for the dictionary whose members are asserted; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.key-entity-set">key-entity-set</span>: a set of key-entity pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> that are members of the dictionary;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.complete">complete</span>: an OPTIONAL boolean 
+<a title="value">Value</a> (<span class="name">cplt</span>). It is interpreted as follows:
+<ul>
+<li>if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the key-entity-set;
+<li>if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the key-entity-set;
+<li>if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the key-entity-set, and it MAY include more.
+</ul>
+
+<!-- if true, it indicates that no other member belongs to the dictionary;  if false, it indicates that other members belong to the dictionary; if unspecified, other members MAY belong to the dictionary; -->
+<li><span class='attribute' id="membership-d.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</div>
+
+<p id="complete-attribute-note-d">
+The attribute <a href="#membership-d.complete">complete</a> is interpreted as for  the general <a href="#term-collection">collection membership</a> relation. 
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])    // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
+entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])    // d2 is a dictionary, with unknown content
+
+entity(e1)
+entity(e2)
+
+memberOf(d1, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)} )  
+memberOf(d2, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)}, true)  
+
+</pre>
+From these descriptions, we conclude:
+<ul>
+<li> <span class="name">d1</span>  has  the following pairs as members: <span class="name">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span>, and may contain others.
+<li> <span class="name">d2</span>  exactly has  the following pairs as members: <span class="name">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span>, and does not contain any other.
+</ul>
+<p> Thus, the membership of <span class="name">d1</span> is only partially known.</p>
+</div>
+
+</section>  <!-- Membership -->
+
+
+<section id="term-dictionary-insertion">
+<h3>Dictionary Insertion</h3>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-insertion"></span>
+
+<p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivedByInsertionFrom">
+<p>An <dfn title="derivedByInsertionFrom">Insertion</dfn> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">derivedByInsertionFrom(id; d2, d1, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, attrs)</span>,</span> has:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.after">after</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d2</span>) for the dictionary <em>after</em> insertion; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.before">before</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d1</span>) for the dictionary <em>before</em> insertion;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.key-entity-set">key-entity-set</span>: the inserted key-entity pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> in which each <span class="name">key_i</span> is a <a>value</a>, and <span class="name">e_i</span> is an identifier  for the entity that has been inserted with the key;
+ each <span class="name">key_i</span> is expected to be unique for the key-entity-set;
+</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="insertion.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+An Insertion relation <span class="name">derivedByInsertionFrom(id; d2, d1,  {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)})</span> states that  <span class="name">d2</span> is the dictionary
+following the insertion of pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> into dictionary  <span class="name">d1</span>.</p>
+
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(d0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
+entity(e1)
+entity(e2)
+entity(e3)
+entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
+entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
+
+derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)})       
+derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k3", e3)})    
+</pre>
+From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
+<ul>
+<li>   <span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
+<li>   <span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2) }</span>
+<li>   <span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", e3) }</span>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>Insertion provides an "update semantics" for the keys that are already present in a dictionary,
+since a new pair replaces an existing pair with the same key in the new dictionary. This is illustrated by the following example.</p>
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(d0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
+entity(e1)
+entity(e2)
+entity(e3)
+entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
+entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])
+
+derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)})       
+derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k1", e3)})    
+</pre>
+   This is a case of <em>update</em> of <span class="name">e1</span> to <span class="name">e3</span> for the same key, <span class="name">"k1"</span>. <br/>
+  From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
+<ul>
+<li>   <span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
+<li>   <span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2) }</span>
+<li>   <span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e3), ("k2", e2) }</span>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+</section>  <!-- insertion -->
+
+
+<section id="term-dictionary-removal">
+<h3>Dictionary Removal</h3>
+
+<span class="glossary-ref" data-ref="glossary-removal"></span>
+
+
+<p>
+<div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivedByRemovalFrom">
+<p> A <dfn title="derivedByRemovalFrom">Removal</dfn> relation, written <span class="pnExpression">derivedByRemovalFrom(id; d2, d1, {key_1, ... key_n}, attrs)</span>, has:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.id">id</span>:  an OPTIONAL identifier identifying the relation;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.after">after</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d2</span>) for the dictionary  <em>after</em> the deletion; </li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.before">before</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d1</span>)  for the dictionary <em>before</em> the deletion;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.key-set">key-set</span>: a set of deleted keys  <span class="name">key_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">key_n</span>, for which each <span class="name">key_i</span> is a <a>value</a>;</li>
+<li><span class='attribute' id="removal.attributes">attributes</span>: an OPTIONAL set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<p>A Removal relation <span class="name">derivedByRemovalFrom(id; d2,d1, {key_1, ..., key_n})</span> states that  <span class="name">d2</span> is  the  dictionary following the removal of the set of pairs corresponding to keys  <span class="name">key_1...key_n</span> from  <span class="name">d1</span>.
+
+<div class="anexample">
+<pre class="codeexample">
+entity(d0, [prov:type="prov:EmptyDictionary"])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
+entity(e1)
+entity(e2)
+entity(e3)
+entity(d1, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"])
+entity(d2, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"])
+
+derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2",e2)})       
+derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k3", e3)})
+derivedByRemovalFrom(d3, d2, {"k1", "k3"})   
+</pre>
+From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
+<ul>
+<li><span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
+<li><span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)  }</span>
+<li><span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", e3) }</span>
+<li><span class="name">d3</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k2", e2) }</span>
+</ul>
+
+  
+</div>
+
+</section>  <!-- removal -->
+
+
+<p>Further considerations: </p>
+
+<ul>
+
+<!--
+<li>The state of a dictionary (i.e., the set of key-entity pairs it contains) at a given point in a sequence of operations is never stated explicitly. Rather, it can be obtained by querying the chain of derivations involving insertions and removals. Entity type <span class="name">emptyDictionary</span> can be used in this context as it marks the start of a sequence of dictionary operations.</li>
+-->
+
+<li>The representation of a dictionary through these relations makes no assumption regarding the underlying data structure used to store and manage dictionaries. In particular, no assumptions are needed regarding the mutability of a data structure that is subject to updates. Entities, however, are immutable and this applies  to those entities that represent dictionaries. This is reflected in the constraints listed in [[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]].  </li>
+</ul>
+
+  
+</section>   <!-- end dictionaries-->
+
+
+
+<div id="glossary_div" class="remove">
+<!-- glossary loaded from glossary.js will be hooked up here,
+     class remove, will remove this element from the final output.
+-->
+</div>
+
+<section class="appendix"> 
+      <h2>Acknowledgements</h2> 
+      <p> 
+        WG membership to be listed here.
+      </p> 
+    </section> 
+
+ </body>
+</html>