release
authorLuc Moreau <l.moreau@ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Thu, 28 Jun 2012 22:19:50 +0100
changeset 3484 017fbd3b9d8b
parent 3483 f05bb8d49967
child 3485 58a5966b953d
release
model/diff.html
model/diff/Makefile
model/releases/ED-prov-dm-20120628/prov-dm.html
--- a/model/diff.html	Thu Jun 28 22:15:57 2012 +0100
+++ b/model/diff.html	Thu Jun 28 22:19:50 2012 +0100
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-</span></style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
-  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</h1><h2 id="subtitle"><span class="insert">For internal release (WD6) (</span><a href="diff.html"><span class="insert">Diffs since last release</span></a><span class="insert">)</span></h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-14-june-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <span class="delete">Working</span><span class="insert">Editor's</span> Draft <span class="delete">03 May</span><span class="insert">14 June</span> 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</span><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html"><span class="insert">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</span></a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120202/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</span></a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
-<dt><span class="delete">Contributors:</span><span class="insert">Authors:</span></dt><dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester</dd>
-<dd><span>Reza B'Far</span>, Oracle Corporation</dd>
-<dd><span>Stephen Cresswell</span>, legislation.gov.uk</dd>
-<dd><span><span class="insert">Tom De Nies</span></span><span class="insert">, University of Gent</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/">Paul Groth</a>, VU University of Amsterdam</dd>
-<dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/TimLebo"><span class="insert">Tim Lebo</span></a><span class="insert">, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</span></dd>
-<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker">Jim McCusker</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/">Simon Miles</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/">James Myers</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
-<dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo">Satya Sahoo</a>, Case Western Reserve University</dd>
-<dd><span>Curt Tilmes</span>, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</dd>
-</dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2011-2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div> 
-
-    <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
-<p>
-<span class="delete">PROV-DM, the PROV</span><span class="insert">Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people,
-involved in producing a piece of</span> data <span class="delete">model,</span><span class="insert">or thing, which can be used
- to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
-PROV-DM</span> is <span class="insert">the conceptual data model that forms </span>a <span class="delete">data model</span><span class="insert">basis</span> for <span class="insert">the </span><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><span class="insert">W3C</span></acronym>
-provenance <span class="delete">that describes
-the entities, people and activities involved in
-producing a piece of data or thing.</span><span class="insert">(PROV) family of specifications.
-PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
-extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance.</span> 
-PROV-DM is <span class="delete">structured</span><span class="insert">organized</span> in six components,<span class="insert"> respectively</span> dealing with: 
-(1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-(2) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-(3) derivations of entities from entities;
-(4) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
-(5) <span class="insert">a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
-(6) </span>collections forming a logical structure for its <span class="delete">members;
-(6) a simple annotation mechanism.</span><span class="insert">members.</span>
-</p>
-
-<p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
-PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
-relations. PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
-extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
-
-<p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
-First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
-provenance<span class="delete"> descriptions</span> should follow.  Second, 
-a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
-instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
-this document. </p>
-
-    </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
-<h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc"><span class="insert">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</span></h4>
-<p><span class="insert">This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
-Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
-the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review, before the implementation phase.</span></p>
-<h4 id="please-comment-by--date-tbd"><span class="insert">Please Comment By (date TBD)</span></h4>
-<p><span class="insert">The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
-The end date of the Last Call review period is TBD, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
-</span></p>
-
-<h4 id="prov-family-of-specifications">PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
-This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
-interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
-<ul>
-<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
-<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption;</li>
-<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an OWL-RL ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
-<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
-<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
-<li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
-</ul>
-<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-specifications">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
-<ul>
-<li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
-<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
-<li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
-<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
-<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
-should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
-</ul>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Fourth Public Working Draft</span>
-<p>This <span class="delete">is the fourth public release of the PROV-DM document. Following feedback, the Working Group has decided to reorganize this document substantially, separating the data model from its contraints and the notation used to illustrate it. The PROV-DM release is synchronized with the release of the PROV-O, PROV-PRIMER, PROV-N, and PROV-CONSTRAINTS documents. We are now clarifying the entry path to the PROV family of specifications.</span>
-<span class="delete">This </span>document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as <span class="delete">a Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft. <span class="delete">This document is intended</span><span class="insert">If you wish</span> to <span class="delete">become a </span><span class="delete">W3C</span><span class="delete"> Recommendation. If you wish</span><span class="insert">make comments regarding this document, please send them</span> to <span class="delete">make comments regarding this document, please send them to </span><span class="delete">[email protected]</span><a href="mailto:[email protected]"><span class="insert">[email protected]</span></a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as <span class="delete">a Working</span><span class="insert">an Editor's</span> Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV <span class="delete">Starting Points</span><span class="insert">Overview</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Core Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.1</span><span class="insert">2.1.1</span> </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.2 </span><span class="delete">Generation, Usage, </span><span class="insert">2.1.2 </span></span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.3 </span><span class="delete">Agents, Attribution, Association,</span><span class="insert">2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Agents</span> and Responsibility<span class="delete">2.4 </span><span class="delete">Further Entities: Collections and Accounts</span><span class="delete">2.5 </span><span class="delete">Simplified Overview Diagram</span><span class="delete">2.6 </span><span class="delete">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Extended Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Subtyping</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Expanded Relations</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Optional Identification</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Further Relations</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Provenance of Provenance</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Collections</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Modular Organization</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3. </span></span><span class="insert">The Provenance Notation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.</span><span class="insert">4.</span> </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1</span><span class="insert">4.1</span> </span>The Authors View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2</span><span class="insert">4.2</span> </span>The Process View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3</span><span class="insert">4.3</span> </span>Attribution of Provenance</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.</span><span class="insert">5.</span> </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1</span><span class="insert">5.1</span> </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.1</span><span class="insert">5.1.1</span> </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.2</span><span class="insert">5.1.2</span> </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.3</span><span class="insert">5.1.3</span> </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.4</span><span class="insert">5.1.4</span> </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.5</span><span class="insert">5.1.6</span> </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.6</span><span class="insert">5.1.7</span> </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.7</span><span class="insert">5.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation<span class="delete">4.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span><span class="delete">4.1.9 </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2</span><span class="insert">5.2</span> </span>Component 2: <span class="delete">Agents and Responsibility</span><span class="insert">Derivations</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.1 </span><span class="delete">Agent</span><span class="insert">5.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.2 </span><span class="delete">Attribution</span><span class="insert">5.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Revision</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.3 </span><span class="delete">Association</span><span class="insert">5.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="insert">5.2.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3</span><span class="insert">5.3</span> </span>Component 3: <span class="delete">Derivations</span><span class="insert">Agents and Responsibility</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="insert">5.3.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span><span class="insert">5.3.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Attribution</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span><span class="insert">5.3.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Association</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span><span class="insert">5.3.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-trace" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3.5</span><span class="insert">5.3.5</span> </span>Trace</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.4</span><span class="insert">5.4</span> </span>Component 4: <span class="delete">Alternate Entities</span><span class="insert">Bundles</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.4.1 </span><span class="delete">Specialization</span><span class="insert">5.4.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle constructor</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.4.2 </span><span class="delete">Alternate</span><span class="insert">5.4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle Type</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5</span><span class="insert">5.5</span> </span>Component 5: <span class="delete">Collections</span><span class="insert">Alternate Entities</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.1 </span><span class="delete">Collection</span><span class="insert">5.5.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Specialization</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.2 </span><span class="delete">Dictionary</span><span class="insert">5.5.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Alternate</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-contextualization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.3 </span><span class="delete">Insertion</span><span class="delete">4.5.4 </span><span class="delete">Removal</span><span class="delete">4.5.5 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span><span class="insert">5.5.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Contextualization</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.6</span><span class="insert">5.6</span> </span>Component 6: <span class="delete">Annotations</span><span class="insert">Collections</span></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Note</span><span class="insert">5.6.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.6.2 </span><span class="delete">Annotation</span><span class="insert">5.6.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection Memberhsip</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-dictionary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-dictionary-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary Membership</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-dictionary-insertion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary Insertion</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-dictionary-removal" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.6 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary Removal</span></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7</span><span class="insert">5.7</span> </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</a><ul class="toc"><span class="delete">4.7.1 </span><span class="delete">Namespace Declaration</span><span class="delete">4.7.2 </span><span class="delete">Qualified Name</span><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.3</span><span class="insert">5.7.1</span> </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.1</span> </span>prov:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.2</span> </span>prov:location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.3</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.3</span> </span>prov:role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.4</span> </span>prov:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.5</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.5</span> </span>prov:value</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.5</span><span class="insert">5.7.3</span> </span>Value</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespace Declaration</span></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Qualified Name</span></a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">5.</span><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><span class="delete">6.</span><span class="insert">7.</span> </span>Creating Valid Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-    <div id="introduction" class="section"> 
-      <h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
-</h2> 
-
-<p> 
-For the purpose of this specification, <dfn id="dfn-provenance" class="internalDFN">provenance</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-provenance"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is defined as a record that describes the people,
-institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing,
-influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing.
-In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding
-whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with
-other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its
-originators when reusing it.  In an open and inclusive environment
-such as the Web, where users find information that is often contradictory or
-questionable, provenance can help those users to make trust judgements.
-</p>
-
-
-<p>
-We<span class="delete">
-consider </span><span class="insert"> present the PROV data model,
-</span>a <span class="delete">core</span><span class="insert">generic</span> data model for provenance that allows  domain and application specific representations of provenance to be translated into such a data model and  <em>interchanged</em> between systems.
-Thus, heterogeneous systems can export their native provenance into such a core data model, and applications that need to make sense of provenance <span class="delete">in heterogeneous systems </span>can then import it,
-process it, and reason over it.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">A set of specifications, referred to as the</span><span class="insert">
-The</span> PROV <span class="delete">family of specifications, define the</span><span class="insert">data model distinguishes </span><em><span class="insert">core structures</span></em><span class="insert"> from
-</span><em><span class="insert">extended structures</span></em><span class="insert">: core structures form the essence of
-provenance information, and are commonly found in</span> various<span class="delete"> aspects
-</span><span class="insert">
-domain-specific vocabularies </span>that <span class="delete">are necessary to achieve this vision in an interoperable
-way:</span>
-
-<span class="delete">A data model for provenance, which is presented in three documents:
-</span>
-<span class="delete"> PROV-DM (part I): the</span><span class="insert">deal
-with</span> provenance <span class="delete">data model, informally described (this document);
-</span><span class="delete"> PROV-CONSTRAINTS (part II): constraints underpinning the data model</span><span class="insert">or similar kinds of information</span> [<cite><span class="delete">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Mappings"><span class="insert">Mappings</span></a></cite><span class="delete">];
-</span><span class="delete"> PROV-N (part III): a notation</span><span class="insert">].
-Extended structures enhance and refine core
-structures with more expressive capabilities</span> to <span class="delete">express instances of that data model</span><span class="insert">cater</span> for <span class="delete">human consumption [</span><span class="delete">PROV-N</span><span class="delete">];
-</span> 
-
-<span class="delete">PROV-O: the PROV ontology, an OWL-RL ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF [</span><span class="delete">PROV-O</span><span class="delete">];</span>
-<span class="delete">PROV-AQ: the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [</span><span class="delete">PROV-AQ</span><span class="delete">];</span>
-<span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER: a primer for the PROV approach [</span><span class="delete">PROV-PRIMER</span><span class="delete">];</span>
-<span class="delete">PROV-SEM: semantics of the PROV-DM data model [</span><span class="delete">PROV-SEM</span><span class="delete">];</span>
-<span class="delete">PROV-XML: an XML schema for the PROV data model.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="insert">more
-advanced uses of provenance.</span>
-The  PROV data <span class="insert">model, comprising both core and extended structures, is a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and
-application-specific extensions to be defined.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-The PROV data </span>model <span class="insert">has a modular design and </span>is <span class="delete">a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and
-application-specific extensions</span><span class="insert">structured according</span> to <span class="delete">be defined.
-The PROV data model is structured according to </span>six components covering various <span class="delete">aspects</span><span class="insert">facets</span> of provenance:</p>
-<ul>
-<li> component 1: entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
-</li><li> component 2: agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
-</li><li> component 3: derivations of entities from others;
-</li><li> component 4: properties to link entities that refer to a same thing;
-</li><li> component 5: <span class="delete">collections forming</span><span class="insert">bundles,</span> a <span class="delete">logical structure for its members;</span><span class="insert">mechanism to support provenance of provenance;</span>
-</li><li> component 6: <span class="insert">collections forming </span>a <span class="delete">simple annotation mechanism.</span><span class="insert">logical structure for its members.</span>
-</li></ul>
-
-
-<p>This specification presents the <span class="delete">key </span>concepts of the PROV Data Model, and
-provenance types and relations, without specific concern for how they are applied.
-With these, it becomes possible to write useful <span class="delete">provenance descriptions,</span><span class="insert">provenance,</span> and publish or embed <span class="delete">them along side</span><span class="insert">it alongside</span> the data <span class="delete">they relate</span><span class="insert">it relates</span> to. </p>
-
-<p>However, if something about which provenance is expressed is subject to change, then it is challenging to express its provenance precisely (e.g. the data from which a daily weather report is derived  changes from day to day).<span class="insert">
-This is addressed in a companion</span>
- <span class="delete">To address this challenge, a </span><span class="delete">refinement</span><span class="delete"> is proposed to enrich simple provenance, with extra descriptions that  help qualify the specific subject of provenance and provenance itself, with attributes and temporal information, intended to satisfy a comprehensive set of constraints.  These aspects are covered in the companion </span>specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="delete">].</span><span class="insert">] by proposing formal constraints on
- the way that provenance is related to the things it
- describes (such as the use of attributes, temporal information and
- specialization of entities), and additional conclusions that are valid
- to infer.</span>
-</p>
-
-
-<div id="structure-of-this-document" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Structure of this Document</h3>
-
-<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> provides<span class="insert"> an overview of the PROV Data Model,</span>  <span class="delete">starting points for the PROV Data Model, listing</span><span class="insert">distinguishing</span> a<span class="insert"> core</span> set of types and  relations, <span class="delete">which allows users to make initial provenance descriptions.</span><span class="insert">commonly found in provenance, from extended structures catering for more specific uses. It also introduces a modular organization of the data model in components. </span></p>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-notation"><span class="insert">Section 3</span></a><span class="insert"> overviews the Provenance Notation used to illustrate examples of provenance.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-example">Section <span class="delete">3</span><span class="insert">4</span></a> illustrates how the PROV data model can be used
-to express the provenance of a report published on the Web.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><a href="#data-model-components">Section <span class="delete">4</span><span class="insert">5</span></a> provides the definitions of PROV concepts, structured according to six components.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><a href="#extensibility-section">Section <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">6</span></a> summarizes PROV-DM extensibility points.</p>
-
-<p><a href="#valid-provenance">Section <span class="delete">6</span><span class="insert">7</span></a> introduces the idea that constraints can be applied to the PROV data model to <span class="delete">refine provenance descriptions;</span><span class="insert">validate provenance;</span> these are covered in the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</p>
-
-
-</div> 
-
-<div id="conventions" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</h3>
-
-
-
-<p>The key words "<em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall
-      not">shall
-      not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>",  "<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>", and
-      "<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
-      [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
-
-
-<p>
-The following namespaces prefixes are used throughout this document.
-
-</p><div style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="namespace-table">Table 1: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace uri</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td><td>The PROV namespace (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.1</span><span class="insert">5.7.4</span></span></a>)</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite>]</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace  [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-<tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> In particular, URIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent URI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-URI">URI</a></cite>]</td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert"> 
-  Examples throughout this document use the PROV-N Provenance
-  Notation, briefly introduced in </span><a href="#prov-notation"><span class="insert">Section 3</span></a><span class="insert"> and specified fully in a separate document [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></p>
-
-
-</div> 
-
-</div> 
-
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-overview" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV <span class="delete">Starting Points</span><span class="insert">Overview</span></h2>
-
-<p>
-This section introduces provenance concepts with informal <span class="delete">descriptions</span><span class="insert">explanations</span> and illustrative
-examples.<span class="insert"> PROV distinguishes</span>  <span class="delete">Since PROV-DM</span><em><span class="insert">core structures</span></em><span class="insert">, forming the essence of  provenance, from </span><em><span class="insert">extended structures</span></em><span class="insert"> catering for more advanced uses of provenance.  Core and extended structures are respectively presented in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert"> and </span><a href="#section-extended-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.2</span></a><span class="insert">. Furthermore, the PROV data model</span> is <span class="insert">organized according to components, which form thematic groupings of concepts (see </span><a href="#section-overview-components"><span class="insert">Section 2.3</span></a><span class="insert">). A </span><em><span class="insert">provenance description</span></em><span class="insert"> is an instance of  </span>a <span class="delete">conceptual data
-model, Section 2.5 maps the concepts to various types</span><span class="insert">core</span> and <span class="delete">relations,
-which are illustrated graphically in
-a simplified UML diagram in </span><span class="delete">Figure 1</span><span class="delete">.  Section 2.6
-then summarizes the PROV notation allowing instances of PROV-DM to be
-written down.</span><span class="insert">extended provenance structure described below.</span>
-</p>
-
- 
- 
- 
- 
- 
-
-
-
-
-  
-    
-
-
-<div id="core-structures" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span><span class="delete">Entity</span><span class="insert">PROV Core Structures</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">At its core, provenance describes the use</span> and <span class="delete">Activity</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Things we want to describe  the provenance of are called </span><span class="insert">production of
-</span><em>entities</em> <span class="insert">by </span><em><span class="insert">activities</span></em><span class="insert">, which may be 
-influenced </span>in<span class="delete"> PROV. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
-physical things such as a building or a printed book, or a car as well as abstract concepts</span><span class="insert">
-various ways by </span><em><span class="insert">agents</span></em><span class="insert">.  These core types</span> and <span class="delete">ideas. </span><span class="insert">their relationships
-are illustrated
-by
-the UML diagram of </span><a href="#prov-core-structures-top"><span class="insert">Figure 1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center; ">
-  <figure style="max-width: 70%; " id="prov-core-structures-top">
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-   An </span><span class="delete">entity</span><span class="delete"> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing; entities may be real or imaginary. </span><img src="uml/essentials.png" alt="PROV Core Structures" style="max-width: 70%; ">
-<div class="figcaption" id="prov-core-structures"><span class="insert">Figure 1: PROV Core Structures</span></div>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">An entity may be the document at URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</span><span class="delete">, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</span>
-  </figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">   An </span><span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, generating, or being associated with entities.  </span><span class="delete"> Activities that operate on digital entities may for example move, copy, or duplicate them.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">An activity may be the publishing of a document on the Web, sending a twitter message, extracting metadata embedded in a file, driving a car from Boston to Cambridge, assembling a data set based on a set of measurements, performing a statistical analysis over a data set, sorting news items according to some criteria, running a SPARQL query over a triple store, or editing a file.</span>
-
-
-
-
-     
-<span class="delete">2.2 </span><span class="delete">Generation, Usage, Derivation</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Activities and entities are associated with each other in two different ways: activities utilize entities and activities  produce entities. The act of utilizing or producing an entity may have a duration.  
- The term 'generation' refers to the completion of the act of producing; likewise, the term 'usage' refers to the beginning of the act of utilizing entities. Thus, we define the following notions of generation and usage. </span>
-
-
-
-   <span class="delete">Generation</span><span class="delete"> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </span>
-
-
-
-
-   <span class="delete">Usage</span><span class="delete"> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Examples of generation are the completed creation of a file by a
-program, the completed creation of a linked data set, and the completed
-publication of a new version of a document.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Usage examples include a procedure beginning to consume an argument, a service starting to read a value on a port, a program beginning to read a configuration
-file, or the point at which an ingredient, such as eggs, is being added in a baking activity. Usage may entirely consume an entity (e.g. eggs are no longer available after being added to
-the mix); in contrast, the same entity may be used multiple times, possibly by different activities (e.g. a file on a file system can be read indefinitely).
-</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Activities utilize entities and producer entities. In some cases, utilizing an entity influences the creation of another in some way. This notion is captured by derivations, defined as follows.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">   A </span><span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="delete">  is a transformation of an entity into another, a construction of an entity into another, or an update of an entity, resulting in a new one.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
-linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</span>
-
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">2.3 </span><span class="delete">Agents, Attribution, Association, and Responsibility</span>
-
-<p>The <span class="delete">motivation for introducing  agents</span><span class="insert">concepts found</span> in the <span class="delete">model is to express the agent's responsibility for activities that happened and entities that were generated. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-   An </span><span class="delete">agent</span><span class="delete"> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place or for the existence of an entity. </span><span class="delete"> An agent </span><span class="delete">may</span><span class="delete"> be a particular type of entity. This means that the model can be
- used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-Software for checking the use of grammar</span><span class="insert">core of PROV are introduced</span> in <span class="delete">a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity, and at the same time one can describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
-A site selling books on the Web, the services involved</span><span class="insert">the rest of this section.
-They are summarized</span> in<span class="delete"> the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
-</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Agents may adopt sets of actions or steps to achieve their goals. This is captured by the notion of plan. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-   A </span><span class="delete">plan</span><span class="delete"> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </span><span class="delete">
-There exist no
-prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the
-actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals.  Since plans may evolve over time,
-it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are
-entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to  
-validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to  
-manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</span> 
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-A plan can be a blog post tutorial for how to set up a web server, a list of instructions for a micro-processor execution, a cook's written recipe for a chocolate cake, or a workflow for a scientific experiment.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Agents can be related to entities, activities, and other agents.</span>  
-
-   <span class="delete">Attribution</span><span class="delete"> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. In some  
-cases, those activities reflect the execution of a plan that was  
-designed in advance to guide the execution.  Thus,
-a plan may also be linked to an activity.  </span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">   An activity </span><span class="delete">association</span><span class="delete"> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity. </span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</span>
-<span class="delete">various forms of participation in a panel discussion, including audience member, panelist, or panel chair;</span>
-<span class="delete">a public event, sponsored by a company, and hosted by a museum;</span>
-<span class="delete">an XSLT transform launched by a user based on an XSL style sheet (a plan).</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-    <span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="delete"> is the fact that an agent is accountable for the actions of a "subordinate" agent, in the context of an activity.  </span><span class="delete"> The nature of this relation is intended to be broad,  including delegation or contractual relation. </span>
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">A student publishing a web page describing an academic
-department could result in both the student and the department being
-agents associated with the activity, and it may not matter which
-student published a web page but it matters a lot that the department
-told the student to put up the web page.  
-</span>
-
-
-
- 
-<span class="delete">2.4 </span><span class="delete">Further Entities: Collections and Accounts</span>
-
-<span class="delete">There are two further types of entities, collections and accounts, which are now introduced. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">   A </span><span class="delete">collection</span><span class="delete"> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be </span><span class="delete">member of</span><span class="delete"> the collections.  </span><span class="delete"> This concept allows for the provenance of the collection itself to be expressed in addition to that of the members.  Many different types of collections exist, such as a </span><span class="delete">set</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">dictionaries</span><span class="delete">, or </span><span class="delete">lists</span><span class="delete">, all of which involve a membership relationship between the constituents and the collection. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-   An </span><span class="delete">account</span><span class="delete"> is an entity that contains a bundle of provenance descriptions.  </span><span class="delete">Making an account an entity allows for provenance of provenance to be expressed.
-
-</span>
-<span class="delete">
-For users to decide whether they can place their trust in
-a resource, they may want to analyze the resource's provenance, but also determine
-who its provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated. In other words, users need to be able to determine the provenance of provenance.
-Hence, provenance is also
-regarded as an entity (of type Account), by which provenance of provenance can then be
-expressed.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-     
-<span class="delete">2.5 </span><span class="delete">Simplified Overview Diagram</span>
-
-<span class="delete">So far, we have introduced a series of concepts underpinning provenance.   PROV-DM  is a conceptual data model consisting of types and relations between these.</span>  <a href="#overview-types-and-relations">Table 2</a><span class="delete"> shows how provenance concepts can be mapped to types and relations in PROV-DM: the</span><span class="insert">, where they are categorized as
- type or relation.
- The</span> first column lists <span class="delete">concepts introduced in this section,</span><span class="insert">concepts,</span> the second column indicates whether a concept maps to a type or a relation, whereas the third column contains the corresponding name.    Names of relations have a verbal form in the past tense to express what happened in the past, as opposed to what may or will happen.<span class="insert"> In the core of PROV, all relations are binary.</span> 
-</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="overview-types-and-relations">Table 2: Mapping of <span class="delete">Provenance</span><span class="insert">PROV core</span> concepts to  types and relations</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b>PROV Concepts</b></a></td><td><b>PROV-DM types or relations</b></td><td><b>Name</b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Overview</span></b></td></tr>
-<tr>
-<td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">Entity</a></td><td rowspan="3" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Types</td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" href="#dfn-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">entity</span><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" href="#dfn-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">activity</span><span class="insert">Activity</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" href="#dfn-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">agent</span><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr>
-<td><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a></td><td rowspan="7" style="text-align: center;">PROV-DM Relations</td><td><a title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN">wasGeneratedBy</a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a></td><td><a title="used" href="#dfn-used" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">used</span><span class="insert">Used</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy" href="#dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasInformedBy</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-entity-activity"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.1</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td><td><a title="wasDerivedFrom" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">WasDerivedFrom</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-derivation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.2</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo" href="#dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo</span><span class="insert">WasAttributedTo</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN">Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith</span><span class="insert">WasAssociatedWith</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf</span><span class="insert">ActedOnBehalfOf</span></a></td><td style="text-align: center;"><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">Derivation</span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom</span>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<form action="#"><p> 
-<input id="hide-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample','none'); set_display_by_id('hide-examples','none'); set_display_by_id('show-examples','');" type="button" value="Hide Concept Examples"> 
-<input id="show-examples" onclick="set_display_by_class('div','anexample conceptexample',''); set_display_by_id('hide-examples',''); set_display_by_id('show-examples','none');" style="display: none" type="button" value="Show Concept Examples"> 
-</p> 
-</form> 
-
-
-
-
-  
-    <div id="section-entity-activity" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Entity and Activity</span></h4>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">In PROV, things we want to describe the provenance of are called </span><em><span class="insert">entities</span></em><span class="insert"> and have some fixed aspect. The term "things" encompasses a broad diversity of notions, including digital objects such as a file or web page, 
-physical things such as a mountain, a building, a printed book, or a car as well as abstract concepts and ideas. 
-</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   An </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">entity</span></span><span class="insert"> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </span></span><span class="insert"> [</span><a href="#term-entity"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="entity-example" data-count="1"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 1</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">An entity may be the document at URI </span><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723"><span class="insert">http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723</span></a><span class="insert">, a file in a file system, a car, or an idea.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  </span></span><span class="insert"> [</span><a href="#term-Activity"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]
-Just as entities cover a broad range of notions, 
-activities can cover a broad range of
-notions:
-information processing activities
- may for example move, copy, or duplicate  digital entities;
- physical activities can include
- driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="activity-example" data-count="2"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 2</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#activity-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">An activity may be the publishing of a document on the Web, sending a twitter message, extracting metadata embedded in a file, driving a car from Boston to Cambridge, assembling a data set based on a set of measurements, performing a statistical analysis over a data set, sorting news items according to some criteria, running a SPARQL query over a triple store, or editing a file.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="delete">Figure 1</span><span class="delete"> illustrates the three types (entity, activity,</span><span class="insert">Activities</span> and <span class="delete">agent)</span><span class="insert">entities are associated with each other in two different ways: activities utilize entities</span> and <span class="delete">how they relate</span><span class="insert">activities  produce entities. The act of utilizing or producing an entity may have a duration.  
- The term 'generation' refers</span> to <span class="delete">each other.</span><span class="insert">the completion of the act of producing; likewise, the term 'usage' refers to the beginning of the act of utilizing entities. Thus, we define the following concepts of generation and usage. </span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Generation</span></span><span class="insert"> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </span></span><span class="insert"> [</span><a href="#term-Generation"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Usage</span></span><span class="insert"> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </span></span>  <span class="delete">At this stage, all relations</span><span class="insert">[</span><a href="#term-Usage"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="generation-example" data-count="3"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 3</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#generation-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Examples of generation</span> are <span class="delete">shown to be binary.  Definitions of </span><span class="delete">Section 4</span><span class="delete"> reveal that some relations, while  involving two primary elements, are n-ary. </span><span class="insert">the completed creation of a file by a
-program, the completed creation of a linked data set, and the completed
-publication of a new version of a document.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-  
-  
-<span class="delete">Figure 1: Simplified  Overview of PROV-DM</span>
-  
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="delete">Figure 1</span><span class="insert">
-One might reasonably ask what entities are used and generated by
-driving a car from Boston to Cambridge.  This</span> is <span class="insert">answered by
-considering that a single artifact may
-correspond to several entities; in this case, a car in Boston may be a
-different entity from a car in Cambridge.  
-Thus, among other things,
-an entity "car in Boston" would be used, and a new entity "car in
-Cambridge" would be generated by this activity of driving.  The
-provenance trace of the car might include: designed in Japan,
-manufactured in Korea, shipped to Boston USA, purchased by customer,
-driven to Cambridge, serviced by engineer in Cambridge, etc., all of
-which might be important information when deciding whether or </span>not <span class="insert">it
-represents a sensible second-hand purchase.  Or some of it might
-alternatively be relevant when trying to determine the truth of a web
-page reporting a traffic violation involving that car.  This breadth
-of provenance allows descriptions of interactions between physical and
-digital artifacts.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="usage-example" data-count="4"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 4</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#usage-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Usage examples include a procedure beginning to consume an argument, a service starting to read a value on a port, a program beginning to read a configuration
-file, or the point at which an ingredient, such as eggs, is being added in a baking activity. Usage may entirely consume an entity (e.g. eggs are no longer available after being added to
-the mix); in contrast, the same entity may be used multiple times, possibly by different activities (e.g. a file on a file system can be read indefinitely).
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The generation of an entity by an activity and its subsequent usage by another activity is termed communication.</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Communication</span></span><span class="insert"> is the exchange of an unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </span></span><span class="insert">   [</span><a href="#term-Communication"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="communication-example" data-count="5"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 5</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#communication-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The activity of writing a celebrity article was informed by (a
-communication instance) the activity of intercepting voicemails.
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-    <div id="section-derivation" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></h4>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Activities utilize entities and produce entities. In some cases, utilizing an entity influences the creation of another in some way. This notion of 'influence' is captured by derivations, defined as follows.
-</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">derivation</span></span><span class="insert">  is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-exisiting entity.</span></span><span class="insert">
-   [</span><a href="#term-Derivation"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="derivation-example" data-count="6"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 6</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#derivation-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Examples of derivation include  the transformation of a relational table into a
-linked data set, the transformation of a canvas into a painting, the transportation of a work of art from London to New York, and a physical transformation such as the melting of ice into water.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-While the basic idea is simple, the concept of derivation can be quite
-subtle: implicit is the notion that the generated entity was affected
-in some way by the used entity.  
-
-If an artifact
-was used by an activity that also generated a new artifact, it does not always follow
-that the second artifact was derived from the first.  In the activity
-of creating a painting, an artist may have mixed some paint that was
-never actually applied to the canvas: the painting would typically
-not be considered a derivation from the unused paint.  
-
-PROV does not attempt to specify the conditions under which derivations
-exist; rather, derivation is considered to have been determined by unspecified means. 
-Thus, while a chain of usage and generation is necessary for a
-derivation to hold between entities, it is not sufficient; some
-form of influence occurring during the activities involved is also needed. 
-</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Agents and Responsibility</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">For many purposes, a key consideration
- for deciding whether something is reliable and/or trustworthy is
- knowing who or what </span><em><span class="insert">was reponsible</span></em><span class="insert"> for its production.  Data published by
- a respected independent organization may be considered more
- trustworthy that that from a lobby organization; a claim by a
- well-known scientist with an established track record may be more
- believed than a claim by a new student; a calculation performed by an
- established software library may be more reliable than by a one-off
- program.</span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   An </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">agent</span></span><span class="insert"> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place or for the existence of an entity. </span></span><span class="insert">   [</span><a href="#term-agent"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]
- An agent </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> be a particular type of entity or activity. This means that the model can be
- used to express provenance of the agents themselves.  
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="agent-example" data-count="7"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 7</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#agent-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Software for checking the use of grammar in a document may be defined as an agent of a document preparation activity;  one can also describe its provenance, including for instance the vendor and the version history. 
-A site selling books on the Web, the services involved in the processing of orders, and the companies hosting them are also agents.
-</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Agents can be related to entities, activities, and other agents.</span></p>  
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref">   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Attribution</span></span><span class="insert"> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </span></span><span class="insert">
-[</span><a href="#term-attribution"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="attribution-example" data-count="8"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 8</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#attribution-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A blog post can be attributed to an author, a mobile phone to its manufacturer.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-Agents are defined as having some kind of responsibility for activities. </span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An activity </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">association</span></span><span class="insert"> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity.  </span></span><span class="insert">
-[</span><a href="#term-Association"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example" data-count="9"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 9</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Examples of association between an activity and an agent are:
-</span></p><ul>
-<li><span class="insert">creation of a web page under the guidance of a designer;</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert">various forms of participation in a panel discussion, including audience member, panelist, or panel chair;</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert">a public event, sponsored by a company, and hosted by a museum;</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">
-   <span class="dfn"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></span><span class="insert"> is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work. </span></span><span class="insert">
-[</span><a href="#term-delegation"><span class="insert">Detailed specification</span></a><span class="insert">]
- The nature of this relation is </span>intended to be <span class="delete">complete:</span><span class="insert">broad,  including contractual relation, but also altruistic initiative by the representative agent. </span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="delegation-example" data-count="10"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 10</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#delegation-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A student publishing a web page describing an academic
-department could result in both the student and the department being
-agents associated with the activity.  It may not matter which actual
-student published a web page, but</span> it <span class="delete">only illustrates  types and relations introduced</span><span class="insert">may matter significantly that the department
-told the student to put up the web page.  
-</span></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-extended-structures" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">PROV Extended Structures</span></h3>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While the core of PROV focuses on essential provenance structures commonly found</span> in <span class="delete">this section (</span><span class="delete">Section 2</span><span class="delete">), exploited in the example discussed in </span><span class="delete">Section 3</span><span class="delete">, and explained in detail in </span><span class="delete">Section 4</span><span class="delete">.
-Names of relations depicted in </span><span class="delete">Figure 1</span><span class="insert">provenance descriptions, extended structures</span> 
-are <span class="delete">listed</span><span class="insert">designed to support more advanced uses of provenance. 
-The purpose of this section is twofold. First, mechanisms to specify these extended structures are introduced.  Second,  two further kinds of provenance structures are overviewed: they cater for provenance of provenance and collections,  respectively.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Extended structures are defined by a variety of mechanisms 
-outlined</span> in<span class="delete">
-the third column of </span><span class="delete">Table 2</span><span class="insert"> this section: subtyping, expanded relations, optional
-identification, and new relations.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Subtyping</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Subtyping can be applied to core types. For example, a software agent is special kind of agent, defined as follows.</span></p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">software agent</span></span><span class="insert">  is running software. </span></span>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Subtyping can also be applied to  core relations. For example, a revision is a special kind of derivation, defined as follows.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">revision</span></span><span class="insert">   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </span></span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Expanded Relations</span></h5>
-
-<p><a class="section-ref" href="#core-structures"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></span></a><span class="insert"> shows that seven concepts are mapped to binary relations in the core of PROV.  However, some advanced uses of these concepts cannot be captured by a binary relation, but require relations to be expanded to n-ary relations.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">To illustrate expanded relations, we consider the concept of
-association, described
-in </span><a class="section-ref" href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span><span class="insert">Section 2.1.3</span></span></a>.<span class="delete"> These names</span><span class="insert">  Agents may adopt </span><em><span class="insert">plans</span></em><span class="insert">, i.e.  sets of actions or steps, to achieve their
-goals in the context of an activity.
-Hence, an expanded form of
-association relation allows for a plan to be specified. Plan is defined by subtyping and 
-full association by an expanded relation, as follows. </span></p>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
-   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">plan</span></span><span class="insert"> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </span></span>
-</p> 
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An activity </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">association</span></span><span class="insert"> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">There exist no
-prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the
-actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals.  Since plans may evolve over time,
-it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves</span> are<span class="insert">
-entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to  
-validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to  
-manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="association-example2" data-count="11"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 11</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#association-example2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">An example of association between an activity and an agent involving a plan is:
-an XSLT transform (an activity) launched by a user (an agent) based on an XSL style sheet (a plan).
-
-</span></p></div>
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Optional Identification</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Some concepts exhibit both a core use, expressed as
-binary relation, and an extended use, expressed as n-ary relation.  In
-some cases, mapping the concept to a relation, whether binary or
-n-ary, is not sufficient: instead, it may be required to
-identify an instance of such concept.  In those cases, PROV-DM allows for 
-an optional identifier to be
-expressed to identify an instance of an association between two or
-more elements.  This optional identifier can then be used to refer to
-an instance as</span> part of <span class="insert">other concepts.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="identifier-example" data-count="12"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 12</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#identifier-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A service may read </span>a <span class="delete">textual notation</span><span class="insert">same configuration file on two different occasions. Each  usage can be identifed by its own identifier, allowing them</span> to <span class="delete">write instances of the PROV data model, which we introduce in the next section. </span><span class="insert">be distinguished. 
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="section"> 
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.1.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Further Relations</span></h5>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Finally, PROV-DM supports further relations that are not subtypes or expanded versions of existing relations.</span></p>
-
-
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="section-provenance-of-provnance" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Provenance of Provenance</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
- A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span><span class="insert"> is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.  </span></span>
-
-</p><div class="anexample conceptexample" id="bundle-example" data-count="13"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 13</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#bundle-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-For users to decide whether they can place their trust in
-a resource, they may want to analyze the resource's provenance, but also determine
-who its provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated. In other words, users need to be able to determine the provenance of provenance.
-Hence, provenance is also
-regarded as an entity (of type Bundle), by which provenance of provenance can then be
-expressed.
-</span></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-collections" class="section"> 
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">2.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Collections</span></h4>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">collection</span></span><span class="insert"> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be </span><span class="dfn"><span class="insert">member of</span></span><span class="insert"> the collections.  </span></span><span class="insert"> Many different types of collections exist, such as a </span><em><span class="insert">sets</span></em><span class="insert">, </span><em><span class="insert">dictionaries</span></em><span class="insert">, or </span><em><span class="insert">lists</span></em><span class="insert">. 
-Using Collections, one can express the provenance of the collection itself in addition to that of the members. The provenance of the collection is the history of all insertions into and deletions from the collection. This may be complemented by explicit membership statements which enumerate the contents of the collection. </span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample conceptexample" id="collection-example" data-count="14"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 14</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#collection-example"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-An example of collection is an archive of documents. Each document has its own provenance, but the archive itself also has some provenance: who maintained it, which documents it contained at which point in time, how it was assembled, etc. 
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-overview-components" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">2.6 </span><span class="delete">PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</span><span class="insert">2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Modular Organization</span></h3>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">To illustrate the application of PROV</span><span class="insert">Besides the separation between core and extended structures, PROV-DM
-is further organized according to components, grouping</span> concepts <span class="insert">in a
-thematic manner. </span></p>
-
-<p> <a href="#components-overview"><span class="insert">Table 3</span></a><span class="insert"> enumerates the six components, five of which have already been implicitly overviewed in this section. All components specify extended structures, whereas only the first three  define core structures.
-
-</span></p><div id="components-overview-div" style="text-align: center;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="components-overview"><span class="insert">Table 3: Components Overview</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td><span class="insert">Component</span></td><td><span class="insert">Core </span><br><span class="insert">Structures</span></td><td><span class="insert">Overview</span></td><td><span class="insert">Specification</span></td><td><span class="insert">Description</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="	padding: 8px;"><span class="insert">1</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Entities and Activities</span></td><td><span class="insert">✔</span></td><td><a href="#section-entity-activity"><span class="insert">2.1.1</span></a></td><td><a href="#component1"><span class="insert">5.1</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about entities and activities, and their interrelations</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">2</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></td><td><span class="insert">✔</span></td><td><a href="#section-derivation"><span class="insert">2.1.2</span></a></td><td><a href="#component3"><span class="insert">5.2</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about derivations and its subtypes</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">3</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Agent and Responsibility</span></td><td><span class="insert">✔</span></td><td><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation"><span class="insert">2.1.3</span></a></td><td><a href="#component2"><span class="insert">5.3</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about agents and concepts ascribing responsibility </span>to <span class="insert">them</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">4</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Alternate</span></td><td></td><td><span class="insert">—</span></td><td><a href="#component4"><span class="insert">5.4</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about relations linking entities referring the same thing</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">5</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Bundles</span></td><td></td><td><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance"><span class="insert">2.2.2</span></a></td><td><a href="#component5"><span class="insert">5.5</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about bundles, </span>a <span class="delete">concrete example (see </span><span class="delete">Section 3</span><span class="delete">)</span><span class="insert">mechanism to support provenance of provenance</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td><span class="insert">6</span></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">Collections</span></td><td></td><td><a href="#section-collections"><span class="insert">2.2.3</span></a></td><td><a href="#component6"><span class="insert">5.6</span></a></td><td style="text-align: left;"><span class="insert">about collections</span> and <span class="delete">to provide examples of </span>concepts <span class="delete">(see </span><span class="delete">Section 4</span><span class="delete">),
-we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details, the reader is referred to the companion specification [</span><span class="delete">PROV-N</span><span class="delete">].
-PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</span>
-
-<span class="delete">PROV-N expressions adopt a </span><span class="delete">functional notation</span><span class="delete"> consisting
-of a name</span><span class="insert">capturing their transformation, such as insertion</span> and <span class="delete">a list of arguments in parentheses.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">The interpretation of PROV-N arguments is defined according to their </span><span class="delete">position</span><span class="delete"> in the list of arguments. This convention allows for a compact notation. </span>
-
-<span class="delete">
-PROV-N </span><span class="delete">optional arguments</span><span class="delete"> need not be specified:
-the general rule for optional arguments is that, if none of them are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression. However, it may be the case that only some of the optional arguments need to be specified. Because the position of the arguments in the expression matters, in this case an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The syntactic marker  </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> is used for this purpose.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Most expressions</span><span class="insert">removal</span></td></tr> 
-<span class="delete">include an identifier 
-and a set of attribute-value pairs; both are optional unless otherwise specified. By convention, the identifier occurs in the </span><span class="delete">first position</span><span class="delete">, and the the set of attribute-value pairs in the </span><span class="delete">last position</span><span class="delete">.
-Consistent with the convention on arguments, the marker  </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> can be used when the identifier is not available, or can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising.
-</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-An activity with identifier </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> and an attribute </span><span class="delete">type</span><span class="delete"> with value </span><span class="delete">createFile</span><span class="delete">.
-</span><span class="delete">activity(a1, [prov:type="createFile"])
-</span><span class="delete">
-Two entities with identifiers </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete">.
-</span><span class="delete">entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-</span><span class="delete">
-The activity  </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> used  </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">, and </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> was generated by </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete">.
-</span><span class="delete">used(a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2,a1)
-</span><span class="delete">
-The same description, but with an explicit identifier </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete"> for the usage, and the syntactic marker </span><span class="delete">-</span><span class="delete"> to mark the absence of identifier in the generation.
-</span><span class="delete">used(u1,a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(-,e2,a1)
-</span></tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="prov-notation" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="insert">3. </span></span><span class="insert">The Provenance Notation</span></h2>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">To illustrate the application of PROV concepts to a concrete example (see </span><a href="#prov-dm-example"><span class="insert">Section 4</span></a><span class="insert">) and to provide examples of concepts (see </span><a href="#data-model-components"><span class="insert">Section 5</span></a><span class="insert">),
-we introduce PROV-N, a notation for writing instances of the PROV data model. For full details, the reader is referred to the companion specification [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].
-PROV-N is a notation  aimed at human consumption, with the following characteristics:</span></p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="insert">PROV-N expressions adopt a </span><em><span class="insert">functional notation</span></em><span class="insert"> consisting
-of a name and a list of arguments in parentheses.</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">The interpretation of PROV-N arguments is defined according to their </span><em><span class="insert">position</span></em><span class="insert"> in the list of arguments. This convention allows for a compact notation. </span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">
-PROV-N </span><em><span class="insert">optional arguments</span></em><span class="insert"> need not be specified:
-the general rule for optional arguments is that, if none of them are used in the expression, then they are simply omitted, resulting in a simpler expression. However, it may be the case that only some of the optional arguments need to be specified. Because the position of the arguments in the expression matters, in this case, an additional marker must be used to indicate that a particular term is not available. The syntactic marker  '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">' is used for this purpose.
-</span></li>
-
-<li><span class="insert">Most expressions 
-include an identifier 
-and a set of attribute-value pairs; both are optional unless otherwise specified. By convention, the identifier occurs in the </span><em><span class="insert">first position</span></em><span class="insert">, and the set of attribute-value pairs in the </span><em><span class="insert">last position</span></em><span class="insert">.
-Consistent with the convention on arguments, the marker  '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">' can be used when the identifier is not available, or can be omitted altogether with no ambiguity arising. To further disambiguate expressions that contains an optional identifier, the optional identifier or marker must be followed by '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">;</span></span><span class="insert">'.
-</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-prov-n" data-count="15"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 15</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-prov-n"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-An activity with identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and an attribute </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">type</span></span><span class="insert"> with value </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">createFile</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a1, [prov:type="createFile"])
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-Two entities with identifiers </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The activity  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> used  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">, and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> was generated by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(e2,a1)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The same descriptions, but with an explicit identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert"> for the usage, and the syntactic marker '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">-</span></span><span class="insert">' to mark the absence of identifier in the generation. Both are followed by  '</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">;</span></span><span class="insert">'.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(u1;a1,e1)
-wasGeneratedBy(-;e2,a1)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="prov-dm-example" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.</span><span class="insert">4.</span> </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</h2>
-
-<p><a href="#section-prov-overview">Section 2</a> has introduced some provenance concepts, and how they are expressed as types or relations in the PROV data model. The purpose of this section is to put these concepts into practice in order to express the provenance of some document published on the Web.  
-With this realistic example, PROV concepts are  composed together,  and a graphical illustration shows a provenance description forming a directed graph, rooted at the entity we want to explain the provenance of, and pointing to the entities, activities, and agents it depended on. This example also shows that, sometimes, multiple provenance descriptions about the same entity can co-exist, which then justifies the need for provenance of provenance.</p>
-
-
-<p>In this example, we consider one of the many documents published by the World Wide Web Consortium, and describe its provenance. 
-Specifically, we consider the document identified by
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a>. Its provenance can be expressed from several perspectives: first,  provenance can take the authors' viewpoint; second, it can be concerned with the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> process. Then, attribution of these two provenance descriptions is provided.</p>
-
-
-<div id="section-example-one" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.1</span><span class="insert">4.1</span> </span>The Authors View</h3>
-
-
-<p style="font-style:italic; "><b>Description:</b> A document
-is edited by some editor, using contributions from various
-contributors.
-</p>
-
-
-
-<p>In this perspective, provenance of the document
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215</a> is concerned with the editing activity as perceived by authors.  This kind of information could be used by authors in their CV or in a narrative about this document. </p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>We paraphrase some PROV-DM descriptions, express them with the PROV-N notation, and <span class="delete">then </span>depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document1-top">Figure <span class="delete">1</span><span class="insert">2</span></a>).
-Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication3.pn">here</a>.</p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center; ">
-  <figure id="prov-a-document1-top">
-  <img src="images/w3-publication3.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (1)" style="max-width: 98%; ">
-<div class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document1"><span class="insert">Figure 2: Provenance of a Document (1)</span></div>
-  </figure>
-</div>
-
-
-<ul>
-<li>There was a document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which from the author's perspective was a document in its second version. 
-<pre>entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>There was an editing activity.
-<pre>activity(ex:edit1,[prov:type="edit"])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The document was generated by the editing activity: this was a <a title="concept-generation">Generation</a>.
-<pre>wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:edit1, -)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-
-<li>There were some agents.
-<pre>agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>Agents were assigned various responsibilities in the editing activity: contributor and editor.
-<pre>wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Paolo, -, [ prov:role="editor" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:edit1, ex:Simon, -, [ prov:role="contributor" ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-Provenance descriptions can be <em>illustrated</em> graphically. The illustration is not intended to represent all the details of the model, but it is intended to show the essence of a set of
-provenance descriptions.  Therefore, it should not be seen as an alternate notation for expressing provenance.</p>
-
-<p>The graphical illustration takes the form of a graph. Entities, activities and agents are represented as nodes, with oval, rectangular, and pentagonal shapes, respectively.  Usage,
-Generation, Derivation, and Association are represented as directed edges.</p>
-
-<p>Entities are laid out according to the ordering of their generation.  We endeavor to show time progressing from left to right. This means that edges for Usage, Generation,
-Derivation, Association typically point leftwards</p>
-
-
-
-  
-  
-<span class="delete">Figure 2: Provenance of a Document (1)</span>
-  
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="section-example-two" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.2</span><span class="insert">4.2</span> </span>The Process View</h3>
-
-
-<p style="font-style:italic; "><b>Description:</b> The World Wide Web
-Consortium publishes documents according to its publication
-policy.  Working drafts are published regularly to reflect the work
-accomplished by working groups. Every publication of a working draft
-must be preceded by a "publication request" to the Webmaster.  The
-very first version of a document must also be preceded by a
-"transition request" to be approved by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> director.  All working
-drafts are made available at a unique URI.  In this scenario, we consider two successive versions of a given document, the policy according to which they were published, and the associated requests.
-</p>
-
-<p>
-We describe the kind of provenance record that the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">WWW Consortium</a> could keep for auditors to check that due processes are followed. All entities involved in this example are Web resources, with <span class="delete">well defined</span><span class="insert">well-defined</span> URIs (some of which refer archived email messages, available to <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Members).</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li> Two versions of a document were involved: <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft);</li>
-<li> Both <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> were published by the WWW Consortium (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium">w3:Consortium</a></span>); </li>
-<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was <span class="name">ex:act2</span>;</li>
-<li> The publication activity for <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> was <span class="name">ex:act1</span>;
-</li>
-
-<li> The document <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> was derived from <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span>;</li>
-
-<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act1</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Oct/0141">email:2011Oct/0141</a></span>) and a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#transreq">transition request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/chairs/2011OctDec/0004">chairs:2011OctDec/0004</a></span>);</li>
-<li> The publication activity <span class="name">ex:act2</span> used a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/01-transitions.html#pubreq">publication request</a> (<span class="name"><a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/w3c-archive/2011Dec/0111">email:2011Dec/0111</a></span>);</li>
-<li> Documents were published according to the process rules (<span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/tr.html#rec-advance">process:rec-advance</a></span>), a plan in PROV-DM terminology.</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-We now paraphrase some PROV descriptions, and express them with the PROV-N notation, and <span class="delete">then </span>depict them with a graphical illustration (see <a href="#prov-a-document2-top">Figure <span class="delete">2</span><span class="insert">3</span></a>). Full details of the provenance record can be found <a href="examples/w3c-publication1.pn">here</a>.
-
-</p><div style="text-align: center;">
-  <figure id="prov-a-document2-top">
-  <img src="images/w3-publication1.png" alt="Provenance of a Document (2)" style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<div class="figcaption" id="prov-a-document2"><span class="insert">Figure 3: Provenance of a Document (2)</span></div>
-  </figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<ul>
-<li>There was a document, a working draft <span class="delete">on the recommendation track </span>(<span class="delete">process:RecsWD</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#WD"><span class="insert">rec54:WD</span></a>), which is an entity so that we can describe its provenance. Similar descriptions exist for all entities.
-<pre>entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ <span class="delete">prov:type="process:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName</span><span class="insert">prov:type='rec54:WD'</span> ])
-</pre>
-</li>
-<li>There was a publication activity.
-<pre>activity(ex:act2,[prov:type="publish"])
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The document was generated by the publication activity: this was a <a title="concept-Generation">Generation</a>.
-<pre>wasGeneratedBy(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:act2, -)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-
-<li>The second draft of the document was derived from the first draft: this was a <a title="concept-Derivation">Derivation</a>.
-<pre>wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The activity required a publication request: this was a <a title="concept-Usage">Usage</a>.
-<pre>used(ex:act2, email:2011Dec/0111, -)
-</pre>
-</li>
-
-<li>The activity was associated with the Consortium agent, and proceeded according to its publication policy: this is an <a title="concept-activityAssociation">Activity Association</a>.
-<pre>wasAssociatedWith(ex:act2, w3:Consortium, process:rec-advance)
-</pre>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-  
-  
-<span class="delete">Figure 3: Provenance of a Document (2)</span>
-  
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p> This simple example has shown a variety of PROV concepts, such as Entity, Agent, Activity, Usage, Generation, Derivation, and Association. In this example, it happens that all entities were already Web resources, with readily available URIs, which we used. We note that some of the resources are public, whereas others have restricted access: provenance statements only make use of their identifiers. If identifiers do not pre-exist, e.g. for activities, then they can be generated, for instance <span class="name">ex:act2</span>, occurring in the namespace identified by prefix <span class="name">ex</span>.  We note that the URI scheme developed by <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> is particularly suited for expressing provenance of these documents, since each URI denotes a specific version of a document. It then becomes easy to relate the various versions with  PROV-DM relations. We note that an Association is a ternary relation (represented by a multi-edge labeled wasAssociatedWith) from an activity to an agent and a plan.</p>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="section-example-c" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">3.3</span><span class="insert">4.3</span> </span>Attribution of Provenance</h3>
-
-<p>The two previous sections  <span class="insert">offer two different perspectives on the provenance of a document.  PROV allows for multiple sources to </span>provide<span class="delete">  two different perspectives on</span> the provenance of a <span class="delete">document By design, the PROV approach allows for the provenance of a subject</span><span class="insert">subject. For users</span> to <span class="delete">be provided by multiple sources. For users</span><span class="insert">decide whether they can place their trust in the document, they may want</span> to <span class="delete">decide whether they can place their trust in the document, they may want to </span>analyze its provenance, but also determine
- who the provenance is attributed to, and when it was
-generated, etc. In other words, we need to be able to express the provenance of provenance.</p>
-
-<p><span class="delete">No new mechanism</span><span class="insert">PROV-DM offers a construct to name a bundle of provenance descriptions (full details: </span><a href="examples/w3c-publication3.pn"><span class="insert">ex:author-view</span></a><span class="insert">). </span></p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:author-view
-
-  agent(ex:Paolo,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-  agent(ex:Simon,   [ prov:type='prov:Person' ])
-
-
-...
-
-endBundle
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-
-Likewise, the process view can be expressed as a separate named bundle (full details: </span><a href="examples/w3c-publication1.pn"><span class="insert">ex:process-view</span></a><span class="insert">).
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:process-view
-
-   agent(w3:Consortium, [ prov:type='prov:Organization' ])
-
-...
-
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">To express their respective provenance, these bundles must be seen as entities, and all PROV constructs are now available to express their provenance. In the example below, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:author-view</span></span> is <span class="delete">required</span><span class="insert">attributed</span> to <span class="delete">support this requirement.</span><span class="insert">the agent</span>  <span class="delete">PROV-DM makes the assumption that provenance statements have been bundled up, and named, by some mechanism outside the scope of PROV-DM. For instance, in this case, provenance statements were put in a file and exposed on the Web, respectively at </span><span class="delete">ex:w3c-publication1.pn</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex:w3c-publication3.pn</span><span class="delete">.   To express their respective provenance, these resources must be seen as entities, and all the constructs of PROV-DM are now available</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Simon</span></span><span class="insert">, whereas </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:process-view</span></span> to<span class="delete"> characterize their provenance. In the example below, </span><span class="delete">ex:w3c-publication1.pn</span><span class="delete"> is attributed to the agent </span>  <span class="name">w3:Consortium<span class="delete">, whereas </span><span class="delete">ex:w3c-publication3.pn</span><span class="delete"> to </span><span class="delete">ex:Simon</span></span>.
-
-</p><span class="delete">entity(ex:w3c-publication1.pn, [prov:type="prov:Account" %% xsd:QName</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:author-view, [prov:type='prov:Bundle'</span> ])
-<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(ex:w3c-publication1.pn,</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(ex:author-view, ex:Simon)
-
-entity(ex:process-view, [prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(ex:process-view,</span> w3:Consortium)
-</pre>
-
-<span class="delete">entity(ex:w3c-publication3.pn, [prov:type="prov:Account" %% xsd:QName ])
-wasAttributedTo(ex:w3c-publication3.pn, ex:Simon)
-</span>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="data-model-components" class="section"> 
-
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.</span><span class="insert">5.</span> </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</h2>
-
-<p>Provenance concepts, expressed as PROV-DM types and relations, are <span class="delete">structured</span><span class="insert">organized</span> according to six components that are <span class="delete">introduced</span><span class="insert">defined</span> in this section.
-<span class="delete">Components</span><span class="insert">The components</span> and their dependencies are illustrated in <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>. A component that relies on concepts defined in another <span class="delete">also sits</span><span class="insert">is displayed</span> above it in <span class="delete">this</span><span class="insert">the</span> figure.<span class="delete">
-PROV-DM consists of the following components.</span><span class="insert">  So, for example, component 6 (collections) depends on concepts defined in component 3 (derivation), itself dependen on concepts defined in component 1 (entity and activity).
-</span></p>
-
-<div id="prov-dm-components-ul">
-<ul>
-<li><b>Component 1: entities and activities.</b> The first component consists of entities, activities, and concepts linking them, such as generation, usage, start, end. The first component is the only one comprising time-related concepts. </li>
-<li><b>Component 2: agents and responsibility.</b> The second component consists of agents and concepts ascribing responsibility to agents.</li>
-<li><b>Component 3: derivations.</b>  The third component is formed with derivations and derivation subtypes.</li>
-<li><b>Component 4: alternate.</b> The fourth component consists of relations linking entities referring to the same thing. </li>
-<li><b>Component 5: <span class="delete">collections.</span><span class="insert">bundles.</span></b> The fifth component is <span class="delete">about collections and concepts capturing their transformation, such as insertion and removal. </span><span class="insert">concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.</span></li>
-<li><b>Component 6: <span class="delete">annotations.</span><span class="insert">collections.</span></b> The sixth component is <span class="delete">concerned with annotations to PROV-DM instances.</span><span class="insert">about collections and concepts capturing their transformation, such as insertion and removal. </span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-
-<figure style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<img usemap="#componentMap" src="images/components-dependencies.png" alt="PROV-DM Components" style="max-width: 90%; ">
-<map id="componentMap" name="componentMap">
-<area title="collections" href="#component5" coords="220,0,440,70" alt="collections" shape="rect">
-<area title="alternate" href="#component4" coords="450,0,510,140" alt="alternate" shape="rect">
-<area title="annotations" href="#component6" coords="530,0,590,220" alt="annotations" shape="rect">
-<area title="activities/entities" href="#component1" coords="80,150,510,220" alt="activities/entities" shape="rect">
-<area title="derivations" href="#component3" coords="80,0,210,70" alt="derivations" shape="rect">
-<area title="agents/responsibility" href="#component2" coords="0,0,70,220" alt="agents/responsibility" shape="rect">
-</map>
-<div class="figcaption" id="prov-dm-components">Figure 4: PROV-DM Components</div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-While  not all PROV-DM relations are binary, they all involve two primary elements. Hence, <a href="#relations-at-a-glance">Table <span class="delete">3</span><span class="insert">4</span></a> indexes all relations according to their two primary <span class="delete">elements.</span><span class="insert">elements (referred to as subject and object).</span>  The table adopts the same color scheme as <a href="#prov-dm-components">Figure 4</a>, allowing components to be readily identified.
-Note that for simplicity, this table  does not include collection-oriented relations.
-<span class="insert">Relation names appearing in bold correspond to the core structures introduced
-in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div id="relations-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: center;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="relations-at-a-glance">Table <span class="delete">3:</span><span class="insert">4:</span> PROV-DM Relations At a Glance</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td colspan="3"><span class="insert">Object</span></td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td>Entity</td><td>Activity</td><td>Agent</td><span class="delete">Note</span></tr> 
-<tr><td rowspan="3"><span class="insert">Subject</span></td><td>Entity</td><td><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom</span><div class="component2-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom"><span class="insert">WasDerivedFrom</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-wasrevisionof" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf</span><span class="insert">WasRevisionOf</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-wasquotedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom</span><span class="insert">WasQuotedFrom</span></a><br><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource</span><a href="#dfn-hadprimarysource" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">HadPrimarySource</span></a></div><div class="component5-color"><a href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">alternateOf</span><span class="insert">AlternateOf</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">specializationOf</span><span class="insert">SpecializationOf</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-contextualizationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">ContextualizationOf</span></a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy</span><a class="essential internalDFN" title="wasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby"><span class="insert">WasGeneratedBy</span></a><br><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy</span><span class="insert">WasInvalidatedBy</span></a></td><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo</span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasattributedto"><span class="insert">WasAttributedTo</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Activity</td><td><div class="component1-color"><span class="delete">used</span><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-used"><span class="insert">Used</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasStartedBy</span><span class="insert">WasStartedBy</span></a><br><a href="#dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasEndedBy</span><span class="insert">WasEndedBy</span></a></div></td><td class="component1-color"><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy</span><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinformedby"><span class="insert">WasInformedBy</span></a></td><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith</span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith"><span class="insert">WasAssociatedWith</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Agent</td><td>—</td><td>—</td><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf</span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span>
-<span class="delete">Note</span><span class="delete">—</span><span class="delete">—</span><span class="delete">—</span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span><td class="component3-color"><a class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof"><span class="insert">ActedOnBehalfOf</span></a></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-<p><a href="#prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table <span class="delete">4</span><span class="insert">5</span></a> is a complete index of all the types and relations of PROV-DM, color-coded according to the component they belong to.  In the first column,  concept names  link to their informal definition, whereas, in the second column, representations link to the information used to represent the concept.<span class="insert"> Concept names appearing in bold are the core structures introduced in </span><a href="#core-structures"><span class="insert">Section 2.1</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-<div id="prov-dm-types-and-relations-fig" style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-types-and-relations">Table <span class="delete">4:</span><span class="insert">5:</span> PROV-DM Types and Relations</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><a><b>Type or Relation Name</b></a></td><td><b>Representation in the PROV-N notation</b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Component</span></b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">Entity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Entity" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity">entity(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component1"><span class="insert">Component 1: Entities/Activities</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">Activity</a></td><td><a title="dfn-Activity" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-activity">activity(id, st, et, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a></td><td><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</span><a title="WasGeneratedBy" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">e,a</span></span><span class="insert">,t,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a></td><td><a title="used" href="#dfn-used" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">used(id,a,e,t,attrs)</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">used(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">a,e</span></span><span class="insert">,t,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a></td><td><a title="wasInformedBy" href="#dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(id;a2,a1,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a></td><td><a title="wasStartedBy" href="#dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(id,a,e,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a></td><td><a title="wasEndedBy" href="#dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(id,a,e,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(id;a2,e,a1,t,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component1-color"><td><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a></td><td><a title="wasInvalidatedBy" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(id;e,a,t,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">Communication</span><tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">wasInformedBy(id,a2,a1,attrs)</span><a title="wasDerivedFrom" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(</span></span><span class="insert">id; </span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">e2, e1</span></span><span class="insert">, a, g2, u1, attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td><td rowspan="5"><a href="#component2"><span class="insert">Component 2: Derivations</span></a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">Start by Activity</span><tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Revision</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity(id, a2, a1, attrs)</span><a title="WasRevisionOf" href="#dfn-wasrevisionof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:WasRevisionOf' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a></td><td><a title="WasQuotedFrom" href="#dfn-wasquotedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:WasQuotedFrom' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a></td><td><a title="HadPrimarySource" href="#dfn-hadprimarysource" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:HadPrimarySource' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component2-color"><td><a href="#concept-trace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Trace</span></a></td><td><a title="tracedTo" href="#dfn-tracedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">tracedTo(id;e2,e1,attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-<tr class="component3-color" style="border-collapse: collapse; "><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">Agent</a></td><td><a title="dfn-agent" class="essential internalDFN" href="#dfn-agent">agent(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</a></td><td rowspan="8"><a href="#component3"><span class="insert">Component 3: Agents/Responsibility</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a></td><td><a title="wasAttributedTo" href="#dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(id,e,ag,attr)</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">e,ag</span></span><span class="insert">,attr</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN">Association</a></td><td><a title="wasAssociatedWith" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(id,a,ag,pl,attrs)</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">a,ag</span></span><span class="insert">,pl,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">Responsibility</span><tr class="component3-color"><td class="essential"><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a></td><td><a title="actedOnBehalfOf" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(id,ag2,ag1,a,attrs)</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(</span></span><span class="insert">id;</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">ag2,ag1</span></span><span class="insert">,a,attrs</span><span class="essential"><span class="insert">)</span></span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><span class="delete">Derivation</span><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Plan</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(id, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Plan' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><span class="delete">Revision</span><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Person</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf(id,e2,e1,ag,attrs)</span><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Person' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><span class="delete">Quotation</span><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Organization</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom(id,e2,e1,ag2,ag1,attrs)</span><a title="organization" href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Organization' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component3-color"><span class="delete">Original Source</span><td class="provType"><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">SoftwareAgent</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource(id,e2,e1,attrs)</span><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component4-color"><td><span class="delete">Trace</span><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Bundle constructor</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">tracedTo(id,e2,e1,attrs)</span><a title="dfn-bundle" href="#dfn-bundle-declaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</span></a></td><td rowspan="2"><a href="#component5"><span class="insert">Component 4: Bundles</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component4-color"><td class="provType"><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Bundle type</span></a></td><td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Bundle' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">Alternate</a></td><td><a title="alternateOf" href="#dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternateOf(alt1, alt2)</a></td><td rowspan="3"><a href="#component4"><span class="insert">Component 5: Alternate</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">Specialization</a></td><td><a title="specializationOf" href="#dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN">specializationOf(sub, super)</a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component5-color"><td><a href="#concept-contextualiation2" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Contextualization</span></a></td><td><a title="contextualizationOf" href="#dfn-contextualizationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">contextualizationOf(i2, i1,bundle)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-
-
-<tr class="component6-color"><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN">Collection</a></td><td><span class="delete">Collection</span><a title="collection" href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Collection' ...</span></a></td><td rowspan="7"><a href="#component6"><span class="insert">Component 6: Collections</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><span class="delete">Dictionary</span><span class="delete">Dictionary</span>
-<span class="delete">Insertion</span><span class="delete">derivedByInsertionFrom(id, c2, c1, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, attrs)</span>
-<span class="delete">Removal</span><span class="delete">derivedByRemovalFrom(id, c2, c1, {key_1, ... key_n}, attrs)</span>
-<a><span class="insert">Collection </span>Membership</a></td><td><a title="memberOf" href="#dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN">memberOf(c, <span class="delete">{(key_1, e_1),</span><span class="insert">{e_1,</span> ..., <span class="delete">(key_n, e_n)})</span><span class="insert">e_n})</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><span class="delete">Note</span><td class="provType"><a href="#concept-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Dictionary</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">note(id, [ attr1=val1, ...])</span><a title="dictionary" href="#concept-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><span class="delete">Annotation</span><td class="provType"><a title="empty dictionary" href="#concept-empty-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">EmptyDictionary</span></a></td><td><span class="delete">hasAnnotation(r,n)</span><a title="empty dictionary" href="#concept-empty-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">... prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ...</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a href="#concept-insertion" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Insertion</span></a></td><td><a title="derivedByInsertionFrom" href="#dfn-derivedbyinsertionfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivedByInsertionFrom(id; c2, c1, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a href="#concept-removal" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Removal</span></a></td><td><a title="derivedByRemovalFrom" href="#dfn-derivedbyremovalfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivedByRemovalFrom(id; c2, c1, {key_1, ... key_n}, attrs)</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr class="component6-color"><td><a><span class="insert">Dictionary Membership</span></a></td><td><a title="memberOf-d" href="#dfn-memberof-d" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">memberOf(d, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)})</span></a></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-In the rest of the section, each type and relation is defined informally,
- followed by a summary of the information used to represent the concept, and
- illustrated with PROV-N examples.</p>
-
-
-<div id="component1" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1</span><span class="insert">5.1</span> </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</h3>
-
-<p>The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with <a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entities</a> and <a title="activity" href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activities</a>, and their interrelations: <a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>, <a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>, <a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a>, <a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</a>, <span class="insert">and </span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN">Communication<span class="delete">, and </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span></a>.  <a href="#figure-component1">Figure 5</a> uses UML to depict the first <span class="delete">component, with</span><span class="insert">component.
-Core structures are displayed in the yellow area, consisting of</span> two classes <span class="insert">(</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">) </span>and <span class="insert">three </span>binary associations between <span class="delete">them. Associations are not just binary: indeed, </span><span class="insert">them (</span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</a>, <a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</a>, <span class="insert">and </span><a href="#concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></a><span class="insert">). The rest of the figure displays extended structures, including UML association classes (see [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UML"><span class="insert">UML</span></a></cite><span class="insert">], section 7.3.4, p. 42), represented in gray, to express expanded n-ary relations (for </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</a>, <a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</a><span class="insert">). The figure</span> also <span class="delete">include</span><span class="insert">makes explicit associations with</span> <em>time</em> <span class="delete">attributes.</span><span class="insert">for these concepts (time being marked with the primitive stereotype).   When not specified, cardinality is assumed to be 0..*.</span>
-</p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component1.png" alt="entities and activities">
-<div class="figcaption" id="figure-component1">Figure 5: Entities and Activities Component Overview</div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-   <div id="term-entity" class="section"> 
-      
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.1</span><span class="insert">5.1.1</span> </span>Entity</h4>
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-entity" class="internalDFN">entity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-entity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of <span class="delete">thing;</span><span class="insert">thing with some fixed aspects;</span> entities may be real or imaginary. </div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-entity">An <dfn title="dfn-Entity" id="dfn-entity" class="internalDFN">entity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-entity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-entity">entity(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N, </span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an entity; </li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="entity.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value  pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this entity.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-entity" data-count="16"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 16</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-entity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The following expression</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="document", ex:version="2" ])
-</pre>
-states the existence of an entity, denoted by identifier <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span>,  with type <span class="name">document</span> and version number <span class="name">2</span>. The attribute <span class="name">ex:version</span> is application specific, whereas the attribute <span class="name">type</span> (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.4.4</span></a>) is reserved in the <a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</a>.
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-    </div> 
-
-    <div id="term-Activity" class="section"> 
-      
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.2</span><span class="insert">5.1.2</span> </span>Activity</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-activity" class="internalDFN">activity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-activity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities;  it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, <span class="delete">generating, </span>or <span class="delete">being associated with</span><span class="insert">generating</span> entities.  </div>
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity"> An <dfn title="dfn-Activity" id="dfn-activity" class="internalDFN">activity</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-activity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-activity">activity(id, st, et, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.id">id</span>: an identifier for an activity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.startTime">startTime</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">st</span>) for the start of the activity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.endTime">endTime</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">et</span>) for the end of the activity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="activity.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this activity.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-activity" data-count="17"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 17</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-activity"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The following expression</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">activity(a1,2011-11-16T16:05:00,2011-11-16T16:06:00,
-        <span class="delete">[ex:host="server.example.org",prov:type="ex:edit" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[ ex:host="server.example.org", prov:type='ex:edit' ])</span>
-</pre>
-<p>states the existence of an activity with identifier <span class="name">a1</span>, start time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:05:00</span>, and end time <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:06:00</span>, running on host <span class="name">server.example.org</span>, and of type <span class="name">edit</span>.  The attribute <span class="name">host</span>  is application specific  (declared in some namespace with prefix <span class="name">ex</span>).  The attribute <span class="name">type</span> is a reserved attribute of PROV-DM, allowing for sub-typing to be expressed  (see <a href="#term-attribute-type">Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.4.4</span></a>).</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<p>Further considerations:</p>
-<ul>
-<li>An activity is not an entity. This distinction is similar to the distinction between 
-'continuant' and 'occurrent' in logic [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-Logic">Logic</a></cite>].
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Generation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.3</span><span class="insert">5.1.3</span> </span>Generation</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-generation" class="internalDFN">Generation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-generation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. </div>
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-generation"><dfn title="wasGeneratedBy" id="dfn-wasgeneratedby" class="internalDFN">Generation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasgeneratedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for a generation;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for a created entity; </li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.activity">activity</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity that creates the entity;</li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.time">time</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> "generation time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity was completely created;</li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="generation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this generation.</li>
-</ul></div>
-<p>While each of <a href="#generation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#generation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="#generation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#generation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation1" data-count="18"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 18</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The following expressions</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">  <span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(e1,a1,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e1, a1,</span> 2001-10-26T21:32:52, <span class="delete">[ex:port="p1"])</span><span class="insert">[ ex:port="p1" ])</span>
-  <span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(e2,a1,</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e2, a1,</span> 2001-10-26T10:00:00, <span class="delete">[ex:port="p2"])</span><span class="insert">[ ex:port="p2" ])</span>
-</pre>
-<p>state the existence of two generations (with respective times <span class="name">2001-10-26T21:32:52</span> and <span class="name">2001-10-26T10:00:00</span>), at which new entities,  identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, are created by an
-activity,  identified by <span class="name">a1</span>.
-The first one is available  on port <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the other is available on port <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">port</span> are application specific.
-</p>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-generation2" data-count="19"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 19</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-generation2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-In some cases, we may want to record the time at which an entity was generated without having to specify the activity that generated it. To support this requirement, the activity element in generation is optional. Hence,  the following expression indicates the time at which an entity is generated, without naming the activity that did it.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">  <span class="delete">wasGeneratedBy(e,-,2001-10-26T21:32:52)</span><span class="insert">wasGeneratedBy(e, -, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="term-Usage" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.4</span><span class="insert">5.1.4</span> </span>Usage</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-usage" class="internalDFN">Usage</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-usage"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. </div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-usage"><dfn title="used" id="dfn-used" class="internalDFN">Usage</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-used"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">used(id,a,e,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">used(id; a, e, t, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for a usage;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the <span class="delete">consuming activity;</span><span class="insert">activity that used an entity;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.entity">entity</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em> identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the<span class="delete"> consumed entity;</span><span class="insert">  entity being used;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.time">time</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> "usage time" (<span class="name">t</span>), the time at which the entity started to be used;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="usage.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this usage.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#usage.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#usage.entity"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">entity</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#usage.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#usage.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-<p>
-A reference to a given entity <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> appear in multiple usages that share
- a given activity identifier. 
-</p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage" data-count="20"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 20</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-usage"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following usages</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">  <span class="delete">used(a1,e1,2011-11-16T16:00:00,[ex:parameter="p1"])</span><span class="insert">used(a1, e1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00, [ ex:parameter="p1" ])</span>
-  <span class="delete">used(a1,e2,2011-11-16T16:00:01,[ex:parameter="p2"])</span><span class="insert">used(a1, e2, 2011-11-16T16:00:01, [ ex:parameter="p2" ])</span>
-</pre>
-<p>state that the activity identified by <span class="name">a1</span> used two entities identified by <span class="name">e1</span> and <span class="name">e2</span>, at times <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:00</span> and  <span class="name">2011-11-16T16:00:01</span>, respectively; the first
-one was found as the value of parameter <span class="name">p1</span>, whereas the second was found as value of parameter <span class="name">p2</span>.  The semantics of <span class="name">parameter</span> is application specific.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-Communication" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.5</span><span class="insert">5.1.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Communication</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-communication" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Communication</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-communication"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the exchange of an unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. </span></div>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A communication implies that activity  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert"> is dependent on another </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and used by </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-wasInformedBy"><span class="insert">
-A </span><dfn title="wasInformedBy" id="dfn-wasinformedby" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">communication</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinformedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written as 
-</span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">wasInformedBy(id; a2, a1, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has: 
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="communication.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier  identifying the relation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="communication.informed"><span class="insert">informed</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">) of the informed activity;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="communication.informant"><span class="insert">informant</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">) of the informant activity;
-</span></li><li><span class="attribute" id="communication.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this communication.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-communication" data-count="21"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 21</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-communication"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Consider two activities  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a1, [ prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing" ])
-activity(a2, [ prov:type="fine paying, check writing, and mailing" ])
-wasInformedBy(a2, a1)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and used by  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a2</span></span><span class="insert">; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
-</span></div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Start" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.1.6</span> </span>Start</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-start" class="internalDFN">Start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have started.  The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage or generation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-start-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-trigger"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>, that <span class="delete">initiated the activity.</span><span class="insert">set off the activity, or to an activity, known as </span><dfn id="concept-start-starter" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">starter</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-start-starter"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">, that generated the trigger.</span> </div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-start">An activity <dfn title="wasStartedBy" id="dfn-wasstartedby" class="internalDFN">start</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasstartedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">wasStartedBy(id,a,e,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the activity start;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name"><span class="delete">a</span><span class="insert">a2</span></span>) for the started activity;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.trigger">trigger</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.starter"><span class="insert">starter</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.time">time</span>: the <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was started; </li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="start.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity start.
-</li></ul>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#start.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#start.trigger"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#start.starter"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">starter</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#start.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#start.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start1" data-count="22"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 22</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The following example contains the description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (a discussion), which was started at a specific time, and was triggered by an email message <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">entity(e1,[prov:type="email message"])
-activity(a1,[prov:type="Discuss"])
-wasStartedBy(a1,e1,2011-11-16T16:05:00)</span><span class="insert">entity(e1, [ prov:type="email message"] )
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="Discuss" ])
-wasStartedBy(a1, e1, -, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)</span>
-</pre>
-Furthermore, if the message is also an input to the activity, this can be described as follows:
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">used(a1,e1,-)</span><span class="insert">used(a1, e1, -)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">Alternatively, one can also describe the activity that generated the email message.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">activity(a0, [ prov:type="Write" ])
-wasGeneratedBy(e1, a0)
-wasStartedBy(a1, e1, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">If </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> is not known, it would also have valid to write:
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasStartedBy(a1, -, a0, 2011-11-16T16:05:00)</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start2" data-count="23"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 23</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-In the following example, a race is started by a bang, and responsibility for this trigger is attributed to an agent 
- <span class="name">ex:Bob</span>.
-</p><pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:foot_race)
-<span class="delete">wasStartedBy(ex:foot_race,ex:bang,2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00)
-</span>entity(ex:bang)
-<span class="insert">wasStartedBy(ex:foot_race, ex:bang, -, 2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00)
-</span>agent(ex:Bob)
-<span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(ex:bang,ex:Bob)</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(ex:bang, ex:Bob)</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-start3" data-count="24"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 24</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-start3"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In this example, filling fuel was started as a consequence of
-observing low fuel. The trigger entity is unspecified, it could
-for instance have been the low fuel warning light, the fuel tank
-indicator needle position, or the engine not running properly.</span>
-
-
-</p><pre class="codeexample" id="anexample-start4"><span class="insert">activity(ex:filling-fuel)
-activity(ex:observing-low-fuel)
-
-agent(ex:driver, [ prov:type='prov:Person'  )
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:filling-fuel, ex:driver)
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:observing-low-fuel, ex:driver)
-
-wasStartedBy(ex:filling-fuel, -, ex:observing-low-fuel, -)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>The relations wasStartedBy and used are orthogonal, and thus need to be expressed independently, according to the situation being described.</p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-End" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.6</span><span class="insert">5.1.7</span> </span>End</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-end" class="internalDFN">End</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is when an activity is deemed to have ended.  The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to an entity, known as <dfn id="concept-end-trigger" class="internalDFN">trigger</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-trigger"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>, that terminated the <span class="delete">activity.</span><span class="insert">activity, or to an activity, known as </span><dfn id="concept-end-ender" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">ender</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-end-ender"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> that generated the trigger.</span> </div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-end">An activity <dfn title="wasEndedBy" id="dfn-wasendedby" class="internalDFN">end</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasendedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withAsn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">wasEndedBy(id,a,e,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasEndedBy(id; a2, e, a1, t, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the activity end;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name"><span class="delete">a</span><span class="insert">a2</span></span>) for the ended activity;
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="end.trigger">trigger</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">e</span>) for the entity triggering the activity ending;
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="end.ender"><span class="insert">ender</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity that generated the (possibly unspecified) entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">);</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.time">time</span>: the <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> time (<span class="name">t</span>) at which the activity was ended; </li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="end.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this activity end.
-</li></ul>
-</div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#end.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#end.trigger"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">trigger</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#end.ender"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">ender</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#end.time"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">time</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#end.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-end" data-count="25"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 25</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-end"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The following example is a description of an activity <span class="name">a1</span> (editing) that was ended following an approval document <span class="name">e1</span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">entity(e1,[prov:type="approval document"])
-activity(a1,[prov:type="Editing"])
-wasEndedBy(a1,e1)</span><span class="insert">entity(e1, [ prov:type="approval document" ])
-activity(a1, [ prov:type="Editing" ])
-wasEndedBy(a1, e1)</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Invalidation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.7</span><span class="insert">5.1.8</span> </span>Invalidation</h4>
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-invalidation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use<span class="insert"> (or further invalidation)</span> after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</div>
-
-
-
-<p>
-Entities have a duration. Generation marks the beginning of an <span class="delete">entity. </span><span class="insert">entity, whereas invalidation marks its end. 
-</span>An entity's lifetime can end for different reasons:</p>
-<ul>
-<li> an entity was destroyed: e.g. a painting was destroyed by fire; a Web page is taken out of a site;
-</li><li> an entity was consumed: e.g. Bob ate all his soup, Alice ran out of gas when driving to work;
-</li><li> an entity expires: e.g. a "buy one beer, get one free" offer is valid during happy hour (7-8pm);
-</li><li> an entity is time limited: e.g. the BBC news site on April 3rd, 2012;
-</li><li> an entity attribute is changing: e.g. the traffic light changed from green to red.
-</li></ul>
-<p>In the first two cases, the entity has physically disappeared after its termination: there is no more soup, or painting.  In the last <span class="delete">two</span><span class="insert">three</span> cases, there may be an "offer voucher" that still exists, but it is no longer valid; likewise, on April 4th, the BBC news site still exists but it is not the same entity as BBC news Web site on April 3rd; or the traffic light became red and therefore is regarded as a different entity to the green light.
-</p>
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-invalidation"><dfn title="wasInvalidatedBy" id="dfn-wasinvalidatedby" class="internalDFN">Invalidation</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasinvalidatedby"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">wasInvalidatedBy(id,e,a,t,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasInvalidatedBy(id; e, a, t, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for a invalidation;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier for the invalidated entity; </li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.activity">activity</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the activity that invalidated the entity;</li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.time">time</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> "invalidation time", the time at which the entity began to be invalidated;</li>
-
-<li><span class="attribute" id="invalidation.attributes">attributes</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this invalidation.</li>
-</ul></div>
-<p>While each of <a href="#invalidation.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#invalidation.activity"><span class="attribute">activity</span></a>, <a href="#invalidation.time"><span class="attribute">time</span></a>, and  <a href="#invalidation.attributes"><span class="attribute">attributes</span></a> is <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>, at least one of them <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be present.</p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation1" data-count="26"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 26</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-<em>The <span class="delete">Painter,</span><span class="insert">Painter</span></em><span class="insert">,</span> a Picasso painting, is known to have been destroyed in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_artworks#20th_century">plane accident</a>.
-
-</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:The-Painter)
-agent(ex:Picasso)
-wasAttributedTo(ex:The-Painter, ex:Picasso)
-activity(ex:crash)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:The-Painter, ex:crash, 1998-09-02, <span class="delete">[ex:circumstances="plane accident"])</span><span class="insert">[ ex:circumstances="plane accident" ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation2" data-count="27"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 27</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-04-03</span>
-contained a reference to a given news item
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-17595024">bbc:news/uk-17595024</a>,
-but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.
-</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03)
-<span class="delete">memberOf(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03,{("item1",</span><span class="insert">memberOf(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, {("item1",</span> bbc:news/uk-17595024)})
-wasGeneratedBy  <span class="delete">(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03,-,2012-04-03T00:00:01)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03,-,2012-04-03T23:59:59)</span><span class="insert">(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T00:00:01)
-wasInvalidatedBy(ex:bbcNews2012-04-03, -, 2012-04-03T23:59:59)</span>
-</pre>
-
-
-We refer to example <span class="delete">anexample-specialization</span> 
-<a href="#anexample-specialization" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 42</span></span></a>
- for further descriptions of the BBC Web site, and to   <a href="#term-dictionary-membership">Section <span class="delete">Membership</span><span class="insert">5.6.5</span></a> for a description of the relation <a title="memberOf-d" href="#dfn-memberof-d" class="internalDFN">memberOf</a>.
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-invalidation3" data-count="28"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 28</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-invalidation3"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-In this example, the  "buy one beer, get one free" offer expired at the end of the happy hour.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-wasAttributedTo(proprietor)
-wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 -,2012-03-10T18:00:00)
-</pre>
-<p>In contrast, in the following descriptions, Bob redeemed the offer 45 minutes before it expired, and got two beers.  
-</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour)
-wasAttributedTo(proprietor)
-activity(redeemOffer)
-entity(twoBeers)
-
-wasAssociatedWith(redeemOffer,bob)
-used(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-     redeemOffer, 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
-wasInvalidatedBy(buy_one_beer_get_one_free_offer_during_happy_hour,
-                 redeemOffer, 2012-03-10T17:15:00)
-wasGeneratedBy(twoBeers,redeemOffer)
-</pre>
-<p>We see that the offer was both used to be converted into <span class="name">twoBeers</span> and invalidated by the <span class="name">redeemOffer</span> activity: in other words, the combined usage and invalidation indicate consumption of the offer.</p>
-</div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="component2" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 2: Derivations</span></h3>
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The third component of PROV-DM is concerned with: </span><a title="derivation" href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivations</span></a><span class="insert"> of </span><a title="entity" href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">entities</span></a><span class="insert"> from others; derivation subtypes </span><a href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Revision</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Quotation</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></a><span class="insert">; derivation-related </span><a href="#concept-trace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Trace</span></a><span class="insert">. 
- </span><a href="#figure-component2"><span class="insert">Figure 6</span></a><span class="insert"> depicts the third component
-with PROV core structures in the yellow area, including two classes
-(</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">) and binary association
-(</span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a><span class="insert">). PROV extended structures are found outside this
-area. UML association classes express expanded n-ary relations.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component2.png" alt="derivation">
-<div class="figcaption" id="figure-component2"><span class="insert">Figure 6: Derivation Component Overview</span></div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-Derivation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.8 </span><span class="delete">Communication</span><span class="insert">5.2.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Derivation</span></h4>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <span class="delete">Communication</span><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></dfn> <sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-derivation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  is <span class="delete">the exchange</span><span class="insert">a transformation</span> of an entity <span class="delete">by</span><span class="insert">into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-exisiting entity.</span></div>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">According to </span><a href="#section-prov-overview"><span class="insert">Section 2</span></a><span class="insert">, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
-underpinning activities performing the necessary actions resulting in such a derivation.  
-A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates</span> two <span class="delete">activities, one</span><span class="insert">entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this</span> activity <span class="delete">using the entity</span><span class="insert">can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the</span> generated <span class="delete">by the other. </span><span class="insert">and used entities, respectively, can be provided, so as to make the derivation path, through usage, activity, and generation, explicit.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </span></p>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivation">A <span class="delete">communication implies</span><dfn title="wasDerivedFrom" id="dfn-wasderivedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasderivedfrom"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression" id="pn-wasDerivedFrom"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(id; e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier  for a derivation;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generatedEntity"><span class="insert">generatedEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">) of the entity generated by the derivation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usedEntity"><span class="insert">usedEntity</span></span><span class="insert">: the identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">) of the entity used by the derivation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.activity"><span class="insert">activity</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.generation"><span class="insert">generation</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert">) for the generation involving the generated entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert">) and activity;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.usage"><span class="insert">usage</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">) for the usage involving the used entity (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">) and activity;</span></li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="derivation.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-derivation" data-count="29"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 29</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-derivation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">The following descriptions are about derivations between  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> and  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert">, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [ prov:type="physical transform" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The following description expresses</span> that activity  <span class="name"><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="insert">a</span></span><span class="insert">, 
-using the entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> according to usage </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">u1</span></span><span class="insert">,
- derived the
-entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> and generated it according to generation
- </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert">. It</span> is <span class="delete">dependent on another</span><span class="insert">followed by descriptions for generation</span> <span class="name"><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete">, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by</span><span class="insert">g2</span></span><span class="insert"> and usage</span> <span class="name"><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> and used by </span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="insert">u1</span></span>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasGeneratedBy(g2; e2, a, -)
-used(u1; a, e1, -)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the original entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e1</span></span><span class="insert"> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e2</span></span><span class="insert"> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</span></p>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-revision" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Revision</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">revision</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-revision"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">   is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. </span></span></p><span class="delete">
-A </span><span class="delete">communication</span>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-  The implication here is that
-     the resulting entity contains substantial content from the
-     original.
-Revision is a particular case of </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert"> of an entity into its revised version.
-The type is of a revision derivation is denoted by:
-</span><dfn title="WasRevisionOf" id="dfn-wasrevisionof" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:WasRevisionOf</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasrevisionof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-revision" data-count="30"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 30</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-revision"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Revisiting the example of </span><a href="#section-example-two"><span class="insert">Section 4.2</span></a>,<span class="delete"> written as 
-</span><span class="delete">wasInformedBy(id,a2,a1,attrs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has: 
-</span>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">:</span><span class="insert">
-we can now state that the report 
- </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span></span><span class="insert"> was a revision of 
- the report </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span></span><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'</span>  <span class="delete">an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier</span><span class="insert">])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type='rec54:WD'</span>  <span class="delete">identifying the relation;</span> 
-<span class="delete">informed</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete">) of the informed activity;
-</span><span class="delete">informant</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete">) of the informant activity;
-</span><span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this communication.</span>
-<span class="insert">])
-wasDerivedFrom(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type='prov:WasRevisionOf' ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-Consider two activities  </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete">, the former performed by a government agency, and the latter by a driver caught speeding. 
-</span><span class="delete">activity(a1, [prov:type="traffic regulations enforcing"])
-activity(a2, [prov:type="fine paying, check writing, and mailing"])
-wasInformedBy(a2,a1)
-</span><span class="delete">
-The last line indicates that some implicit entity was generated by  </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> and used by  </span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete">; this entity may be a traffic ticket that had a notice of fine, amount, and payment mailing details.
-</span></div>
-
-
-  
-
-<div id="term-quotation" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.1.9 </span><span class="delete">Start by Activity</span><span class="insert">5.2.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Quotation</span></h4>
-
-<p> 
-<span class="glossary-ref">   <span class="delete">Start</span><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">quotation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-quotation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image,</span> by <span class="delete">Activity</span><span class="insert">someone who may or may not be its original author. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Quotation
- is a particular case of  </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert"> in which an entity is derived from an original entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
-The type is of a quotation derivation is denoted by:
-</span><dfn title="WasQuotedFrom" id="dfn-wasquotedfrom" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:WasQuotedFrom</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasquotedfrom"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-quotation" data-count="31"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 31</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-quotation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-The following paragraph</span> is <span class="delete">the start of an activity with an implicit trigger generated</span><span class="insert">a quote from one of  </span><a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/"><span class="insert">the author's blogs</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></p><blockquote id="bl-dagstuhl"><em><span class="insert">
-"During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.  This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across systems and through databases and be able to understand the mathematical properties of this interconnection."</span></em>
-</blockquote>
-<p><span class="insert">If </span><a href="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/"><span class="name"><span class="insert">wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/</span></span></a><span class="insert"> denotes the original blog</span> by <span class="delete">another activity. </span>
-
-
-
-<span class="insert">agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Paul</span></span><span class="insert">, and 
- </span><a href="#bl-dagstuhl"><span class="name"><span class="insert">dm:bl-dagstuhl</span></span></a><span class="insert"> denotes the above paragraph, then the following descriptions express that the above paragraph was copied by agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Luc</span></span><span class="insert"> from a part of the blog, attributed to the agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Paul</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p><span class="delete">
-A </span><span class="delete">start by activity</span><span class="delete">, written as 
-</span><span class="delete">wasStartedByActivity(id, a2, a1, attrs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">:  an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier of the relation;</span> 
-<span class="delete">started</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete">) of  the started activity;
-</span><span class="delete">starter</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete">) of the activity that started the other;</span>
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this start by activity.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-Suppose activities </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete"> are computer processes that are executed on different hosts, and that </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> started </span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete">. This can be expressed as in the following fragment:</span>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">activity(a1,t1,t2,[ex:host="server1.example.org",prov:type="workflow"])
-activity(a2,t3,t4,[ex:host="server2.example.org",prov:type="subworkflow"])
-wasStartedByActivity(a2,a1)</span><span class="insert">entity(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/)
-entity(dm:bl-dagstuhl)
-agent(ex:Luc)
-agent(ex:Paul)
-wasDerivedFrom(dm:bl-dagstuhl,
-               wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/,
-               [ prov:type='prov:WasQuotedFrom' ])
-wasAttributedTo(dm:bl-dagstuhl, ex:Luc)
-wasAttributedTo(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/, ex:Paul)</span>
-</pre><span class="delete">
-It is assumed that the activities </span><span class="delete">a1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">a2</span><span class="delete"> are of type "workflow" and "subworkflow", respectively; the latter was started by the former.
-</span>
-
-</div>
-
-
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="term-primary-source" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.2.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Primary Source</span></h4>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">primary source</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-primary-source"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight. </span></span>
-</p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Because of the directness of primary sources, they "speak for
-themselves" in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of
-secondary sources. As such, it is important for secondary sources to
-reference those primary sources from which they were derived, so that
-their reliability can be investigated.</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">primary source</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-primary-source"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation is a particular case of </span><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">derivation</span></a><span class="insert"> of
-secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that
-the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and
-should be done according to conventions accepted within the
-application's domain. 
-The type is of a  primary source derivation is denoted by:
-</span><dfn title="HadPrimarySource" id="dfn-hadprimarysource" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:HadPrimarySource</span></span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-hadprimarysource"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-primary-source1" data-count="32"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 32</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-primary-source1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-Let us consider Charles Joseph Minard's flow map of Napoleon's March in
-1812, which was published in 1869. Although the map is not a primary source,
-Minard probably used the journal of Pierre-Irénée Jacob, pharmacist
-to Napoleon's army during the Russian campaign. This primary source relation
-can be encoded as follows.</span></p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813)
-entity(ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813,
-               ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII,
-               [ prov:type='prov:HadPrimarySource' ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>  
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="component3" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2</span><span class="insert">5.3</span> </span>Component <span class="delete">2:</span><span class="insert">3:</span> Agents and Responsibility</h3>
-
-<p>The second component of <span class="delete">PROV-DM</span><span class="insert">PROV-DM, depicted in  </span><a href="#figure-component3"><span class="insert">Figure 7</span></a><span class="insert">,</span> is concerned with <a title="agent" href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN">agents</a> and the notions of
-<a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</a>, <a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN">Association</a>, <span class="delete">Responsibility</span><a href="#concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></a>, relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.<span class="delete">
-Figure </span><span class="delete">figure-component2</span><span class="delete"> depicts the second component with four</span><span class="insert">
- Core structures are displayed in the yellow area and include three</span> classes <span class="delete">(Entity, Activity,  Agent, </span>and <span class="delete">Plan)</span><span class="insert">three binary associations. Outside the yellow area, extended structures comprise</span> and <span class="delete">associations between them. </span>UML association classes <span class="insert">to express expanded n-ary relations, and subclasses </span><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Plan</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Person</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">SofwareAgent</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Organization</span></a><span class="insert">. The subclasses </span>are <span class="delete">used</span><span class="insert">marked by the UML stereotype "prov:type"</span> to <span class="delete">express n-ary relations.</span><span class="insert">indicate that that these are valid values for the attribute </span><a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="insert">prov:type</span></a>
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-
-
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component3.png" alt="agents and responsibilities">
-<div class="figcaption" id="figure-component3">Figure <span class="delete">6:</span><span class="insert">7:</span> Agents and <span class="delete">Responsibilities</span><span class="insert">Responsibility</span> Component Overview</div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-agent" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.1</span><span class="insert">5.3.1</span> </span>Agent</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   An <dfn id="concept-agent" class="internalDFN">agent</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-agent"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place or for the existence of an entity. </div>
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-agent">An <dfn title="dfn-agent" id="dfn-agent" class="internalDFN">agent</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-agent"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression" id="pn-agent">agent(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="agent.id">id</span>: an identifier for an agent;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="agent.attributes">attributes</span>: a set of attribute-value pairs ((<span class="name">attr1</span>, <span class="name">val1</span>), ...) representing additional information about this agent.
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-
-<p>
-
-It is useful to define some basic categories of agents from an interoperability perspective.
-There are three types of agents that are common across most anticipated domains of use; <span class="delete">It</span><span class="insert">it</span> is acknowledged that these types do not cover all kinds of agent. </p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="name">SoftwareAgent</span>
-<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-software-agent" title="software-agent" class="internalDFN">software agent</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-software-agent"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  is running software. </div>
-
-<p></p></li>
-
-<li><span class="name">Organization</span>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   Agents of type <dfn id="concept-organization" class="internalDFN">Organization</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-organization"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  are social or legal institutions such as companies, societies, etc. </div>
-
-<p></p></li>
-
-<li><span class="name">Person</span>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   Agents of type <dfn id="concept-person" title="person" class="internalDFN">Person</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-person"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  are people. </div></li> 
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_33" data-count="33"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 33</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_33"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following expression is about an agent identified by <span class="name">e1</span>, which is a person, named Alice, with employee number 1234.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">agent(e1, [ex:employee="1234", ex:name="Alice", <span class="delete">prov:type="prov:Person" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">prov:type='prov:Person' ])</span>
-</pre>
-<p>It is optional to specify the type of an agent. When present, it is expressed using the <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute.</p>
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-attribution" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.2</span><span class="insert">5.3.2</span> </span>Attribution</h4> 
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">Attribution</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-attribution"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is the ascribing of an entity to an agent. </div>
-
-<p>When an entity  <span class="name">e</span> is attributed to agent  <span class="name">ag</span>, entity <span class="name">e</span> was generated by some unspecified activity that in turn was associated to agent  <span class="name">ag</span>. Thus, this relation is useful when the activity is not known, or irrelevant.</p>
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-attribution">An <dfn title="wasAttributedTo" id="dfn-wasattributedto" class="internalDFN">attribution</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasattributedto"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">wasAttributedTo(id,e,ag,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasAttributedTo(id; e, ag, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.id">id</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.entity">entity</span>: an entity identifier (<span class="name">e</span>);</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.agent">agent</span>: the identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) of the agent whom the entity is ascribed <span class="delete">to;</span><span class="insert">to, and therefore bears some responsibility for its existence;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="attribution.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this attribution.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-attribution" data-count="34"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 34</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-attribution"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-Revisiting the example of  
-<a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-one"><span>Section <span class="delete">3.1</span><span class="insert">4.1</span></span></a>,
-we can ascribe <span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> to some agents without an explicit activity. The reserved attribute <span class="name">role</span> (see <a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.3</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.3</span></span></a>) allows for role of the agent in the attribution to be specified.
-</p><pre class="codeexample">agent(ex:Paolo, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-agent(ex:Simon, [ prov:type="Person" ])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ <span class="delete">prov:type="process:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName</span><span class="insert">prov:type='rec54:WD'</span> ])
-wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Paolo, <span class="delete">[prov:role="editor"])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type="editorship" ])</span>
-wasAttributedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, ex:Simon, <span class="delete">[prov:role="contributor"])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type="authorship" ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="term-Association" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.3</span><span class="insert">5.3.3</span> </span>Association</h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">   An activity <dfn id="concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN">association</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-activityAssociation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity. </div>
-
-<p></p>
-<div class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-plan" class="internalDFN">plan</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-plan"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.  </div>
-
-
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-activity-association">An <dfn title="wasAssociatedWith" id="dfn-wasassociatedwith" class="internalDFN">activity association</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-wasassociatedwith"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">wasAssociatedWith(id,a,ag,pl,attrs)</span><span class="insert">wasAssociatedWith(id; a, ag, pl, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the association between an activity and an agent;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.activity">activity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) for the activity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.agent">agent</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">ag</span>) for the agent associated with the activity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="association.plan">plan</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">pl</span>) for the plan adopted by the agent in the context of this activity;
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="association.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this association of this activity with this agent.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-<p><span class="insert">While each of </span><a href="#association.id"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">id</span></span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#association.agent"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">agent</span></span></a><span class="insert">,  </span><a href="#association.plan"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">plan</span></span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#association.attributes"><span class="attribute"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span></a><span class="insert"> is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">, at least one of them </span><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><span class="insert">must</span></em><span class="insert"> be present.</span></p>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith" data-count="35"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 35</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>In the following example, a designer <span class="insert">agent </span>and an operator <span class="delete">agents</span><span class="insert">agent</span> are associated with an activity. The designer's goals are achieved by a workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span>, described as an an entity of type <span class="name"><a href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN">plan</a></span>.   </p>
-<pre class="codeexample">activity(ex:a, <span class="delete">[prov:type="workflow execution"])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type="workflow execution" ])</span>
-agent(ex:ag1,<span class="delete"> [prov:type="operator"])</span><span class="insert">  [ prov:type="operator" ])</span>
-agent(ex:ag2,<span class="delete"> [prov:type="designer"])</span><span class="insert">  [ prov:type="designer" ])</span>
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag1, -,<span class="delete"> [prov:role="loggedInUser", ex:how="webapp"])</span><span class="insert">     [ prov:role="loggedInUser", ex:how="webapp" ])</span>
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, ex:ag2, <span class="delete">ex:wf,[prov:role="designer", ex:context="project1"])</span><span class="insert">ex:wf, [ prov:role="designer", ex:context="project1" ])</span>
-entity(ex:wf, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:Plan"</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:Plan' , 
-                ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-                ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel"</span> %% <span class="delete">xsd:QName, ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-              ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI])</span><span class="insert">xsd:anyURI ])</span>
-</pre>
-Since the workflow <span class="name">ex:wf</span> is itself an entity, its provenance can also be expressed in PROV-DM: it can be generated by some activity and derived from other entities,
-for instance.
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2" data-count="36"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 36</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-wasAssociatedWith-2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>In some cases, one wants to indicate a plan was followed, without having to specify which agent was involved.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">activity(ex:a,[prov:type="workflow execution"])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a,-,ex:wf)
-entity(ex:wf,[prov:type="prov:Plan"%% xsd:QName, </span><span class="insert">activity(ex:a, [ prov:type="workflow execution" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(ex:a, -, ex:wf)
-entity(ex:wf, [ prov:type='prov:Plan', 
-                </span>ex:label="Workflow 1", 
-               
-                ex:url="http://example.org/workflow1.bpel" %% xsd:anyURI])
-</pre>
-In this case, it is assumed that an agent exists, but it has not been specified.
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</div>  
-
-<div id="term-delegation" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.2.4 </span><span class="delete">Responsibility</span><span class="insert">5.3.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Delegation</span></h4>
-
-<div class="glossary-ref">    <span class="delete">Responsibility</span>   <dfn id="concept-delegation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Delegation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-delegation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is the <span class="delete">fact that</span><span class="insert">assignment of authority and responsibility to</span> an agent <span class="delete">is accountable</span><span class="insert">(by itself or by another agent)  to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility</span> for the <span class="delete">actions of a "subordinate" agent, in the context of an activity.  </span><span class="insert">outcome of the delegated work. </span></div>
-
-<p><span class="delete">PROV offers</span><span class="insert">For example,</span> a<span class="delete"> mild version of responsibility
-in the form of a relation to represent when an agent acted on another
-agent's behalf.  So for example someone running a mail program,
-the program and the person are both
-agents of the activity; furthermore, the mail software
-agent is running on the person's behalf.  In another example, the</span>
-student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the
-department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those
-agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but
-we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what
-degree. </p>
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-delegation">
-A <span class="delete">responsibility</span><dfn title="actedOnBehalfOf" id="dfn-actedonbehalfof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">delegation</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-actedonbehalfof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> link<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">actedOnBehalfOf(id,ag2,ag1,a,attrs)</span><span class="insert">actedOnBehalfOf(id; ag2, ag1, a, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier for the <span class="delete">responsibility</span><span class="insert">delegation</span> link between <span class="delete">subordinate</span><span class="insert">delegate</span> and responsible;</li> 
-<li><span class="delete">subordinate</span><span class="attribute" id="delegation.delegate"><span class="insert">delegate</span></span>: an identifier (<span class="name">ag2</span>) for the agent associated with an activity, acting on behalf of the responsible
-agent;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.responsible">responsible</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">ag1</span>) for the agent,  on behalf of which the <span class="delete">subordinate</span><span class="insert">delegate</span> agent acted;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.activity">activity</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier (<span class="name">a</span>) of an activity for which the <span class="delete">responsibility</span><span class="insert">delegation</span> link holds;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="delegation.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this <span class="delete">responsibility</span><span class="insert">delegation</span> link.</li>
-</ul></div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_37" data-count="37"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 37</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_37"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following fragment describes three agents: a programmer, a researcher, and a funder.  The programmer and researcher are associated with a workflow activity.  The programmer acts on behalf
-of the researcher <span class="delete">(delegation)</span><span class="insert">(line-management)</span> encoding the commands specified by the researcher; the researcher acts on behalf of the funder, who has a contractual agreement with the researcher. The terms
-<span class="delete">'delegation'</span><span class="insert">'line-management'</span> and <span class="delete">'contact'</span><span class="insert">'contract'</span> used in this example are domain specific.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="delete">activity(a,[prov:type="workflow"])
-agent(ag1,[prov:type="programmer"])
-agent(ag2,[prov:type="researcher"])
-agent(ag3,[prov:type="funder"])
-wasAssociatedWith(a,ag1,[prov:role="loggedInUser"])
-wasAssociatedWith(a,ag2)
-wasAssociatedWith(a,ag3)
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1,ag2,a,[prov:type="delegation"])
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag2,ag3,a,[prov:type="contract"])</span><span class="insert">activity(a,[ prov:type="workflow" ])
-agent(ag1, [ prov:type="programmer" ])
-agent(ag2, [ prov:type="researcher" ])
-agent(ag3, [ prov:type="funder" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag1, [ prov:role="loggedInUser" ])
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag2)
-wasAssociatedWith(a, ag3)
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag1, ag2, a, [ prov:type="line-management" ])
-actedOnBehalfOf(ag2, ag3, a, [ prov:type="contract" ])</span>
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">4.3 </span><span class="delete">Component 3: Derivations</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The third component of PROV-DM is concerned with </span><span class="delete">derivations</span><span class="delete"> of </span><span class="delete">entities</span><span class="delete"> from others, and derivation subtypes </span><span class="delete">Revision</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span><span class="delete">, and </span><span class="delete">Trace</span><span class="delete">.
-Figure </span><span class="delete">figure-component3</span><span class="delete"> depicts the third component with three  classes (Entity, Activity, and Agent) and associations between them. UML association classes express n-ary relations.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">Figure 7: Derivation Component Overview</span>
-
-
-
-<div id="term-trace" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.3.1 </span><span class="delete">Derivation</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">   A </span><span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="delete">  is a transformation of an entity into another, a construction of an entity into another, or an update of an entity, resulting in a new one.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">According to </span><span class="delete">Section 2</span><span class="delete">, for an entity to be transformed from, created from, or resulting from an update to another, there must be some
-underpinning activities performing the necessary actions resulting in such a derivation.  
-A derivation can be described at various levels of precision. In its simplest form, derivation relates two entities. Optionally, attributes can be added to represent further information about the derivation.  If the derivation is the result of a single known activity, then this activity can also be optionally expressed. To provide a completely accurate description of the derivation, the generation and usage of the generated and used entities, respectively, can be provided.  Optional information such as activity, generation, and usage can be linked to derivations to aid analysis of provenance and to facilitate provenance-based reproducibility. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">A </span><span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(id, e2, e1, a, g2, u1, attrs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">:  an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier  for a derivation;</span> 
-<span class="delete">generatedEntity</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">ee</span><span class="delete">) of the entity generated by the derivation;</span>
-<span class="delete">usedEntity</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">) of the entity used by the derivation;</span>
-<span class="delete">activity</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier (</span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete">) for the activity using and generating the above entities;</span>
-<span class="delete">generation</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier (</span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete">) for the generation involving the generated entity and activity;</span> 
-<span class="delete">usage</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier (</span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete">) for the usage involving the used entity and activity;</span> 
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this derivation.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The following descriptions are about derivations between  </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> and  </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">, but no information is provided as to the identity of the activity (and usage and generation) underpinning the derivation. In the second line, a type attribute is also provided.</span>
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1)
-wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, [prov:type="physical transform"])
-</span>
-<span class="delete">The following description expresses that activity  </span><span class="delete">a</span><span class="delete">, 
-using the entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> according to usage </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete">,
- derived the
-entity </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> and generated it according to generation
- </span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete">. It is followed by descriptions for generation </span><span class="delete">g2</span><span class="delete"> and usage </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-<span class="delete">wasDerivedFrom(e2, e1, a, g2, u1)
-wasGeneratedBy(g2, e2, a, -)
-used(u1, a, e1, -)
-</span>
-<span class="delete">With such a comprehensive description of derivation, a program that analyzes provenance can identify the activity underpinning the derivation, it can identify how the original entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> was used by  the activity (e.g. for instance, which argument it was passed as, if the activity is the result of a function invocation), and which output the derived entity </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> was obtained from (say, for a function returning multiple results).</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.3.2 </span><span class="delete">Revision</span>
-
-<span class="delete">   A </span><span class="delete">revision</span><span class="delete"> is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version. </span>
-
-<span class="delete"> Deciding whether something is made available as a revision of something else usually involves an agent who takes responsibility for approving that the former is a due variant of the latter.
- The agent who is responsible for the revision may optionally be specified.
- Revision is a particular case of </span><span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="delete"> of an entity into its revised version.</span>
-
-<span class="delete"> A </span><span class="delete">revision</span><span class="delete"> relation</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">wasRevisionOf(id,e2,e1,ag,attrs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier for the relation;</span> 
-<span class="delete">newer</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete">) of the revised  entity;
-</span><span class="delete">older</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">) of the older entity;
-</span><span class="delete">responsibility</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete">  identifier (</span><span class="delete">ag</span><span class="delete">) for the agent who approved the newer entity as a variant of the older;
-</span><span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-Revisiting the example of </span><span class="delete">Section 3.2</span><span class="delete">,
-we can now state that the report 
- </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete"> is a revision of 
- the report </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</span><span class="delete">, approved by
-agent  </span><span class="delete">w3:Consortium</span><span class="delete">.
-</span><span class="delete">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, [ prov:type="process:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName ])
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, [ prov:type="process:RecsWD" %% xsd:QName ])
-wasRevisionOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018, w3:Consortium)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-  
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.3.3 </span><span class="delete">Quotation</span>
-
- 
-<span class="delete">   A </span><span class="delete">quotation</span><span class="delete">  is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone other than its original author.  </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">Quotation
- is a particular case of  </span><span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="delete"> in which entity </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete"> is derived from an original entity </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.
-  A </span><span class="delete">quotation</span><span class="delete"> relation</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">wasQuotedFrom(id,e2,e1,ag2,ag1,attrs)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier for the relation;</span> 
-<span class="delete">quote</span><span class="delete">:  an identifier (</span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete">) for the entity that represents the quote (the partial copy);
-</span><span class="delete">original</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">) for the original entity being quoted;
-</span><span class="delete">quoterAgent</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier (</span><span class="delete">ag2</span><span class="delete">) for the agent who performs the quote;
-</span><span class="delete">originalAgent</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier (</span><span class="delete">ag1</span><span class="delete">) for the agent to whom the original entity is attributed;
-</span><span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-The following paragraph is a quote from one of  </span><span class="delete">the author's blogs</span><span class="delete">.
-</span><span class="delete">
-"During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.  This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across systems and through databases and be able to understand the mathematical properties of this interconnection."</span>
-
-<span class="delete">If </span><span class="delete">wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/</span><span class="delete"> denotes the original blog by agent </span><span class="delete">ex:Paul</span><span class="delete">, and 
- </span><span class="delete">dm:bl-dagstuhl</span><span class="delete"> denotes the above paragraph, then the following descriptions express that the above paragraph is copied by agent </span><span class="delete">ex:Luc</span><span class="delete"> from a part of the blog, attributed to the agent </span><span class="delete">ex:Paul</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-<span class="delete">entity(wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/)
-agent(ex:Luc)
-agent(ex:Paul)
-wasQuotedFrom(dm:bl-dagstuhl,wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/,ex:Luc,ex:Paul)
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.3.4 </span><span class="delete">Original Source</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">   An </span><span class="delete">original source</span><span class="delete"> refers to the source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">An </span><span class="delete">original source</span><span class="delete"> relation is a particular case of </span><span class="delete">derivation</span><span class="delete"> 
-that aims to give
-credit to the source that originated some information. It is recognized that it may be
-hard to determine which entity constitutes an original source. This definition is inspired by
-</span><span class="delete">original-source</span><span class="delete"> as defined in
-</span><span class="delete">http://googlenewsblog.blogspot.com/2010/11/credit-where-credit-is-due.html</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete"> An </span><span class="delete">original source</span><span class="delete"> relation</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">hadOriginalSource(id,e2,e1,attrs)</span><span class="delete">,</span><span class="delete"> has:</span>
-
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">:  an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier for the relation;</span> 
-<span class="delete">derived</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete">) for the derived entity; </span>
-<span class="delete">source</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete">) for the original source entity;</span>
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-Let us consider the concept introduced in the current section, identified as </span><span class="delete">dm:concept-original-source</span><span class="delete">, and
-the Google page </span><span class="delete">go:credit-where-credit-is-due.html</span><span class="delete">, where the notion original-source was originally described (to the knowledge of the authors).
-</span><span class="delete">entity(dm:concept-original-source)
-entity(go:credit-where-credit-is-due.html)
-hadOriginalSource(dm:concept-original-source,go:credit-where-credit-is-due.html)
-</span>
-
-
-
-  
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.3.5</span><span class="insert">5.3.5</span> </span>Trace</h4>
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref">   <dfn id="concept-trace" class="internalDFN">Trace</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-trace"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is the ability to link back an entity to another by means of derivation or responsibility relations, possibly repeatedly traversed. </span>
-</p>
-
-
-<p> A trace relation between two entities  <span class="name">e2</span> and  <span class="name">e1</span> is a generic dependency of <span class="name">e2</span>
-on  <span class="name">e1</span> that indicates either that <span class="name">e1</span> may have been necessary for <span class="name">e2</span> to be created, or that <span class="name">e1</span> bears 
-some responsibility for  <span class="name">e2</span>'s existence.
-
-
-</p><p>A <dfn title="tracedTo" id="dfn-tracedto" class="internalDFN">Trace</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-tracedto"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> relation <span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">tracedTo(id,e2,e1,attrs)</span><span class="insert">tracedTo(id; e2, e1, attrs)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="trace.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier identifying the relation;</li> 
-<li><span class="attribute" id="trace.entity">entity</span>:  an identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) for an entity;
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="trace.ancestor">ancestor</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) for an ancestor entity that the former depends on;
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="trace.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-<p>We note that the ancestor <span class="delete">is allowed to</span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em> be an agent since agents <span class="delete">are </span><span class="insert">may be  </span>entities. </p>
-
-<p>
-<a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN">Derivation</a> and <a href="#concept-attribution" class="internalDFN">attribution</a> are particular cases of  trace.
-</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_38" data-count="38"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 38</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_38"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>We refer to the example of <a class="section-ref" href="#section-example-two"><span>Section <span class="delete">3.1</span><span class="insert">4.2</span></span></a>, and specifically to <a href="#prov-a-document2-top">Figure 3</a>. We can see that there is a path from 
-<span class="name">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span> to 
-<span class="name">w3:Consortium</span> and to
-<span class="name">process:rec-advance</span>. This is expressed as follows.
-</p><pre class="codeexample"> <span class="delete">tracedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,w3:Consortium)</span><span class="insert">tracedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, w3:Consortium)</span>
- <span class="delete">tracedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,process:rec-advance)</span><span class="insert">tracedTo(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215, process:rec-advance)</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="component4" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.4</span><span class="insert">5.4</span> </span>Component 4:<span class="insert"> Bundles</span></h3>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The fourth component of PROV-DM is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance. 
-</span><a href="#figure-component4"><span class="insert">Figure 8</span></a><span class="insert">  depicts a UML class diagram for the fourth component.  It comprises a </span><a href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Bundle</span></a><span class="insert"> class and a subclass of </span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></p>
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component4.png" alt="bundles">
-<div class="figcaption" id="figure-component4"><span class="insert">Figure 8: Bundle Component Overview</span></div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div id="term-bundle" class="section"> 
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.4.1 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle constructor</span></h4>
-
-
-<p>
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn id="concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundle</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-bundle"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.  </span></span>
- </p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-bundle"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn title="dfn-bundle" id="dfn-bundle-declaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundle constructor</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-bundle-declaration"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  allows the content and the name of a bundle to be specified; it is written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">bundle id description_1 ... description_n endBundle</span></span><span class="insert"> and consists of:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="bundle.declaration.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an identifier for the bundle;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="bundle.declaration.descriptions"><span class="insert">descriptions</span></span><span class="insert">: a set of provenance descriptions </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">
-description_1</span></span><span class="insert">, ..., </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">description_n</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></li>
-</ul>
-<p><span class="insert">A bundle's identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert"> identifies a unique set of descriptions.</span></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-bundle-entity" class="section"> 
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.4.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Bundle Type</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A  bundle is a named set of descriptions, but it is also an entity so that its provenance can be described.  </span></p><span class="insert">
-
-PROV defines the following type for bundles:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span><span class="insert"> is the type that denotes </span><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">bundles</span></a><span class="insert">.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">
-A  bundle description is of the form </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">entity(id,[prov:type='prov:Bundle', attr1=val1, ...])</span></span><span class="insert">
-where </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert"> is  an identifier denoting a bundle,
- a type </span><span><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span><span class="insert"> and
-an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set of attribute-value  pairs ((</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attr1</span></span><span class="insert">, </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">val1</span></span><span class="insert">), ...) representing additional information about this bundle.
-</span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">The provenance of provenance can then be described using PROV constructs, as illustrated by
-</span><a href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 39</span></span></a><span class="insert">
-and
-</span><a href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation" class="anexample-ref"><span><span class="insert">Example 40</span></span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-of-provenance" data-count="39"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 39</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-of-provenance"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Let us consider two entities </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Let us assume that Bob observed the creation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-A first bundle can be expressed.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle bob:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">In contrast,
-Alice observed the creation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert"> and its derivation from </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">.
-A separate bundle can also be expressed.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle alice:bundle2
-  entity(ex:report1)
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The first bundle contains the descriptions corresponding to  Bob observing the creation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">. Its provenance can be described as follows.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-entity(bob:bundle1, [prov:type='prov:Bundle'])
-wasGeneratedBy(bob:bundle1, -, 2012-05-24T10:30:00)
-wasAttributedTo(bob:bundle1, ex:Bob)
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">In contrast, the second bundle is attributed to Alice who
-observed the derivation of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert"> from </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-entity(alice:bundle2, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasGeneratedBy(alice:bundle2, -, 2012-05-25T11:15:00)
-wasAttributedTo(alice:bundle2, ex:Alice)
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-provenance-aggregation" data-count="40"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 40</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-provenance-aggregation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">A provenance aggregator could merge two bundles, resulting in a novel bundle, whose provenance is described as follows.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle agg:bundle3
-  entity(ex:report1, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=1 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report1, -, 2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-
-  entity(ex:report2, [ prov:type="report", ex:version=2 ])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:report2, -, 2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-
-entity(agg:bundle3, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-agent(ex:aggregator01, [ prov:type='ex:Aggregator' ])
-wasAttributedTo(agg:bundle3, ex:aggregator01)
-wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, bob:bundle1)
-wasDerivedFrom(agg:bundle3, alice:bundle2)
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The new bundle is given a new identifier </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">agg:bundle3</span></span><span class="insert"> and is attributed to the </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:aggregator01</span></span><span class="insert"> agent.
-</span></p></div>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div> 
-
-
-<div id="component5" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Component 5:</span> Alternate Entities</h3>
-
-
-<p>The <span class="delete">fourth</span><span class="insert">fifth</span> component of PROV-DM is concerned with
-relations <a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</a><span class="delete"> and</span><span class="insert">,</span> <a href="#concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</a> <span class="insert">and </span><a href="#concept-contextualiation2" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">contextualization</span></a> between entities.
-
- <a href="#figure-component5">Figure <span class="delete">figure-component4</span><span class="insert">9</span></a> depicts
-the <span class="delete">fourth</span><span class="insert">fifth</span> component with a single <span class="delete">class</span><span class="insert">class,  two binary associations,</span> and <span class="delete">two associations.</span><span class="insert">a ternary association.</span>
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-
-
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component5.png" alt="alternates">
-<div class="figcaption" id="figure-component5">Figure <span class="delete">8:</span><span class="insert">9:</span> Alternates Component Overview</div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="delete">Wherever two people describe the</span><span class="insert">Two</span> provenance <span class="delete">of a</span><span class="insert">descriptions about the</span> same <span class="delete">thing, 
-one cannot expect them to coordinate and agree on the identifiers to use to denote</span><span class="insert">thing may emphasize differents aspects of</span> that thing.</p>
-<div class="anexample" id="entity-example1" data-count="41"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 41</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#entity-example1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>User Alice writes an article. In its provenance, she wishes to refer to the precise version of the article with a date-specific <span class="delete">URI,</span><span class="insert">IRI,</span> as she might edit the article later. Alternatively, user Bob refers to the article in general, independently of its variants over time.</p>
-</div>
-<p>
-<span class="delete">To allow for identifiers to be chosen freely</span><span class="insert">The PROV data model introduces relations, called specialization, alternate,</span> and <span class="delete">independently by each  user, the PROV data model introduces relations</span><span class="insert">contextualization,</span>
-that allow entities  to be linked together.<span class="delete">
-The following two relations</span><span class="insert"> They</span> are <span class="delete">introduced for expressing  specialized or alternate entities.</span><span class="insert">defined as follows.</span> </p>
-
-
-<div id="term-specialization" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.4.1</span><span class="insert">5.5.1</span> </span>Specialization</h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">   An entity <span class="insert">that </span>is a <dfn id="concept-specialization" class="internalDFN">specialization</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-specialization"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> of another <span class="delete">if they refer to some common</span><span class="insert">shares all aspects of the latter, and additionally presents more specific aspects of the same</span> thing <span class="delete">but the former is a more constrained</span><span class="insert">as the latter. In particular, the lifetime of the specialized</span> entity <span class="delete">than the latter. The common thing does not need to be identified. </span><span class="insert">contains that of any specialization.  </span></span> 
-
-
-<p>
-Examples of <span class="delete">constraints  </span><span class="insert">aspects </span>include a time period, an abstraction, and a context associated with the entity.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-specialization">A <dfn title="specializationOf" id="dfn-specializationof" class="internalDFN">specialization</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-specializationof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">specializationOf(sub, super)</span><span class="insert">specializationOf(infra, supra)</span></span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-
-<ul>
-<li><span class="delete">specializedEntity</span><span class="attribute" id="specialization.specificEntity"><span class="insert">specificEntity</span></span>: an identifier (<span class="name"><span class="delete">sub</span><span class="insert">infra</span></span>) of the specialized entity;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="specialization.generalEntity">generalEntity</span>: an identifier (<span class="name"><span class="delete">super</span><span class="insert">supra</span></span>) of the entity that is being specialized.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-specialization" data-count="42"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 42</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-specialization"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The BBC news home page on 2012-03-23 <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>
-is a specialization of the BBC news page in general
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/">bbc:news/</a>. This can be expressed as follows.
-</p><pre class="codeexample">specializationOf(ex:bbcNews2012-03-23, bbc:news/)
-</pre>
-We have created a new qualified name,  <span class="name">ex:bbcNews2012-03-23</span>, in the namespace <span class="name">ex</span>, to identify the specific page carrying this day's news, which would otherwise be the generic  <span class="name">bbc:news/</span> page.
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-alternate" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.4.2</span><span class="insert">5.5.2</span> </span>Alternate</h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">   <span class="delete">An entity is </span><span class="insert">Two </span><dfn id="concept-alternate" class="internalDFN">alternate</dfn><span class="delete"> of another if they are both a specialization of some common entity. The common entity does</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-alternate"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> entities present aspects of the same thing. These aspects may be the same or different, and the alternate entities may or may</span> not <span class="delete">need to be identified. </span><span class="insert">overlap in time.  </span></span>
-
-
-  
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-alternate">An <dfn title="alternateOf" id="dfn-alternateof" class="internalDFN">alternate</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-alternateof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression">alternateOf(e1, e2)</span> in PROV-N,</span> has:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate1">alternate1</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e1</span>) of the first of the two entities;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="alternate.alternate2">alternate2</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">e2</span>) of the second of the two entities.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate" data-count="43"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 43</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-A given news item on the BBC News site 
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/science-environment-17526723</a> for desktop
-is an alternate of a 
- <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile/science-environment-17526723">bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723</a> for mobile devices.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, [ prov:type="a news item for desktop"])
-entity(bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723, [ prov:type="a news item for mobile devices"])
-alternateOf(bbc:news/science-environment-17526723, bbc:news/mobile/science-environment-17526723)
-</pre>
-<span class="delete">They are both specialization of an (unspecified) entity. </span>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-alternate2" data-count="44"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 44</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-alternate2"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-Considering again the two versions of the technical report <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span> (second working draft) and <span class="name"><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018</a></span></span> (first working draft). They are alternate of each other.
-</p><pre class="codeexample">entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018)
-entity(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-alternateOf(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018,tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215)
-</pre>
-<p>They are both specialization of the page <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a>.</p>
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-contextualization" class="section">
-
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.5.3 </span></span><span class="insert">Contextualization</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The following notion is a relation between two entities with regard to a bundle (referred to as remote bundle). In contrast, the bundle in which this relation occurs is referred to as local bundle.</span></p> 
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">    An entity that is a </span><dfn id="concept-contextualiation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">contextualization</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-contextualiation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> of another entity presents all aspects of the latter as per the latter's description in another bundle (referred to as remote bundle), and therefore constitutes a particular case of </span><a href="#concept-specialization" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">specialization</span></a><span class="insert"> of the latter entity. </span></span>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A bundle's
-descriptions provide a context in which to interpret an entity in a
-domain-specific manner.  The contextualization of this entity with respect to this bundle offers the opportunity to specialize it according to some domain-specific interpretation.
-</span></p>
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A contextualization of an entity in a remote bundle results in a specialization of this entity with extra fixed aspects, including the remote bundle that it is described in. 
-</span></p>
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-contextualization"><span class="insert">A </span><dfn title="contextualizationOf" id="dfn-contextualizationof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">contextualization</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-contextualizationof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation</span><span class="withPn"><span class="insert">, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">contextualizationOf(l, e, b)</span></span><span class="insert"> in PROV-N,</span></span><span class="insert"> has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="contextualization.local"><span class="insert">local</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">l</span></span><span class="insert">) for an entity in the local bundle (not explicitly identified) presenting the aspects of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert"> in remote bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">b</span></span><span class="insert"> ;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="contextualization.contextualized"><span class="insert">contextualized</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e</span></span><span class="insert">) of an entity in some remote bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">b</span></span><span class="insert">;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="contextualization.context"><span class="insert">bundle</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">b</span></span><span class="insert">) for a remote bundle.</span></li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-contextualization1" data-count="45"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 45</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-contextualization1"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">In the following example, two bundles </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run2</span></span><span class="insert"> refer to an agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Bob</span></span><span class="insert"> that controlled two activities </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a2</span></span><span class="insert">. </span></p>
-
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle ex:run1
-    activity(ex:a1, 2011-11-16T16:00:00,2011-11-16T17:00:00)  //duration: 1hour
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a1,ex:Bob,[prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-
-bundle ex:run2
-    activity(ex:a2, 2011-11-17T10:00:00,2011-11-17T17:00:00)  //duration: 7hours
-    wasAssociatedWith(ex:a2,ex:Bob,[prov:role="controller"])
-endBundle
-</span></pre> 
-<p><span class="insert">A performance rating tool reads these bundles, and rates the performance of the agent described in these bundles. The performance rating tool creates a new bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:analysis01</span></span><span class="insert"> containing the following. A new agent </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:Bob-2011-11-16</span></span><span class="insert"> is declared as a contextualization of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:Bob</span></span><span class="insert"> as described in remote bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run1</span></span><span class="insert">, and likewise for  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:Bob-2011-11-17</span></span><span class="insert"> with respect to </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:run2</span></span><span class="insert">. The tool adds a domain-specific performance attribute to each of these specialized entities as follows: the performance of the agent in the first bundle is judged to be good since the duration of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a1</span></span><span class="insert"> is one hour, whereas it is judged to be bad in the second bundle since </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:a2</span></span><span class="insert">'s duration is seven hours.
-
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">bundle tool:analysis01
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, [perf:rating="good"])
-    contextualizationOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-16, ex:Bob, ex:run1)
-
-    agent(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, [perf:rating="bad"])
-    contextualizationOf(tool:Bob-2011-11-17, ex:Bob, ex:run2)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="aexample-contextualization-viz" data-count="46"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 46</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#aexample-contextualization-viz"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">Consider the following bundle of descriptions, in which derivation and generations have been identified.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle obs:bundle1
-  entity(ex:report1, [prov:type="report", ex:version=1])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g1; ex:report1,-,2012-05-24T10:00:01)
-  entity(ex:report2, [prov:type="report", ex:version=2])
-  wasGeneratedBy(ex:g2; ex:report2,-,2012-05-25T11:00:01)
-  wasDerivedFrom(ex:report2, ex:report1)
-endBundle
-entity(obs:bundle1, [ prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-wasAttributedTo(obs:bundle1, ex:observer01)
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-Bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">obs:bundle1</span></span><span class="insert"> is rendered by a visualisation tool.  It may useful for the tool configuration for this bundle to be shared along with the provenance descriptions, so that other users can render provenance as it was originally rendered.  The original  bundle obviously cannot be changed. However, one can create a new bundle, as follows.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-bundle tool:bundle2
-  entity(tool:bundle2, [ prov:type='viz:Configuration', prov:type='prov:Bundle' ])
-  wasAttributedTo(tool:bundle2, viz:Visualizer)
-
-  entity(tool:report1, [viz:color="orange"])
-  contextualizationOf(tool:report1, obs:bundle1, ex:report1)
-
-  entity(tool:report2, [viz:color="blue"])              
-  contextualizationOf(tool:report2, obs:bundle1, ex:report2)
-endBundle
-</span></pre>
-
-<p><span class="insert">In bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:bundle2</span></span><span class="insert">, the prefix </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">viz</span></span><span class="insert"> is used for naming visualisation-specific attributes, types or values.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">Bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:bundle2</span></span><span class="insert"> is given type </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">viz:Configuration</span></span><span class="insert"> to indicate that it consists of descriptions that pertain to the configuration of the visualisation tool. This type attribute can be used for searching bundles containing visualization-related descriptions.
-</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The visualisation tool
- created  new identifiers </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:report1</span></span><span class="insert"> and
-</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">tool:report2</span></span><span class="insert">.
-They denote entities which are specializations of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report1</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:report2</span></span><span class="insert">, described in bundle </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">obs:bundle1</span></span><span class="insert">, with visualization attribute for the color to be used when rendering these entities.   </span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="component6" class="section"> 
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5</span><span class="insert">5.6</span> </span>Component <span class="delete">5:</span><span class="insert">6:</span> Collections</h3>
-
-<p>The <span class="delete">fifth</span><span class="insert">sixth</span> component of PROV-DM is concerned with the notion of collections. 
-A collection is an entity that has some members. The members are themselves entities, and therefore their provenance can be expressed. Some applications need to be able to express the provenance of the collection  itself: e.g. who maintains the <span class="delete">collection,</span><span class="insert">collection (attribution),</span> which members it contains as it evolves, and how it was assembled. The purpose of Component <span class="delete">5</span><span class="insert">6</span> is to define the types and relations that are useful to express the provenance of collections. In PROV, the concept of Collection is implemented by means of dictionaries, which we introduce in this section. </p>
-
-<p><a href="#figure-component6">Figure <span class="delete">figure-component5</span><span class="insert">10</span></a> depicts
-the <span class="delete">fifth</span><span class="insert">sixth</span> component with four new classes <span class="insert">(Collection, Dictionary, EmptyDictionary, </span>and <span class="insert">Pair) and </span>three <span class="delete">associations.</span><span class="insert">associations (insertion, removal, and memberOf).</span>
-</p>
-
-
-<div style="text-align: center;">
-
-
-<figure>
-
-<img src="uml/component6.png" alt="dictionaries">
-
-<div class="figcaption" id="figure-component6">Figure <span class="delete">9:</span><span class="insert">10:</span> Collections Component Overview</div>
-</figure>
-</div>
-
-
-<p>The intent of these relations and types is to express the <em>history of changes that occurred to a collection</em>. 
-Changes to collections are about the insertion of entities <span class="delete">in collections</span><span class="insert">into,</span> and the removal of <span class="delete">members</span><span class="insert">entities</span> from <span class="delete">collections.</span><span class="insert">the collection.</span>
-Indirectly, such history provides a way to reconstruct the contents of <span class="delete">a</span><span class="insert">the</span> collection.</p>
-
-<div id="term-collection" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.1</span><span class="insert">5.6.1</span> </span>Collection</h4>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-collection" class="internalDFN">collection</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-collection"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be <dfn id="dfn-member-of" class="internalDFN">member of</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-member-of"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> the collections.  </span>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A collection is a multiset of entities (it is a multiset, rather than a set, because it may not be possible to verify that two distinct entity identitifiers do not denote, in fact, the same entity).</span></p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   An </span><dfn id="concept-empty-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">empty collection</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-empty-collection"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a collection without members.  </span></span>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">PROV-DM defines the following types related to collections:</span></p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li> <span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span><span class="insert">  denotes an entity of type Collection, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst collections;
-
-  </span></li><li><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyCollection</span></span><span class="insert"> denotes an empty collection.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_47" data-count="47"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 47</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_47"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(c0, [prov:type='prov:EmptyCollection' ])  // c0 is an empty collection
-entity(c1, [prov:type='prov:Collection'  ])      // c1 is a collection, with unknown content
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>In PROV, the concept of Collection is  provided as an extensibility point for <span class="delete">other</span><span class="insert">specialized</span> kinds of collections. <span class="delete">Collections are implemented by means of dictionaries, which are introduced</span><span class="insert">One of these, Dictionary, is defined</span> next. </p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-collection-membership" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.2</span><span class="insert">5.6.2 </span></span><span class="insert">Collection Memberhsip</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><strong><span class="insert">collection membership</span></strong><span class="insert"> relation is defined, to allow stating the  members of a Collection. </span></p>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"> <dfn id="concept-membership" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Membership</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-membership"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the belonging of an entity  to a collection. </span></span>
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn title="memberOf" id="dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">membership</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-memberof"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">memberOf(id; c, {e_1, ..., e_n}, cplt, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert">, has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier identifying the relation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.collection"><span class="insert">collection</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">c</span></span><span class="insert">) for the collection whose members are asserted; </span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.entity-set"><span class="insert">entity-set</span></span><span class="insert">: a set of entities  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e_1</span></span><span class="insert">, ..., </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">e_n</span></span><span class="insert"> that are members of the collection;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> boolean 
-</span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">cplt</span></span><span class="insert">). It is interpreted as follows:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="insert">if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the entity-set;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert">if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the entity-set;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert">if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the entity-set, and it </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> include more.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="membership.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-</div>
-
-<p id="complete-attribute-note"><span class="insert">
-Note that the attribute </span><a href="#membership.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></a><span class="insert"> indicates that the </span><a title="memberOf" href="#dfn-memberof" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">membership</span></a><span class="insert"> relation provides a complete description of the collection membership. It is possible for  different provenance descriptions to provide different membership statements regarding the same collection. The resolution of any potential conflict amongst such membership statements is defined by applications.</span></p>
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-dictionary" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.3</span> </span>Dictionary</h4>
-
-
-
-
-<p>PROV-DM defines a specific type of <span class="delete">collection: a dictionary,</span><span class="insert">collection,</span> specified as follows.</p>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">     A <dfn id="concept-dictionary" class="internalDFN">dictionary</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-dictionary"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is a collection whose members are indexed by keys.   </span>
-
-<p>Conceptually, a dictionary has a logical structure consisting of key-entity pairs. This structure is often referred to as a <em>map</em>, and is a generic indexing mechanism that can abstract commonly used data structures, including associative <span class="delete">lists (also known as "dictionaries" in some programming languages),</span><span class="insert">lists,</span> relational tables, ordered lists, and more. The specification of such specialized structures in terms of key-value pairs is out of the scope of this document.</p>
-
-<p>A given dictionary forms a given structure for its members.  A different structure (obtained either by insertion or removal of members) constitutes a different dictionary. Hence,
- for the purpose of provenance, a dictionary entity is viewed as a snapshot of a structure. Insertion and removal operations result in new snapshots, each snapshot forming an identifiable dictionary entity.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">Following the earlier definitions for generic collections,  </span>PROV-DM defines the following types related to dictionaries:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li> <span class="name">prov:Dictionary</span>  <span class="insert"> is a subtype of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span><span class="insert">. It </span>denotes an entity of type dictionary, i.e. an entity that  can participate in  relations amongst dictionaries;
-
-  </li><li><span class="name">prov:EmptyDictionary</span> <span class="insert">is a subtype of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyCollection</span></span><span class="insert">. It </span>denotes an empty dictionary.
-</li></ul>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_48" data-count="48"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 48</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_48"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(d0, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:EmptyDictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])</span>  // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(d1, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:Dictionary"</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:Dictionary'</span>  <span class="delete">%% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">])</span>      // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-</div>  
-
-<div id="term-dictionary-membership" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.6.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary Membership</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"> <dfn id="concept-membership" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Membership</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-membership"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the belonging of a key-entity pair to a dictionary. </span></span><span class="insert">
-
-The </span><strong><span class="insert">dictionary  membership</span></strong><span class="insert"> has the same purpose as the </span><a href="#term-collection-membership"><span class="insert">collection membership</span></a><span class="insert"> relation, but it applies to entities having </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:type = 'prov:Dictionary'</span></span><span class="insert">. It allows stating the members of a Dictionary.</span>
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-memberOf-d"><span class="insert">
- A </span><dfn title="memberOf-d" id="dfn-memberof-d" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">membership</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-memberof-d"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> relation, written </span><span class="pnExpression"><span class="insert">memberOf(id; c, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, cplt, attrs)</span></span><span class="insert">, has:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership-d.id"><span class="insert">id</span></span><span class="insert">:  an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> identifier identifying the relation;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership-d.dictionary"><span class="insert">dictionary</span></span><span class="insert">: an identifier (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">c</span></span><span class="insert">) for the dictionary whose members are asserted; </span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership-d.key-entity-set"><span class="insert">key-entity-set</span></span><span class="insert">: a set of key-entity pairs </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">(key_1, e_1)</span></span><span class="insert">, ..., </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">(key_n, e_n)</span></span><span class="insert"> that are members of the dictionary;</span></li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="membership-d.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> boolean 
-</span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert"> (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">cplt</span></span><span class="insert">). It is interpreted as follows:
-</span><ul>
-<li><span class="insert">if it is present and set to true, then c is believed to include all and only the members specified in the key-entity-set;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert">if it is present and set to false, then c is believed to include more members in addition to those specified in the key-entity-set;
-</span></li><li><span class="insert">if it is not present, then c is believed to include all the members specified in the key-entity-set, and it </span><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><span class="insert">may</span></em><span class="insert"> include more.
-</span></li></ul>
-
-
-</li><li><span class="attribute" id="membership-d.attributes"><span class="insert">attributes</span></span><span class="insert">: an </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert"> set (</span><span class="name"><span class="insert">attrs</span></span><span class="insert">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span></li>
-</ul>
-
-</div>
-
-<p id="complete-attribute-note-d"><span class="insert">
-The attribute </span><a href="#membership-d.complete"><span class="insert">complete</span></a><span class="insert"> is interpreted as for  the general </span><a href="#term-collection"><span class="insert">collection membership</span></a><span class="insert"> relation. 
-
-</span></p><div class="anexample" id="example_49" data-count="49"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 49</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_49"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">entity(d1, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])    // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-entity(d2, [prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])    // d2 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-
-memberOf(d1, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)} )  
-memberOf(d2, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)}, true)  
-
-</span></pre><span class="insert">
-From these descriptions, we conclude:
-</span><ul>
-<li> <span class="name"><span class="insert">d1</span></span><span class="insert">  has  the following pairs as members: </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span></span><span class="insert">, and may contain others.
-</span></li><li> <span class="name"><span class="insert">d2</span></span><span class="insert">  exactly has  the following pairs as members: </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span></span><span class="insert">, and does not contain any other.
-</span></li></ul>
-<p><span class="insert"> Thus, the membership of </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">d1</span></span><span class="insert"> is only partially known.</span></p>
-</div>
-
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="term-dictionary-insertion" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.3 </span><span class="insert">5.6.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary </span>Insertion</h4>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">  <dfn id="concept-insertion" class="internalDFN">Insertion</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-insertion"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by insertion of one or more key-entity pairs. </span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p></p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivedByInsertionFrom">
-<p>An <dfn title="derivedByInsertionFrom" id="dfn-derivedbyinsertionfrom" class="internalDFN">Insertion</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-derivedbyinsertionfrom"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> relation<span class="withPn">, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">derivedByInsertionFrom(id,</span><span class="insert">derivedByInsertionFrom(id;</span> d2, d1, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, attrs)</span>,</span> has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="insertion.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier identifying the relation;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="insertion.after">after</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d2</span>) for the dictionary <em>after</em> insertion; </li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="insertion.before">before</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d1</span>) for the dictionary <em>before</em> insertion;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="insertion.key-entity-set">key-entity-set</span>: the inserted key-entity pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> in which each <span class="name">key_i</span> is a <a href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">value</a>, and <span class="name">e_i</span> is an identifier  for the entity that has been inserted with the key;
- each <span class="name">key_i</span> is expected to be unique for the key-entity-set;
-</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="insertion.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>
-An Insertion relation <span class="name"><span class="delete">derivedByInsertionFrom(id,</span><span class="insert">derivedByInsertionFrom(id;</span> d2, d1,  {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)})</span> states that  <span class="name">d2</span> is the <span class="delete">state of the </span>dictionary
-following the insertion of pairs <span class="name">(key_1, e_1)</span>, ..., <span class="name">(key_n, e_n)</span> into dictionary  <span class="name">d1</span>.</p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_50" data-count="50"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 50</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_50"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(d0, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:EmptyDictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])</span>    // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-entity(e3)
-entity(d1, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:Dictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])</span>
-entity(d2, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:Dictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])</span>
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)})       
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k3", e3)})    
-</pre>
-From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li>   <span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
-</li><li>   <span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2) }</span>
-</li><li>   <span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", e3) }</span>
-</li></ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>Insertion provides an "update semantics" for the keys that are already present in a dictionary,
-since a new pair replaces an existing pair with the same key in the new dictionary. This is illustrated by the following example.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_51" data-count="51"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 51</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_51"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(d0, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:EmptyDictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:EmptyDictionary' ])</span>    // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-entity(e3)
-entity(d1, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:Dictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])</span>
-entity(d2, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:Dictionary" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='prov:Dictionary' ])</span>
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)})       
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k1", e3)})    
-</pre>
-   This is a case of <em>update</em> of <span class="name">e1</span> to <span class="name">e3</span> for the same key, <span class="name">"k1"</span>. <br>
-  From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li>   <span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
-</li><li>   <span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2) }</span>
-</li><li>   <span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e3), ("k2", e2) }</span>
-</li></ul>
-</div>
-
-</div>  
-
-
-<div id="term-dictionary-removal" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.5.4 </span><span class="insert">5.6.6 </span></span><span class="insert">Dictionary </span>Removal</h4>
-
-<span class="glossary-ref">  <dfn id="concept-removal" class="internalDFN">Removal</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-removal"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by removing one or more key-entity pairs. </span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-</p><div class="attributes" id="attributes-derivedByRemovalFrom">
-<p> A <dfn title="derivedByRemovalFrom" id="dfn-derivedbyremovalfrom" class="internalDFN">Removal</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-derivedbyremovalfrom"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> relation, written <span class="pnExpression"><span class="delete">derivedByRemovalFrom(id,</span><span class="insert">derivedByRemovalFrom(id;</span> d2, d1, {key_1, ... key_n}, attrs)</span>, has:</p>
-<ul>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="removal.id">id</span>:  an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> identifier identifying the relation;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="removal.after">after</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d2</span>) for the dictionary  <em>after</em> the deletion; </li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="removal.before">before</span>: an identifier (<span class="name">d1</span>)  for the dictionary <em>before</em> the deletion;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="removal.key-set">key-set</span>: a set of deleted keys  <span class="name">key_1</span>, ..., <span class="name">key_n</span>, for which each <span class="name">key_i</span> is a <a href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">value</a>;</li>
-<li><span class="attribute" id="removal.attributes">attributes</span>: an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> set (<span class="name">attrs</span>) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-<p>A Removal relation <span class="name"><span class="delete">derivedByRemovalFrom(id,</span><span class="insert">derivedByRemovalFrom(id;</span> d2,d1, {key_1, ..., key_n})</span> states that  <span class="name">d2</span> is  the  <span class="delete">state of the </span>dictionary following the removal of the set of pairs corresponding to keys  <span class="name">key_1...key_n</span> from  <span class="name">d1</span>.
-
-</p><div class="anexample" id="example_52" data-count="52"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 52</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_52"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(d0, [prov:type="prov:EmptyDictionary"])    // d0 is an empty dictionary
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-entity(e3)
-entity(d1, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"])
-entity(d2, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"])
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d1, d0, {("k1", e1), ("k2",e2)})       
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d2, d1, {("k3", e3)})
-derivedByRemovalFrom(d3, d2, {"k1", "k3"})   
-</pre>
-From this set of descriptions, we conclude:
-<ul>
-<li><span class="name">d0</span> is the set <span class="name">{  }</span>
-</li><li><span class="name">d1</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)  }</span>
-</li><li><span class="name">d2</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", e3) }</span>
-</li><li><span class="name">d3</span> is the set <span class="name">{ ("k2", e2) }</span>
-</li></ul>
-
-  
-</div>
-
-</div>  
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.5.5 </span><span class="delete">Membership</span>
-
-
- <span class="delete">Membership</span><span class="delete"> is the belonging of a key-entity pair to dictionary. </span>
-
-<span class="delete">
-The insertion and removal  relations make insertions and removals explicit as part of the history of a dictionary. This, however, requires explicit mention of the state of the dictionary prior to each operation. The membership relation removes this needs, allowing the state of a dictionary </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> to be expressed without having to introduce a prior state.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">
- A </span><span class="delete">membership</span><span class="delete"> relation, written </span><span class="delete">memberOf(id, c, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)}, cplt, attrs)</span><span class="delete">, has:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">:  an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> identifier identifying the relation;</span>
-<span class="delete">after</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete">) for the dictionary whose members are asserted; </span>
-<span class="delete">key-entity-set</span><span class="delete">: a set of key-entity pairs </span><span class="delete">(key_1, e_1)</span><span class="delete">, ..., </span><span class="delete">(key_n, e_n)</span><span class="delete"> that are members of the dictionary;</span>
-<span class="delete">complete</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> boolean 
-</span><span class="delete">Value</span><span class="delete"> (</span><span class="delete">cplt</span><span class="delete">); if true, it indicates that no other member belongs to the dictionary;  if false, it indicates that other members belong to the dictionary; if unspecified, other members </span><span class="delete">may</span><span class="delete"> belong to the dictionary.
-</span><span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: an </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete"> set (</span><span class="delete">attrs</span><span class="delete">) of attribute-value pairs representing additional information about this relation.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">The description </span><span class="delete">memberOf(c, {(key_1, e_1), ..., (key_n, e_n)})</span><span class="delete"> states that  </span><span class="delete">c</span><span class="delete"> is known to include </span><span class="delete">(key_1, e_1)</span><span class="delete">, ..., </span><span class="delete">(key_n, e_n)}</span><span class="delete">, without having to introduce a previous state. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">entity(d1, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"  %% xsd:QName])    // d1 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-entity(d2, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"  %% xsd:QName])    // d2 is a dictionary, with unknown content
-
-entity(e1)
-entity(e2)
-
-memberOf(d1, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)} )  
-memberOf(d2, {("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)}, true)  
-
-entity(e3)
-entity(d3, [prov:type="prov:Dictionary"  %% xsd:QName])
-
-derivedByInsertionFrom(d3, d1, {("k3", e3)})     
-</span><span class="delete">
-From these descriptions, we conclude:
-</span>
- <span class="delete">d1</span><span class="delete">  has  the following pairs as members: </span><span class="delete">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span><span class="delete">, and may contain others.
-</span> <span class="delete">d2</span><span class="delete">  exactly has  the following pairs as members: </span><span class="delete">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2)</span><span class="delete">, and does not contain any other.
-</span> <span class="delete">d3</span><span class="delete"> has  the following pairs as members: </span><span class="delete">("k1", e1), ("k2", e2), ("k3", v3)</span><span class="delete">, and may contain others.
-</span>
-<span class="delete"> Thus, the states of </span><span class="delete">d1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">d3</span><span class="delete"> are only partially known.</span>
-
-
-
-
-  
-
-
-
-<p>Further considerations: </p>
-
-<ul>
-
-<span class="delete">The state of a dictionary (i.e., the set of key-entity pairs it contains) at a given point in a sequence of operations is never stated explicitly. Rather, it can be obtained by querying the chain of derivations involving insertions and removals. Entity type </span><span class="delete">emptyDictionary</span><span class="delete"> can be used in this context as it marks the start of a sequence of dictionary operations.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<li>The representation of a dictionary through these relations makes no assumption regarding the underlying data structure used to store and manage dictionaries. In particular, no assumptions are needed regarding the mutability of a data structure that is subject to updates. Entities, however, are immutable and this applies  to those entities that represent dictionaries. This is reflected in the constraints listed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].  </li>
-</ul>
-
-  
-</div>   
-
-
- 
-   
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="second-class-elements" class="section">
-<h3><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.6 </span><span class="delete">Component 6: Annotations</span>
-
-<span class="delete">The sixth component of PROV-DM is concerned with </span><span class="delete">notes</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">annotations</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-<span class="delete">As provenance descriptions are exchanged between systems, it may be useful for a third party to add extra information to what they are describing. For instance, a "trust service" may add value-judgements about the
-trustworthiness of some of the entities or agents occurring in provenance records it is given access to. Likewise, an interactive visualization component may want to enrich an existing set of provenance descriptions with information helping reproduce their
-visual representation. To help with interoperability, PROV-DM introduces a simple annotation mechanism allowing anything that is identifiable to be associated with notes.
-For this, a type and and a relation are introduced.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">The annotation mechanism (with note and annotation) forms a key aspect of the extensibility mechanism of PROV-DM (see </span><span class="delete">extensibility section</span><span class="delete">).</span>
-    
-      
-<span class="delete">4.6.1 </span><span class="delete">Note</span>
-
-<span class="delete"> A </span><span class="delete">note</span><span class="delete"> is an identified set of application-specific attribute-value pairs.</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">A </span><span class="delete">note</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">note(id, [attr1=val1, ...])</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">id</span><span class="delete">: an identifier for a note;</span>
-<span class="delete">attributes</span><span class="delete">: a set of attribute-value pairs ((</span><span class="delete">attr1</span><span class="delete">, </span><span class="delete">val1</span><span class="delete">), ...) representing application-specific information.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-The following note consists of a set of application-specific attribute-value pairs, intended
-to help the rendering of the pre-existing entity it is associated with, by
-specifying its color and its position on the screen.</span>
-<span class="delete">note(ex:n1,[draw:color="blue", draw:screenX=20, draw:screenY=30])
-hasAnnotation(tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215,ex:n1)
-</span>
-<span class="delete">The note is linked to the entity </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete">, with
-relation </span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation</span><span class="delete">  
-discussed in  </span><span class="delete">Section 4.6.2</span><span class="delete">.  
-The note's identifier is declared in the namespace denoted by prefix </span><span class="delete">ex</span><span class="delete"> to illustrate that the rendering  application may differ from the application involving entity </span><span class="delete">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</span><span class="delete">. The prefix </span><span class="delete">draw</span><span class="delete"> also denotes an application-specific namespace.
-</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">In contrast, a reputation service may enrich an existing provenance record with notes providing reputation ratings about agents. In the following fragment, both agents </span><span class="delete">ex2:Simon</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">ex2:Paolo</span><span class="delete"> are rated "excellent".</span>
-<span class="delete">note(ex3:n2,[trust:reputation="excellent"])
-hasAnnotation(ex2:Simon,ex3:n2)
-hasAnnotation(ex2:Paolo,ex3:n2)
-</span>
-<span class="delete">The note's identifier is declared in a separate namespace denoted by prefix </span><span class="delete">ex3</span><span class="delete">.  The prefix </span><span class="delete">trust</span><span class="delete"> also denotes an application specific namespace.</span>
-
-
-
-
-    
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.6.2 </span><span class="delete">Annotation</span>
-
-
-
-<span class="delete"> An </span><span class="delete">annotation</span><span class="delete"> is a link between something that is identifiable and a note referred to by its identifier.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">Multiple notes can
-be associated with a given identified object; symmetrically, multiple objects can be associated with a given note.  Since notes have identifiers,  they can also be
-annotated. </span>
-
-<span class="delete">An </span><span class="delete">annotation relation</span><span class="delete">, written </span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation(r,n)</span><span class="delete"> in PROV-N,</span><span class="delete"> has:
-</span>
-<span class="delete">something</span><span class="delete">: the identifier (</span><span class="delete">r</span><span class="delete">) of something being annotated;</span>
-<span class="delete">note</span><span class="delete">: an identifier (</span><span class="delete">n</span><span class="delete">) of a note.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">
-The following expressions</span>
-<span class="delete">entity(e1,[prov:type="document"])
-entity(e2,[prov:type="document"])
-activity(a,t1,t2)
-used(u1,a,e1,[ex:file="stdin"])
-wasGeneratedBy(e2, a, [ex:file="stdout"])
-
-note(n1,[ex:icon="doc.png"])
-hasAnnotation(e1,n1)
-hasAnnotation(e2,n1)
-
-note(n2,[ex:style="dotted"])
-hasAnnotation(u1,n2)
-</span>
-<span class="delete">describe two  documents (attribute-value pair: </span><span class="delete">prov:type="document"</span><span class="delete">) identified by </span><span class="delete">e1</span><span class="delete"> and </span><span class="delete">e2</span><span class="delete">, and their annotation with a note indicating that the icon (an application specific way of rendering provenance) is </span><span class="delete">doc.png</span><span class="delete">. The example also
-includes an activity, its usage of the first entity, and its generation of the second entity. The </span><span class="delete">usage</span><span class="delete"> is annotated with a style (an application specific way
-of rendering this edge graphically). To be able to express this annotation, the usage was provided with an identifier </span><span class="delete">u1</span><span class="delete">, which was then referred to in </span><span class="delete">hasAnnotation(u1,n2)</span><span class="delete">.
-</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.7</span><span class="insert">5.7</span> </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</h3>
-
-This section introduces further elements of PROV-DM.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-identifier" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.1 </span><span class="delete">Namespace Declaration</span>
-
-<span class="delete">A PROV-DM </span><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="delete"> is identified by an IRI [</span><span class="delete">IRI</span><span class="delete">]. In PROV-DM, attributes, identifiers, and values with </span><span class="delete">qualified names</span><span class="delete"> as data type can be placed in a namespace using the mechanisms described in this specification. </span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">A </span><span class="delete">namespace declaration</span><span class="delete"> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this
-declaration refers to this namespace. 
-A </span><span class="delete">default namespace declaration</span><span class="delete"> consists of a namespace. Every un-prefixed qualified name in the scope of this default namespace declaration
-refers to this namespace.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">The </span><span class="delete">PROV namespace</span><span class="delete"> is identified by the URI </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.7.2 </span><span class="delete">Qualified Name</span>
-
-
-<span class="delete">   A </span><span class="delete">qualified name</span><span class="delete"> is a name subject to </span><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="delete"> interpretation. It consists of a </span><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="delete">, denoted by an optional prefix, and a local name.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">PROV-DM stipulates that a qualified name can be mapped into an IRI
- by concatenating the IRI associated with the prefix and the local part.</span>
-
-<span class="delete">A qualified name's prefix is </span><span class="delete">optional</span><span class="delete">. If a prefix occurs in a
- qualified name, it refers to a </span><span class="delete">namespace</span><span class="delete"> declared in a namespace declaration.  In the absence of prefix, the qualified name 
- refers to the </span><span class="delete">default namespace</span><span class="delete">.</span>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">4.7.3</span><span class="insert">5.7.1</span> </span>Identifier</h4>
-
-<p>
-An <dfn id="dfn-identifier" class="internalDFN">identifier</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-identifier"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is a <a href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN">qualified
- name</a>. 
-</p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-attribute" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.2</span> </span>Attribute</h4>
-
-<p>An <dfn title="dfn-attribute" id="dfn-attribute" class="internalDFN">attribute</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-attribute"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> is a <a href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN">qualified name</a>. 
-
-
-</p><p>The PROV data model introduces a pre-defined set of attributes in the <a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</a>, which we define below. 
-This specification does not provide any interpretation for any attribute declared in any other namespace.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<div id="attributes-at-a-glance-div" style="text-align: left;">
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="attributes-at-a-glance">Table <span class="delete">5:</span><span class="insert">6:</span> PROV-DM Attributes At a Glance</caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><b>Attribute</b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Allowed In</span></b></td><td><b>value</b></td><td><b>Section</b></td></tr> 
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="label" href="#concept-label" class="internalDFN">prov:label</a></td><td><span class="delete">xsd:string</span><em><span class="insert">any construct</span></em></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a><span class="insert"> of type </span><a class="section-ref" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="insert">xsd:string</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-label"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.1</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="location" href="#concept-location" class="internalDFN">prov:location</a></td><td><span class="delete">Value</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Activity</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-location"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.2</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="role" href="#concept-role" class="internalDFN">prov:role</a></td><td><span class="delete">Value</span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Association</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Start</span></a><span class="insert">, and </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">End</span></a></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-role"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.3</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.3</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="type" href="#concept-type" class="internalDFN">prov:type</a></td><td><span class="delete">Value</span><em><span class="insert">any construct</span></em></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-type"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.4</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="value-attribute" href="#concept-value-attribute" class="internalDFN">prov:value</a></td><td><span class="delete">Value</span><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td><td><span class="insert">A </span><a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Value</span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-attribute-value"><span>Section <span class="delete">4.7.4.5</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.5</span></span></a> </td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-label" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.1</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.1</span> </span>prov:label</h5>
-
-
-
-
-<p> 
-<span class="glossary-ref">    The attribute <dfn id="concept-label" title="label" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:label</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-label"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> provides a human-readable representation of <span class="insert">an instance of </span>a PROV-DM <span class="delete">element</span><span class="insert">type</span> or relation.     </span>
-The value associated with the attribute <span class="name">prov:label</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a string.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_53" data-count="53"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 53</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_53"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following entity is provided with a label attribute.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> entity(ex:e1, <span class="delete">[prov:label="This</span><span class="insert">[ prov:label="This</span> is a <span class="delete">label"])</span><span class="insert">human-readable label" ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-location" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.2</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.2</span> </span>prov:location</h5>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref">   A <dfn id="concept-location" title="location" class="internalDFN">location</dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-location"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup> can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column.   </span>
-As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate,
-address, landmark, and so forth. This  document does not specify how to concretely express  locations, but instead provide a mechanism to introduce locations, by means of a reserved attribute. </p> 
-
-
-<p>
-The attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> is an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> attribute of entity, activity, usage, and generation.  The value associated with the  attribute <span class="name">prov:location</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>, expected to denote a location.
-</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example-location" data-count="54"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 54</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example-location"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following expression describes entity Mona Lisa, a painting, with a location attribute. </p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> entity(ex:MonaLisa, <span class="delete">[prov:location="Le</span><span class="insert">[ prov:location="Le</span> Louvres, Paris", <span class="delete">prov:type="StillImage"])</span><span class="insert">prov:type="StillImage" ])</span>
-</pre>
-<p><span class="insert">The following expression describes a cell, at coordinates (5,5), with value 10. </span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> entity(ex:cell, [ prov:location="(5,5)", prov:value="10" %% xsd:integer ])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-role" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.3</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.3</span> </span>prov:role</h5>
-
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-role" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">role</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-role"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity, in the context of a </span><a href="#concept-usage" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">usage</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-generation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">generation</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-invalidation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">invalidation</span></a><span class="insert">,  </span><a href="#concept-activityAssociation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">association</span></a><span class="insert">, </span><a href="#concept-start" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">start</span></a><span class="insert">, and  </span><a href="#concept-end" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">end</span></a><span class="insert">. </span></span></p>
-
-<p><span class="delete">The attribute </span><span class="delete">prov:role</span><span class="delete">  denotes the function of an entity with respect to an activity, in the context of a usage, generation,
- association,  start, and  end. </span>
-The attribute <span class="name">prov:role</span> is allowed to occur multiple times in a list of attribute-value pairs. The value associated with a <span class="name">prov:role</span> attribute <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-role" data-count="55"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 55</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-role"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following activity is associated with an agent acting as the operator. </p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> wasAssociatedWith(a, ag, <span class="delete">[prov:role="operator"])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:role="operator" ])
-</span></pre>
-<p><span class="insert">In the following expression, the activity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:div01</span></span><span class="insert"> used entity </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:cell</span></span><span class="insert"> in the role of divisor.</span></p>
-<pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert">used(ex:div01, ex:cell, [ prov:role="divisor" ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-attribute-type" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.4</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.4</span> </span>prov:type</h5>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref">   The attribute <dfn id="concept-type" title="type" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:type</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-type"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  provides further typing information   for <span class="insert">any construct with </span>an <span class="delete">element or relation. </span><span class="insert">optional set of attribute-value pairs. </span></span></p>
-
-<p>
-PROV-DM liberally
-defines a type as a category of things having common characteristics. PROV-DM is agnostic about the representation of types, and only states that
-the value associated with a <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value.</a> The attribute <span class="name">prov:type</span>
-is allowed to occur multiple times.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_56" data-count="56"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 56</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_56"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following describes an agent of type software agent.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">   agent(ag, <span class="delete">[prov:type="prov:SoftwareAgent" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent' ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>The following types are pre-defined in PROV, and are valid values for the <span class="name">prov:type</span> attribute.</p>
-
-
-
-
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-predefined-types"><span class="insert">Table 7: PROV-DM Predefined Types</span></caption>
-<tbody><tr><td><b><span class="insert">Type</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Specification</span></b></td><td><b><span class="insert">Core concept</span></b></td></tr>
-<tr><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td><td style="border-width: 0px; "></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="bundle" href="#concept-bundle" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Bundle</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-bundle"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.4.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="collection" href="#concept-collection" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Collection</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-collection"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.6.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="dictionary" href="#concept-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Dictionary</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-dictionary"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.6.3</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="empty dictionary" href="#concept-empty-dictionary" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:EmptyDictionary</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-dictionary"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.6.3</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="primary source" href="#concept-primary-source" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:HadPrimarySource</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-primary-source"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.2.4</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="organization" href="#concept-organization" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Organization</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="person" href="#concept-person" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:Person</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="plan" href="#concept-plan" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:Plan</span>
-
-<span class="delete">prov:Account</span>
-
-</a></td> <td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-entity"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.1.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-entity" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Entity</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="software-agent" href="#concept-software-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:SoftwareAgent</span>
-
-</a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-agent"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.3.1</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-agent" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Agent</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="Quotation" href="#concept-quotation" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="delete">prov:Organization</span>
-
-<span class="insert">prov:WasQuotedFrom</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-quotation"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.2.3</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td></tr>
-<tr><td><a title="Revision" href="#concept-revision" class="internalDFN"><span class="name"><span class="delete">prov:Person</span>
-
-<span class="delete">prov:Collection</span>
-
-<span class="delete">prov:Dictionary</span>
-
-<span class="delete">prov:EmptyDictionary</span>
-
-<span class="insert">prov:WasRevisionOf</span></span></a></td><td><a class="section-ref" href="#term-revision"><span><span class="insert">Section 5.2.2</span></span></a></td><td><a href="#concept-derivation" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">Derivation</span></a></td></tr>
-</tbody></table>
-
-</div>
-
-
-<div id="term-attribute-value" class="section">
-<h5><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.4.5</span><span class="insert">5.7.2.5</span> </span>prov:value</h5>
-
-<p><span class="glossary-ref">   The attribute <dfn id="concept-value-attribute" title="value-attribute" class="internalDFN"><span class="name">prov:value</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-value-attribute"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup>  provides a <a href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a> <span class="delete">associated with</span><span class="insert">for</span> an entity. </span></p>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<p>The attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> is an <em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em> attribute of entity.  The value associated with the  attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be a PROV-DM <a title="value" href="#concept-value" class="internalDFN">Value</a>. The attribute <span class="name">prov:value</span> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> occur at most once in a set of attribute-value pairs.</p>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="example_57" data-count="57"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 57</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#example_57"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>The following example illustrates the provenance of the number <span class="name">4</span> obtained by an activity that computed the length of an input string <span class="name">"abcd"</span>.
-The input and the output are expressed as entities <span class="name">ex:in</span> and <span class="name">ex:out</span>, respectively. They each have a <span class="name">prov:value</span> attribute associated with the corresponding value.
-</p>
-<pre class="codeexample">entity(ex:in, <span class="delete">[prov:value="abcd"])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:value="abcd" ])</span> 
-entity(ex:out, <span class="delete">[prov:value=4])</span><span class="insert">[ prov:value=4 ])</span> 
-activity(ex:len, <span class="delete">[prov:type="string-length"])
-used(ex:len,ex:in)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:out,ex:len)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:out,ex:in)</span><span class="insert">[ prov:type="string-length" ])
-used(ex:len, ex:in)
-wasGeneratedBy(ex:out, ex:len)
-wasDerivedFrom(ex:out, ex:in)</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="note">Should we also have prov:encoding?</div>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-value" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="delete">4.7.5</span><span class="insert">5.7.3</span> </span>Value</h4>
-
-<p><span class="delete">
-By means of</span><span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-value" title="value" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">value</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-value"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert">  is a constant such as a string, number, time, qualified name, IRI, and encoded binary data, whose interpretation  is outside the scope of PROV-DM. </span></span><span class="insert"> Values can occur in</span> attribute-value <span class="delete">pairs, the PROV data model can refer to </span><span class="delete">values</span><span class="delete"> such as strings, numbers, time, qualified names, and IRIs.  
-The interpretation of such values is outside the scope of PROV-DM.</span><span class="insert">pairs. </span></p>
-
-
-<p>Each kind of such values is called a <em>datatype</em>.<span class="insert">
- Use of the following data types is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="recommended"><span class="insert">recommended</span></em><span class="insert">. </span></p>
-<ul>
-<li> The <span class="delete">datatypes are taken from 
-the set of XML Schema Datatypes, version 1.1 [</span><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><span class="delete">] and the RDF specification</span><span class="insert">RDF-compatible</span> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite><span class="insert">]  built-in types taken from 
-the set of XML Schema Datatypes [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite><span class="insert">];</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> Qualified names introduced in this specification;</span></li>
-<li><span class="insert"> RDF literal types for html and xml [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><span class="insert">RDF-CONCEPTS</span></a></cite>]. </li>
-</ul>
-<p>
-The normative definitions of these datatypes are provided by <span class="delete">the</span><span class="insert">their</span> respective specifications.<span class="delete"> 
-Each datatype is identified by its XML </span><span class="delete">xsd:QName</span><span class="delete">.</span><span class="insert">  An informative list of these datatypes appears in Table 8.
-</span></p>
-
-<p>
-
-
-<span class="delete">We note</span><span class="insert">PROV accepts the RDF-Compatible XSD types</span> that <span class="delete">PROV-DM </span><span class="delete">time instants</span><span class="delete"> are defined according to xsd:dateTime</span><span class="insert">RDF enumerates in
-its own specification</span> [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><span class="insert">RDF-CONCEPTS</span></a></cite>].<span class="insert">  New RDF releases
-[</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS11"><span class="insert">RDF-CONCEPTS11</span></a></cite><span class="insert">] may extend the list of datatypes, and PROV would
-naturally accept those too.</span></p> 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
-<caption id="prov-dm-data-types">Table <span class="delete">6:</span><span class="insert">8: Informative List of</span> PROV-DM Data Types</caption>
-
-
-
-    <tbody><tr><th></th><th><span class="insert">Datatype</span></th><th><span class="insert">Value space</span></th></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="4"><span class="insert">Core types</span></th><td><span class="delete">xsd:decimal</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:string</span></span></a></td> <td><span class="delete">xsd:double</span><span class="insert">Character strings</span></td>  <span class="delete">xsd:dateTime</span> </tr>
-
-    <tr><td><span class="delete">xsd:integer</span> <span class="delete">xsd:float</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#boolean"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:boolean</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">true, false</span></td>  </tr>
-
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#decimal"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:decimal</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Arbitrary-precision decimal numbers</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#integer"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:integer</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Arbitrary-size integer numbers</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2"><span class="insert">IEEE floating-point</span><br><span class="insert">numbers</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#double"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:double</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">64-bit floating point numbers incl. ±Inf, ±0, NaN</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#float"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:float</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">32-bit floating point numbers incl. ±Inf, ±0, NaN</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="4"><span class="insert">Time and date</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#date"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:date</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Dates (yyyy-mm-dd) with or without timezone</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#time"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:time</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Times (hh:mm:ss.sss…) with or without timezone</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTime"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:dateTime</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Date and time with or without timezone</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTimeStamp"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:dateTimeStamp</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Date and time with required timezone</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="8"><span class="insert">Recurring and</span><br><span class="insert">partial dates</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gYear"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:gYear</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Gregorian calendar year</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gMonth"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:gMonth</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Gregorian calendar month</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gDay"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:gDay</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Gregorian calendar day of the month</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gYearMonth"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:gYearMonth</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Gregorian calendar year and month</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#gMonthDay"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:gMonthDay</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Gregorian calendar month and day</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#duration"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:duration</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Duration of time</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#yearMonthDuration"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:yearMonthDuration</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Duration of time (months and years only)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dayTimeDuration"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:dayTimeDuration</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Duration of time (days, hours, minutes, seconds only)</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="12"><span class="insert">Limited-range</span><br><span class="insert">integer numbers</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#byte"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:byte</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">-128…+127 (8 bit)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#short"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:short</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">-32768…+32767 (16 bit)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#int"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:int</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">-2147483648…+2147483647 (32 bit)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#long"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:long</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">-9223372036854775808…+9223372036854775807 (64 bit)</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedByte"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:unsignedByte</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">0…255 (8 bit)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedShort"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:unsignedShort</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">0…65535 (16 bit)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedInt"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:unsignedInt</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">0…4294967295 (32 bit)</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#unsignedLong"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:unsignedLong</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">0…18446744073709551615 (64 bit)</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#positiveInteger"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:positiveInteger</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Integer numbers &gt;0</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nonNegativeInteger"><span class="name">xsd:nonNegativeInteger</span></a></td> <td><span class="delete">xsd:string</span><span class="insert">Integer numbers ≥0</span></td> </tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#negativeInteger"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:negativeInteger</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Integer numbers &lt;0</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#nonPositiveInteger"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:nonPositiveInteger</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Integer numbers ≤0</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2"><span class="insert">Encoded binary data</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#hexBinary"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:hexBinary</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Hex-encoded binary data</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#base64Binary"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:base64Binary</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Base64-encoded binary data</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="6"><span class="insert">Miscellaneous</span><br><span class="insert">XSD types</span></th>
-     <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#language"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:language</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Language tags per [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47"><span class="insert">BCP47</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#normalizedString"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:normalizedString</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Whitespace-normalized strings</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#token"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:token</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Tokenized strings</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NMTOKEN"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:NMTOKEN</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">XML NMTOKENs</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#Name"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:Name</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">XML Names</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#NCName"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:NCName</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">XML NCNames</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2"><span class="insert">Qualified</span><br><span class="insert">Names or URIs</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#anyURI"><span class="name"><span class="insert">xsd:anyURI</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">Absolute or relative URIs and IRIs</span></td></tr>
-    <tr><td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></span></a></td><td><span class="insert">PROV qualified name</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><th rowspan="2"><span class="insert">RDF XML/HTML Literals</span></th>
-        <td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/#section-XMLLiteral"><span class="name">rdf:XMLLiteral</span></a></td> <td><span class="insert">XML content as a value</span></td></tr>
-
-    <tr><td><span class="delete">xsd:nonPositiveInteger</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#HTML"><span class="name"><span class="insert">rdf:HTML</span></span></a></td><td><span class="delete">xsd:normalizedString</span> <span class="insert">HTML content as a value</span></td></tr>
-<span class="delete">xsd:positiveInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:token</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:negativeInteger</span> <span class="delete">xsd:language</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:long</span> <span class="delete">xsd:Name</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:int</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:NCName</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:short</span> <span class="delete">xsd:NMTOKEN</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:byte</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:boolean</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedLong</span> <span class="delete">xsd:hexBinary</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedInt</span>  <span class="delete">xsd:base64Binary</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedShort</span><span class="delete">xsd:anyURI</span> 
-<span class="delete">xsd:unsignedByte</span> <span class="delete">xsd:QName</span>
-
-
-
-    </tbody></table>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-value" data-count="58"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 58</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-value"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-The following examples respectively are the string "abc", the integer number 1, and the IRI "http://example.org/foo".
-</p><pre class="codeexample">  "abc"
-  <span class="delete">1</span><span class="insert">"1" %% xsd:integer</span>
-  "http://example.org/foo" %% xsd:anyURI
-</pre>
-<p>The following example shows a value of type <span class="name"><span class="delete">xsd:QName</span><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></span> (see
-<span class="delete">QName</span><span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/#prod-QUALIFIED_NAME"><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span></a></span> [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N"><span class="insert">PROV-N</span></a></cite>]).
-The prefix <span class="name">ex</span>  <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be bound to a <a href="#dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN">namespace</a> declared in a <a href="#dfn-namespaceDeclaration" class="internalDFN">namespace declaration</a>.</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  "ex:value" %% <span class="delete">xsd:QName</span><span class="insert">prov:QUALIFIED_NAME</span>
-</pre>
-<span class="insert">Alternatively, the same value can be expressed using the following convenience notation.
-</span><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-  'ex:value'
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">We note that PROV-DM </span><dfn title="dfn-time" id="dfn-dfn-time" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">time instants</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-dfn-time"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> are defined according to xsd:dateTime [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite><span class="insert">].</span></p> 
-
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-time" data-count="59"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 59</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-time"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-In the following example, the generation time of entity <span class="name">e1</span> is expressed according to 
-<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTime">xsd:dateTime</a>  [<cite><span class="delete">XMLSCHEMA-2</span><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">XMLSCHEMA11-2</span></a></cite>].</p>
-<pre class="codeexample"> 
-  wasGeneratedBy(e1,a1, 2001-10-26T21:32:52)
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<span class="delete">
-We need</span></div>
-
-<div id="term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.4 </span></span><span class="insert">Namespace Declaration</span></h4>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A PROV-DM </span><dfn id="dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">namespace</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespace"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is identified by an IRI [</span><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI"><span class="insert">IRI</span></a></cite><span class="insert">]. In PROV-DM, attributes, identifiers, and values with </span><a title="qualified name" href="#concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">qualified names</span></a><span class="insert"> as data type can be placed in a namespace using the mechanisms described in this specification. </span></p>
-
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-namespaceDeclaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">namespace declaration</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-namespaceDeclaration"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> consists of a binding between a prefix and a namespace. Every qualified name with this prefix in the scope of this
-declaration refers</span> to <span class="delete">check</span><span class="insert">this namespace. </span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A </span><dfn id="dfn-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">default namespace declaration</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-defaultNamespaceDeclaration"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> consists of a namespace. Every un-prefixed qualified name
-refers to default namespace declaration.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">The </span><dfn title="prov-namespace" id="dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">PROV namespace</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-prov-namespace"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is identified by the URI </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-<div id="term-qualified-name" class="section">
-<h4><span class="secno"><span class="insert">5.7.5 </span></span><span class="insert">Qualified Name</span></h4>
-
-
-<span class="glossary-ref"><span class="insert">   A </span><dfn id="concept-qualifiedName" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">qualified name</span></dfn><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#concept-qualifiedName"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup><span class="insert"> is a name subject to </span><a href="#dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">namespace</span></a><span class="insert"> interpretation. It consists of a </span><a href="#dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">namespace</span></a><span class="insert">, denoted by an optional prefix, and a local name.</span><p></p> </span>
-
-<p><span class="insert">PROV-DM stipulates</span> that <span class="delete">we are including all xsd types that are the latest versions of XML Schema/RDF.
-</span><span class="insert">a qualified name can be mapped into an IRI
- by concatenating the IRI associated with the prefix and the local part.</span></p>
-
-<p><span class="insert">A qualified name's prefix is </span><em class="rfc2119" title="optional"><span class="insert">optional</span></em><span class="insert">. If a prefix occurs in a
- qualified name, it refers to a </span><a href="#dfn-namespace" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">namespace</span></a><span class="insert"> declared in a namespace declaration.  In the absence of prefix, the qualified name 
- refers to the </span><a title="default namespace declaration" href="#dfn-defaultNamespaceDeclaration" class="internalDFN"><span class="insert">default namespace</span></a><span class="insert">.</span></p>
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-</div>
- 
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-    <div id="extensibility-section" class="section"> 
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">5.</span><span class="insert">6.</span> </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</h2>
-
-
-<p>The PROV data model provides extensibility points that allow designers to specialize it <span class="delete">to</span><span class="insert">for</span> specific applications or domains. We summarize these extensibility points <span class="delete">here:
-
-</span><span class="insert">here. </span></p>
-<span class="delete"> Attribute-value lists occur in all types and relations of the data model.  Applications designers are free to introduce further application-specific attributes. Attributes for a given application can be distinguished by qualifying them with a prefix denoting a namespace
-declared in a namespace declaration.
-
-</span>
-
-
-<p>The <a title="prov-namespace" href="#dfn-prov-namespace" class="internalDFN">PROV namespace</a> declares a set of reserved attributes catering for extensibility: <a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="name">prov:type</span></a>, <a href="#term-attribute-role"><span class="name">prov:role</span></a>, <a href="#term-attribute-location"><span class="name">prov:location</span></a>.</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>Sub-types and sub-relations can be expressed by means of the reserved attribute 
-<a href="#term-attribute-type"><span class="name">prov:type</span></a>.
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-sub-relation" data-count="60"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 60</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-sub-relation"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-In the following example,  <span class="name">e2</span> is a translation of <span class="name">e1</span>,
-expressed as a sub-type of derivation.
-</p><pre class="codeexample"> 
-  wasDerivedFrom(e2,e1, <span class="delete">[prov:type="ex:Translation" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='ex:Translation' ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-<div class="anexample" id="anexample-sub-type" data-count="61"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 61</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-sub-type"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p>
-In the following example,  <span class="name">e</span> is described as a Car, a type of entity.
-</p><pre class="codeexample"> 
-  entity(e, <span class="delete">[prov:type="ex:Car" %% xsd:QName])</span><span class="insert">[prov:type='ex:Car' ])</span>
-</pre>
-</div>
-
-
-
-
-</li>
-
-
-
-
-
-<span class="delete">New namespaces and associated prefixes can be declared, allowing attributes and names to be qualified. </span>
-
-<li><span class="delete">Notes allow arbitrary metadata</span><span class="insert">Application and domain specific roles can be expressed by means of the reserved attribute 
-</span><a href="#term-attribute-role"><span class="name"><span class="insert">prov:role</span></span></a><span class="insert">.
-
-</span><div class="anexample" id="anexample-usage-with-role" data-count="62"><div class="anexampleTitle"><span class="insert">Example 62</span><sup><a class="internalDFN" href="#anexample-usage-with-role"><span class="diamond"><span class="insert"> ◊</span></span></a></sup></div>
-<p><span class="insert">
-In the following example,  two computers  </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:laptop4</span></span><span class="insert"> and </span><span class="name"><span class="insert">ex:desktop9</span></span><span class="insert"> are used in different roles in a work activity.
-</span></p><pre class="codeexample"><span class="insert"> 
-  activity(ex:work)
-  entity(ex:laptop4)
-  entity(ex:desktop9)
-  used(ex:work, ex:laptop4,  [prov:role="day-to-day machine"])
-  used(ex:work, ex:desktop9, [prov:role="backup machine"])
-</span></pre>
-</div>
-</li>
-
-
-<li><span class="insert"> Attribute-value lists occur in all types and most relations of the data model.  Applications designers are free</span> to <span class="insert">introduce further application-specific attributes. Attributes for a given application can </span>be <span class="insert">distinguished by qualifying them with a prefix denoting a namespace
-declared in a namespace declaration. New namespaces and </span>associated <span class="delete">with anything identifiable in PROV-DM. Notes consist of attribute-value pairs.  Attributes are qualified by a
-namespace.</span><span class="insert">prefixes can be declared, allowing attributes and names to be qualified. 
-</span></li>
-
-
-
-
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>The PROV data model is designed to be application and technology independent, but <span class="delete">specializations of</span><span class="insert">implementers are welcome and encouraged to specialize</span> PROV-DM <span class="delete">are welcome</span><span class="insert">to specific domains</span> and <span class="delete">encouraged.</span><span class="insert">applications.</span>  To ensure interoperability, specializations of
-the PROV data model that exploit the extensibility points summarized in this section <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> preserve the semantics specified in this document and in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>]. </p>
-
-
-
-    </div> 
-
-
-
-<div id="valid-provenance" class="section">
-<h2><span class="secno"><span class="delete">6.</span><span class="insert">7.</span> </span>Creating Valid Provenance</h2>
-
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>This specification defines PROV-DM, a data model that allows 
-descriptions of the people, institutions, entities, and activities,
-involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a
-thing to be expressed.  However, with this data model, it is also possible to compose
-descriptions that would not make sense: for instance, one could
-express that an entity was used before it was generated, or that the
-activity that generated an entity began its existence after the entity
-generation.  A set of constraints have been defined for PROV-DM and
-can be found in a companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].
-They <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be used by developers to compose provenance descriptions that are valid, and
-by implementers of reasoning engines aiming to check whether provenance descriptions have problems. </li>
-
-
-
-<li>
-<p> The example of <a href="#prov-dm-example">section 3</a> contains identifiers such as <span class="name"><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111215">tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215</a></span>, which denotes a specific version of a technical report.  On the other hand, a URI such as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a> denotes the latest version of a document. One needs to ensure that provenance descriptions for the latter resource remain valid as the resource state changes. </p>
-
-<p>To this end, PROV-DM allows asserters to describe "<em>partial states</em>" of entities by means of attributes and associated values. Some further constraints apply to the use of these attributes, since the values associated with them are expected to remain unchanged for some period of time. The constraints associated to attributes allow provenance descriptions to be refined, they can also be found in the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>].</p>
-
-
-</li>
-
-
-<li>
-<p>The idea of bundling provenance descriptions is crucial to the PROV approach. Indeed, it allows multiple provenance perspectives to be provided for a given entity. It is also the mechanism by which provenance of provenance can be expressed.<span class="delete"> Such a named bundle is referred</span><span class="insert">
-Descriptions in bundles are expected</span> to <span class="delete">as an </span><span class="delete">account</span><span class="delete"> and is regarded as an </span><span class="delete">Account</span><span class="delete"> so that its provenance can be expressed.   The notion of account is</span><span class="insert">satisfy constraints</span> specified in the companion specification [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite><span class="delete">], as well as the constraints that  </span><span class="delete">structurally well-formed</span><span class="delete"> descriptions </span><span class="delete">should</span><span class="delete"> satisfy.</span><span class="insert">].</span></p>
-</li>
-
-
-</ul>
-
-
-</div>
-
-
-
-<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements"> 
-      <h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2> 
-      <p> 
-        WG membership to be listed here.
-      </p> 
-    </div> 
-
- 
-
-<div id="references" class="appendix section"><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-IRI">[IRI]</dt><dd>M. Duerst, M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd>S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
-</dd><dt id="bib-UML"><span class="insert">[UML]</span></dt><dd><span class="insert">Object Management Group </span><a href="http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/"><cite><span class="insert">Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure</span></cite></a><span class="insert">. version 2.0, 2005 URL: </span><a href="http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/"><span class="insert">http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.0/Superstructure/PDF/</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-URI">[URI]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): generic syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
-</dd><span class="delete">[XMLSCHEMA-2]</span><dt id="bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2"><span class="insert">[XMLSCHEMA11-2]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Paul V. Biron; Ashok Malhotra. </span><span class="insert">Henry S. Thompson; et al. </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><cite><span class="insert">W3C </span>XML Schema <span class="insert">Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 </span>Part 2: <span class="delete">Datatypes Second Edition.</span><span class="insert">Datatypes.</span></cite></a> <span class="delete">28 October 2004.</span><span class="insert">5 April 2012.</span> W3C <span class="delete">Recommendation.</span><span class="insert">Recommendation</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-xmlschema11-2-20120405/</span></a> 
-</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-Logic">[Logic]</dt><dd>W. E. Johnson <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html"><cite>Logic: Part III</cite></a>.1924. URL: <a href="http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html">http://www.ditext.com/johnson/intro-3.html</a>
-</dd><span class="delete">[PROV-AQ]</span><dt id="bib-Mappings"><span class="insert">[Mappings]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Graham Klyne</span><span class="insert">Satya Sahoo</span> and Paul Groth <span class="delete">(eds.)</span><span class="insert">and Olaf Hartig and Simon Miles and Sam Coppens and James Myers and Yolanda Gil and</span> Luc <span class="delete">Moreau, Olaf Hartig, Yogesh Simmhan, James Meyers, Timothy Lebo, Khalid Belhajjame,</span><span class="insert">Moreau</span> and <span class="delete">Simon Miles </span><span class="insert">Jun Zhao and Michael Panzer and Daniel Garijo </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings"><cite>Provenance <span class="delete">Access and Query</span><span class="insert">Vocabulary Mappings</span></cite></a>. <span class="delete">2011, Working Draft.</span><span class="insert">August 2010</span> URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-aq/</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/wiki/Provenance_Vocabulary_Mappings</span></a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">[PROV-CONSTRAINTS]</dt><dd>James Cheney, Paolo Missier, and Luc Moreau (eds.) <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/"><cite>Constraints of the PROV Data Model</cite></a>. 2011, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-constraints/</a>
-</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-N">[PROV-N]</dt><dd>Luc Moreau and Paolo Missier (eds.) <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/"><cite>PROV-N: The Provenance Notation</cite></a>. 2011, Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-n/</a>
-</dd><span class="delete">[PROV-O]</span><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS11"><span class="insert">[RDF-CONCEPTS11]</span></dt><dd><span class="delete">Satya Sahoo</span><span class="insert">RDF 1.1 Concepts</span> and <span class="delete">Deborah McGuinness (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, James Cheney, Daniel Garijo, Timothy Lebo, Stian Soiland-Reyes,</span><span class="insert">Abstract Syntax </span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/"><cite><span class="insert">RDF 1.1 Concepts</span> and <span class="delete">Stephan Zednik </span><span class="delete">Provenance Formal Model</span><span class="insert">Abstract Syntax</span></cite></a>. <span class="delete">2011, Working Draft. </span>URL: <span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</span>
-<span class="delete">[PROV-PRIMER]</span><span class="delete">Yolanda Gil and Simon Miles (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Helena Deus, Daniel Garijo, Graham Klyne, Paolo Missier, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik </span><span class="delete">Prov Model Primer</span><span class="delete">. 2011, Working Draft. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/</span>
-<span class="delete">[PROV-SEM]</span><span class="delete">James Cheney </span><span class="delete">Formal Semantics Strawman</span><span class="delete">. 2011, Work in progress. URL: </span><span class="delete">http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/wiki/FormalSemanticsStrawman</span><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/"><span class="insert">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</span></a>
-</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
-
-
--- a/model/diff/Makefile	Thu Jun 28 22:15:57 2012 +0100
+++ b/model/diff/Makefile	Thu Jun 28 22:19:50 2012 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
 dm.diff:
-	htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-dm-20120503/Overview.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
+#	htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-dm-20120503/Overview.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
+	htmldiff ../releases/ED-prov-dm-20120628/Overview.html prov-dm.html > ../diff.html
 
 n.diff:
 	htmldiff ../releases/WD-prov-n-20120503/Overview.html prov-n.html > ../diff-n.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/model/releases/ED-prov-dm-20120628/prov-dm.html	Thu Jun 28 22:19:50 2012 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,4340 @@
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+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
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+    <title>PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</title> 
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> 
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+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.inference::before {
+    content:    "Inference";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+.syntax {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.syntax[id]::before {
+    content:    "Syntax: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.syntax::before {
+    content:    "Syntax";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+.unamedconstraint {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+
+.unamedconstraint::before {
+    content:    "Constraint";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
+
+.constraint {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.constraint[id]::before {
+    content:    "Constraint: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.constraint::before {
+    content:    "Constraint";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
+
+.interpretation {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.interpretation[id]::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Interpretation: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.interpretation::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+.definition {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #777;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.definition[id]::before {
+    content:    "Definition: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px; 
+}
+
+
+.definition::before {
+    content:    "Definition";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #000;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+
+.deprecatedconstraint {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.deprecatedconstraint[id]::before {
+    content:    "Deprecated: " attr(id);
+    width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Deprecatedconstraint: " attr(id) */
+}
+
+
+.deprecatedconstraint::before {
+    content:    "Deprecated";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #00f;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+.glossary-ref {
+    font-style:    italic;
+}
+
+.dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+
+.attribute {
+    font-style: italic;
+}
+
+
+.conditional {
+    color: blue;
+}
+
+.grammar {
+    margin-top: 1ex;
+    margin-bottom: 1ex;
+    padding-left: 1ex;
+    padding-right: 1ex;
+    padding-top: 1ex;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
+    font-size: 80%;
+}
+.nonterminal {
+    font-weight: bold;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 95%;
+}
+
+.name {
+    font-family: monospace;
+}
+
+
+.xmpl {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+
+.xmpl::before {
+    content:    "Example";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+/* 
+generating this through java script now.
+
+.anexample[data-count]::before {
+    content: "Example " attr(data-count) ;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+
+.anexample:before {
+    content: "Example:";
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+*/
+
+.anexample {
+    margin-top: 1ex;
+    margin-bottom: 1ex;
+    padding-left: 1ex;
+    padding-right: 1ex;
+    padding-top: 1ex;
+    padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
+    border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
+}
+.anexample table {
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
+}
+
+.anexampleTitle {
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+.anexampleTitle {
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1.6ex;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+
+.diamond {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:100%;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="name"]:before {
+    content: "'";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="name"]:after {
+    content: "'";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="optional"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="optional"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")?";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="plus"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="plus"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")+";
+}
+
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="star"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="star"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")*";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="choice"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="choice"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="group"]:before {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: "(";
+}
+
+div[class="grammar"] span[class="group"]:after {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:130%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+    content: ")";
+}
+
+table {
+    background-color: #f9f9f9;
+}
+
+
+.interpretation-forward::before {
+    content:    "Interpretation: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+.structural-forward::before {
+    content:    "Structural constraint: ";
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+.essential {
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+.provType::before {
+}
+
+.pnExpression {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    font-size:120%;
+    font-family: monospace;
+}
+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head> 
+  <body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-DM: The PROV Data Model</h1><h2 id="subtitle">Final review before Last Call Vote (WD6) (<a href="diff.html">Diffs since last release</a>)</h2><h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-28-june-2012"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Editor's Draft 28 June 2012</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/</a></dd><dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt><dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-dm-20120503/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~lavm/">Luc Moreau</a>, University of Southampton</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/people/Paolo.Missier">Paolo Missier</a>, Newcastle University</dd>
+<dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester</dd>
+<dd><span>Reza B'Far</span>, Oracle Corporation</dd>
+<dd><span>Stephen Cresswell</span>, legislation.gov.uk</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://users.ugent.be/~scoppens/">Sam Coppens</a>, IBBT - Ghent University</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.isi.edu/~gil/">Yolanda Gil</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.few.vu.nl/~pgroth/">Paul Groth</a>, VU University of Amsterdam</dd>
+<dd><span>Graham Klyne</span>, University of Oxford</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/JamesMcCusker">Jim McCusker</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/staff/simonm/">Simon Miles</a>, Invited Expert</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.rpi.edu/research/ccni/">James Myers</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute</dd>
+<dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo">Satya Sahoo</a>, Case Western Reserve University</dd>
+<dd><span>Curt Tilmes</span>, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</dd>
+</dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2011-2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div> 
+
+    <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people
+involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used
+ to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness.
+PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>
+provenance (PROV) family of specifications.
+PROV-DM distinguishes core structures, forming the essence of provenance information, from
+extended structures catering for more specific uses of provenance. 
+PROV-DM is organized in six components, respectively dealing with: 
+(1) entities and activities, and the time at which they were created, used, or ended;
+(2) derivations of entities from entities;
+(3) agents bearing responsibility for entities that were generated and activities that happened;
+(4) a notion of bundle, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance; and,
+(5) properties to link entities that refer to the same thing;
+(6) collections forming a logical structure for its members.
+</p>
+
+<p>This document introduces the provenance concepts found in
+PROV and defines PROV-DM types and
+relations. PROV data model is domain-agnostic, but is equipped with
+extensibility points allowing domain-specific information to be included. </p>
+
+<p>Two further documents complete the specification of PROV-DM.
+First, a companion document specifies the set of constraints that
+provenance should follow.  Second, 
+a separate document describes a provenance notation for expressing 
+instances of provenance for human consumption; this notation is used in examples in
+this document. </p>
+
+    </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
+<h4 id="intended-to-be-last-call--tbc">Intended to be Last Call (TBC)</h4>
+<p>This is the fifth public release of the PROV-DM document. 
+Publication as Last Call working draft means that 
+the Working Group believes that it has satisfied the relevant technical requirements outlined in its charter on this document. The design is not expected to change significantly, going forward, and now is the key time for external review, before the implementation phase.</p>
+<h4 id="please-comment-by--date-tbd">Please Comment By (date TBD)</h4>
+<p>The PROV Working group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft.
+The end date of the Last Call review period is TBD, and we would appreciate comments by that date to [email protected]
+</p>
+
+<h4 id="prov-family-of-specifications">PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
+interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  The specifications are:
+<ul>
+<li> PROV-DM, the PROV data model for provenance (this document);</li>
+<li> PROV-CONSTRAINTS, a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> PROV-N, a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption;</li>
+<li> PROV-O, the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF;</li>
+<li> PROV-AQ, the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance; </li>
+<li> PROV-PRIMER, a primer for the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> PROV-SEM, a formal semantics for the PROV data model;</li>
+<li> PROV-XML, an XML schema for the PROV data model.</li>
+</ul>
+<h4 id="how-to-read-the-prov-family-of-specifications">How to read the PROV Family of Specifications</h4>
+<ul>
+<li>The primer is the entry point to PROV offering an introduction to the provenance model.</li>
+<li>The Linked Data and Semantic Web community should focus on PROV-O defining PROV classes and properties specified in an OWL-RL ontology. For further details, PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS specify the constraints applicable to the data model, and its interpretation. PROV-SEM provides a mathematical semantics.</li>
+<li>The XML community should focus on PROV-XML defining an XML schema for PROV. Further details can also be found in PROV-DM, PROV-CONSTRAINTS, and PROV-SEM.</li>
+<li>Developers seeking to retrieve or publish provenance should focus on PROV-AQ.</li>
+<li>Readers seeking to implement other PROV serializations
+should focus on PROV-DM and PROV-CONSTRAINTS.  PROV-O, PROV-N, PROV-XML offer examples of mapping to RDF, text, and XML, respectively.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction<br>
+</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#structure-of-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Structure of this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conventions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV Overview</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#core-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>PROV Core Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-entity-activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Entity and Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-agents-attribution-association-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Agents and Responsibility</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-extended-structures" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>PROV Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-mechanisms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Mechanisms to Define Extended Structures</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-subtyping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.1 </span>Subtyping</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-expanded-relation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.2 </span>Expanded Relations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-optional-identification" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.3 </span>Optional Identification</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-prov-extended-approach-further-relations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1.4 </span>Further Relations</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-provenance-of-provnance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.2 </span>Provenance of Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-collections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.3 </span>Collections</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-overview-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Modular Organization</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-notation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The Provenance Notation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-dm-example" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Illustration of PROV-DM by an Example</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-one" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Example: The Authors View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-two" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Example: The Process View</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#section-example-c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Example: Attribution of Provenance</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-model-components" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>PROV-DM Types and Relations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#component1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Component 1: Entities and Activities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.1 </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Activity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.2 </span>Activity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Generation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.3 </span>Generation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Usage" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.4 </span>Usage</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Communication" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.5 </span>Communication</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Start" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.6 </span>Start</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-End" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.7 </span>End</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Invalidation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1.8 </span>Invalidation</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Component 2: Derivations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Derivation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.1 </span>Derivation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-revision" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.2 </span>Revision</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-quotation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.3 </span>Quotation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-primary-source" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2.4 </span>Primary Source</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-agent" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.1 </span>Agent</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribution" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.2 </span>Attribution</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-Association" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.3 </span>Association</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-delegation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.4 </span>Delegation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-influence" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3.5 </span>Influence</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component4" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Component 4: Bundles</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.1 </span>Bundle constructor</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-bundle-entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4.2 </span>Bundle Type</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component5" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Component 5: Alternate Entities</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-specialization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.1 </span>Specialization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-alternate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.2 </span>Alternate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-mention" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5.3 </span>Mention</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#component6" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Component 6: Collections</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.1 </span>Collection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-collection-membership" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6.2 </span>Collection Memberhsip</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#second-class-elements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Further Elements of PROV-DM</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.1 </span>Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2 </span>Attribute</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-label" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.1 </span>prov:label</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-location" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.2 </span>prov:location</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-role" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.3 </span>prov:role</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.4 </span>prov:type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-attribute-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.2.5 </span>prov:value</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-value" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.3 </span>Value</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-NamespaceDeclaration" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.4 </span>Namespace Declaration</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term-qualified-name" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7.5 </span>Qualified Name</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensibility-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>PROV-DM Extensibility Points</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#valid-provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Creating Valid Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div> 
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