Added timestamped version of JSON-LD API for FPWD publication via RDF WG.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Wed, 23 May 2012 23:31:14 -0400
changeset 683 deec51d50fcf
parent 682 51587eb1c396
child 684 6202a42a30db
Added timestamped version of JSON-LD API for FPWD publication via RDF WG.
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120524/diff-20120426.html
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120524/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120524/diff-20120426.html	Wed May 23 23:31:14 2012 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,22716 @@
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+</head>
+
+
+<body style="display: inherit; ">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 property="dcterms:title" class="title" id="title">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 property="bibo:subtitle" id="subtitle">
+An
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</h2>
+<h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2012-05-24T06:33:35+0000" id="unofficial-draft-24-may-2012">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">26
+April
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">24
+May
+</ins>
+2012
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20120426.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#abstract" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+harmonizes
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON
+by
+outlining
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+This
+document
+outlines
+an
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+and
+a
+set
+of
+algorithms
+for
+programmatically
+transforming
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sotd" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#toc" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-application-programming-interface" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldprocessor" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#callbacks" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Callbacks
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldcallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1
+</span>
+JsonLdCallback
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#quadcallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">StatementCallback
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">QuadCallback
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-structures" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Data
+Structures
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#url" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.1
+</span>
+URL
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldoptions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.2
+</span>
+JsonLdOptions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#quad" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.3.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.4
+</span>
+Node
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.4.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.5
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.5.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#blank-node" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.6
+</span>
+Blank
+Node
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-3" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.6.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#literal" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.7
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literal
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-4" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.7.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-processing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Context
+Processing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5.1
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#term-rank-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5.2
+</span>
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.8
+</span>
+Generate
+Blank
+Node
+Identifier
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.9
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.9.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.10
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.10.1
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11
+</span>
+Framing
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11.1
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11.2
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#subject-map-generation" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11.3
+</span>
+Subject
+<del class="diff-old">Flattening
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Map
+Generation
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#remove-embed" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11.4
+</span>
+Remove
+Embedded
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embed-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11.5
+</span>
+Embed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#flattening" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.12
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Flattening
+</ins></a><ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#flattening-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.12.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Flattening
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Overview
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Convert
+to
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#list-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+List
+Conversion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Convert
+from
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">4.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</ins></a></li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#appendix-b" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Initial
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div id="introduction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#introduction" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+Linked
+Data
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+graph
+of
+interlinked
+data
+across
+different
+documents
+or
+Web
+sites.
+Data
+entities
+are
+described
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s,
+which
+are
+typically
+dereferencable
+and
+thus
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information
+about
+an
+entity,
+creating
+a
+&quot;Web
+of
+Knowledge&quot;.
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+not
+only
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+but
+also
+for
+adding
+semantics
+to
+existing
+JSON.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+light-weight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+interoperable
+Web
+services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today.
+It
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+key-value
+pairs,
+RDF
+data,
+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+data,
+Microformats
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">
+MICROFORMATS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+data,
+and
+Microdata
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">
+MICRODATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+That
+is,
+it
+supports
+every
+major
+Web-based
+structured
+data
+model
+in
+use
+today.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+does
+not
+necessarily
+require
+applications
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+allows
+to
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+adding
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+either
+in-band
+or
+out-of-band.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON
+with
+added
+semantics.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+easy
+to
+parse,
+efficient
+to
+generate,
+convertible
+to
+RDF
+in
+one
+pass,
+and
+require
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#how-to-read-this-document" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Authors
+that
+want
+a
+very
+detailed
+view
+of
+how
+JSON-LD
+processors
+operate.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+You
+must
+also
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+is
+the
+base
+syntax
+used
+by
+all
+of
+the
+algorithms
+in
+this
+document.
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262">
+ECMA-262
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL">
+WEBIDL
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+how
+JSON-LD
+maps
+to
+RDF,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+be
+familiar
+with
+the
+basic
+RDF
+concepts
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+Examples
+may
+contain
+references
+to
+existing
+vocabularies
+and
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+to
+refer
+to
+vocabularies.
+The
+following
+is
+a
+list
+of
+all
+vocabularies
+and
+their
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+abbreviations,
+as
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
+Dublin
+Core
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+dc
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+dc:title
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">
+Friend
+of
+a
+Friend
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+foaf:knows
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
+RDF
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+rdf
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">
+XSD
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+defines
+several
+terms
+which
+are
+used
+throughout
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name/value
+<del class="diff-old">pairs
+(or
+members).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pairs.
+</ins>
+A
+name
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+is
+an
+ordered
+collection
+of
+values.
+An
+array
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+(or
+elements).
+Elements
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+Within
+JSON-LD,
+array
+order
+is
+not
+preserved
+by
+default,
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided.
+This
+is
+because
+the
+basic
+data
+model
+of
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>,
+which
+is
+inherently
+unordered.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes.
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Boolean
+values.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+use
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+value
+within
+JSON-LD
+is
+used
+to
+ignore
+or
+reset
+values.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject_definition" id="dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+subject.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+a
+subject
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+<del class="diff-old">they
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+keys
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject_reference" id="dfn-subject_reference">
+subject
+reference
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+reference
+a
+subject
+having
+only
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="linked-data" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#linked-data" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Linked
+Data
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+following
+definition
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+is
+the
+one
+that
+will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">
+subject
+</dfn>
+is
+any
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+(an
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]).
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+object
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+at
+the
+same
+time.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+edge
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+that
+is
+a
+label
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+dereferencable
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+document
+describing
+the
+labeled
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">
+literal
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+the
+definition
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+above
+is
+silent
+on
+the
+topic
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes.
+Unlabeled
+nodes
+are
+not
+considered
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+However,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+of
+unlabled
+nodes,
+as
+most
+graph-based
+data
+sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+associated
+nodes
+that
+are
+not
+named
+and
+thus
+are
+not
+directly
+de-referenceable.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#contributing" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Technical
+discussion
+typically
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+on
+the
+second
+and
+fourth
+week
+of
+each
+month.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="the-application-programming-interface" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#the-application-programming-interface" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+API
+provides
+a
+clean
+mechanism
+that
+enables
+developers
+to
+convert
+JSON-LD
+data
+into
+a
+a
+variety
+of
+output
+formats
+that
+are
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+various
+programming
+languages.
+If
+a
+JSON-LD
+API
+is
+provided
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+the
+entirety
+of
+the
+following
+API
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+implemented.
+</p>
+<div id="jsonldprocessor" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#jsonldprocessor" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdProcessor">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdProcessor</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-ObjectOrURL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">expand</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>ObjectOrURL</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">compact</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-frame-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-frame-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">frame</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">frame</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-flatten-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-string-or-URL-graph-ObjectOrURL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">flatten</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>string or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">graph</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>ObjectOrURL</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-fromRDF-void-QuadArray-input-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">fromRDF</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code>Quad</code></a>[]</span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-toRDF-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-QuadCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">toRDF</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType"><code>QuadCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#methods" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h4>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+compact
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#compaction">
+Compacts
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+using
+the
+<code>
+context
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+compacted
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+an
+appropirate
+exception
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+compaction
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+compact.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+context
+to
+use
+when
+compacting
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+;
+either
+in
+the
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+or
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+also
+includes
+<code>
+optimize
+</code>,
+which
+if
+set
+will
+cause
+processor-specific
+optimization.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-ObjectOrURL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+expand
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#expansion">
+Expands
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+expanded
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+expansion
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+exception
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+expansion
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+expand.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+<ins class="diff-new">context
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+ObjectOrURL
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+optional
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+when
+expanding
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+options
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JsonLdOptions
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.</td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+void
+</ins></a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-flatten-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-string-or-URL-graph-ObjectOrURL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+flatten
+</ins></code></dt><dd><a href="#flattening"><ins class="diff-new">
+Flattens
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#flattening-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+Flattening
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+flattened
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+flattening
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+exception
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+thrown.
+</ins><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+It
+is
+still
+being
+discussed
+if
+the
+flatten()
+method
+should
+be
+added
+or
+not.
+See
+</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/109"><ins class="diff-new">
+ISSUE-109
+</ins></a>.</p><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+flatten
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+flatten.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+graph
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+or
+URL
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+graph
+in
+the
+document
+that
+should
+be
+flattened.
+To
+return
+the
+default
+graph
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+has
+to
+be
+passed,
+for
+the
+merged
+graph
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+for
+any
+other
+graph
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+identifying
+the
+graph
+has
+to
+be
+passed.
+The
+default
+value
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+ObjectOrURL
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+optional
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+when
+expanding
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-frame-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-frame-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+frame
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#framing">
+Frames
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+using
+the
+<code>
+frame
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#framing-algorithm">
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+is
+used
+to
+build
+the
+framed
+output
+and
+is
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+there
+are
+no
+matches
+for
+the
+frame,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+returned.
+Exceptions
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown
+if
+there
+are
+errors.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+framing
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+frame.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+frame
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+frame
+to
+use
+when
+re-arranging
+the
+data
+of
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+;
+either
+in
+the
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+or
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+framing
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-fromRDF-void-QuadArray-input-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+fromRDF
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Creates
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+given
+an
+set
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="quad" href="#idl-def-quad">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quads
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">s.
+</del>
+</a>.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+[]
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+An
+array
+of
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">statements.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quads.
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+will
+affect
+the
+algorithm.
+This
+includes
+<code>
+notType
+</code>,
+which
+if
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true">
+true
+</a>
+causes
+the
+resulting
+document
+to
+use
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+as
+a
+property,
+instead
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-toRDF-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-QuadCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+toRDF
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Processes
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm">
+Convert
+to
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>,
+calling
+the
+provided
+<code>
+callback
+</code>
+for
+each
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+generated.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+convert
+to
+RDF
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+convert
+to
+RDF.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+<del class="diff-old">context
+ObjectOrURL
+✔
+✘
+An
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+input
+when
+expanding
+the
+input
+.
+</del>
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">StatementCallback
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">QuadCallback
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+created
+from
+processing
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+conversion
+to
+RDF
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="callbacks" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#callbacks" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Callbacks
+</h3>
+<div id="jsonldcallback" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#jsonldcallback" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1
+</span>
+JsonLdCallback
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+used
+to
+return
+a
+processed
+JSON-LD
+representation
+as
+the
+result
+of
+processing
+an
+API
+method.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdCallback</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdCallback-jsonLd-void-ObjectOrObjectArray-jsonld">jsonLd</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>ObjectOrObjectArray</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">jsonld</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#methods-1" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h5>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdCallback-jsonLd-void-ObjectOrObjectArray-jsonld">
+<code>
+jsonLd
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+when
+processing
+is
+complete.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+jsonld
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+ObjectOrObjectArray
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+processed
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="quadcallback" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#quadcallback" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">StatementCallback
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">QuadCallback
+</ins>
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">StatementCallback
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">QuadCallback
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+called
+whenever
+the
+processor
+generates
+a
+<del class="diff-old">statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad
+</ins>
+during
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">statement()
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad()
+</ins>
+</code>
+call.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+interface  {
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-QuadCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+<ins class="diff-chg">interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">QuadCallback</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-QuadCallback-quad-void-Quad-quad">quad</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code>Quad</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">quad</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods-2" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#methods-2" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h5>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-QuadCallback-quad-void-Quad-quad">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+whenever
+a
+<del class="diff-old">statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad
+</ins>
+is
+generated
+by
+the
+processor.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+<del class="diff-old">statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad
+</ins>
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+<del class="diff-old">statement.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad.
+</ins>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="data-structures" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#data-structures" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Data
+Structures
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+section
+describes
+datatype
+definitions
+used
+within
+the
+JSON-LD
+API.
+</p>
+<div id="url" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#url" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.1
+</span>
+URL
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+datatype
+is
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<pre class="idl">
+<span class="idlTypedef" id="idl-def-URL">
+typedef
+<span class="idlTypedefType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>
+<span class="idlTypedefID">
+URL
+</span>
+;
+</span>
+</pre>
+<div class="idlTypedefDesc">
+This
+datatype
+indicates
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+a
+Universal
+Resource
+Locator
+identifying
+a
+document,
+which
+when
+parsed
+as
+JSON
+yields
+either
+a
+<code>
+JSON
+object
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+array
+</code>.
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="jsonldoptions" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#jsonldoptions" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.2
+</span>
+JsonLdOptions
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">JsonLdOptiones
+</del>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JsonLdOptions
+</ins></code>
+</a>
+type
+is
+used
+to
+convery
+a
+set
+of
+options
+to
+an
+interface
+method.
+</p>
+<pre class="idl">
+<span class="idlTypedef" id="idl-def-JsonLdOptions">
+typedef
+<span class="idlTypedefType">
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</span>
+<span class="idlTypedefID">
+JsonLdOptions
+</span>
+;
+</span>
+</pre>
+<div class="idlTypedefDesc">
+<dt>
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+base
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+Base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+use
+when
+expanding
+the
+document.
+This
+overrides
+the
+value
+of
+<em>
+input
+</em>
+if
+it
+is
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+or
+if
+it
+is
+a
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+object[]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+boolean
+optimize
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+set
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+is
+allowed
+to
+optimize
+the
+output
+of
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+to
+produce
+even
+compacter
+representations.
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compaction
+optimization
+is
+beyond
+the
+scope
+of
+this
+specification
+and
+thus
+not
+defined.
+Consequently,
+different
+implementations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+implement
+different
+optimization
+algorithms.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+boolean
+noType
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+set
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+when
+generating
+the
+output,
+and
+will
+use
+the
+expanded
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+as
+the
+property
+instead
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+data
+structures
+are
+used
+for
+representing
+data
+about
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">statements
+(triples
+or
+quads).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quads.
+</ins>
+They
+are
+used
+for
+normalization,
+<a>
+fromRDF
+</a>,
+and
+from
+<a>
+toRDF
+</a>
+interfaces.
+</p>
+<div id="quad" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#quad" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+interface
+represents
+an
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">Statement.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad.
+See
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+definition
+for
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF
+triple
+</ins></a></cite>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+most
+closely
+aligns
+to
+</ins><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+Quad
+</ins></code></a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+interface  {
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Quad">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+<ins class="diff-chg">interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Quad</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-subject">subject</a></span>;</span><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-property">property</a></span>;</span><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-object">object</a></span>;</span><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-name">name</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#attributes" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.3.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Quad-name">
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+name
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+identifying
+it
+as
+a
+member
+of
+a
+named
+graph.
+If
+the
+attribute
+is
+present,
+it
+indicates
+that
+this
+<del class="diff-old">statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad
+</ins>
+is
+a
+member
+of
+a
+<em>
+named
+graph
+</em>
+associated
+with
+<em>
+name
+</em>.
+If
+it
+is
+missing,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">quad
+</ins>
+is
+a
+member
+of
+the
+<em>
+default
+graph
+</em>.
+<div class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+element
+is
+at
+risk,
+and
+may
+be
+removed.
+</ins></div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-object">
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+object
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-property">
+<code>
+property
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+property
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-subject">
+<code>
+subject
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+subject
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="node" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#node" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.4
+</span>
+Node
+</h4>
+<p>
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+the
+base
+class
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</code>
+</a>,
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Literal" href="#idl-def-Literal">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literal
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Node">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Node</span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Node-nominalValue">nominalValue</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Node-interfaceName">interfaceName</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-1" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#attributes-1" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.4.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Node-interfaceName">
+<code>
+interfaceName
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>
+Provides
+access
+to
+the
+string
+name
+of
+the
+current
+interface,
+normally
+one
+of
+<code>
+&quot;
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+&quot;
+</code>,
+<code>
+&quot;BlankNode&quot;
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;LiteralNode&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&quot;Literal&quot;
+</ins>
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+method
+serves
+to
+disambiguate
+instances
+of
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+which
+are
+otherwise
+identical,
+such
+as
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</code>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Node-nominalValue">
+<code>
+nominalValue
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+nominalValue
+</code>
+of
+an
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+refined
+by
+each
+interface
+which
+extends
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="iri" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iri" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.5
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</h4>
+<p>
+A
+node
+identified
+by
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+are
+defined
+by
+International
+Resource
+Identifier
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">
+IRI
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+<ins class="diff-new">See
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+definition
+for
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a></cite>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+interface  {
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-IRI">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+<ins class="diff-chg">interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">IRI</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+</ins><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-IRI-nominalValue">nominalValue</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-2" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#attributes-2" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.5.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-IRI-nominalValue">
+<code>
+nominalValue
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+identifier
+of
+the
+node.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="blank-node" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#blank-node" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.6
+</span>
+Blank
+Node
+</h4>
+<p>
+A
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+a
+reference
+to
+an
+unnamed
+resource
+(one
+for
+which
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+</ins>
+not
+<ins class="diff-new">be
+</ins>
+known),
+and
+may
+be
+used
+in
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">Statement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Quad
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+as
+a
+unique
+reference
+to
+that
+unnamed
+<del class="diff-old">resource.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node.
+See
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+definition
+for
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-blank-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+blank
+node
+</ins></a></cite>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">    ]
+</del>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-BlankNode">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">BlankNode</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-BlankNode-nominalValue">nominalValue</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-3" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#attributes-3" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.6.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-BlankNode-nominalValue">
+<code>
+nominalValue
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+temporary
+identifier
+of
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>.
+The
+nominalValue
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+relied
+upon
+in
+any
+way
+between
+two
+separate
+processing
+runs
+of
+the
+same
+document.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<p class="note">
+Developers
+and
+authors
+must
+not
+assume
+that
+the
+nominalValue
+of
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+will
+remain
+the
+same
+between
+two
+processing
+runs.
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+nominalValues
+are
+only
+valid
+for
+the
+most
+recent
+processing
+run
+on
+the
+document.
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="blanknode" href="#idl-def-blanknode">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">BlankNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">BlankNodes
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+nominalValues
+will
+often
+be
+generated
+differently
+by
+different
+processors.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+Implementers
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+ensure
+that
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+nominalValues
+are
+unique
+within
+the
+current
+environment,
+two
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="blanknode" href="#idl-def-blanknode">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">BlankNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">BlankNodes
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+are
+considered
+equal
+if,
+and
+only
+if,
+their
+nominalValues
+are
+strictly
+equal.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="literal" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#literal" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.7
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literal
+</ins>
+</h4>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literals
+</ins>
+represent
+values
+such
+as
+numbers,
+dates
+and
+strings
+in
+RDF
+data.
+A
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Literal" href="#idl-def-Literal">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literal
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+comprised
+of
+three
+attributes:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+lexical
+representation
+of
+the
+<code>
+nominalValue
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+an
+optional
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+represented
+by
+a
+string
+token
+</li>
+<li>
+an
+optional
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+specified
+by
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins><a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</code>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literals
+</ins>
+representing
+plain
+text
+in
+a
+natural
+language
+may
+have
+a
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+attribute
+specified
+by
+a
+text
+string
+token,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+normalized
+to
+lowercase
+(e.g.,
+<code>
+'en'
+</code>,
+<code>
+'fr'
+</code>,
+<code>
+'en-gb'
+</code>
+).
+They
+may
+also
+have
+a
+datatype
+attribute
+such
+as
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literals
+</ins>
+representing
+values
+with
+a
+specific
+datatype,
+such
+as
+the
+integer
+72,
+may
+have
+a
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+attribute
+specified
+in
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-iri" class="internalDFN">
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+(e.g.,
+<code>
+&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&gt;
+</code>
+).
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">      ]
+interface  {
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">See[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+definition
+for
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-chg">
+literal
+</ins></a></cite>.</p>      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Literal">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]<ins class="diff-chg">
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Literal</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+</ins><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-nominalValue">nominalValue</a></span>;</span><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-language">language</a></span>;</span><span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType"><code>IRI</code></a>?</span>       <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-datatype">datatype</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-4" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#attributes-4" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h5>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3.7.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h5>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Literal-datatype">
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins>
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+optional
+datatype
+identified
+by
+a
+<del class="diff-old">NamedNode.
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Literal-language">
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+optional
+language
+string
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+normalized
+to
+lowercase.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Literal-nominalValue">
+<code>
+nominalValue
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+lexical
+representation
+of
+the
+<del class="diff-old">LiteralNodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Literals
+</ins>
+value.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#algorithms" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</h2>
+<p>
+All
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section
+are
+intended
+to
+operate
+on
+language-native
+data
+structures.
+That
+is,
+the
+serialization
+to
+a
+text-based
+JSON
+document
+isn't
+required
+as
+input
+or
+output
+to
+any
+of
+these
+algorithms
+and
+language-native
+data
+structures
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+used
+where
+applicable.
+</p>
+<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</dfn>
+s
+that
+are
+using
+in
+all
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Sets
+the
+active
+subject.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+language
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+type
+of
+the
+active
+subject
+or
+the
+datatype
+of
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+value
+of
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+container
+of
+a
+particular
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+unordered
+set
+of
+data.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+explicitly
+express
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+in
+<a href="#framing">
+Framing
+</a>
+to
+set
+the
+<del class="diff-old">defeault
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">default
+</ins>
+value
+for
+an
+output
+property
+when
+the
+framed
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</a>
+does
+not
+include
+such
+a
+property.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+in
+<a href="#framing">
+Framing
+</a>
+to
+override
+the
+value
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>
+within
+a
+specific
+frame.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+in
+<a href="#framing">
+Framing
+</a>
+to
+override
+the
+value
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_default_flag" href="#dfn-omit_default_flag">
+omit
+default
+flag
+</a>
+within
+a
+specific
+frame.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+in
+<a href="#framing">
+Framing
+</a>
+to
+override
+the
+value
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>
+within
+a
+specific
+frame.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">&gt;Used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Used
+</ins>
+in
+<a href="#framing">
+Framing
+</a>
+when
+a
+value
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+should
+be
+returned,
+which
+would
+otherwise
+be
+removed
+when
+<a href="#compaction">
+Compacting
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+All
+JSON-LD
+tokens
+and
+keywords
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithm-terms" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#algorithm-terms" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="initial_context" id="dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+The
+contents
+of
+the
+initial
+context
+is
+defined
+in
+<a href="#appendix-b">
+Appendix
+B
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+The
+active
+property
+is
+represented
+in
+the
+original
+lexical
+form,
+which
+is
+used
+for
+finding
+coercion
+mappings
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+the
+context
+contained
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="blank_node" id="dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+blank
+node
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="resource" href="#dfn-resource">
+resource
+</a>
+which
+is
+neither
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+nor
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>.
+Blank
+nodes
+may
+be
+named
+or
+unnamed
+and
+often
+take
+on
+the
+role
+of
+a
+variable
+that
+may
+represent
+either
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+has
+the
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+and
+is
+used
+as
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+without
+needing
+to
+define
+separate
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+definitions
+for
+each
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+contained
+within
+a
+common
+vocabulary
+identified
+by
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+specified
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>,
+which
+includes
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+is
+managed
+as
+a
+stack
+with
+elements
+from
+the
+previous
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+copied
+into
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+provided
+as
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+produced
+as
+output
+by
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+term
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+defined
+in
+a
+context
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+expands
+to
+a
+vocabulary
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+It
+is
+typically
+used
+along
+with
+a
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+to
+form
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+create
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+within
+a
+vocabulary.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+without
+a
+datatype,
+possibly
+including
+a
+language.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+with
+an
+associated
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+literal's
+datatype.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="context-processing" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#context-processing" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3 id="context">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Context
+Processing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Processing
+of
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+is
+managed
+recursively.
+During
+processing,
+each
+rule
+is
+applied
+using
+information
+provided
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Processing
+begins
+by
+pushing
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+stack
+and
+initializing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+encountered,
+information
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+merged
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+used
+for
+expanding
+properties
+and
+values
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+(or
+elements
+of
+<del class="diff-old">a
+list
+(see
+List
+Processing
+))
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+array)
+</ins>
+using
+a
+<dfn title="term_mapping" id="dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</dfn>.
+It
+is
+also
+used
+to
+maintain
+<dfn title="coercion_mapping" id="dfn-coercion_mapping">
+coercion
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+from
+terms
+to
+datatypes,
+<dfn title="language_mapping" id="dfn-language_mapping">
+language
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+from
+terms
+to
+language
+codes,
+and
+<dfn title="list_mapping" id="dfn-list_mapping">
+list
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+and
+<dfn title="set_mapping" id="dfn-set_mapping">
+set
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+for
+terms.
+Processors
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+use
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+property
+when
+creating
+a
+mapping,
+as
+lookup
+is
+performed
+on
+lexical
+representations,
+not
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+representations.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+identified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+having
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+value.
+When
+processing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+special
+processing
+rules
+apply:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+a
+new,
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Let
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+be
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="process-context">
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+equals
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+reset
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+element
+as
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+in
+order
+by
+starting
+at
+<a href="#process-context">
+Step
+2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Dereference
+<em>
+context
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+resulting
+document
+is
+a
+JSON
+document,
+extract
+the
+top-level
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+element
+using
+the
+JSON
+Pointer
+&quot;/@context&quot;
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER">
+JSON-POINTER
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Set
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+to
+the
+extracted
+content
+and
+process
+it
+by
+starting
+at
+<a href="#process-context">
+Step
+2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+Add
+the
+language
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li id="object-context">
+Otherwise,
+for
+each
+property
+in
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+property's
+value
+is
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+value
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+property
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>,
+unless
+the
+property
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>,
+in
+which
+case
+throw
+an
+exception.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+property's
+value
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+remove
+mapping,
+coercion,
+container
+and
+language
+information
+associated
+with
+property
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+'s
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+properties,
+throw
+an
+exception.
+<div class="issue">
+Undecided
+if
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+can
+take
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</div>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+has
+the
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">it's
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">its
+</ins>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+string
+value
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+has
+the
+form
+of
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+have
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+string
+value
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+absolute
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+<del class="diff-old">it's
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">its
+</ins>
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+merge
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion_mapping" href="#dfn-coercion_mapping">
+coercion
+mapping
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+<del class="diff-old">it's
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">its
+</ins>
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_mapping" href="#dfn-list_mapping">
+list
+mapping
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="set_mapping" href="#dfn-set_mapping">
+set
+mapping
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+but
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language_mapping" href="#dfn-language_mapping">
+language
+mapping
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Repeat
+<a href="#object-context">
+Step
+2.4.2
+</a>
+until
+no
+entries
+are
+added
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p class="note">
+It
+can
+be
+difficult
+to
+distinguish
+between
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+and
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+may
+seem
+to
+be
+a
+valid
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>.
+When
+performing
+repeated
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion,
+a
+term
+used
+as
+a
+prefix
+may
+not
+have
+a
+valid
+mapping
+due
+to
+dependencies
+in
+resolving
+term
+definitions.
+By
+continuing
+<a href="#object-context">
+Step
+2.3.2
+</a>
+until
+no
+changes
+are
+made,
+mappings
+to
+IRIs
+created
+using
+an
+undefined
+term
+prefix
+will
+eventually
+resolve
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<p class="issue">
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/43">
+Issue
+43
+</a>
+concerns
+performing
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion
+in
+the
+key
+position
+of
+a
+context
+definition.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-expansion" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iri-expansion" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Keys
+and
+some
+values
+are
+evaluated
+to
+produce
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+a
+value
+representing
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+into
+an
+actual
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+fragment
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+;
+in
+the
+case
+of
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+the
+base
+location
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+for
+the
+value
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison,
+use
+the
+mapped
+value
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+split
+the
+value
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+from
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+':'.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+a
+'_'
+(underscore),
+the
+value
+represents
+a
+named
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison,
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+does
+not
+does
+not
+begin
+with
+'//'
+(i.e.,
+it
+does
+not
+match
+a
+<em>
+hier-part
+</em>
+including
+<em>
+authority
+</em>
+(as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+generate
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+prefix
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+Note
+that
+an
+empty
+suffix
+and
+no
+suffix
+(meaning
+the
+value
+contains
+no
+':'
+string
+at
+all)
+are
+treated
+equivalently.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+use
+the
+value
+directly
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+Previous
+versions
+of
+this
+specification
+used
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+define
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+prefixes
+used
+to
+resolve
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>.
+It
+was
+determined
+that
+this
+added
+too
+much
+complexity,
+but
+the
+issue
+can
+be
+re-examined
+in
+the
+future
+based
+on
+community
+input.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-compaction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iri-compaction" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+keys
+and
+values
+are
+expressed
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+)
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+specified
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+using
+an
+optional
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+</p>
+<div id="iri-compaction-algorithm" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#iri-compaction-algorithm" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.5.1
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+an
+empty
+list
+of
+terms
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+that
+will
+be
+populated
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+ranked
+according
+to
+how
+closely
+they
+match
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+Initialize
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+0
+</code>,
+and
+set
+a
+flag
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+false
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+each
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+not
+a
+complete
+match
+against
+<em>
+iri
+</em>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+is
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+does
+not
+have
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Set
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+of
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+by
+passing
+passing
+<em>
+term
+</em>,
+<em>
+value
+</em>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a href="#term-rank-algorithm">
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+<code>
+0
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+then
+add
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+is
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+then
+set
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+clear
+<em>
+terms
+</em>,
+set
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>,
+and
+add
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+or
+equal
+to
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>,
+clear
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+and
+set
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Add
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+is
+empty,
+add
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+representation
+of
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+for
+each
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+which
+maps
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+is
+a
+prefix
+for
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+where
+the
+resulting
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+not
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+The
+resulting
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+partially
+matched
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+concatenated
+with
+a
+colon
+(:)
+character
+and
+the
+unmatched
+part
+of
+<em>
+iri
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+is
+empty,
+return
+<em>
+iri
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Return
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Otherwise,
+return
+</ins>
+the
+shortest
+and
+lexicographically
+least
+value
+in
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="term-rank-algorithm" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#term-rank-algorithm" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.5.2
+</span>
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+When
+selecting
+among
+multiple
+possible
+terms
+for
+a
+given
+property,
+it
+may
+be
+that
+multiple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+are
+defined
+with
+the
+same
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+but
+differ
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+The
+purpose
+of
+this
+algorithm
+is
+to
+take
+<del class="diff-old">an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+and
+a
+value
+and
+give
+it
+a
+<dfn title="term_rank" id="dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</dfn>.
+The
+selection
+can
+then
+be
+based,
+partly,
+on
+the
+term
+having
+the
+highest
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Given
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<em>
+term
+</em>,
+<em>
+value
+</em>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+determine
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+is
+an
+empty
+array,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+return
+the
+sum
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+s
+for
+every
+entry
+in
+the
+list.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+<del class="diff-old">if
+</del>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+true
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+<ins class="diff-chg">must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+definition
+</ins>
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">false
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_reference" href="#dfn-subject_reference">
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject
+reference
+</ins>
+</a>,
+or
+a
+<del class="diff-old">number
+,
+if
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+having
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.<ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+</ins>
+<em>
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins>
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@value
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">coercion
+to
+xsd:boolean
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property:
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+has
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">xsd:integer
+,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+matching
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">xsd:double
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">respectively,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coercion
+for
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></em>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coercion
+and
+no
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">it
+</del>
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+rank
+</ins></a>
+is
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1
+</ins>
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">0
+</ins>
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<del class="diff-old">value
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@value
+</ins></code>
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">not
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">it
+represents
+a
+string
+value
+with
+no
[email protected]
+.
+If
+term
+has
[email protected]
+null
+,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">if
+</ins>
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+no
[email protected]
+,
+term
+rank
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">it
+</ins>
+is
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2
+</ins>
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">0
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1
+</ins>
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+<del class="diff-old">value
+must
+be
+a
+subject
+definition
+,
+subject
+reference
+,
+or
+a
+JSON
+object
+having
+a
[email protected]
+.
+If
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">if
+</ins>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+<del class="diff-old">an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">no
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@language
+</ins>
+</code>
+property,
+<del class="diff-old">it
+must
+have
+either
+a
[email protected]
+or
+a
[email protected]
+:
+If
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">if
+</ins>
+<em>
+<del class="diff-old">value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins>
+</em>
+has
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+property
+matching
+a
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@language
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">coercion
+for
+term
+,
+term
+rank
+is
+3
+,
+otherwise
+if
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+<ins class="diff-chg">null
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins>
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">coersion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+has
+</ins>
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3
+</ins>
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+matching
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+for
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+(or
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+matches
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+),
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">coersion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coercion
+</ins>
+and
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coerced
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">coersion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coercion
+</ins>
+and
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Return
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="value-expansion" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#value-expansion" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+compact
+form.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+expanded
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+expanding
+a
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+takes
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+It
+is
+implemented
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+number
+and
+the
+active
+property
+is
+the
+target
+of
+typed
+literal
+coercion
+to
+xsd:integer
+or
+xsd:double
+,
+expand
+the
+value
+into
+an
+object
+with
+two
+key-value
+pairs.
+The
+first
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
[email protected]
+and
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+<ins class="diff-chg">null
+</ins></a>,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">string
+representation
+of
+</del>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">as
+defined
+in
+the
+section
+Data
+Round
+Tripping
+.
+The
+second
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
[email protected]
+and
+the
+associated
+coercion
+datatype
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+IRI
+Expansion
+rules.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+already
+expanded.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Otherwise,
+if
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</code>
+or
+the
+target
+of
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion,
+expand
+the
+value
+into
+an
+object
+with
+a
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">the
+target
+of
+typed
+literal
+coercion,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">not
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+then
+</ins>
+expand
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+into
+an
+<del class="diff-old">object
+with
+key-value
+pairs.
+The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">object:
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Set
+the
+</ins>
+first
+key-value
+pair
+<del class="diff-old">will
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+unexpanded
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+property
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+the
+target
+of
+typed
+literal
+coercion,
+set
+the
+</ins>
+second
+key-value
+pair
+<del class="diff-old">will
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+associated
+coercion
+datatype
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<del class="diff-old">value
+is
+a
+string
+and
+</del>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+</del>
+the
+target
+of
+<del class="diff-old">typed
+literal
+coercion
+but
+target
+of
+</del>
+language
+tagging,
+<del class="diff-old">expand
+value
+into
+an
+object
+with
+two
+key-value
+pairs.
+The
+first
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
[email protected]
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">unexpanded
+value
+.
+The
+</del>
+second
+key-value
+pair
+<del class="diff-old">will
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+value
+of
+the
+language
+tagging
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+already
+expanded.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="value-compaction" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#value-compaction" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values,
+such
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+<del class="diff-old">literals,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">literals
+</ins></a>,
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+an
+expanded
+form
+in
+JSON-LD.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+compacted
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compacting
+an
+expanded
+value
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+takes
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+It
+is
+implemented
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<em>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">may
+be
+expressed
+as
+true
+,
+false
+or
+number
+,
+</del>
+</em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">only
+has
+one
+property,
+then
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">compacted
+</ins>
+value
+is
+the
+<del class="diff-old">native
+representation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<code>
[email protected]
+<del class="diff-old">value.
+</del>
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">If
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Otherwise,
+if
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+coercion
+target
+for
+the
+key
+that
+matches
+the
+expression
+of
+the
+value,
+compact
+the
+value
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+<del class="diff-old">literal,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal
+</ins></a>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+which
+matches
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+of
+the
+value,
+or
+the
+value
+has
+only
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+value
+contains
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+value
+is
+not
+modified.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="generate-blank-node-identifier" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#generate-blank-node-identifier" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.8
+</span>
+Generate
+Blank
+Node
+Identifier
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+algorithm
+is
+used
+by
+the
+<a href="#framing-algorithm">
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm">
+Convert
+From
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+to
+deterministicly
+name
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+identifiers.
+It
+uses
+a
+<em>
+identifier
+map
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+takes
+a
+possibly
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+identifier
+and
+returns
+a
+new
+identifier
+based
+on
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+variable
+<em>
+next
+identifier
+</em>
+is
+initialized
+to
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+appended
+with
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+old
+identifier
+is
+not
+null
+and
+is
+in
+<em>
+identifier
+map
+</em>
+return
+the
+mapped
+identifier.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+old
+identifier
+is
+not
+null,
+create
+a
+new
+entry
+in
+<em>
+identifier
+map
+</em>
+initialized
+to
+the
+current
+value
+of
+<em>
+next
+identifier
+</em>.
+Increment
+<em>
+next
+identifier
+</em>
+by
+adding
+one
+to
+the
+integer
+suffix.
+Return
+the
+mapped
+identifier.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+increment
+<em>
+next
+identifier
+</em>
+by
+adding
+one
+to
+the
+integer
+suffix
+and
+return
+its
+original
+value.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#expansion" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.9
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+all
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+datatypes,
+and
+literal
+values
+are
+expanded
+so
+that
+the
+context
+is
+no
+longer
+necessary.
+JSON-LD
+document
+expansion
+is
+typically
+used
+as
+a
+part
+of
+<a href="#framing">
+Framing
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: {
+        &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+        &quot;@type&quot;, &quot;@id&quot;
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Expansion
+algorithm
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+<div id="expansion-algorithm" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#expansion-algorithm" rel="bibo:chapter" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.9.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+takes
+three
+input
+variables:
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>,
+and
+an
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+to
+be
+expanded.
+To
+begin,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+set
+to
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">result
+of
+performing,
+</ins><a href="#context-processing"><ins class="diff-new">
+Context
+Processing
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+on
+the
+passed
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></em>,<ins class="diff-new">
+or
+to
+the
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">if
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+and
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+set
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>.
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+entry
+in
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm,
+passing
+copies
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>.
+If
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+any
+entry
+in
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+or
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+throw
+an
+exception,
+as
+lists
+of
+lists
+are
+not
+allowed.
+If
+the
+expanded
+entry
+is
+null,
+drop
+it.
+If
+it's
+an
+array,
+merge
+<del class="diff-old">it's
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">its
+</ins>
+entries
+with
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+'s
+entries.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+an
+object
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+update
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+<a href="#context-processing">
+Context
+Processing
+</a>
+and
+remove
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property.
+</li>
+<li>
+Then,
+proceed
+and
+process
+each
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+in
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+as
+follows:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Remove
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+from
+<em>
+element
+</em>,
+expand
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>.
+Set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+to
+the
+original
+un-expanded
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+if
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+not
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+does
+not
+expand
+to
+a
+keyword
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(i.e.,
+it
+doesn't
+contain
+a
+colon),
+continue
+with
+the
+next
+property
+from
+<em>
+element
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>