Updated previous diff files.
authorGregg Kellogg <gregg@kellogg-assoc.com>
Wed, 11 Jan 2012 16:40:12 -0800
changeset 334 c2240eb135ee
parent 333 4143d1562b0d
child 335 018a1e6cd654
Updated previous diff files.
spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120112/diff-20111023.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120112/diff-20111023.html
--- a/spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120112/diff-20111023.html	Wed Jan 11 16:36:47 2012 -0800
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-api/20120112/diff-20111023.html	Wed Jan 11 16:40:12 2012 -0800
@@ -534,7 +534,7 @@
 <h2 id="unofficial-draft-12-january-2012">
 Unofficial
 Draft
-<del class="diff-old">16
+<del class="diff-old">24
 October
 2011
 </del>
@@ -612,7 +612,7 @@
 </dd>
 </dl>
 <p>
-<ins class="diff-new">This
+This
 document
 is
 also
@@ -621,12 +621,13 @@
 this
 non-normative
 format:
-</ins><a href="diff-20111023.html"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a href="diff-20111023.html">
 diff
 to
 previous
 version
-</ins></a>.</p>
+</a>.
+</p>
 <p class="copyright">
 This
 document
@@ -810,11 +811,15 @@
 <span class="secno">
 1.2
 </span>
-<ins class="diff-new">Linked
+Linked
 Data
-</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#contributing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
 1.3
-</ins></span>
+</span>
 Contributing
 </a>
 </li>
@@ -904,51 +909,81 @@
 </span>
 Context
 </a>
-<del class="diff-old">3.3.1
-Coerce
-3.3.2
-Initial
-Context
-</del>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#iri-expansion" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
 3.4
 </span>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Value
+Compaction
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
 Expansion
+3.5.1
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+Expansion
+<del class="diff-old">Algorithm
+</del>
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#iri-compaction" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.5
-</span>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-IRI
-</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Compaction
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">3.6.1
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
 Compaction
-</a>
-</li>
+<del class="diff-old">Algorithm
+</del>
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">3.7
+Framing
+</del>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#value-expansion" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.6
-</span>
-Value
+<del class="diff-old">3.7.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Framing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Value
 Expansion
+</ins>
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.7
-</span>
-Value
+<del class="diff-old">3.7.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Framing
+Algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Value
 Compaction
+</ins>
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
@@ -956,7 +991,10 @@
 <span class="secno">
 3.8
 </span>
-Expansion
+<del class="diff-old">Normalization
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
 </a>
 <ul class="toc">
 <li class="tocline">
@@ -964,140 +1002,169 @@
 <span class="secno">
 3.8.1
 </span>
-Expansion
-Algorithm
-</a>
-</li>
+<del class="diff-old">Normalization
+Algorithm
+Terms
+3.8.2
+Normalization
+State
+3.8.3
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+3.8.4
+Node
+Relabeling
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.5
+Deterministic
+Labeling
+Algorithm
+</del>
 </ul>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#compaction" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.9
-</span>
-Compaction
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Shallow
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compaction
+</ins>
 </a>
 <ul class="toc">
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.9.1
-</span>
-Compaction
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Object
+Comparison
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compaction
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.8
+Deep
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</del>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Node
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Framing
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Serialization
+Label
+Generation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Framing
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+<ins class="diff-new">Terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Combinatorial
+Serialization
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Framing
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.12
+Serialization
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</del>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.13
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Mapping
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.14
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.11.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Label
+Serialization
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
 Algorithm
 </a>
 </li>
 </ul>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
-<a href="#framing" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.10
-</span>
-Framing
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.10.1
-</span>
-Framing
-Algorithm
-Terms
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.10.2
-</span>
-Framing
-Algorithm
-</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#normalization" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-3.11
-</span>
-Normalization
-</a>
-<ul class="toc">
-<li class="tocline">
-<del class="diff-old">3.11.1
-Normalization
-Algorithm
-Terms
-3.11.2
-Normalization
-State
-</del>
-<a href="#normalization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">3.11.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">3.11.1
-</ins>
-</span>
-Normalization
-Algorithm
-</a>
-</li>
-<del class="diff-old">3.11.4
-Node
-Relabeling
-Algorithm
-3.11.5
-Deterministic
-Labeling
-Algorithm
-3.11.6
-Shallow
-Comparison
-Algorithm
-3.11.7
-Object
-Comparison
-Algorithm
-3.11.8
-Deep
-Comparison
-Algorithm
-3.11.9
-Node
-Serialization
-Algorithm
-3.11.10
-Serialization
-Label
-Generation
-Algorithm
-3.11.11
-Combinatorial
-Serialization
-Algorithm
-3.11.12
-Serialization
-Comparison
-Algorithm
-3.11.13
-Mapping
-Serialization
-Algorithm
-3.11.14
-Label
-Serialization
-Algorithm
-</del>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
 <a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.12
+<del class="diff-old">3.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.12
+</ins>
 </span>
 Data
 Round
@@ -1107,7 +1174,10 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.13
+<del class="diff-old">3.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13
+</ins>
 </span>
 RDF
 Conversion
@@ -1116,7 +1186,10 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.1
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.1
+</ins>
 </span>
 Overview
 </a>
@@ -1124,7 +1197,10 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.2
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.2
+</ins>
 </span>
 RDF
 Conversion
@@ -1135,7 +1211,10 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.3
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.3
+</ins>
 </span>
 RDF
 Conversion
@@ -1145,7 +1224,10 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#list-conversion" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.4
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.4
+</ins>
 </span>
 <del class="diff-old">Acknowledgements
 </del>
@@ -1978,12 +2060,9 @@
 JSON-LD
 is
 a
-<del class="diff-old">directed
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
-<ins class="diff-chg">linked
+linked
 data
-</ins>
 graph
 </a>,
 which
@@ -2128,17 +2207,18 @@
 <span class="secno">
 1.2
 </span>
-<ins class="diff-new">Linked
+Linked
 Data
-</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</h3>
+<p>
 The
 following
 definition
 for
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
 Data
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 is
 the
 one
@@ -2149,10 +2229,13 @@
 for
 this
 specification.
-</ins></p><ol><li><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
 Data
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
 is
 a
 set
@@ -2167,13 +2250,14 @@
 linked
 data
 graph.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 A
-</ins><dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+<dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">
 linked
 data
 graph
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
 is
 an
 unordered
@@ -2183,54 +2267,59 @@
 where
 nodes
 are
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
 subject
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 s
 or
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
 s,
 and
 edges
 are
 properties.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 A
-</ins><dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+<dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">
 subject
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
 is
 any
 node
 in
 a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
 linked
 data
 graph
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 with
 at
 least
 one
 outgoing
 edge.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
 subject
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
 should
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
 be
 labeled
 with
 an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
 (an
 Internationalized
 Resource
@@ -2239,157 +2328,185 @@
 described
 in
 [
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-new">
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
 RFC3987
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 ]).
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 An
-</ins><dfn title="object" id="dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-a
-node
-in
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+<dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
 linked
 data
 graph
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 with
 at
 least
 one
 incoming
 edge.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 An
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
 may
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
 be
 labeled
 with
 an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
 An
 object
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
 may
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-be
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
 subject
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-and
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
 at
 the
 same
 time.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 A
-</ins><dfn title="property" id="dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
-property
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+<dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>
 is
 an
 edge
 of
 the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
 linked
 data
 graph
-</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
 A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
-property
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
 should
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
 be
 labeled
 with
 an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
 An
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
-that
-is
-a
-label
-in
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+that
+is
+a
+label
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
 linked
 data
 graph
-</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
 should
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
 be
 dereferencable
 to
 a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
 Data
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 document
 describing
 the
 labeled
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
 subject
-</ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-or
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
-property
-</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
 A
-</ins><dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+<dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">
 literal
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-with
-a
-label
-that
-is
-not
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a></li></ol><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
 Note
 that
 the
 definition
 for
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
 Data
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 above
 is
 silent
@@ -2404,10 +2521,10 @@
 are
 not
 considered
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
 Data
-</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+</a>.
 However,
 this
 specification
@@ -2442,9 +2559,13 @@
 not
 directly
 de-referenceable.
-</ins></p></div><div id="contributing" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
 1.3
-</ins></span>
+</span>
 Contributing
 </h3>
 <p>
@@ -5037,10 +5158,6 @@
 used
 to
 resolve
-<del class="diff-old">prefix
-es
-and
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
 term
 </a>
@@ -5169,19 +5286,13 @@
 active
 context
 </a>,
-<del class="diff-old">current
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
-<ins class="diff-chg">active
-</ins>
+active
 subject
 </a>,
 and
-<del class="diff-old">current
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
-<ins class="diff-chg">active
-</ins>
+active
 property
 </a>.
 The
@@ -5262,12 +5373,14 @@
 </dd>
 <dt>
 <dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-new">term
-</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
 A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
 term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 is
 a
 short
@@ -5275,31 +5388,38 @@
 defined
 with
 a
-</ins><a href="#context"><ins class="diff-new">
-context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-that
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a href="#context">
+context
+</a>
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
 may
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
 be
 expanded
 to
 an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a></dd><dt><dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
 prefix
-</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
 A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
 prefix
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
 term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 that
 expands
 to
@@ -5307,9 +5427,11 @@
 Web
 Vocabulary
 base
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr>.<ins class="diff-new">
+<del class="diff-old">IRI.
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>.
 It
 is
 typically
@@ -5317,33 +5439,37 @@
 along
 with
 a
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+<em>
 suffix
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</em>
 to
 create
 an
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
 within
 a
 Web
 Vocabulary.
-</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal">
 plain
 literal
-</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
 A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
 plain
 literal
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
 literal
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 without
 a
 datatype,
@@ -5351,32 +5477,38 @@
 including
 a
 language.
-</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
-typed
-literal
-</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
-A
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">
 typed
 literal
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
 literal
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-with
-an
-associated
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+with
+an
+associated
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
 which
 indicates
 the
 literal's
 datatype.
-</ins></dd>
+</dd>
 </dl>
 </div>
 <div id="context-1" class="section">
@@ -5559,8 +5691,7 @@
 string
 </a>,
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
-<ins class="diff-new">array
-</ins>
+array
 </a>
 or
 a
@@ -5593,47 +5724,48 @@
 </a>.
 </li>
 <li>
-<del class="diff-old">If
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Let
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-value
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-</ins>
-the
-value
-<ins class="diff-new">of
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+Let
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+be
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
 @context
-</ins></code><ol id="process-context" class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-new">
-If
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-is
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-new">
-array
-</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+</code>
+<ol id="process-context" class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
 process
 each
 element
 as
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins></em>,<ins class="diff-new">
+<em>
+value
+</em>,
 in
 order
 using
-</ins><a href="#process-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a href="#process-context">
 Step
 2
-</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
-If
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins></em>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
 is
 a
 simple
@@ -5649,101 +5781,118 @@
 lexical
 form
 of
-<ins class="diff-new">absolute
+<del class="diff-old">IRI.
+Set
+value
+to
+the
+result
+of
+performing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
 </ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 IRI
-<del class="diff-old">and
-used
-to
-initialize
+<del class="diff-old">Expansion
+on
+value
+.
 </del>
 </abbr>.
 <ol class="algorithm">
 <li>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Dereference
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-value
-</ins></em>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+<del class="diff-old">If
+value
+does
+is
+not
+an
+absolute
+IRI,
+abort
+this
+processing
+step.
+Otherwise,
+</del>
+Dereference
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
 If
 the
 resulting
 document
 is
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">new
-</del>
-JSON
-<del class="diff-old">document
-which
-replaces
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">document,
+a
+JSON
+document,
 extract
-</ins>
-the
-<ins class="diff-new">top-level
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+the
+top-level
+<code>
 @context
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</code>
 element
 using
 the
 JSON
 Pointer
-"/@context"
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;/@context&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"/@context"
+</ins>
 as
 described
 in
 [
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER"><ins class="diff-new">
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER">
 JSON-POINTER
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 ].
 Set
-</ins><em>
-value
-<del class="diff-old">for
-subsequent
-processing.
-</del>
-</em>
-<ins class="diff-chg">to
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+to
 the
 extracted
 content,
 or
 an
 empty
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
 JSON
 Object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 if
 no
 value
 exists.
-</ins>
-</li>
-<li>
-<del class="diff-old">If
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Merge
-the
-of
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-new">Merge
+the
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
 local
 context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
 into
-</ins>
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-<ins class="diff-new">active
-context
-</ins></a>.</li></ol></li></ol></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
-If
-</ins><em>
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>.</li></ol></li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
 value
 </em>
 is
@@ -5759,13 +5908,9 @@
 <ol class="algorithm">
 <li>
 If
-<del class="diff-old">the
-JSON
-object
-</del>
-<em>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-</ins></em>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
 has
 a
 <code>
@@ -5842,22 +5987,10 @@
 each
 key
 in
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-value
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-having
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">JSON
-object
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">lexical
-form
-of
-</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName"><ins class="diff-chg">
-NCName
-</ins>
-</a>
+</ins>
+<em>
+value
+</em>
 <del class="diff-old">has
 a
 @vocab
@@ -5866,28 +5999,35 @@
 must
 have
 a
-</del>
-</cite>
-<ins class="diff-chg">(see
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">having
+the
+lexical
+form
+</ins>
+of
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName">
+<ins class="diff-new">NCName
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+(see
 [
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XML-NAMES"><ins class="diff-new">
 XML-NAMES
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
 ]),
 or
 is
 an
 empty
 string,
-</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-new">
 If
 the
 key's
-</ins>
-value
-<del class="diff-old">of
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">is
+value
+is
 </ins>
 a
 simple
@@ -5951,21 +6091,90 @@
 the
 associated
 value.
-If
-the
-<del class="diff-old">JSON
-object
-has
-a
[email protected]
-key,
+<ins class="diff-new">If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+mapping
+is
+an
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-new">
+merge
+the
+key-value
+pair
+into
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+local
+context
+</ins></a><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+mapping
+</ins></a>.
+</li>
+<li id="object-context">
+<ins class="diff-new">Otherwise,
+the
+key's
+value
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>.<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">If
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+<ins class="diff-new">must
+</ins>
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">has
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">have
+</ins>
+a
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@coerce
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">key,
 it
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+with
+a
+string
+value,
+the
+value
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
 must
+</em>
 have
-a
-value
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">result
+<del class="diff-old">a
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+form
 </ins>
 of
 <del class="diff-old">a
@@ -5974,6 +6183,17 @@
 .
 Add
 </del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins></a>:suffix,<ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Determine
+</ins>
 the
 <del class="diff-old">@coerce
 </del>
@@ -5982,8 +6202,36 @@
 </ins></abbr>
 mapping
 <del class="diff-old">to
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">is
+the
+local
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+by
+</ins>
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+<del class="diff-old">value(s).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+mapping
+is
 an
 absolute
 </ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
@@ -5994,75 +6242,43 @@
 key-value
 pair
 into
-</ins>
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
 local
 context
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">performing
-IRI
-Expansion
-on
-the
-associated
-value(s).
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
-<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
 mapping
 </ins></a>.
 </li>
-<li id="object-context">
-Otherwise,
-the
-<del class="diff-old">key
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">key's
-value
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
-must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-JSON
-object
-</ins></a>.<ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-The
+<li>
+If
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+value
+has
+a
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+key,
+<del class="diff-old">it
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
 value
 </ins>
 <em class="rfc2119" title="must">
 must
 </em>
 have
-<ins class="diff-new">a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-key
-with
-a
-string
-value,
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">lexical
+<del class="diff-old">a
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
 form
-of
-NCName
-and
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-</ins>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
-must
-</em>
-have
-the
-<del class="diff-old">value
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">form
 </ins>
 of
 <del class="diff-old">a
@@ -6077,120 +6293,28 @@
 absolute
 </ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
 IRI
-</ins></abbr>.<ins class="diff-chg">
-Determine
-the
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
-mapping
-value
-by
-performing
-</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
-Expansion
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">with
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">on
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">lexical
-form
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">associated
-value.
-If
-the
-result
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">IRI.
-Merge
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">the
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
-mapping
-is
-an
-absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-merge
-</ins>
-the
-key-value
-pair
-into
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
-local
-context
-</a>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
-<ins class="diff-new">term
-mapping
-</ins>
-</a>.
-</li>
-<li>
-<del class="diff-old">Merge
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">If
-the
-value
-has
-a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-key,
-</ins>
-the
-<ins class="diff-new">value
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
-must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-have
-the
-form
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">local
-context
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-chg">term
-</ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
-prefix
-</ins></a>:suffix,<ins class="diff-chg">
-absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
-or
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></abbr>
+or
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-new">
 keyword
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">'s
-</del>
-<code>
-<del class="diff-old">@coerce
+</ins></a>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">null
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">@id
-</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
-Determine
-the
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
+</ins>
+</code>.
+<del class="diff-old">Add
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Determine
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">language
+to
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
 </ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
 by
 performing
@@ -6210,80 +6334,19 @@
 the
 </ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
 IRI
-</ins></abbr>
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
 mapping
-<ins class="diff-new">is
+is
 an
 absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
-or
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
-</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
-merge
-</ins>
-into
-the
-<del class="diff-old">active
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">local
-</ins>
-context
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">'s
[email protected]
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion_mapping" href="#dfn-coercion_mapping">
-<ins class="diff-chg">coercion
-</ins>
-mapping
-<del class="diff-old">as
-described
-below
-</del>
-</a>.
-</li>
-<li>
-<del class="diff-old">Merge
-all
-entries
-other
-than
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">If
-</ins>
-the
-<ins class="diff-new">value
-has
-a
-</ins>
-<code>
-<del class="diff-old">@coerce
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">@list
-</ins>
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">mapping
-from
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">key,
-the
-value
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
-must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-true
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
 or
 </ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-false
-</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
-Merge
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+merge
 into
 </ins>
 the
@@ -6291,34 +6354,88 @@
 local
 context
 </a>
-<del class="diff-old">to
-the
-active
-context
-overwriting
-any
-duplicate
-values.
-</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion_mapping" href="#dfn-coercion_mapping">
+<ins class="diff-new">coercion
+mapping
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Otherwise,
+for
+each
+key
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+the
+</ins>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">having
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">has
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">lexical
+form
+of
+NCName
+,
+it's
+</del>
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">have
+</del>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+IRI.
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">true
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+false
+</ins></code>.
+Merge
+<del class="diff-old">the
+key-value
+pair
+</del>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_mapping" href="#dfn-list_mapping">
-<ins class="diff-chg">list
+<ins class="diff-new">list
 mapping
-</ins></a>.
+</ins>
+</a>.
 </li>
 </ol>
-<del class="diff-old">3.3.1
-Coerce
-Map
-each
-key-value
-pair
-in
-</del>
-</li>
-<li>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Merge
-</ins>
-the
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+the
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
 local
 context
@@ -6332,16 +6449,72 @@
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
 active
 context
-</a>.
-</li>
-<li>
-<ins class="diff-new">Repeat
-</ins><a href="#object-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+<del class="diff-old">'s
[email protected]
+mapping
+as
+described
+below
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Merge
+all
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Repeat
+</ins><a href="#object-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
 Step
 3.2
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">'s
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+until
+no
+</ins>
+entries
+<del class="diff-old">other
+than
+the
[email protected]
+mapping
+from
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+added
+to
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+<del class="diff-old">to
+the
+active
+context
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<del class="diff-old">Coerce
+Map
+each
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+local
+context
+'s
[email protected]
+mapping
+into
+the
+active
+context
+'s
 @coerce
 mapping,
 overwriting
@@ -6349,22 +6522,10 @@
 duplicate
 values
 in
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">until
-no
-entries
-are
-added
-to
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">active
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">local
-</ins>
-context
-<del class="diff-old">'s
+the
+active
+context
+'s
 @coerce
 mapping.
 The
@@ -6373,9 +6534,6 @@
 has
 either
 </del>
-</a>.
-</li>
-</ol>
 </li>
 </ol>
 </li>
@@ -6393,10 +6551,7 @@
 <del class="diff-old">single
 </del>
 <code>
-<del class="diff-old">prefix:term
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">prefix:suffix
-</ins>
+prefix:suffix
 </code>
 <del class="diff-old">value,
 a
@@ -6404,100 +6559,30 @@
 term
 value
 or
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">and
-</ins>
-an
-<del class="diff-old">array
-of
-prefix:term
+an
+array
+of
+prefix:suffix
 or
 term
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-as
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
-prefix
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">values.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">may
-seem
-to
-be
-a
-valid
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-scheme
-</ins></em>.
+values.
 When
-<del class="diff-old">merging
+merging
 with
 an
 existing
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">performing
-repeated
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
-expansion,
-a
-term
-used
-as
-a
-prefix
-may
-not
-have
-a
-valid
-</ins>
 mapping
-<ins class="diff-new">due
-to
-dependencies
-</ins>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">the
+in
+the
 active
 context
 ,
 map
 all
-prefix
-and
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">resolving
-</ins>
 term
-<ins class="diff-new">definitions.
-By
-continuing
-</ins><a href="#object-context"><ins class="diff-new">
-Step
-3.2
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">values
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">until
-no
-changes
-are
-made,
-mappings
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">array
+values
+to
+array
 form
 and
 replace
@@ -6511,8 +6596,9 @@
 the
 local
 context
-and
-the
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">the
 value
 of
 the
@@ -6524,10 +6610,6 @@
 result
 is
 </del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
-created
-using
-</ins>
 an
 <del class="diff-old">array
 with
@@ -6543,7 +6625,6 @@
 a
 string
 value.
-3.3.2
 Initial
 Context
 The
@@ -6551,54 +6632,50 @@
 context
 is
 initialized
-as
-follows:
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">undefined
-term
-prefix
-will
-eventually
-resolve
-to
-absolute
-IRIs.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">@base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>,
+as
+<del class="diff-old">follows:
[email protected]
 is
 set
 using
 section
 5.1
 Establishing
-a
-Base
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Base
 URI
 of
 [
-</del>
-<p class="issue">
-<del class="diff-old">RFC3986
-</del>
-<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/43">
-<ins class="diff-chg">Issue
-43
+RFC3986
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefix
 </ins>
 </a>
 <del class="diff-old">].
 Processors
+</del>
 may
-provide
-a
-means
+<del class="diff-old">provide
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">seem
+to
+be
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">means
 of
 setting
 the
 base
 </del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">concerns
-performing
+<ins class="diff-chg">valid
 </ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 IRI
 <del class="diff-old">programatically.
@@ -6608,37 +6685,107 @@
 with
 </del>
 </abbr>
-<ins class="diff-chg">expansion
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">scheme
+</ins></em>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+When
+performing
+repeated
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+expansion,
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">single
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+used
+as
+a
+prefix
+may
+not
+have
+a
+valid
+</ins>
+mapping
+<del class="diff-old">from
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">due
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dependencies
+in
+resolving
+term
+definitions.
+By
+continuing
+</ins><a href="#object-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Step
+3.2
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">until
+no
+changes
+are
+made,
+mappings
+to
+IRIs
+created
+using
+an
+undefined
+term
+prefix
+will
+eventually
+resolve
+to
+absolute
+IRIs.
+</ins></p><p class="issue">
+<del class="diff-old">    {
+    &quot;@base&quot;: ,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;: {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;@type&quot;
+    }
+}
+</del>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/43">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Issue
+43
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">concerns
+performing
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+expansion
 in
 the
 key
 position
 of
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">single
-mapping
-from
[email protected]
-to
[email protected]
-.
-    {
-    &quot;@base&quot;: ,
-    &quot;@coerce&quot;: {
-      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;@type&quot;
-    }
-}
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
+a
+context
 definition.
 </ins></p>
 </div>
 <div id="iri-expansion" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.4
-</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins></span>
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 IRI
 </abbr>
@@ -6691,27 +6838,27 @@
 an
 absolute
 <del class="diff-old">IRI,
-a
-term
-,
 </del>
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 <ins class="diff-chg">IRI
 </ins></abbr>,
 a
-<del class="diff-old">prefix
-:
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
 term
-</a>
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">or
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>:suffix
 <del class="diff-old">construct,
-</del>
-or
-<del class="diff-old">as
-</del>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">value
+or
+as
+a
+value
 relative
 to
 @base
@@ -6719,10 +6866,7 @@
 @vocab
 .
 </del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-<ins class="diff-chg">prefix
-</ins></a>:suffix<ins class="diff-chg">
-construct.
+<ins class="diff-chg">construct.
 </ins>
 </p>
 <p>
@@ -6789,8 +6933,8 @@
 contains
 a
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-new">term
-</ins></a>
+term
+</a>
 mapping
 for
 <em>
@@ -6859,18 +7003,18 @@
 (i.e.,
 a
 key's
+value
+in
+a
+JSON
+object
+,
+or
+a
 </del>
 value
 <del class="diff-old">in
 a
-JSON
-object
-,
-or
-a
-value
-in
-a
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">directly
 as
@@ -7002,9 +7146,8 @@
 <div id="iri-compaction" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.5
-</span>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins></span><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 IRI
 </abbr>
 Compaction
@@ -7041,10 +7184,6 @@
 term
 </a>
 s
-<del class="diff-old">and
-prefix
-es
-</del>
 specified
 in
 the
@@ -7161,11 +7300,8 @@
 </abbr>
 is
 the
-<del class="diff-old">prefix
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-chg">term
-</ins>
+term
 </a>
 associated
 with
@@ -7230,8 +7366,8 @@
 <div id="value-expansion" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.6
-</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins></span>
 Value
 Expansion
 </h3>
@@ -7277,8 +7413,9 @@
 </ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property"><ins class="diff-chg">
 active
 property
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-and
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
 </ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
 active
 context
@@ -7288,8 +7425,7 @@
 implemented
 as
 follows:
-</ins>
-</p>
+</ins></p>
 <ol class="algorithm">
 <li>
 If
@@ -7615,7 +7751,10 @@
 <div id="value-compaction" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.7
+<del class="diff-old">3.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
 </span>
 Value
 Compaction
@@ -7817,67 +7956,63 @@
 <del class="diff-old">@literal
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">@value
-</ins>
-</code>
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 key.
-</li>
-</ol>
-</li>
-<li>
-<ins class="diff-new">Otherwise,
+</ins></li></ol></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Otherwise,
 if
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
 contains
 an
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @id
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 key,
 the
 compacted
 value
 is
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-with
-the
-value
-of
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+the
+value
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @id
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 processed
 according
 to
 the
-</ins><a href="#iri-compaction"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><a href="#iri-compaction"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
 Compaction
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 steps.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
 Otherwise,
 if
 the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
-active
-context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 contains
 a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @language
-</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
 which
 matches
 the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @language
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 of
 the
 value,
@@ -7887,9 +8022,9 @@
 has
 only
 a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @value
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 key,
 the
 compacted
@@ -7900,13 +8035,15 @@
 associated
 with
 the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @value
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+</code>
 key.
-</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+</li>
+<li>
 Otherwise,
-if
+<ins class="diff-new">if
 the
 value
 contains
@@ -7938,9 +8075,9 @@
 Compaction
 </ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
 steps.
-</ins></li>
-<li>
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
 Otherwise,
+</ins>
 the
 value
 is
@@ -7952,30 +8089,15 @@
 <div id="expansion" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.8
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
 </span>
 Expansion
 </h3>
-<del class="diff-old">This
-algorithm
-is
-a
-work
-in
-progress,
-do
-not
-implement
-it.
-</del>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">As
-stated
-previously,
-expansion
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
-</ins>
+<p>
+Expansion
 is
 the
 process
@@ -7983,56 +8105,22 @@
 taking
 a
 JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">input
-and
-expanding
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
 all
-IRIs
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">document
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">typed
-literals
-to
-their
-fully-expanded
-form.
-The
-output
-will
-not
-contain
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">applying
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">single
-</del>
-context
-<del class="diff-old">declaration
-and
-will
-have
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">such
-that
-</ins>
-all
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+<del class="diff-old">IRI,
 </del>
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 <ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></abbr>,
 datatypes,
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">typed
-literals
-fully
-expanded.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">literal
+and
+literal
 values
 are
 expanded
@@ -8054,13 +8142,15 @@
 a
 part
 of
-</ins><a href="#framing"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a href="#framing">
 Framing
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-or
-</ins><a href="#normalization"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#normalization">
 Normalization
-</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
 For
 example,
 assume
@@ -8069,9 +8159,22 @@
 JSON-LD
 input
 document:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-   "@context":
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+      {
+         &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">   "@context":
    {
       "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
       "homepage": {
@@ -8081,8 +8184,10 @@
    },
    "name": "Manu Sporny",
    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
 Running
 the
 JSON-LD
@@ -8101,29 +8206,42 @@
 the
 following
 output:
-</ins>
-</p>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+   }
+</del>
 <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+<ins class="diff-chg">   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
       "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
    }
-}
-</ins></pre>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
 <div id="expansion-algorithm" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.8.1
+<del class="diff-old">3.5.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8.1
+</ins>
 </span>
 Expansion
 Algorithm
 </h4>
-<del class="diff-old">If
+<del class="diff-old">This
 </del>
 <p>
 <ins class="diff-chg">The
-algorithm
-takes
+</ins>
+algorithm
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">takes
 three
 input
 variables:
@@ -8138,9 +8256,19 @@
 property
 </ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
 and
-a
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-value
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+If
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
 </ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
 to
 be
@@ -8160,10 +8288,9 @@
 is
 set
 to
-</ins>
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">initial
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+initial
 context
 </ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property"><ins class="diff-chg">
 active
@@ -8180,8 +8307,9 @@
 is
 set
 to
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
 JSON-LD
 input
 </a>.
@@ -8590,34 +8718,27 @@
 </ins></a>.</li>
 </ol>
 </div>
+<del class="diff-old">What
+are
+the
+implications
+for
+expanding
+lists?
+</del>
 </div>
 <div id="compaction" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.9
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9
+</ins>
 </span>
 Compaction
 </h3>
-<del class="diff-old">This
-algorithm
-is
-a
-work
-in
-progress,
-do
-not
-implement
-it.
-</del>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">As
-stated
-previously,
-compaction
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Compaction
-</ins>
+<p>
+Compaction
 is
 the
 process
@@ -8625,15 +8746,9 @@
 taking
 a
 JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">input
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">document
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">compacting
-all
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">applying
+document
+and
+applying
 a
 context
 such
@@ -8660,11 +8775,8 @@
 That
 is,
 full
-</ins>
 IRIs
-<del class="diff-old">using
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">are
+are
 rarely
 used
 as
@@ -8690,15 +8802,15 @@
 the
 API,
 provides
-</ins>
-a
-<ins class="diff-new">way
+a
+way
 to
 compact
 a
 JSON-LD
 document.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+<p>
 For
 example,
 assume
@@ -8707,14 +8819,23 @@
 JSON-LD
 input
 document:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+   }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
     "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
   }
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
 Additionally,
 assume
 the
@@ -8722,25 +8843,32 @@
 developer-supplied
 JSON-LD
 context:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+   &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+   }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
   "homepage": {
     "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
     "@type": "@id"
   }
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
 Running
 the
 JSON-LD
 Compaction
 algorithm
-</ins>
 given
-<del class="diff-old">context.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">the
+the
 context
 supplied
 above
@@ -8757,9 +8885,22 @@
 the
 following
 output:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-  "@context": {
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+      {
+         &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
     "homepage": {
       "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
@@ -8768,17 +8909,12 @@
   },
   "name": "Manu Sporny",
   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-}
-</ins></pre><p>
-The
-<del class="diff-old">output
-will
-contain
-a
-single
-top-level
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">compaction
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+compaction
 algorithm
 also
 enables
@@ -8796,39 +8932,17 @@
 format.
 While
 the
-</ins>
-context
-<del class="diff-old">declaration
-and
-will
-only
-use
-term
-s
-and
-prefix
-es
-and
-will
-ensure
-that
-all
-typed
-literals
-are
-fully
-compacted.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">provided
+context
+provided
 above
 mapped
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+<code>
 http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-to
-</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+</code>
+to
+<strong>
 name
-</ins></strong>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+</strong>,
 it
 could
 have
@@ -8843,22 +8957,27 @@
 by
 the
 developer.
-</ins>
 </p>
 <div id="compaction-algorithm" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.9.1
+<del class="diff-old">3.6.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9.1
+</ins>
 </span>
 Compaction
 Algorithm
 </h4>
-<del class="diff-old">Perform
+<del class="diff-old">This
 </del>
 <p>
 <ins class="diff-chg">The
-algorithm
-takes
+</ins>
+algorithm
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">takes
 two
 input
 variables:
@@ -8868,9 +8987,19 @@
 property
 </ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
 and
-a
-</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
-value
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+Perform
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
 </ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
 to
 be
@@ -9208,11 +9337,24 @@
 on
 the
 value.
-</ins></li></ol></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
-Otherwise,
+</ins>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<del class="diff-old">What
+are
+</del>
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Otherwise,
 if
-the
-value
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">implications
+for
+compacting
+lists?
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
 is
 an
 </ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
@@ -9247,24 +9389,20 @@
 the
 </ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
 value
-</ins></em>.
-</li>
-</ol>
-</div>
+</ins></em>.</li></ol></div>
 </div>
 <div id="framing" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.10
+<del class="diff-old">3.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
 </span>
 Framing
 </h3>
-<del class="diff-old">This
-algorithm
-is
-</del>
-<p>
-<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+<p>
+JSON-LD
 Framing
 allows
 developers
@@ -9274,24 +9412,14 @@
 example
 and
 force
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">work
-in
-progress,
-do
-not
-implement
-it.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">specific
+a
+specific
 tree
 layout
 to
 a
 JSON-LD
 document.
-</ins>
 </p>
 <p>
 A
@@ -9321,31 +9449,16 @@
 information.
 Developers
 typically
-<del class="diff-old">don't
-</del>
 work
-<del class="diff-old">directly
-</del>
-with
-<del class="diff-old">graphs,
-but
-rather,
-prefer
-trees
-when
-dealing
-with
-JSON.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">trees,
+with
+trees,
 represented
 as
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
-JSON
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
 s.
-</ins>
 While
 mapping
 a
@@ -9367,16 +9480,10 @@
 specified
 in
 advance.
-<del class="diff-old">This
-section
-defines
-an
-algorithm
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A
-</ins><dfn title="frame" id="dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+<dfn title="frame" id="dfn-frame">
 Frame
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+</dfn>
 can
 be
 used
@@ -9392,13 +9499,11 @@
 a
 deterministic
 layout
-</ins>
-for
-<del class="diff-old">mapping
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">a
+for
+a
 graph.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</p>
+<p>
 Framing
 is
 the
@@ -9410,10 +9515,9 @@
 document,
 which
 expresses
-</ins>
 a
 graph
-<ins class="diff-new">of
+of
 information,
 and
 applying
@@ -9423,11 +9527,12 @@
 layout
 (called
 a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
 Frame
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 ).
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+<p>
 The
 JSON-LD
 document
@@ -9440,9 +9545,43 @@
 and
 a
 chapter:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  "@context": {
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
+    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
+    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
+    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;contains&quot;
+    },
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:
+  [{
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/library&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;: &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+  }]
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
     "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
     "contains":     {
@@ -9473,29 +9612,25 @@
     "description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
     "title": "The Introduction"
   }]
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
 Developers
 typically
 like
-</ins>
-to
-<ins class="diff-new">operate
+to
+operate
 on
 items
 in
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">tree
-given
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">hierarchical,
+a
+hierarchical,
 tree-based
 fashion.
 Ideally,
-</ins>
-a
-<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+a
+developer
 would
 want
 the
@@ -9532,12 +9667,28 @@
 define
 the
 following
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
 frame
-<del class="diff-old">.
-</del>
 </a>:
 </p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
+    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
+    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
+    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
+  &quot;contains&quot;: {
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;: {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;
+    }
+  }
+</del>
 <pre class="example">{
 <ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
@@ -9555,8 +9706,10 @@
       "@type": "Chapter"
     }
   }
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
 When
 the
 framing
@@ -9572,9 +9725,9 @@
 paired
 with
 the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
 frame
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 above,
 the
 following
@@ -9584,10 +9737,34 @@
 the
 end
 result:
-</ins>
-</p>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
+    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
+    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
+    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
+  &quot;contains&quot;: {
+    
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
+    
+    
+    &quot;contains&quot;: {
+      
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;,
+      
+      
+    },
+  },
+</del>
 <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">  "@context": {
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
     "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
     "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
@@ -9600,33 +9777,37 @@
   "@type": "Library",
   "contains": {
 </ins>    <span class="diff">"@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",</span>
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
     "@type": "Book",
 </ins>    <span class="diff">"creator": "Plato",</span>
     <span class="diff">"title": "The Republic",</span>
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
     "contains": {
 </ins>      <span class="diff">"@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",</span>
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
       "@type": "Chapter",
 </ins>      <span class="diff">"description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",</span>
       <span class="diff">"title": "The Introduction"</span>
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
     },
   },
-}
-</ins></pre>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
 <div id="framing-algorithm-terms" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.10.1
+<del class="diff-old">3.7.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.1
+</ins>
 </span>
 Framing
 Algorithm
 Terms
 </h4>
 <p class="issue">
-<ins class="diff-new">This
+This
 algorithm
 is
 a
@@ -9637,7 +9818,7 @@
 not
 implement
 it.
-There
+<ins class="diff-new">There
 was
 also
 a
@@ -9690,7 +9871,8 @@
 the
 algorithm
 below.
-</ins></p>
+</ins>
+</p>
 <dl>
 <dt>
 <dfn title="input_frame" id="dfn-input_frame">
@@ -9837,20 +10019,23 @@
 </dd>
 <dt>
 <dfn title="omit_default_flag" id="dfn-omit_default_flag">
-<ins class="diff-new">omit
+omit
 default
 flag
-</ins></dfn></dt><dd class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd class="issue">
 Referenced
 from
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">
 framing
 context
-</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+</a>,
 but
 not
 defined
-</ins></dd><dt>
+</dd>
+<dt>
 <dfn title="match_limit" id="dfn-match_limit">
 match
 limit
@@ -9922,7 +10107,10 @@
 <div id="framing-algorithm" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.10.2
+<del class="diff-old">3.7.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10.2
+</ins>
 </span>
 Framing
 Algorithm
@@ -10381,13 +10569,13 @@
 </ol>
 <p class="issue">
 <dfn title="matches_array" id="dfn-matches_array">
-<ins class="diff-new">matches
-array
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+matches
+array
+</dfn>
 not
 defined
 anywhere.
-</ins></p>
+</p>
 </li>
 <li>
 Process
@@ -10712,19 +10900,14 @@
 <strong>
 normalized
 input
-<del class="diff-old">,
-</del>
 </strong>,
 replace
 the
 object
 in
 the
-<del class="diff-old">recusion
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_input_list" href="#dfn-recursion_input_list">
-<ins class="diff-chg">recursion
-</ins>
+recursion
 input
 list
 </a>
@@ -11119,19 +11302,22 @@
 </p>
 </div>
 <p class="issue">
-<ins class="diff-new">What
+What
 are
 the
 implications
 for
 framing
 lists?
-</ins></p>
+</p>
 </div>
 <div id="normalization" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.11
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.11
+</ins>
 </span>
 Normalization
 </h3>
@@ -11178,41 +11364,123 @@
 being
 fully
 expanded
-and
-named
-in
-the
-JSON-LD
-output
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+normalized
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">named
+in
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">serialized
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">output
 .
 The
 normalized
 output
-is
-generated
-in
-such
-</del>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">way
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">representation.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">generated
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">achieved
+by
+transforming
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+RDF,
+as
+described
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">such
+a
+way
 that
 any
 conforming
-JSON-LD
-processor
+</del>
+<a href="#rdf-conversion">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF
+Conversion
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+invoking
+the
+normalization
+procedure
+as
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-NORMALIZATION"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-NORMALIZATION
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+],
+returning
+the
+serialized
+results.
+</ins></p><div class="issue"><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+an
+open
+issue
+(
+</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/53"><ins class="diff-chg">
+ISSUE-53
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+on
+the
+purpose
+and
+results
+of
+performing
+normalization.
+Previous
+versions
+of
+the
+specification
+generated
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">processor
 will
 generate
 identical
 output
 given
-the
-same
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">as
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
 input.
 The
 problem
-is
-a
-fairly
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">result
+of
+the
+normalization
+algorithm,
+however
+normalization
+</ins>
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">fairly
 difficult
 technical
 problem
@@ -11225,32 +11493,54 @@
 directed
 graph
 to
-be
-ordered
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">process
+required
+across
+different
+linked
+data
+serializations.
+To
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">ordered
 into
 a
 set
 of
 nodes
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">normalized
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">edges
-in
-a
-deterministic
+and
+edges
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">useful,
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">deterministic
 way.
 This
-is
-easy
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">graph
+requires
+an
+identical
+normalized
+representation
+that
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">easy
 to
 do
 when
 all
-of
-the
-nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">independent
+</ins>
+of
+the
+<del class="diff-old">nodes
 have
 unique
 names,
@@ -11261,19 +11551,299 @@
 do
 when
 some
-of
-the
-nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+format
+originally
+used
+for
+markup,
+or
+the
+way
+in
+which
+language
+features
+or
+publisher
+preferences
+create
+differences
+in
+the
+markup
+</ins>
+of
+<ins class="diff-new">identical
+graphs.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+It
+may
+be
+that
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">nodes
 are
 not
 labeled.
 </del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">serialized
-JSON-LD
-representation.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">need
+for
+either
+or
+both
+of
+flattening
+algorithm
+or
+to
+retrieve
+such
+a
+cryptographic
+signature.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+Normalization
+is
+useful
+when
+comparing
+two
+graphs
+against
+one
+another,
+when
+generating
+a
+detailed
+list
+of
+differences
+between
+two
+graphs,
+and
+when
+generating
+a
+cryptographic
+digital
+signature
+for
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph
+or
+when
+generating
+a
+hash
+of
+the
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+is
+an
+un-normalized
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+      {
+         &quot;@iri&quot;: [&quot;homepage&quot;]
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+  },
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+is
+the
+normalized
+form
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+above:
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+Whitespace
+is
+used
+below
+to
+aid
+readability.
+The
+normalization
+algorithm
+for
+JSON-LD
+removes
+all
+unnecessary
+whitespace
+in
+the
+fully
+normalized
+form.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">[{
+    &quot;@subject&quot;:
+    {
+        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;_:c14n0&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
+    {
+        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+</del>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Not
+clear
+that
+whitespace
+must
+be
+normalized,
+as
+the
+JSON-LD
+representation
+can't
+be
+used
+directly
+to
+create
+a
+signature,
+but
+would
+be
+based
+on
+the
+serialized
+result
+of
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-NORMALIZATION"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF-NORMALIZATION
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+</ins></p><pre class="example">[{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@id": "_:c14n0",
+  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
+    "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+  },
+  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
+</ins>
+}]
+</pre>
+<p>
+Notice
+how
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+have
+been
+expanded
+and
+sorted
+in
+alphabetical
+order.
+Also,
+notice
+how
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+has
+been
+labeled
+with
+a
+<ins class="diff-chg">named
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+<del class="diff-old">identifier
+.
+</del>
+</a>.
+Normalization
+ensures
+that
+any
+arbitrary
+graph
+containing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+would
+be
+normalized
+to
+exactly
+the
+same
+form
+shown
+above.
+</p>
 <del class="diff-old">In
 time,
 there
@@ -11299,18 +11869,27 @@
 named
 &quot;Universal
 Graph
-</del>
 Normalization
-<del class="diff-old">Algorithm
+Algorithm
 2011&quot;
 (
 UGNA2011
 ).
-3.11.1
+</del>
+<div id="normalization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.11.1
+</ins>
+</span>
 Normalization
 Algorithm
-Terms
-label
+<del class="diff-old">Terms
+</del>
+</h4>
+<del class="diff-old">label
 The
 subject
 IRI
@@ -11319,8 +11898,10 @@
 a
 graph
 node.
-The
-subject
+</del>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">subject
 IRI
 is
 expressed
@@ -11363,9 +11944,8 @@
 a
 string
 that
-</del>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">an
+is
+an
 IRI.
 list
 of
@@ -11377,12 +11957,13 @@
 all
 nodes
 in
-the
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">achieved
-by
-transforming
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">normalization
+algorithm
+transforms
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
 JSON-LD
 input
 </a>
@@ -11399,24 +11980,12 @@
 values
 expanded
 according
-</del>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">the
+to
+the
 steps
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">RDF,
-as
-described
-</ins>
-in
-<a href="#rdf-conversion">
-<ins class="diff-new">RDF
-Conversion
-</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
-invoking
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">Expansion
+in
+the
+Expansion
 Algorithm
 .
 alpha
@@ -11439,14 +12008,8 @@
 values
 being
 examined
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">normalization
-procedure
-as
-described
-</ins>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">an
+in
+an
 algorithm.
 The
 names
@@ -11463,28 +12026,16 @@
 a
 comparison
 algorithm.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">[
-</ins><cite>
-<del class="diff-old">renaming
+renaming
 counter
-</del>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-NORMALIZATION">
-<ins class="diff-chg">RDF-NORMALIZATION
-</ins></a>
-<del class="diff-old">A
+A
 counter
 that
 is
 used
 during
-</del>
-</cite>
-<ins class="diff-chg">],
-returning
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">Node
+the
+Node
 Relabeling
 Algorithm
 .
@@ -11504,21 +12055,16 @@
 that
 is
 relabeled.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">serialized
-results.
-</ins></p><div class="issue"><p>
 There
-<del class="diff-old">will
+will
 be
 two
 such
 renaming
 counters
 in
-</del>
-an
-<del class="diff-old">implementation
+an
+implementation
 of
 the
 normalization
@@ -11529,15 +12075,7 @@
 the
 labeling
 counter
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">open
-issue
-(
-</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/53"><ins class="diff-chg">
-ISSUE-53
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">and
+and
 the
 second
 is
@@ -11569,35 +12107,20 @@
 value
 typically
 takes
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">)
-on
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">form
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">purpose
-and
-results
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">s&lt;NUMBER&gt;
+the
+form
+of
+s&lt;NUMBER&gt;
 or
 c&lt;NUMBER&gt;
 .
-3.11.2
+3.8.2
 Normalization
 State
 When
-</del>
 performing
-<ins class="diff-new">normalization.
-Previous
-versions
-of
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">steps
+the
+steps
 required
 by
 the
@@ -11608,29 +12131,19 @@
 helpful
 to
 track
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">specification
-generated
-JSON-LD
-as
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">many
+the
+many
 pieces
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">result
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">information
+of
+information
 in
 a
 data
 structure
 called
-</del>
 the
 normalization
-<del class="diff-old">state
+state
 .
 Many
 of
@@ -11639,20 +12152,17 @@
 simply
 provide
 indexes
+</del>
 into
-the
+<del class="diff-old">the
 graph.
 The
 information
 contained
 in
 the
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">algorithm,
-however
-</ins>
 normalization
-<del class="diff-old">state
+state
 is
 described
 below.
@@ -11693,10 +12203,9 @@
 A
 node
 reference
-</del>
-is
-a
-<del class="diff-old">reference
+is
+a
+reference
 to
 a
 node
@@ -11704,20 +12213,8 @@
 the
 graph.
 For
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">process
-required
-across
-different
-linked
-data
-serializations.
-To
-be
-useful,
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">given
+a
+given
 node
 state
 ,
@@ -11728,20 +12225,11 @@
 to
 the
 node
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">graph
-requires
-an
-identical
-normalized
-representation
-</ins>
-that
-<del class="diff-old">the
-state
-</del>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">for.
+that
+the
+state
+is
+for.
 When
 a
 node
@@ -11772,12 +12260,9 @@
 that
 are
 properties
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">independent
-</ins>
-of
-the
-<del class="diff-old">node
+of
+the
+node
 reference
 .
 This
@@ -11812,39 +12297,16 @@
 the
 label
 s
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">data
-format
-originally
-used
-</ins>
-for
-<del class="diff-old">all
-nodes
-in
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">markup,
-or
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">graph
-for
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">way
-in
-</ins>
+for
+all
+nodes
+in
+the
+graph
+for
 which
-<ins class="diff-new">language
-features
-or
-publisher
-preferences
-create
-differences
-in
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">node
+the
+node
 reference
 is
 a
@@ -11881,37 +12343,23 @@
 map
 is
 populated,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF,
+normalizes
+</ins>
 it
-will
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">markup
-of
-identical
-graphs.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-It
-may
-</ins>
-be
-<del class="diff-old">filled
+<del class="diff-old">will
+be
+filled
 with
 keys
-</del>
-that
-<del class="diff-old">are
-</del>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">label
+that
+are
+the
+label
 s
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">need
-for
-either
-or
-both
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">every
+of
+every
 node
 in
 the
@@ -11946,13 +12394,8 @@
 be
 lexicographically
 compared
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">flattening
-algorithm
-or
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">the
+to
+the
 outgoing
 serialization
 s
@@ -11962,60 +12405,36 @@
 state
 s.
 It
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">retrieve
-such
-a
-cryptographic
-signature.
-</ins></p></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-Normalization
-</ins>
-is
-<ins class="diff-new">useful
-when
-comparing
-two
-graphs
-against
-one
-another,
-when
-generating
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">representation
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">detailed
-list
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">the
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+the
 outgoing
 serialization
 map
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">differences
-between
-two
-graphs,
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">other
+and
+other
 related
 information.
 This
 string
 is
 initialized
-to
-an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">according
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">an
 empty
 string.
 incoming
 serialization
 map
-Maps
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">[
+</ins><cite>
+<del class="diff-old">Maps
 node
 label
 s
@@ -12054,30 +12473,22 @@
 the
 graph
 with
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">when
-generating
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">label
-that
+a
+label
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-NORMALIZATION">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF-NORMALIZATION
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">that
 begins
 with
 _:
 and
 that
 has
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">cryptographic
-digital
-signature
-for
-information
-contained
-in
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">path,
+a
+path,
 via
 properties,
 that
@@ -12087,7 +12498,8 @@
 node
 reference
 .
-incoming
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">incoming
 serialization
 A
 string
@@ -12108,24 +12520,19 @@
 s.
 It
 is
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">graph
-or
-when
-generating
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">representation
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">hash
-</ins>
-of
-the
-<del class="diff-old">incoming
-serialization
-map
-and
-other
+a
+representation
+of
+the
+incoming
+serialization
+map
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">]
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">other
 related
 information.
 This
@@ -12146,73 +12553,33 @@
 node's
 label
 to
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">information
-contained
-in
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">node
+a
+node
 state
 .
 It
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">graph.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-The
-example
-below
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">initialized
-to
-</del>
-an
-<del class="diff-old">empty
+is
+initialized
+to
+an
+empty
 map.
 labeling
 prefix
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">un-normalized
-JSON-LD
-document:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-  "@context": {
-    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-    "homepage": {
-      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-      "@type": "@id"
-    },
-    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
-  },
-  "name": "Manu Sporny",
-  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-}
-</ins></pre><p>
-The
-<del class="diff-old">labeling
+The
+labeling
 prefix
 is
 a
 string
 that
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">example
-below
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">used
-as
-</del>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">beginning
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">normalized
-form
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">a
+is
+used
+as
+the
+beginning
+of
+a
 node
 label
 .
@@ -12220,8 +12587,13 @@
 should
 be
 initialized
-to
-a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">then
+transforms
+back
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">a
 random
 base
 string
@@ -12241,10 +12613,9 @@
 node's
 label
 in
-</del>
-the
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">input
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
 ,
 and
 does
@@ -12255,53 +12626,35 @@
 characters
 _:c14n
 .
-The
-prefix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD.
+</ins>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
 has
 two
 uses.
 First
 it
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">document
-above:
-</ins></p><p class="note"><ins class="diff-chg">
-Whitespace
-</ins>
 is
 used
-<ins class="diff-new">below
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">temporarily
+to
+temporarily
 name
 nodes
 during
 the
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">aid
-readability.
-The
-</ins>
 normalization
 algorithm
-<ins class="diff-new">for
-JSON-LD
-removes
-all
-unnecessary
-whitespace
-</ins>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">a
+in
+a
 way
 that
 doesn't
 collide
 with
-</del>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">names
+the
+names
 that
 already
 exist
@@ -12310,16 +12663,8 @@
 as
 the
 names
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">fully
-normalized
-form.
-</ins></p><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-chg">
-Not
-clear
-</ins>
-that
-<del class="diff-old">will
+that
+will
 be
 generated
 by
@@ -12330,12 +12675,8 @@
 it
 will
 eventually
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">whitespace
-must
-</ins>
-be
-<del class="diff-old">set
+be
+set
 to
 _:c14n
 to
@@ -12347,22 +12688,13 @@
 for
 nodes
 in
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">normalized,
-as
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">graph.
+the
+graph.
 This
 prefix
 will
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
-representation
-can't
-</ins>
-be
-<del class="diff-old">concatenated
+be
+concatenated
 with
 the
 labeling
@@ -12392,9 +12724,8 @@
 counter
 that
 is
-</del>
 used
-<del class="diff-old">to
+to
 label
 nodes.
 It
@@ -12404,13 +12735,10 @@
 the
 labeling
 prefix
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">directly
-</ins>
 to
 create
 a
-<del class="diff-old">node
+node
 label
 .
 It
@@ -12419,97 +12747,52 @@
 to
 1
 .
-map
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">signature,
-but
-would
-be
-based
-on
-the
-serialized
-result
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">flattened
-nodes
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">[
-</ins><cite>
-<del class="diff-old">A
+deterministic
+labeling
+counter
+Not
+defined.
+map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+A
 map
 containing
 a
 representation
 of
-</del>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-NORMALIZATION">
-<ins class="diff-chg">RDF-NORMALIZATION
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
-].
-</ins></p><pre class="example">[{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-  "@id": "_:c14n0",
-  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
-    "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-  },
-  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
-}]
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-Notice
-how
-</ins>
 all
-<del class="diff-old">nodes
+nodes
 in
 the
 graph
 where
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">of
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">key
-is
-a
-node
-label
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
-<ins class="diff-chg">term
-</ins>
-</a>
-<ins class="diff-new">s
-have
-been
-expanded
-</ins>
-and
-<ins class="diff-new">sorted
-in
-alphabetical
-order.
-Also,
-notice
-how
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">value
-is
-a
+the
+key
+is
+a
+node
+label
+and
+the
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">result
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
 single
 JSON
-object
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
-<ins class="diff-chg">subject
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">that
-</del>
-has
-<del class="diff-old">no
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins>
+object
+<ins class="diff-chg">representation
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">has
+no
 nested
 sub-objects
 and
@@ -12524,67 +12807,25 @@
 merged
 into
 </del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">been
-labeled
-with
+<ins class="diff-chg">deterministically
+represents
 </ins>
 a
 <del class="diff-old">single
 JSON
 object
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">named
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node"><ins class="diff-chg">
-blank
-node
-</ins>
-</a>.
-<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
-ensures
-that
-any
-arbitrary
-graph
-containing
-exactly
-the
-same
-information
-would
-be
-normalized
-to
-exactly
-the
-same
-form
-shown
-above.
-</ins></p>
-<div id="normalization-algorithm" class="section">
-<h4>
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">3.11.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">3.11.1
-</ins>
-</span>
+.
+3.8.3
 Normalization
 Algorithm
-</h4>
-<p>
 The
 normalization
 algorithm
-<del class="diff-old">expands
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">transforms
-</ins>
-the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
-JSON-LD
-input
-<del class="diff-old">,
+expands
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+,
 flattens
 the
 data
@@ -12601,8 +12842,11 @@
 nodes
 in
 the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF
+</ins>
 graph.
-The
+<del class="diff-old">The
 flattened
 data
 structure
@@ -12616,54 +12860,26 @@
 algorithm
 in
 order
-</del>
-</a>
-<ins class="diff-chg">into
-RDF,
-normalizes
-it
-according
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">get
+to
+get
 a
 fully
 expanded
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">[
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-NORMALIZATION"><ins class="diff-chg">
-RDF-NORMALIZATION
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
-]
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">named
+and
+named
 list
 of
 nodes
 which
 is
-</del>
 then
-<del class="diff-old">sorted.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">transforms
-back
-to
-JSON-LD.
-</ins>
+sorted.
 The
 result
 is
-<del class="diff-old">a
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">an
-object
-representation
-that
-</ins>
+a
 deterministically
-<del class="diff-old">named
+named
 and
 ordered
 list
@@ -12671,11 +12887,6 @@
 graph
 nodes.
 </del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">represents
-a
-RDF
-graph.
-</ins>
 </p>
 <ol class="algorithm">
 <li>
@@ -12823,6 +13034,18 @@
 in
 the
 map
+of
+flattened
+nodes
+merge
+all
+properties
+from
+the
+entry
+in
+the
+map
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">create
 a
@@ -12833,22 +13056,10 @@
 of
 <del class="diff-old">flattened
 nodes
-merge
-all
-properties
-from
-the
-entry
-in
-</del>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">map
-of
-flattened
-nodes
 into
-the
-expanded
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">expanded
 node
 .
 </del>
@@ -12874,14 +13085,14 @@
 the
 expanded
 node
-</del>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">and
+and
 remove
 any
 duplicate
 IRI
-entries
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">entries
 from
 the
 array.
@@ -13112,7 +13323,7 @@
 Labeling
 Algorithm
 .
-3.11.4
+3.8.4
 Node
 Relabeling
 Algorithm
@@ -13330,7 +13541,7 @@
 Expansion
 </ins>
 </a>.
-<del class="diff-old">3.11.5
+<del class="diff-old">3.8.5
 Deterministic
 Labeling
 Algorithm
@@ -13607,6 +13818,13 @@
 to
 label
 .
+list
+of
+nodes
+to
+label
+not
+defined.
 For
 each
 key-value
@@ -13648,8 +13866,9 @@
 to
 the
 list
-of
-nodes
+</del>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">nodes
 to
 label
 .
@@ -13659,9 +13878,8 @@
 in
 the
 list
-</del>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">labels
+of
+labels
 ,
 relabel
 the
@@ -13748,9 +13966,8 @@
 of
 unfinished
 nodes
-</del>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">add
+and
+add
 it
 to
 the
@@ -13779,7 +13996,7 @@
 the
 sort
 order.
-3.11.6
+3.8.6
 Shallow
 Comparison
 Algorithm
@@ -13848,12 +14065,14 @@
 sort
 the
 property
-IRIs
-for
-each
-node
-and
-compare
+IRI
+s
+for
+each
+node
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">compare
 the
 sorted
 lists.
@@ -14172,7 +14391,7 @@
 nodes
 are
 equivalent.
-3.11.7
+3.8.7
 Object
 Comparison
 Algorithm
@@ -14333,7 +14552,8 @@
 values
 are
 expanded
-IRIs,
+IRI
+s,
 the
 lexicographically
 lesser
@@ -14365,7 +14585,7 @@
 values
 are
 equivalent.
-3.11.8
+3.8.8
 Deep
 Comparison
 Algorithm
@@ -14401,10 +14621,9 @@
 graph
 into
 account
-</del>
 if
 the
-<del class="diff-old">number
+number
 of
 properties
 and
@@ -14436,9 +14655,10 @@
 in
 a
 list
+</del>
 if
 the
-two
+<del class="diff-old">two
 nodes
 are
 not
@@ -14494,8 +14714,8 @@
 mapped
 to
 serialization
-labels
-.
+label
+s.
 It
 is
 initialized
@@ -14578,7 +14798,7 @@
 of
 adjacent
 node
-serialiation
+serialization
 label
 s
 to
@@ -15022,7 +15242,7 @@
 beta
 is
 first.
-3.11.9
+3.8.9
 Node
 Serialization
 Algorithm
@@ -15152,7 +15372,7 @@
 store
 mappings
 from
-serialized
+serialization
 label
 s
 to
@@ -15278,6 +15498,28 @@
 the
 serialization
 map
+(
+serialization
+map
+is
+used,
+but
+should
+it
+be
+directed
+serialization
+map
+,
+outgoing
+serialization
+map
+or
+incoming
+serialization
+map
+?
+)
 and
 the
 </del>
@@ -15403,7 +15645,7 @@
 <del class="diff-old">for
 each
 iteration.
-3.11.10
+3.8.10
 Serialization
 Label
 Generation
@@ -15417,13 +15659,13 @@
 given
 a
 label
-and
-a
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">a
 mapping
 state
-</del>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">returns
+and
+returns
 the
 serialization
 label
@@ -15438,16 +15680,39 @@
 serialization
 labels
 map
+,
+return
+its
+associated
+value.
+(
+serialization
+labels
+map
+is
+used,
+but
+should
+it
+be
+directed
+serialization
+map
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">an
 </ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
 array
 </ins>
 </a>,
-<del class="diff-old">return
-its
-associated
-value.
+<del class="diff-old">outgoing
+serialization
+map
+or
+incoming
+serialization
+map
+?
+)
 If
 the
 label
@@ -15516,12 +15781,12 @@
 </ins>
 of
 <del class="diff-old">mapping
-count
+counter
 .
 Increment
 the
 mapping
-count
+counter
 by
 </del>
 <code>
@@ -15566,7 +15831,7 @@
 serialization
 label
 .
-3.11.11
+3.8.11
 Combinatorial
 Serialization
 Algorithm
@@ -15913,9 +16178,8 @@
 the
 outgoing
 serialization
-</del>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">the
+and
+the
 directed
 serialization
 map
@@ -15933,8 +16197,9 @@
 the
 incoming
 serialization
-and
-the
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">the
 directed
 serialization
 map
@@ -16059,7 +16324,7 @@
 labels
 map
 .
-3.11.12
+3.8.12
 Serialization
 Comparison
 Algorithm
@@ -16134,7 +16399,7 @@
 the
 two
 serializations.
-3.11.13
+3.8.13
 Mapping
 Serialization
 Algorithm
@@ -16385,6 +16650,7 @@
 the
 adjacent
 info
+map
 </del>
 <a href="#value-expansion">
 <ins class="diff-chg">Value
@@ -16422,6 +16688,14 @@
 serialization
 fragment
 .
+map
+of
+all
+labels
+referenced
+but
+not
+defined.
 Append
 all
 of
@@ -16431,6 +16705,7 @@
 the
 adjacent
 info
+map
 to
 the
 serialization
@@ -16458,6 +16733,7 @@
 the
 adjacent
 info
+map
 and
 </del>
 <em>
@@ -16492,7 +16768,7 @@
 Serialization
 Algorithm
 .
-3.11.14
+3.8.14
 Label
 Serialization
 Algorithm
@@ -16692,14 +16968,12 @@
 .
 If
 the
-</del>
-value
-<del class="diff-old">does
+value
+does
 not
 start
-</del>
-with
-<del class="diff-old">_:
+with
+_:
 ,
 build
 the
@@ -16715,10 +16989,12 @@
 IRI
 is
 the
-value
-associated
-with
-the
+</del>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">associated
+</del>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">the
 @iri
 key.
 If
@@ -17019,7 +17295,6 @@
 </li>
 </ol>
 </li>
-<li>
 <del class="diff-old">Append
 the
 ]
@@ -17056,7 +17331,16 @@
 label
 serialization
 .
-Push
+adjacent
+node
+labels
+referenced
+but
+not
+defined.
+</del>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Push
 the
 adjacent
 node
@@ -17098,7 +17382,10 @@
 <div id="data-round-tripping" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.12
+<del class="diff-old">3.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.12
+</ins>
 </span>
 Data
 Round
@@ -17443,7 +17730,10 @@
 <div id="rdf-conversion" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-3.13
+<del class="diff-old">3.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13
+</ins>
 </span>
 RDF
 Conversion
@@ -17565,7 +17855,10 @@
 <div class="informative section" id="overview">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.1
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.1
+</ins>
 </span>
 Overview
 </h4>
@@ -17697,22 +17990,26 @@
 datatype.
 </p>
 <p>
-<ins class="diff-new">An
+An
 Internationalized
 Resource
 Identifier
 (
-</ins><dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
 ),
 as
 described
 in
 [
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-new">
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
 RFC3987
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 ],
 is
 a
@@ -17725,32 +18022,34 @@
 the
 web.
 In
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
 Data
-</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
-an
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
 is
 commonly
 used
 for
 expressing
 a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
 subject
-</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
-property
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-or
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-new">
-object
-</ins></a>.</p><p>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
 Data
 described
 with
@@ -17817,7 +18116,10 @@
 <div id="rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.2
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.2
+</ins>
 </span>
 RDF
 Conversion
@@ -17848,7 +18150,10 @@
 <div id="rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.3
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.3
+</ins>
 </span>
 RDF
 Conversion
@@ -18066,10 +18371,12 @@
 <li>
 If
 the
-<del class="diff-old">JSON
-object
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
 has
-an
+<del class="diff-old">an
 @iri
 key,
 set
@@ -18122,12 +18429,10 @@
 them.
 If
 the
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-JSON
-object
-</a>
+JSON
+object
 has
+</del>
 a
 <code>
 <del class="diff-old">@literal
@@ -18275,39 +18580,46 @@
 </ol>
 </li>
 <li>
-<ins class="diff-new">If
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-new">
-JSON
-object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
 has
 a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+<code>
 @list
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-key
-and
-the
-value
-is
-an
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-new">
-array
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</code>
+key
+and
+the
+value
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
 process
 the
 value
 as
 a
 list
-as
+<del class="diff-old">starting
+at
+Step
+4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">as
 described
 in
-</ins><a href="#list-conversion"><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><a href="#list-conversion"><ins class="diff-chg">
 List
 Conversion
-</ins></a>.</li>
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</li>
 <li id="processing-step-subject">
 If
 the
@@ -18392,8 +18704,6 @@
 processor
 state
 </a>
-<del class="diff-old">using
-</del>
 copies
 of
 the
@@ -18409,12 +18719,41 @@
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
 active
 property
-<del class="diff-old">and
-process
-</del>
 </a>.
 <ol class="algorithm">
 <li>
+<del class="diff-old">If
+the
+active
+property
+is
+the
+target
+of
+a
[email protected]
+coercion,
+and
+the
+value
+is
+an
+array
+,
+process
+the
+value
+as
+a
+list
+starting
+at
+Step
+4
+.
+Otherwise,
+process
+</del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">Process
 </ins>
 the
@@ -18424,22 +18763,10 @@
 <a href="#processing-step-associative">
 Step
 2
-<del class="diff-old">,
-set
-the
-active
-subject
-to
-the
-result
-and
-proceed
-</del>
-</a>.
-</li>
-<li>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Proceed
-</ins>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Proceed
 using
 the
 previous
@@ -18483,7 +18810,6 @@
 blank
 node
 <del class="diff-old">identifier
-.
 </del>
 </a>.
 Generate
@@ -18765,6 +19091,162 @@
 </li>
 </ol>
 </li>
+<del class="diff-old">Generate
+an
+RDF
+List
+by
+linking
+each
+element
+of
+the
+list
+using
+rdf:first
+and
+rdf:next
+,
+terminating
+the
+list
+with
+rdf:nil
+using
+the
+following
+sequence:
+If
+the
+list
+has
+no
+element,
+generate
+a
+triple
+using
+the
+active
+subject
+,
+active
+property
+and
+rdf:nil
+.
+Otherwise,
+generate
+a
+triple
+using
+using
+the
+active
+subject
+,
+active
+property
+and
+a
+newly
+generated
+BNode
+identified
+as
+first
+blank
+node
+identifier
+.
+For
+each
+element
+other
+than
+the
+last
+element
+in
+the
+list:
+Create
+a
+processor
+state
+using
+the
+active
+context,
+first
+blank
+node
+identifier
+as
+the
+active
+subject
+,
+and
+rdf:first
+as
+the
+active
+property
+.
+Unless
+this
+is
+the
+last
+element
+in
+the
+list,
+generate
+a
+new
+BNode
+identified
+as
+rest
+blank
+node
+identifier
+,
+otherwise
+use
+rdf:nil
+.
+Generate
+a
+new
+triple
+using
+first
+blank
+node
+identifier
+,
+rdf:rest
+and
+rest
+blank
+node
+identifier
+.
+Set
+first
+blank
+node
+identifier
+to
+rest
+blank
+node
+identifier
+.
+</del>
 <li>
 If
 a
@@ -18872,24 +19354,24 @@
 from
 the
 string.
-<ins class="diff-new">If
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
-active
-context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
 contains
 a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+<code>
 language
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</code>
 key
 with
 a
 non-
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+<code>
 null
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</code>
 value,
 use
 it's
@@ -18900,10 +19382,10 @@
 language
 of
 the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
 plain
 literal
-</ins></a>.
+</a>.
 </li>
 </ol>
 Generate
@@ -19044,7 +19526,10 @@
 <div id="list-conversion" class="section">
 <h4>
 <span class="secno">
-3.13.4
+<del class="diff-old">3.10.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.13.4
+</ins>
 </span>
 <del class="diff-old">Acknowledgements
 </del>
@@ -19556,22 +20041,26 @@
 </a>
 </dd>
 <dt id="bib-JSON-POINTER">
-<ins class="diff-new">[JSON-POINTER]
-</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+[JSON-POINTER]
+</dt>
+<dd>
 P.
 Bryan,
 Ed.
-</ins><cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt"><ins class="diff-new">
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt">
 JSON
 Pointer
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 Latest.
 IETF
 Draft.
 URL:
-</ins><a href="http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a href="http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt">
 http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt
-</ins></a></dd>
+</a>
+</dd>
 <dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
 [RDF-CONCEPTS]
 </dt>
@@ -19624,18 +20113,34 @@
 </ins><a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/">
 <cite>
 <del class="diff-old">Uniform
+Resource
+Identifier
+(URI):
+Generic
+Syntax.
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">RDF
 Graph
 Normalization
-</ins></cite></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-Latest.
+</ins>
+</cite>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">January
+2005.
+Internet
+RFC
+3986.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Latest.
 W3C
 Editor's
 Draft.
+</ins>
 URL:
-</ins><a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/"><ins class="diff-chg">
-http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt
+</del>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/
 </ins></a></dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SCHEMA"><ins class="diff-chg">
 [RDF-SCHEMA]
 </ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
@@ -19661,41 +20166,36 @@
 URL:
 </ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210"><ins class="diff-chg">
 http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210
-</ins></a></dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-RFC3987">
 [RFC3987]
-</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+</dt>
+<dd>
 M.
-D�rst;
+<del class="diff-old">Dürst;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D�rst;
+</ins>
 M.
 Suignard.
-</ins><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">
+<cite>
 Internationalized
-</ins>
 Resource
-<del class="diff-old">Identifier
-(URI):
-Generic
-Syntax.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Identifiers
+Identifiers
 (IRIs).
-</ins>
 </cite>
 </a>
 January
 2005.
 Internet
 RFC
-<del class="diff-old">3986.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">3987.
-</ins>
+3987.
 URL:
-<del class="diff-old">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt
-</del>
 <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">
-<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt
-</ins>
+http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt
 </a>
 </dd>
 <dt id="bib-RFC4627">
--- a/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120112/diff-20111023.html	Wed Jan 11 16:36:47 2012 -0800
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120112/diff-20111023.html	Wed Jan 11 16:40:12 2012 -0800
@@ -532,7 +532,7 @@
 <h2 id="unofficial-draft-12-january-2012">
 Unofficial
 Draft
-<del class="diff-old">16
+<del class="diff-old">24
 October
 2011
 </del>
@@ -601,14 +601,15 @@
 </dd>
 <dd>
 <a href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
-<ins class="diff-new">Markus
+Markus
 Lanthaler
-</ins></a>,<a href="http://www.tugraz.at/"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
 Graz
 University
 of
 Technology
-</ins></a>
+</a>
 </dd>
 <dd>
 <a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
@@ -803,13 +804,17 @@
 <span class="secno">
 1.2
 </span>
-<ins class="diff-new">Syntax
+Syntax
 Tokens
 and
 Keywords
-</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#contributing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
 1.3
-</ins></span>
+</span>
 Contributing
 </a>
 </li>
@@ -860,6 +865,10 @@
 The
 Context
 </a>
+<del class="diff-old">2.4.1
+External
+Contexts
+</del>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref">
@@ -936,11 +945,8 @@
 <span class="secno">
 3.6
 </span>
-<del class="diff-old">Datatypes
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Typed
+Typed
 Literals
-</ins>
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
@@ -976,10 +982,7 @@
 <span class="secno">
 3.9
 </span>
-<del class="diff-old">Expansion
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
-</ins>
+Lists
 </a>
 </li>
 </ul>
@@ -987,27 +990,19 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">3.10
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Compaction
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Advanced
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
 Concepts
-</ins>
 </a>
 <ul class="toc">
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#external-contexts" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">3.11
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.1
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Framing
+4.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Base
+URI
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">External
 Contexts
@@ -1017,72 +1012,50 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#expanded-term-definition" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.2
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
-Expanded
+4.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Default
+Vocabulary
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expanded
 Term
 Definition
-</ins></a>
+</ins>
+</a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#default-language" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.3
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Advanced
-Concepts
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Default
+4.3
+</span>
+Default
 Language
-</ins>
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#prefixes" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.1
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.4
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">External
-Contexts
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Prefixes
-</ins>
+4.4
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Vocabulary
+</del>
+Prefixes
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#iri-expansion-within-context" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.2
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.5
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Vocabulary
-Prefixes
-</del>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+4.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
 Expansion
 within
 Context
-</ins>
-</a>
-</li>
-<li class="tocline">
-<a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref">
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
-</ins>
-</span>
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.6
+</ins></span>
 Automatic
 Typing
 </a>
@@ -1090,7 +1063,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.4
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.7
 </ins>
@@ -1102,7 +1075,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#chaining" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.5
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.8
 </ins>
@@ -1113,7 +1086,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.6
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.9
 </ins>
@@ -1126,7 +1099,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.7
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.10
 </ins>
@@ -1138,50 +1111,54 @@
 </ul>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
+<del class="diff-old">5.
+Using
+JSON-LD
+for
+RDF
+</del>
 <a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.8
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Normalization
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Markup
+A.
+</span>
+Markup
 Examples
-</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#turtle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#turtle" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
 A.1
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+</span>
 Turtle
-</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#prefix-definitions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#prefix-definitions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
 A.1.1
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+</span>
 Prefix
+<del class="diff-old">and
+Base
+</del>
 definitions
-</ins>
 </a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#chaining-1" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.1.2
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+A.1.2
+</span>
 Chaining
-</ins></a>
+</a>
 </li>
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.1.3
-</ins>
-</span>
-<del class="diff-old">Markup
-Examples
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
-</ins>
+A.1.3
+</span>
+Lists
 </a>
 </li>
 </ul>
@@ -1189,10 +1166,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.1
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.2
-</ins>
+A.2
 </span>
 RDFa
 </a>
@@ -1200,10 +1174,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.2
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.3
-</ins>
+A.3
 </span>
 Microformats
 </a>
@@ -1211,10 +1182,7 @@
 <li class="tocline">
 <a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.4
-</ins>
+A.4
 </span>
 Microdata
 </a>
@@ -1430,10 +1398,8 @@
 express
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
-<del class="diff-old">Data.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Data
-</ins></a>.
+Data
+</a>.
 It
 is
 primarily
@@ -1745,7 +1711,7 @@
 </li>
 </ul>
 <p>
-<ins class="diff-new">This
+This
 specification
 does
 not
@@ -1760,11 +1726,14 @@
 those
 see
 [
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API"><ins class="diff-new">
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
 JSON-LD-API
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 ].
-</ins></p><p>
+</p>
+<p>
 To
 understand
 the
@@ -1854,7 +1823,10 @@
 [
 RDF-CONCEPTS
 ].
-Examples
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Examples
 may
 contain
 references
@@ -1887,9 +1859,7 @@
 in
 this
 document:
-</del>
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">The
+The
 Dublin
 Core
 vocabulary
@@ -1930,7 +1900,6 @@
 xsd:integer
 )
 </del>
-<p>
 JSON
 [
 <cite>
@@ -2081,12 +2050,9 @@
 JSON-LD
 is
 a
-<del class="diff-old">directed
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
-<ins class="diff-chg">linked
-data
-</ins>
+linked
+data
 graph
 </a>,
 which
@@ -2231,11 +2197,12 @@
 <span class="secno">
 1.2
 </span>
-<ins class="diff-new">Syntax
+Syntax
 Tokens
 and
 Keywords
-</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</h3>
+<p>
 JSON-LD
 specifies
 a
@@ -2255,37 +2222,192 @@
 in
 this
 section:
-</ins></p><dl><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
 @context
-</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
 Used
 to
 set
 the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
 local
 context
-</ins></a>.</dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
-</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+object
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Sets
+</ins>
+the
+active
+<del class="diff-old">context
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@vocab
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@language
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+<del class="diff-old">set
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specify
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">base
+IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">language
+</ins>
+for
+<del class="diff-old">all
+property
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+active
+context
+.
[email protected]
+Used
+to
+specify
+type
+coercion
+rules.
[email protected]
+Used
+to
+specify
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">literal
+value.
[email protected]
+Used
+to
+specify
+an
+IRI
+value.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+<del class="diff-old">specify
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">language
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">type
+of
+the
+active
+subject
+or
+the
+datatype
+of
+</ins>
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@datatype
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@value
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+<del class="diff-old">datatype
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+of
+</ins>
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+mechanism.
+</dd>
+<del class="diff-old">@subject
 Sets
 the
 active
 subject.
-</ins></dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
-</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
-Used
-to
-specify
-the
-language
-for
-a
-literal.
-</ins></dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
 @type
-</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
 Used
 to
 set
@@ -2294,42 +2416,15 @@
 of
 the
 active
-subject
-or
-the
-datatype
-of
-a
-literal.
-</ins></dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
-</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
-Used
-to
-specify
-the
-value
-of
-a
-literal.
-</ins></dd><dt><code>:</code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
-The
-separator
-for
-JSON
-keys
-and
-values
-that
-use
-the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
-prefix
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-mechanism.
-</ins></dd></dl></div><div id="contributing" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject.
+</del>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
 1.3
-</ins></span>
+</span>
 Contributing
 </h3>
 <p>
@@ -3159,10 +3254,8 @@
 into
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
-<del class="diff-old">Data.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Data
-</ins></a>.
+Data
+</a>.
 There
 are
 a
@@ -3472,9 +3565,11 @@
 this:
 </p>
 <del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
     &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
     &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
     &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar&quot;
+  }
 </del>
 <pre class="example">{
 <ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
@@ -3698,8 +3793,10 @@
   "name": "Manu Sporny",
   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
   "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
 Contexts
 may
 be
@@ -3708,18 +3805,18 @@
 any
 time
 a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
 JSON
 object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 is
 defined,
 and
 a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
 JSON
 object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 may
 specify
 multiple
@@ -3738,11 +3835,27 @@
 definitions
 along
 with
-an
+<del class="diff-old">a
+local
+language
+definition
+used
+to
+set
+the
+language
+of
+plain
+literal
+s:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
 author-specific
 prefix
 definition.
-</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
 The
 set
 of
@@ -3751,31 +3864,31 @@
 within
 a
 specific
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
 JSON
 Object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 is
 termed
 a
-</ins><dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
 local
 context
-</ins></dfn>.<ins class="diff-chg">
-The
-</ins><dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</dfn>.
+The
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
 active
 context
-</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+</dfn>
 refers
 to
 the
 accumulation
 of
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
 local
 context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 s
 that
 are
@@ -3788,7 +3901,7 @@
 within
 the
 document.
-The
+<ins class="diff-new">The
 following
 example
 specifies
@@ -3807,10 +3920,22 @@
 the
 external
 context:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+    }
+  ],
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
   <span class="diff">"@context": [
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-    "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person",
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person",
     {
       "pic": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar"
     }
@@ -3928,26 +4053,6 @@
 term
 </a>
 declarations.
-<del class="diff-old">A
-prefix
-,
-like
-a
-term
-,
-is
-a
-short
-word
-that
-expands
-to
-a
-Web
-Vocabulary
-base
-IRI.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
 Prefix
 </a>
@@ -3965,11 +4070,9 @@
 together
 in
 a
-<del class="diff-old">context,
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>,
+context
+</a>,
 but
 does
 not
@@ -4337,6 +4440,250 @@
 one-pass
 processors.
 </p>
+<del class="diff-old">2.4.1
+External
+Contexts
+Authors
+may
+choose
+to
+declare
+JSON-LD
+context
+s
+in
+external
+documents
+to
+promote
+re-use
+of
+contexts
+as
+well
+as
+reduce
+the
+size
+of
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context,
+an
+author
+may
+specify
+an
+IRI
+to
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document.
+The
+referenced
+document
+must
+have
+a
+top-level
+JSON
+Object
+.
+The
+value
+of
+any
[email protected]
+key
+within
+that
+object
+is
+substituted
+for
+the
+IRI
+within
+the
+referencing
+document
+to
+have
+the
+same
+effect
+as
+if
+the
+value
+were
+specified
+inline
+within
+the
+referencing
+document.
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context:
+{
+  ,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+Authors
+may
+also
+import
+multiple
+contexts
+or
+a
+combination
+of
+external
+and
+local
+contexts
+by
+specifying
+a
+list
+of
+contexts:
+{
+  
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+  &quot;celebrates&quot;:
+  {
+     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
+     &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
+     &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
+  }
+}
+Each
+context
+in
+a
+list
+will
+be
+evaluated
+in-order.
+Duplicate
+mappings
+within
+the
+context
+s
+must
+be
+overwritten
+on
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+basis.
+The
+context
+list
+must
+contain
+either
+de-referenceable
+IRI
+s
+or
+JSON
+Object
+s
+that
+conform
+to
+the
+context
+syntax
+as
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+may
+contain
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
[email protected]
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+prefix
+es
+declared
+in
+the
+document.
+It
+is
+also
+recommended
+that
+a
+human-readable
+document
+encoded
+in
+HTML+RDFa
+[
+HTML-RDFA
+]
+or
+other
+Linked
+Data
+compatible
+format
+is
+served
+as
+well
+to
+explain
+the
+correct
+usage
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+context
+document.
+</del>
 </div>
 <div id="from-json-to-json-ld" class="section">
 <h3>
@@ -4379,11 +4726,9 @@
 defined
 in
 a
-<del class="diff-old">context,
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>,
+context
+</a>,
 and
 that
 context
@@ -4519,11 +4864,9 @@
 addition
 of
 a
-<del class="diff-old">context.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>.
+context
+</a>.
 As
 more
 JSON-LD
@@ -4548,14 +4891,12 @@
 </h3>
 <p>
 Expressing
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
 are
 fundamental
 to
@@ -4579,14 +4920,12 @@
 </a>
 are
 named.
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
 can
 be
 expressed
@@ -4647,7 +4986,7 @@
 in
 the
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
-<ins class="diff-new">active
+<ins class="diff-chg">active
 </ins>
 context
 </a>
@@ -4709,12 +5048,13 @@
 <del class="diff-old">.
 An
 IRI
-is
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
 generated
 for
 the
 </del>
-</a>
 value
 specified
 using
@@ -4737,22 +5077,25 @@
 generated
 for
 the
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
-<ins class="diff-new">string
-</ins></a>
-value
-<del class="diff-old">specified
+<del class="diff-old">value
+specified
 using
 the
 @iri
 keyword.
 An
 IRI
-is
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
 generated
 when
 </del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">of
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+of
 any
 key
 for
@@ -4849,12 +5192,11 @@
 interpreted
 as
 an
-<del class="diff-old">IRI,
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>,
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
 as
 opposed
 to
@@ -5186,6 +5528,33 @@
 JSON-LD
 Processor
 </p>
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+absolute
+IRI,
+a
+term
+,
+a
+prefix
+:
+term
+construct,
+or
+as
+a
+value
+relative
+to
[email protected]
+or
[email protected]
+.
+</del>
 </div>
 <div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
 <h3>
@@ -5227,10 +5596,8 @@
 of
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
-<del class="diff-old">Data,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Data
-</ins></a>,
+Data
+</a>,
 and
 nodes
 should
@@ -5505,10 +5872,8 @@
 be
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
-<del class="diff-old">Data,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Data
-</ins></a>,
+Data
+</a>,
 types
 <em class="rfc2119" title="must">
 must
@@ -5721,17 +6086,55 @@
 ]
 format.
 </p>
+<del class="diff-old">It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+set
+a
+language
+to
+use
+within
+a
[email protected]
+,
+to
+allow
+specify
+a
+language
+to
+apply
+to
+all
+plain
+literal
+s
+within
+the
+scope
+of
+the
+context
+{
+  &quot;@context:&quot; {
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: 
+...
+}
+</del>
 </div>
 <div id="typed-literals" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
 3.6
 </span>
-<del class="diff-old">Datatypes
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Typed
+Typed
 Literals
-</ins>
 </h3>
 <p>
 A
@@ -6293,45 +6696,10 @@
 <span class="secno">
 3.9
 </span>
-<del class="diff-old">Expansion
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
-</ins>
+Lists
 </h3>
 <p>
-<del class="diff-old">Expansion
-is
-the
-process
-of
-taking
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-and
-applying
-a
-context
-such
-that
-all
-IRI,
-datatypes,
-and
-literal
-values
-are
-expanded
-so
-that
-the
-context
-is
-no
-longer
-necessary.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Because
+Because
 graphs
 do
 not
@@ -6349,60 +6717,29 @@
 multi-valued
 properties
 in
-</ins>
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">document
-expansion
-is
-typically
-used
-as
-a
-part
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">do
+JSON-LD
+do
 not
 provide
 an
 ordering
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">Framing
-or
-Normalization
-.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">the
+of
+the
 listed
 objects.
-</ins>
 For
 example,
-<del class="diff-old">assume
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">consider
-</ins>
+consider
 the
 following
-<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
-input
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">simple
-</ins>
+simple
 document:
 </p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-   &quot;@context&quot;:
-   {
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
-      {
-         &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
-      }
-   },
-   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+...
 </del>
   <pre class="example">{
 <ins class="diff-chg">...
@@ -6413,37 +6750,17 @@
 }
 </pre>
 <p>
-<del class="diff-old">Running
-the
-JSON-LD
-Expansion
-algorithm
-against
-the
-JSON-LD
-input
-document
-provided
-above
-would
-result
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">This
+This
 results
-</ins>
-in
-<ins class="diff-new">three
+in
+three
 triples
 being
 generated,
 each
 relating
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">following
-output:
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">subject
+the
+subject
 to
 an
 individual
@@ -6452,502 +6769,183 @@
 no
 inherent
 order.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
-   {
-      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
-   }
-}
-3.10
-Compaction
-</del>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">Compaction
-is
-the
-process
-of
-taking
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-and
-applying
-a
-context
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">To
+preserve
+the
+order
+of
+the
+objects,
+RDF-based
+languages,
 such
-that
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">As
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">most
-compact
-form
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">notion
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">the
-document
-is
-generated.
-JSON
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">ordered
+as
+[
+TURTLE
+]
+use
+the
+concept
+of
+an
+rdf:List
+(as
+described
+in
+[
+RDF-SCHEMA
+]).
+This
+uses
+a
+sequence
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes
+with
+properties
+describing
+a
+value,
+a
+null-terminated
+next
+property.
+Without
+specific
+syntactical
+support,
+this
+could
+be
+represented
+in
+JSON-LD
+as
+follows:
+  {
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+    ,
+    
+      ,
+      
+        ,
+        
+        
+      
+    
+  ,
+...
+}
+</del>
+As
+<del class="diff-old">this
+notation
+is
+rather
+unwieldy
+and
+</del>
+the
+notion
+of
+ordered
 collections
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">typically
-expressed
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">rather
+is
+rather
 important
-</ins>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">a
-very
-compact,
-key-value
-format.
-That
-is,
-full
-IRIs
-are
-rarely
-used
-as
-keys.
-At
-times,
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-may
-be
-received
-that
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">data
+in
+data
 modeling,
 it
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">not
-in
-its
-most
-compact
-form.
-JSON-LD,
-via
-the
-API,
-provides
-a
-way
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">useful
-</ins>
-to
-<del class="diff-old">compact
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">have
+is
+useful
+to
+have
 specific
 language
 support.
 In
 JSON-LD,
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
-document.
-For
-example,
-assume
-the
-following
-JSON-LD
-input
-document:
-{
-   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
-   {
-      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
-   }
-}
-Additionally,
-assume
-the
-following
-developer-supplied
-JSON-LD
-context:
-{
-   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-   &quot;@coerce&quot;:
-   {
-      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
-   }
-}
-Running
-the
-JSON-LD
-Compaction
-algorithm
-given
-the
-context
-supplied
-above
-against
-the
-JSON-LD
-input
-document
-provided
-above
-would
-result
-in
-the
-following
-output:
-{
-   &quot;@context&quot;:
-   {
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
-      {
-         &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
-      }
-   },
-   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
-}
-The
-compaction
-algorithm
-also
-enables
-the
-developer
-to
-map
-any
-expanded
-format
-into
-an
-application-specific
-compacted
-format.
-While
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">list
+a
+list
 may
 be
 represented
 using
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">context
-provided
-above
-mapped
-</del>
-<code>
-<del class="diff-old">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">@list
-</ins>
-</code>
-<del class="diff-old">to
-name
-,
-it
-could
-have
-also
-mapped
-it
-to
-any
-arbitrary
-string
-provided
-by
-the
-developer.
-3.11
-Framing
-A
-JSON-LD
-document
-is
-a
-representation
-of
-a
-directed
-graph.
-A
-single
-directed
-graph
-can
-have
-many
-different
-serializations,
-each
-expressing
-exactly
-the
-same
-information.
-Developers
-typically
-work
-with
-trees,
-represented
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">keyword
-</ins>
-as
-<del class="diff-old">JSON
-object
-s.
-While
-mapping
-a
-graph
-to
-a
-tree
-can
-be
-done,
-the
-layout
-of
-the
-end
-result
-must
-be
-specified
-in
-advance.
-A
-Frame
-can
-be
-used
-by
-a
-developer
-on
-a
-JSON-LD
-document
-to
-specify
-a
-deterministic
-layout
-for
-a
-graph.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">follows:
-</ins>
-</p>
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
   <pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">...
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
   "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
   "foaf:nick": <span class="diff">{ "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ] }</span>,
 ...
-}
-</ins></pre>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">Framing
-is
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">This
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This
 describes
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">process
-of
-taking
-a
-JSON-LD
-document,
-which
-expresses
-a
-graph
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">use
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">information,
-and
-applying
-a
-specific
-graph
-layout
-(called
-a
-Frame
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">this
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+use
+of
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
 array
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">).
-The
-JSON-LD
-document
-below
-expresses
-a
-library,
-a
-book
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">as
+</a>
+as
 being
 ordered,
-</ins>
-and
-<del class="diff-old">a
-chapter:
-{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
-    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
-    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
-    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
-    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
-    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
-    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
-    &quot;@coerce&quot;:
-    {
-      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;contains&quot;
-    },
-  },
-  &quot;@subject&quot;:
-  [{
-    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/library&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
-    &quot;contains&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;
-  },
-  {
-    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
-    &quot;creator&quot;: &quot;Plato&quot;,
-    &quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Republic&quot;,
-    &quot;contains&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;
-  },
-  {
-    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;,
-    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
-    &quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Introduction&quot;
-  }]
-}
-Developers
-typically
-like
-to
-operate
-on
-items
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">order
+and
+order
 is
 maintained
 through
-alternate
+<del class="diff-old">normalization
+and
+RDF
+conversion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">alternate
 representations
+</ins>
 as
 described
-</ins>
-in
-<ins class="diff-new">[
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API"><ins class="diff-new">
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
 JSON-LD-API
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 ].
 If
 every
 use
 of
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">hierarchical,
-tree-based
-fashion.
-Ideally,
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">given
+a
+given
 multi-valued
 property
 is
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">developer
-would
-want
-the
-data
-above
-sorted
-into
-top-level
-libraries,
-then
-the
-books
-that
-are
-contained
-in
-each
-library,
-and
-then
-the
-chapters
-contained
-in
-each
-book.
-To
-achieve
-that
-layout,
-the
-developer
-can
-define
-the
-following
-frame
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">list,
+a
+list,
 this
 may
 be
@@ -6955,30 +6953,29 @@
 by
 adding
 an
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
-</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
-coercion
-</ins>
-</a>:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
-    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
-    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
-    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
-    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
-    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
-    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
-  &quot;contains&quot;: {
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
-    &quot;contains&quot;: {
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;
-    }
-  }
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@coerce
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">term:
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+<ins class="diff-chg">coercion
+</ins></a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  
+    ...
+    
+      
+    
+  ,
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;: ,
+...
 </del>
   <pre class="example">{
   <span class="diff">"@context": {
@@ -6996,99 +6993,44 @@
 }
 </pre>
 <p>
-<del class="diff-old">When
-the
-framing
-algorithm
+<del class="diff-old">The
[email protected]
+keyword
+can
+be
+used
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">List
 coercion
-</ins>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">run
-against
-the
-previously
-defined
-JSON-LD
-document,
-paired
-with
-the
-frame
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">specified
+is
+specified
+</ins>
 within
-an
+<ins class="diff-new">an
 expanded
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
-term
-</ins>
-</a>
-<del class="diff-old">above,
-the
-following
-JSON-LD
-document
-is
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">definition
-using
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">end
-result:
-{
-  &quot;@context&quot;: {
-    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
-    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
-    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
-    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
-    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
-    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
-    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
-  },
-  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
-  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
-  &quot;contains&quot;: {
-    
-    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
-    
-    
-    &quot;contains&quot;: {
-      
-      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;,
-      
-      
-    },
-  },
-}
-</del>
-<code>
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+definition
+using
+</ins>
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@coerce
+</del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">@list
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-key.
-</ins>
-The
-<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
-framing
-algorithm
-allows
-developers
-to
-query
-by
-example
-and
-force
-a
-specific
-tree
-layout
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">value
-of
-this
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">section
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key.
+The
+value
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">this
 key,
 if
 present,
@@ -7096,8 +7038,11 @@
 must
 </ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
 be
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
-true
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">true
 </ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
 This
 indicates
@@ -7110,20 +7055,28 @@
 as
 </ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @list
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-are
-</ins>
-to
-<ins class="diff-new">be
-serialized
-as
-</ins>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
-document.
-</del>
-<a href="#rdf-collection">
-<ins class="diff-chg">List
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">to
+cause
+value
+arrays
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+</ins>
+to
+be
+<del class="diff-old">coerced
+into
+an
+ordered
+list.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">serialized
+as
+a
+</ins><a href="#rdf-collection"><ins class="diff-chg">
+List
 </ins></a>.
 </p>
 </div>
@@ -7171,19 +7124,26 @@
 <span class="secno">
 4.1
 </span>
-External
+<del class="diff-old">Base
+URI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">External
 Contexts
+</ins>
 </h3>
 <p>
-Authors
+<ins class="diff-new">Authors
 may
 choose
 to
 declare
-JSON-LD
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">allows
+</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 s
 in
 external
@@ -7202,8 +7162,7 @@
 of
 JSON-LD
 documents.
-</p>
-<p>
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
 In
 order
 to
@@ -7213,90 +7172,86 @@
 context,
 an
 author
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
-</em>
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
 specify
 an
+</ins>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 IRI
 </abbr>
 </a>
-to
-a
-valid
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">be
+specified
+in
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">relative
+form.
+For
+subject
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">valid
 JSON-LD
 document.
-<del class="diff-old">If
-an
-IRI
-is
-specified,
-the
-external
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">The
+The
 referenced
-</ins>
-document
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+document
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
 must
-</em>
-<del class="diff-old">be
-dereferenced
-and
-the
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">have
-a
-</ins>
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+have
+a
 top-level
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
-<ins class="diff-new">JSON
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
 Object
-</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
 The
 value
 of
 any
-</ins>
-<code>
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @context
-</code>
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 key
-<del class="diff-old">in
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">within
-that
+within
+that
+</ins>
 object
-is
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs,
+relative
+IRIs
+are
+resolved
+against
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
 substituted
 for
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">JSON
-Object
-must
-be
-overlayed
-on
-top
-of
-</del>
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+the
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
 </ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
 within
 </ins>
 the
-<del class="diff-old">current
-active
-context.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">referencing
-document
-to
+<ins class="diff-new">referencing
+</ins>
+document
+<del class="diff-old">base
+using
+section
+5.1
+Establishing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
 have
 the
 same
@@ -7312,9 +7267,7 @@
 the
 referencing
 document.
-</ins>
-</p>
-<p>
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
 The
 following
 example
@@ -7325,64 +7278,46 @@
 an
 external
 context:
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  ,
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
   <span class="diff">"@context": "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person"</span>,
-<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
   "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
 Authors
 may
 also
 import
 multiple
 contexts
-<ins class="diff-new">or
-a
-combination
-of
-external
+or
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Base
+URI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">combination
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">[
+RFC3986
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">external
 and
 local
 contexts
-</ins>
 by
 specifying
 a
 list
 of
-<del class="diff-old">contexts
-to
-import:
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">contexts:
-</ins>
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">{
-  
-  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
-  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
-  &quot;celebrates&quot;:
-  {
-     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
-     &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
-     &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
-  }
-</del>
-<pre class="example">{
+contexts:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
   <span class="diff">"@context":
-<ins class="diff-chg">  [
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  [
     "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person",
     { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
     "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/event"
@@ -7397,10 +7332,8 @@
     "description": "International Talk Like a Pirate Day",
     "date": "R/2011-09-19"
   }</span>
-</ins>
-}
-</pre>
-<p>
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
 Each
 context
 in
@@ -7411,73 +7344,105 @@
 evaluated
 in-order.
 Duplicate
-<del class="diff-old">values
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">mappings
+mappings
 within
 the
 </ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
 context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">].
+This
+value
+may
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
 must
-</em>
-be
-overwritten
-on
-a
-last-defined-overrides
+</ins></em>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">explicitly
+set
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">overwritten
+on
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-chg">last-defined-overrides
 basis.
 The
-context
-list
-<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+</ins>
+context
+<ins class="diff-new">list
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
 must
-</em>
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
 contain
 either
 de-referenceable
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
-</del>
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
-or
-<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
 JSON
 Object
-</a>
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 s
 that
 conform
 to
-the
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">@base
+keyword.
+</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-context
-</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 syntax
 as
 described
 in
 this
 document.
-</p>
-<p>
-<ins class="diff-new">An
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">For
+example,
+if
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+retrieved
+from
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+,
+relative
+IRIs
+would
+resolve
+against
+that
+URI:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">An
 author
 may
 nest
 contexts
 within
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
 JSON
 object
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 s,
 with
 the
@@ -7492,10 +7457,16 @@
 previously
 defined
 contexts:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  ,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage: &quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
   <span class="diff">"@context":
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  {
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
     "name": "http://example.com/person#name",
     "details": "http://example.com/person#details"
   },</span>
@@ -7504,38 +7475,77 @@
   "details":
   {
 </ins>    <span class="diff">"@context": { "name": "http://example.com/organization#name" },</span>
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
     "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Acme, Ltd."
   }
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
-In
-the
-example
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+document
+uses
+an
+empty
[email protected]
+,
+which
+resolves
+to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+base.
+However,
+if
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
 above,
-the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
-name
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-prefix
-is
-overridden
-in
-the
-more
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">moved
+to
+a
+different
+location,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">overridden
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+IRI
+would
+change.
+To
+prevent
+this,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">more
 deeply
 nested
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 details
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 structure.
 Note
 that
 this
 is
 rarely
-a
-good
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-chg">good
 authoring
 practice
 and
@@ -7555,44 +7565,66 @@
 of
 the
 object.
-</ins></p><p>
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
 External
 JSON-LD
-context
-documents
-<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
-may
+</ins>
+context
+<ins class="diff-chg">documents
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+<del class="diff-old">have
+a
+</del>
 </em>
-contain
+<ins class="diff-chg">contain
 extra
 information
 located
 outside
 of
 the
-<code>
[email protected]
-</code>
-key,
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@context
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">mapping,
+to
+set
+an
+absolute
+base
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key,
 such
 as
 documentation
 about
-the
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
-prefix
-</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 es
 declared
-in
-the
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">spite
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
 document.
-<ins class="diff-new">When
+When
 importing
 a
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @context
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 value
 from
 an
@@ -7605,38 +7637,58 @@
 information
 contained
 outside
-of
-the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">where
+it
+actually
+is
+retrieved
+from.
+It
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @context
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-value
-</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
 must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
-be
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">have
+a
+value
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
 discarded.
-</ins>
 It
 is
 also
-<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="recommended"><ins class="diff-chg">
 recommended
-</em>
-that
-a
-human-readable
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+that
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">simple
+string
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">human-readable
 document
 encoded
 in
 HTML+RDFa
 [
-<cite>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-HTML-RDFA">
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-HTML-RDFA"><ins class="diff-chg">
 HTML-RDFA
-</a>
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">with
+</del>
 </cite>
-]
+<ins class="diff-chg">]
 or
 other
 Linked
@@ -7649,31 +7701,72 @@
 well
 to
 explain
-the
-correct
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">lexical
+form
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">correct
 usage
-of
-the
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">an
+absolute
+IRI
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
 JSON-LD
 context
 document.
-</p>
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  ,
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;about/&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage: &quot;&quot;
+}
+</del>
 </div>
 <div id="expanded-term-definition" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
 4.2
 </span>
-<del class="diff-old">Vocabulary
+<del class="diff-old">Default
+Vocabulary
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">Expanded
 Term
 Definition
-</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-Within
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
-context
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">It
+is
+often
+common
+that
+all
+types
+and
+properties
+come
+from
+the
+same
+vocabulary.
+JSON-LD
+provides
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Within
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">way
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
 </ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 definition,
 </ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
@@ -7689,8 +7782,14 @@
 an
 expanded
 notation
-to
-allow
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">set
+a
+base
+URI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allow
 for
 additional
 information
@@ -7698,17 +7797,39 @@
 with
 the
 term
-to
-be
-specified
+</ins>
+to
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used
+for
+all
+properties
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specified
 (see
 </ins><a href="#type-coerceion"><ins class="diff-chg">
 Type
 Coercion
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-and
-</ins><a href="#rdf-collection"><ins class="diff-chg">
-Lists
+</ins></a>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">types
+that
+aren't
+based
+on
+terms,
+prefixes
+or
+absolute
+IRIs.
+Much
+like
+the
[email protected]
+keyword,
+</del>
+<a href="#rdf-collection">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
 </ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 ).
 </ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
@@ -7722,11 +7843,11 @@
 an
 </ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
 IRI
-</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-chg">
-the
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></abbr>,
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
 is
 specified
 using
@@ -7734,10 +7855,17 @@
 object
 having
 an
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-key.
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@vocab
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">keyword
+can
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key.
 The
 value
 of
@@ -7745,15 +7873,43 @@
 key
 </ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
 must
-</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
-be
+</ins></em>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used
+to
+set
+a
+base
+IRI
+to
+use
+for
+all
+types
+and
+properties
+that
+don't
+otherwise
+resolve
+to
+</del>
 an
 absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr>.</p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-  "@context": {
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">.
+{
+  
+  ,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "name": <span class="diff">{"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name"}</span>,
     "homepage": <span class="diff">{"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"}</span>,
     "avatar": <span class="diff">{"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar"}</span>
@@ -7761,17 +7917,19 @@
   "name": "Manu Sporny",
   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
   "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
-}
-</ins></pre><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-chg">
-There
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">There
 is
 an
 open
 issue
 (
-</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/43" target="_blank"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/43" target="_blank"><ins class="diff-new">
 #43
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
 )
 on
 allowing
@@ -7782,9 +7940,9 @@
 position
 to
 allow
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-new">
 coercion
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
 to
 be
 specified
@@ -7793,12 +7951,17 @@
 or
 absolute
 IRIs.
-</ins></p></div><div id="default-language" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div id="default-language" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
 4.3
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+</span>
 Default
 Language
-</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+</h3>
+<p>
 JSON-LD
 allows
 a
@@ -7810,10 +7973,10 @@
 the
 language
 for
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
 plain
 literal
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>
 s.
 It
 is
@@ -7831,10 +7994,10 @@
 As
 described
 in
-</ins><a href="string-internationalization"><ins class="diff-chg">
+<a href="string-internationalization">
 String
 Internationalization
-</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+</a>,
 a
 language-tagged
 literal
@@ -7843,18 +8006,32 @@
 specified
 as
 follows:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-...
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
   "name":
   {
     "@value": "&#33457;&#28548;",
     "@language": "ja"
   }
 ...
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-It
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">By
+specifying
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">It
 is
 also
 possible
@@ -7871,10 +8048,13 @@
 by
 setting
 the
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins>
+<code>
 @language
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-key
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
 in
 the
 </ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
@@ -7896,9 +8076,20 @@
 above
 would
 generate
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal"><ins class="diff-chg">
-plain
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context
+,
+multiple
+language-tagged
+literals
+may
+be
+marked
+up
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
+<ins class="diff-chg">plain
 literal
 </ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
 for
@@ -7930,16 +8121,29 @@
 default
 language
 by
-using
-the
+</ins>
+using
+<ins class="diff-new">the
 expanded
 form
 of
-a
-literal:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-chg">
-  "@context:"
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">simple
+string
+form:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">literal:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  ,
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: 
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context:"
   {
      "@language": "ja"
   },
@@ -7951,9 +8155,11 @@
     "@language": "en"
   }</span>
 ...
-}
-</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
-It
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">It
 is
 also
 possible
@@ -7994,9 +8200,13 @@
   }</span>
 ...
 }
-</ins></pre></div><div id="prefixes" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+</ins></pre></div><div id="prefixes" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
 4.4
-</ins></span>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Vocabulary
+</del>
 Prefixes
 </h3>
 <p>
@@ -8074,11 +8284,9 @@
 size
 of
 the
-<del class="diff-old">context,
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>,
+context
+</a>,
 the
 third
 is
@@ -8140,10 +8348,7 @@
 and
 a
 <em>
-<del class="diff-old">term
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">suffix
-</ins>
+suffix
 </em>
 separated
 by
@@ -8157,21 +8362,23 @@
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
 prefix
 </a>
-<ins class="diff-new">is
-a
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
-term
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
 taken
 from
 the
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
 active
 context
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
-and
-</ins>
-is
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+is
+</ins>
 a
 short
 string
@@ -8247,10 +8454,8 @@
 version
 of
 the
-<del class="diff-old">full
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
-</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
 IRI
 </abbr>
 for
@@ -8436,11 +8641,9 @@
 in
 the
 JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">context.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>.
+context
+</a>.
 This
 reduces
 document
@@ -8556,11 +8759,9 @@
 the
 application's
 JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">context.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>.
+context
+</a>.
 </p>
 <p>
 Consider
@@ -8639,10 +8840,7 @@
 using
 the
 <code>
-<del class="diff-old">prefix:term
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">prefix:suffix
-</ins>
+prefix:suffix
 </code>
 notation.
 </p>
@@ -8698,14 +8896,12 @@
 required
 to
 disambiguate
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
 in
 a
 JSON-LD
@@ -8721,9 +8917,10 @@
 <div id="iri-expansion-within-context" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<ins class="diff-new">4.5
-</ins></span><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
-IRI
+4.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRI
 </ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
 Expansion
 within
@@ -8947,15 +9144,9 @@
   },
   ...
 }
-</ins></pre></div>
-<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
-<h3>
-<span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
-</ins>
-</span>
+</ins></pre></div><div id="automatic-typing" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.6
+</ins></span>
 Automatic
 Typing
 </h3>
@@ -9191,7 +9382,7 @@
 <div id="type-coercion" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.4
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.7
 </ins>
@@ -9237,14 +9428,12 @@
 of
 data
 type
-<del class="diff-old">IRIs
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
-s
-</ins>
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
 to
 property
 types.
@@ -9495,11 +9684,75 @@
 </ins>
 .
 </pre>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+mechanism
+for
+type
+coercion
+is
+still
+being
+debated.
+It
+may
+be
+that
+the
+key/value
+positions
+are
+swapped,
+yielding
+a
[email protected]
+such
+as
+the
+following:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;rdf&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+    &quot;currentProject&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/currentProject&quot;,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;: {
+      &quot;age&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;@iri&quot;,
+      &quot;currentProject&quot;: [&quot;@iri&quot;, &quot;@list&quot;]
+     }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+An
+alternative
+is
+to
+merge
+the
+coercion
+into
+term
+definitions:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;rdf&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;: ,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: ,
+    &quot;currentProject&quot;: ,
+  },
+  ...
+}
+</del>
 </div>
 <div id="chaining" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.5
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.8
 </ins>
@@ -9613,7 +9866,7 @@
 <div id="identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.6
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.9
 </ins>
@@ -9767,10 +10020,8 @@
 generating
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
 Linked
-<del class="diff-old">Data.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Data
-</ins></a>.
+Data
+</a>.
 If
 a
 developer
@@ -9794,18 +10045,17 @@
 using
 a
 resolve-able
-<del class="diff-old">IRI.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
 <abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
 </p>
 </div>
 <div id="aliasing-keywords" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.7
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">4.10
 </ins>
@@ -9853,11 +10103,9 @@
 only
 the
 JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">context.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
-<ins class="diff-chg">context
-</ins></a>.
+context
+</a>.
 </p>
 <del class="diff-old">{
   &quot;@context&quot;:
@@ -9920,213 +10168,48 @@
 <div class="appendix section" id="markup-examples">
 <h2>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">4.8
+<del class="diff-old">5.
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">A.
 </ins>
 </span>
-<del class="diff-old">Normalization
+<del class="diff-old">Using
+JSON-LD
+for
+RDF
 </del>
 <ins class="diff-chg">Markup
 Examples
-</ins></h2>
-<p>
-<del class="diff-old">Normalization
-is
-the
-process
-of
-taking
-JSON-LD
-input
-and
-performing
-a
-deterministic
-transformation
-on
-that
-input
-that
-results
-in
-a
-</del>
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">output
-that
-any
-conforming
-JSON-LD
-processor
-would
-have
-generated
-given
-the
-same
-input.
-The
-problem
-is
-a
-fairly
-difficult
-technical
-problem
-to
-solve
-because
-it
-requires
-a
-directed
-graph
-to
-be
-ordered
-into
-a
-set
-of
-nodes
-and
-edges
-in
-a
-deterministic
-way.
-This
-is
-easy
-to
-do
-when
-all
-of
-the
-nodes
-have
-unique
-names,
-but
-very
-difficult
-to
-do
-when
-some
-of
-the
-nodes
-are
-not
-labeled.
-Normalization
-</del>
-is
-<del class="diff-old">useful
-when
-comparing
-two
-graphs
-against
-one
-another,
-when
-generating
-</del>
-a
-<del class="diff-old">detailed
-list
-of
-differences
-between
-two
-graphs,
-and
-when
-generating
-a
-cryptographic
-digital
-signature
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">specification
-</ins>
-for
-<del class="diff-old">information
-contained
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">representing
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
-Linked
-Data
-</ins></a>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">a
-graph
-or
-when
-generating
-a
-hash
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">JSON.
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+specification
+for
+representing
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON.
 A
 common
 way
-</ins>
-of
-<del class="diff-old">the
-information
-contained
-in
-a
-graph.
-The
-example
-below
-is
-an
-un-normalized
-JSON-LD
-document:
-{
-   &quot;@context&quot;:
-   {
-      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
-      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
-      &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
-      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
-      {
-         &quot;@iri&quot;: [&quot;homepage&quot;]
-      }
-   },
-   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
-   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
-}
-The
-example
-below
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">working
-with
-Linked
-Data
-</ins>
-is
-<ins class="diff-new">through
-</ins><dfn title="rdf" id="dfn-rdf"><ins class="diff-new">
+of
+working
+with
+Linked
+Data
+is
+through
+<dfn title="rdf" id="dfn-rdf">
 RDF
-</ins></dfn>,
-the
-<del class="diff-old">normalized
-form
-of
-the
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">Resource
+</dfn>,
+the
+Resource
 Description
 Framework.
 RDF
@@ -10134,140 +10217,81 @@
 be
 expressed
 using
-</ins>
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">document
-above:
-Whitespace
-is
-used
-below
-to
-aid
-readability.
-The
-normalization
-algorithm
-for
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">by
+JSON-LD
+by
 associating
-</ins>
-JSON-LD
-<del class="diff-old">removes
-all
-unnecessary
-whitespace
-in
-the
-fully
-normalized
-form.
-[{
-    &quot;@subject&quot;:
-    {
-        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;_:c14n0&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
-    {
-        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
-    },
-    &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
-}]
-Notice
-how
-all
-of
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">concepts
+JSON-LD
+concepts
 such
 as
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-and
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+and
+<code>
 @type
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
-with
-</ins>
-the
-<del class="diff-old">term
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">equivalent
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
-IRI
-</ins></abbr>
-</a>
-s
-<del class="diff-old">have
-been
-expanded
-and
-sorted
-</del>
-in
-<del class="diff-old">alphabetical
-order.
-Also,
-notice
-how
-the
-subject
-has
-been
-labeled
-with
-a
-blank
-node
-identifier
-.
-Normalization
-ensures
-that
-any
-arbitrary
-graph
-containing
-exactly
-the
-same
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">RDF.
+</code>
+with
+the
+equivalent
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+in
+RDF.
 Further
-</ins>
 information
-<del class="diff-old">would
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">about
+about
 RDF
 may
-</ins>
-be
-<del class="diff-old">normalized
-to
-exactly
-the
-same
-form
-shown
-above.
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">found
-in
-[
-</ins><cite>
-<del class="diff-old">A.
+be
+found
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER">
+RDF-PRIMER
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Some
+examples
+of
+encoding
+RDF
+into
+JSON-LD
+may
+be
+found
+in
+Appendix
+A
+.
+Details
+of
+transforming
+JSON-LD
+into
+RDF
+are
+defined
+in
+[
+JSON-LD-API
+].
+A.
 Markup
 Examples
 </del>
-<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER">
-<ins class="diff-chg">RDF-PRIMER
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
-].
-</ins></p>
-<p>
 The
 JSON-LD
 markup
@@ -10342,33 +10366,43 @@
 <span class="secno">
 A.1
 </span>
-<ins class="diff-new">Turtle
-</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Turtle
+</h3>
+<p>
 The
 following
 are
 examples
 of
 representing
-</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="rdf" href="#dfn-rdf"><ins class="diff-new">
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="rdf" href="#dfn-rdf">
 RDF
-</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
 as
 expressed
 in
 [
-</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TURTLE"><ins class="diff-new">
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TURTLE">
 TURTLE
-</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+</a>
+</cite>
 ]
 into
 JSON-LD.
-</ins></p><div id="prefix-definitions" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+<div id="prefix-definitions" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
 A.1.1
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+</span>
 Prefix
+<del class="diff-old">and
+Base
+</del>
 definitions
-</ins></h4><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</h4>
+<p>
 The
 JSON-LD
 context
@@ -10376,23 +10410,49 @@
 direct
 equivalents
 for
-the
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins>
 Turtle
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@base
+and
+</del>
 @prefix
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
-declaration:
-</ins></p><pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
-<ins class="diff-new">
-
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">expressions:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">declaration:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@base &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">
 &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
   foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
+</ins>
 foaf:homepage
-&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;
-.
-</ins></pre><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  "@context": {
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;&gt;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;
+</ins>
+.
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@base&quot;:  &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:       &quot;#me&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:  {&quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;&quot;}
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "foaf":   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
   },
   "@id":            "http://manu.sporny.org/#me",
@@ -10400,7 +10460,7 @@
   "foaf:name":      "Manu Sporny",
   "foaf:homepage":  { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" }
 }
-</ins></pre><div class="note"><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></pre><div class="note"><p><ins class="diff-chg">
 JSON-LD
 has
 no
@@ -10408,9 +10468,9 @@
 for
 the
 Turtle
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @base
-</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
 declaration.
 Authors
 could,
@@ -10438,25 +10498,32 @@
 similar
 effect
 to
-</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
 @base
 </ins></code>:</p><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
   "@context": {
 </ins>    <span class="diff">"":       "http://manu.sporny.org/",</span>
-<ins class="diff-new">
+<ins class="diff-chg">
     "foaf":   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
   },
   "@id":            <span class="diff">":#me"</span>,
   "@type":          "foaf:Person",
   "foaf:name":      "Manu Sporny",
   "foaf:homepage":  { "@id": <span class="diff">":" </span>}
-}
-</ins></pre></div></div><div id="chaining-1" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="chaining-1" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
 A.1.2
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+</span>
 Chaining
-</ins></h4><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</h4>
+<p>
 Both
 Turtle
 and
@@ -10477,24 +10544,48 @@
 nlank
 node
 identifiers.
-</ins></p></div><pre class="example">@base &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt; .
-<ins class="diff-new">
+</p>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">@base &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt; .
 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@base &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
 
 &lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
   foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
+</ins>
 foaf:knows
 [
 a
 foaf:Person;
 foaf:name
-"Gregg
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Gregg
+Kellogg&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Gregg
 Kellogg"
+</ins>
 ]
 .
-</ins></pre><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  "@context": {
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@base&quot;:  &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:       &quot;#me&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:knows&quot;:  {
+    &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "":       "http://manu.sporny.org/",
     "foaf":   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
   },
@@ -10505,12 +10596,17 @@
     "@type":        "foaf:Person",
     "foaf:name":    "Gregg Kellogg"
   }
-}
-</ins></pre><div id="lists" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<div id="lists" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
 A.1.3
-</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+</span>
 Lists
-</ins></h4><p><ins class="diff-new">
+</h4>
+<p>
 Both
 JSON-LD
 and
@@ -10521,30 +10617,56 @@
 lists
 of
 values.
-</ins></p><pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
-<ins class="diff-new">
-
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Joe Bob&quot;;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">
 &lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; a foaf:Person;
   foaf:name "Joe Bob";
+</ins>
 foaf:nick
 (
-"joe"
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;joe&quot;
+&quot;bob&quot;
+&quot;jaybee&quot;)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"joe"
 "bob"
 "jaybee")
-.
-</ins></pre><pre class="example">{
-<ins class="diff-new">
-  "@context": {
+</ins>
+.
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@base&quot;:  &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:       &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Joe Bob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:      {&quot;@list&quot;: [&quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybe&quot;]}
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
     "foaf":   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
   },
   "@id":        "http://example.org/people#joebob",
   "@type":      "foaf:Person",
   "foaf:name":  "Joe Bob",
   "foaf:nick":  { "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybe" ] }
-}
-</ins></pre></div></div><div id="rdfa" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="rdfa" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
 A.2
-</ins></span>
+</span>
 RDFa
 </h3>
 <p>
@@ -10668,10 +10790,7 @@
 <div id="microformats" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.2
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.3
-</ins>
+A.3
 </span>
 Microformats
 </h3>
@@ -10782,10 +10901,7 @@
 <div id="microdata" class="section">
 <h3>
 <span class="secno">
-<del class="diff-old">A.3
-</del>
-<ins class="diff-chg">A.4
-</ins>
+A.4
 </span>
 Microdata
 </h3>
@@ -10893,14 +11009,10 @@
 by
 their
 full
-<del class="diff-old">IRI.
-</del>
 <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
-<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
-<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
-</ins></abbr></a>.
-</p>
-<del class="diff-old">[
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+.
+[
   {
     &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&quot;,
     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work&quot;,
@@ -10919,6 +11031,2298 @@
     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&quot;,
     &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&quot;
   }
+]
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">B.
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+Developers
+would
+also
+benefit
+by
+allowing
+other
+vocabularies
+to
+be
+used
+automatically
+with
+their
+JSON
+API.
+There
+are
+over
+200
+Web
+Vocabulary
+Documents
+that
+are
+available
+for
+use
+on
+the
+Web
+today.
+Some
+of
+these
+vocabularies
+are:
+RDF
+-
+for
+describing
+information
+about
+objects
+and
+concepts
+on
+the
+Web.
+RDFS
+-
+for
+expressing
+things
+like
+labels
+and
+comments.
+XSD
+-
+for
+specifying
+basic
+types
+like
+strings,
+integers,
+dates
+and
+times.
+Dublin
+Core
+-
+for
+describing
+creative
+works.
+FOAF
+-
+for
+describing
+social
+networks.
+Calendar
+-
+for
+specifying
+events.
+SIOC
+-
+for
+describing
+discussions
+on
+blogs
+and
+websites.
+CCrel
+-
+for
+describing
+Creative
+Commons
+and
+other
+types
+of
+licenses.
+GEO
+-
+for
+describing
+geographic
+location.
+VCard
+-
+for
+describing
+organizations
+and
+people.
+DOAP
+-
+for
+describing
+projects.
+You
+can
+use
+these
+vocabularies
+in
+combination,
+like
+so:
+{
+  &quot;&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+Developers
+can
+also
+specify
+their
+own
+Vocabulary
+documents
+by
+modifying
+the
+active
+context
+in-line
+using
+the
[email protected]
+keyword,
+like
+so:
+{
+  ,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;sioc:avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;,
+  &quot;myvocab:personality&quot;: &am