Added FPWD documents for JSON-LD Syntax and API for RDF WG publication.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Tue, 26 Jun 2012 23:49:05 -0400
changeset 767 b53e28df4bfd
parent 766 c8eb0049885f
child 768 cedc42e247d2
Added FPWD documents for JSON-LD Syntax and API for RDF WG publication.
spec/WD/json-ld-api/20120712/diff-20120626.html
spec/WD/json-ld-api/20120712/index.html
spec/WD/json-ld-syntax/20120712/diff-20120626.html
spec/WD/json-ld-syntax/20120712/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/WD/json-ld-api/20120712/diff-20120626.html	Tue Jun 26 23:49:05 2012 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,17001 @@
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+</head>
+
+
+<body>
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+API
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+An
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</h2>
+<del class="diff-old">Final
+Community
+Group
+Specification
+26
+June
+</del>
+<h2 id="w3c-working-draft-12-july-2012">
+<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+<ins class="diff-chg">W3C
+</ins></acronym><ins class="diff-chg">
+Working
+Draft
+12
+July
+</ins>
+2012
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+version:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-json-ld-api-20120712/"><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-json-ld-api-20120712/
+</ins></a></dd><dt><ins class="diff-new">
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/"><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/
+</ins></a></dd><dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-api/
+</del>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20120626.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2010-2012
+<del class="diff-old">the
+Contributors
+to
+the
+JSON-LD
+API
+1.0
+Specification,
+published
+by
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+<ins class="diff-chg">W3C
+</ins></acronym>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">under
+the
+</del>
+<sup>
+<ins class="diff-chg">®
+</ins></sup><ins class="diff-chg">
+(
+</ins><a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology"><ins class="diff-chg">
+MIT
+</ins></acronym></a>,<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics"><ins class="diff-chg">
+ERCIM
+</ins></acronym></a>,<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Keio
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+</ins><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Community
+Final
+Specification
+Agreement
+(FSA)
+.
+A
+human-readable
+summary
+</del>
+</acronym>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+<ins class="diff-chg">liability
+</ins></a>,<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks"><ins class="diff-chg">
+trademark
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+available.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents"><ins class="diff-chg">
+document
+use
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+rules
+apply.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+JSON-LD
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+harmonizes
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON
+by
+outlining
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+This
+document
+outlines
+an
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+and
+a
+set
+of
+algorithms
+for
+programmatically
+transforming
+JSON-LD
+documents
+in
+order
+to
+make
+them
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+programming
+environments
+like
+JavaScript,
+Python,
+and
+Ruby.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+<del class="diff-old">specification
+was
+published
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+describes
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group
+.
+It
+is
+not
+a
+W3C
+Standard
+nor
+is
+it
+on
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+</ins><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Standards
+Track.
+Please
+note
+that
+under
+</del>
+</acronym>
+<ins class="diff-chg">publications
+and
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-chg">latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">Community
+Final
+Specification
+Agreement
+(FSA)
+</del>
+</acronym>
+<ins class="diff-chg">technical
+reports
+index
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">other
+conditions
+apply.
+Learn
+more
+about
+W3C
+Community
+and
+Business
+Groups
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</ins></em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+has
+been
+under
+development
+for
+over
+18
+months
+in
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group.
+The
+document
+has
+recently
+been
+<del class="diff-old">approved
+for
+transfer
+into
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transferred
+to
+</ins>
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+for
+<del class="diff-old">review
+with
+the
+intent
+to
+publish
+the
+document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">review,
+improvement,
+and
+publication
+</ins>
+along
+the
+<del class="diff-old">W3C
+</del>
+Recommendation
+track.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">While
+this
+is
+a
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+publication,
+the
+</ins>
+specification
+has
+undergone
+significant
+development,
+review,
+and
+changes
+during
+the
+course
+of
+the
+last
+18
+months
+and
+is
+<del class="diff-old">being
+published
+as
+a
+Final
+Community
+Group
+Specification
+so
+that
+it
+may
+gain
+wider
+review
+and
+feedback.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">more
+mature
+than
+the
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+status
+implies.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+currently
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">
+five
+interoperable
+implementations
+</a>
+of
+this
+specification.
+There
+is
+a
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">
+fairly
+complete
+test
+suite
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">
+live
+JSON-LD
+editor
+</a>
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+demonstrating
+the
+features
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+While
+development
+on
+implementations,
+the
+test
+suite
+and
+the
+live
+editor
+will
+continue,
+they
+are
+believed
+to
+be
+mature
+enough
+to
+be
+integrated
+into
+a
+non-production
+system
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time
+with
+the
+expectation
+that
+they
+could
+be
+used
+in
+a
+production
+system
+within
+the
+next
+year.
+</p>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+1
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+It
+is
+important
+for
+readers
+to
+understand
+that
+the
+scope
+of
+this
+document
+is
+currently
+under
+debate
+and
+new
+features
+may
+be
+added
+to
+the
+specification.
+Existing
+features
+may
+be
+modified
+heavily
+or
+removed
+entirely
+from
+the
+specification
+upon
+further
+review
+and
+feedback
+from
+the
+broader
+community.
+This
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress
+and
+publication
+as
+a
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+does
+not
+require
+that
+all
+Working
+Group
+members
+agree
+on
+the
+content
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+as
+a
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft.
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+</ins><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></acronym><ins class="diff-new">
+Recommendation.
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
+</ins><a href="mailto:[email protected]"><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(
+</ins><a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe"><ins class="diff-new">
+subscribe
+</ins></a>,<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/"><ins class="diff-new">
+archives
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+).
+All
+feedback
+is
+welcome.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Publication
+as
+a
+Working
+Draft
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+</ins><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></acronym><ins class="diff-new">
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/"><ins class="diff-new">
+5
+February
+2004
+</ins><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></acronym><ins class="diff-new">
+Patent
+Policy
+</ins></a>.<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></acronym><ins class="diff-new">
+maintains
+a
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure"><ins class="diff-new">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential"><ins class="diff-new">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+</ins><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-new">
+W3C
+</ins></acronym><ins class="diff-new">
+Patent
+Policy
+</ins></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#preface" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Preface
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conversion-to-and-from-rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Conversion
+to
+and
+from
+RDF
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-and-normalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+Framing
+and
+Normalization
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-application-programming-interface" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#general-terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldprocessor" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#callbacks" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Callbacks
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldcallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.1
+</span>
+JsonLdCallback
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#quadcallback" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.2
+</span>
+QuadCallback
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#methods-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-structures" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Data
+Structures
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#url" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.1
+</span>
+URL
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#jsonldoptions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.2
+</span>
+JsonLdOptions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#quad" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.3
+</span>
+Quad
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.3.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.4
+</span>
+Node
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.5.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#blank-node" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.6
+</span>
+<span title="blank_node">
+Blank
+Node
+</span>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.6.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#literal" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.7
+</span>
+Literal
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#attributes-3" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.7.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-processing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Context
+Processing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.1
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#term-rank-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.2
+</span>
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.7.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.8
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.8.1
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9.1
+</span>
+Overview
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#parsing-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9.2
+</span>
+Parsing
+Examples
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9.3
+</span>
+Convert
+to
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#list-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9.4
+</span>
+List
+Conversion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9.5
+</span>
+Convert
+from
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#appendix-a" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Initial
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div id="preface" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Preface
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+an
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Web
+authors
+and
+developers
+that
+want
+a
+very
+detailed
+view
+of
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+and
+the
+API
+operates.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+You
+must
+also
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+which
+is
+the
+base
+syntax
+used
+by
+all
+of
+the
+algorithms
+in
+this
+document.
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262">
+ECMA-262
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL">
+WEBIDL
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+how
+JSON-LD
+maps
+to
+RDF,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+be
+familiar
+with
+the
+basic
+RDF
+concepts
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+</li>
+<li>
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+to
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>
+if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+outlines
+a
+language
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+Often,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+be
+able
+to
+transform
+JSON-LD
+documents
+so
+that
+they
+may
+be
+easily
+processed
+in
+a
+programming
+environment
+like
+JavaScript,
+Python
+or
+Ruby.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+three
+major
+types
+of
+transformation
+that
+are
+discussed
+in
+this
+document;
+compaction,
+expansion,
+and
+RDF
+conversion.
+</p>
+<div id="expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Software
+algorithms
+are
+easiest
+to
+write
+when
+the
+data
+that
+they
+are
+processing
+have
+a
+regular
+form.
+Since
+information
+can
+be
+represented
+by
+JSON-LD
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways,
+transforming
+all
+of
+these
+methods
+into
+a
+uniform
+structure
+allows
+the
+developer
+to
+simplify
+their
+processing
+code.
+For
+example,
+note
+that
+the
+following
+input
+uses
+only
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+is
+fairly
+compact:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span></div><pre class="example">var input1 = {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+next
+input
+example
+uses
+one
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+express
+a
+property,
+but
+leaves
+the
+rest
+of
+the
+information
+untouched.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span></div><pre class="example">var input2 = {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+While
+both
+inputs
+are
+valid
+JSON-LD,
+writing
+a
+program
+to
+handle
+every
+permutation
+of
+possible
+inputs
+can
+be
+difficult,
+especially
+when
+the
+incoming
+context
+could
+change
+as
+well.
+To
+ensure
+that
+the
+data
+can
+be
+given
+a
+more
+uniform
+structure,
+JSON-LD
+introduces
+the
+notion
+of
+expansion.
+<dfn title="expansion" id="dfn-expansion">
+Expansion
+</dfn>
+performs
+two
+important
+operations.
+The
+first
+is
+to
+expand
+all
+values
+that
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+their
+fully
+expanded
+form.
+The
+second
+is
+to
+express
+all
+values
+in
+<dfn title="expanded_form" id="dfn-expanded_form">
+expanded
+form
+</dfn>.
+To
+transform
+both
+inputs
+above
+to
+the
+same
+representation,
+the
+developer
+could
+do
+the
+following:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span></div><pre class="example">function expansionCallback(output) {
+   console.log(output);
+}
+// the second parameter is 'null' because the developer does not wish to
+// inject another context value
+jsonld.expand(input1, null, expansionCallback);
+jsonld.expand(input2,
+null,
+expansionCallback);
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+output
+for
+both
+calls
+above
+will
+be:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span></div><pre class="example">[{
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+  }],
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+  }]
+}]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+in
+the
+example
+above;
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definitions
+have
+been
+removed,
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+and
+prefixes
+have
+been
+expanded
+to
+full
+IRIs,
+and
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+s
+are
+expressed
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_form" href="#dfn-expanded_form">
+expanded
+form
+</a>.
+While
+the
+output
+is
+more
+difficult
+for
+a
+human
+to
+read,
+it
+is
+easier
+for
+a
+software
+program
+to
+process
+because
+of
+its
+very
+regular
+structure.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+While
+expansion
+expands
+a
+given
+input
+as
+much
+as
+possible,
+compaction
+performs
+the
+opposite
+operation
+-
+expressing
+a
+given
+input
+as
+succinctly
+as
+possible.
+While
+expansion
+is
+meant
+to
+produce
+something
+that
+is
+easy
+to
+process
+by
+software
+programs,
+compaction
+is
+meant
+to
+produce
+something
+that
+is
+easy
+to
+ready
+by
+software
+developers.
+Compaction
+uses
+a
+developer-supplied
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+to
+compresses
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es,
+and
+compacts
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+s
+expressed
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_form" href="#dfn-expanded_form">
+expanded
+form
+</a>
+as
+much
+as
+possible.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+expresses
+input
+that
+has
+already
+been
+fully
+expanded:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span></div><pre class="example">var expandedInput = [{
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+  }],
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+  }]
+}]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+developer
+that
+wants
+to
+transform
+the
+data
+above
+into
+a
+more
+human-readable
+form,
+could
+do
+the
+following
+using
+the
+JSON-LD
+API:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span></div><pre class="example">function compactionCallback(output) {
+   console.log(output);
+}
+jsonld.compact(expandedInput,
+&quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+compactionCallback);
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+would
+be
+the
+result
+of
+the
+call
+above:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span></div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+have
+been
+compressed
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+has
+been
+injected
+into
+the
+output.
+While
+compacted
+output
+is
+most
+useful
+to
+humans,
+it
+can
+also
+be
+carefully
+used
+to
+generate
+structures
+that
+are
+easy
+to
+use
+for
+developers
+to
+program
+against
+as
+well.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="conversion-to-and-from-rdf" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Conversion
+to
+and
+from
+RDF
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+used
+to
+losslessly
+express
+the
+RDF
+data
+model
+as
+described
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+This
+ensures
+that
+data
+can
+be
+round-tripped
+from
+any
+RDF
+syntax,
+like
+N-Triples
+or
+TURTLE,
+without
+any
+loss
+in
+the
+fidelity
+of
+the
+data.
+Assume
+the
+following
+RDF
+input
+in
+N-Triples
+format:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span></div><pre class="example">var data = &quot;
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&gt; &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt; \&quot;Manu Sporny\&quot; .\n
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&gt;
+&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;
+.&quot;;
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+developer
+can
+use
+the
+JSON-LD
+API
+to
+transform
+the
+markup
+above
+into
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span></div><pre class="example">function conversionCallback(result)
+{
+  console.log(&quot;JSON-LD Document: &quot;, result);
+};
+jsonld.fromRDF(data,
+conversionCallback,
+{&quot;format&quot;:
+&quot;ntriples&quot;});
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+expanded
+output
+would
+be
+the
+result
+of
+the
+call
+above:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span></div><pre class="example">[{
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+  }],
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: [{
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+  }]
+}]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+the
+output
+above,
+could
+easily
+be
+compacted
+to
+produce
+the
+following
+using
+the
+technique
+outlined
+in
+the
+previous
+section:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span></div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/about/#manu&quot;,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Transforming
+the
+object
+above
+back
+to
+RDF
+is
+as
+simple
+as
+calling
+the
+<code>
+toRDF()
+</code>
+method:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span></div><pre class="example">var jsonldDocument = ...; // assign the JSON-LD document here
+function rdfCallback(quads)
+{
+  console.log(&quot;RDF Data: &quot;, quads);
+};
+jsonld.toRDF(jsonldDocument,
+rdfCallback);
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="framing-and-normalization" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+Framing
+and
+Normalization
+</h3>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+2
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+There
+are
+currently
+two
+other
+API
+methods
+that
+are
+in
+active
+development
+and
+were
+not
+ready
+for
+publication
+at
+the
+time
+this
+document
+was
+published.
+Framing
+allows
+a
+developer
+to
+force
+a
+different
+layout
+for
+the
+data
+and
+effectively
+perform
+query-by-example
+on
+JSON-LD
+documents
+-
+this
+is
+most
+useful
+when
+a
+JSON-LD-based
+REST
+API
+does
+not
+know
+the
+exact
+form
+of
+the
+data
+it
+is
+getting
+in,
+but
+still
+wants
+to
+operate
+upon
+it
+if
+some
+bare
+essentials
+are
+found
+in
+the
+data.
+JSON-LD
+normalization
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+deterministically
+serialized
+such
+that
+they
+can
+be
+digitally
+signed
+or
+be
+used
+to
+find
+the
+differences
+between
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+s.
+It
+is
+expected
+that
+framing
+will
+be
+a
+part
+of
+the
+final
+API.
+It
+is
+expected
+that
+normalization
+will
+be
+an
+optional
+feature
+that
+JSON-LD
+processors
+may
+implement.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="the-application-programming-interface" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+API
+provides
+a
+clean
+mechanism
+that
+enables
+developers
+to
+convert
+JSON-LD
+data
+into
+a
+a
+variety
+of
+output
+formats
+that
+are
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+various
+programming
+languages.
+If
+a
+JSON-LD
+API
+is
+provided
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+the
+entirety
+of
+the
+following
+API
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+implemented.
+</p>
+<div id="general-terminology" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</h3>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+3
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+intent
+of
+the
+Working
+Group
+and
+the
+Editors
+of
+this
+specification
+is
+to
+eventually
+align
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document
+with
+the
+terminology
+used
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document
+to
+the
+extent
+to
+which
+it
+makes
+sense
+to
+do
+so.
+In
+general,
+if
+there
+is
+an
+analogue
+to
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document,
+the
+preference
+is
+to
+use
+the
+terminology
+in
+the
+RDF
+Concepts
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+is
+an
+explanation
+of
+the
+general
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name-value
+pairs.
+A
+name
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+that
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+(UTF-8)
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Unless
+otherwise
+specified,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+act
+as
+if
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+never
+declared
+when
+the
+value
+equals
+<em>
+null
+</em>.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+null
+</em>
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+JSON
+object
+is
+ignored.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+null
+</em>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+reset
+and
+when
+used
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+it
+removes
+any
+definition
+associated
+with
+the
+key,
+unless
+otherwise
+specified.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject_definition" id="dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+subject.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+a
+subject
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+they
+keys
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject_reference" id="dfn-subject_reference">
+subject
+reference
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+reference
+a
+subject
+having
+only
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</dfn>
+or
+<dfn title="dataset" id="dfn-dataset">
+dataset
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+s
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="node" id="dfn-node">
+node
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+piece
+of
+information
+that
+is
+represented
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="named_graph" id="dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+that
+has
+one
+or
+more
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+that
+are
+used
+to
+refer
+to
+it.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="graph_name" id="dfn-graph_name">
+graph
+name
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+that
+is
+a
+reference
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="named_graph" href="#dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="default_graph" id="dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+When
+executing
+an
+algorithm,
+the
+graph
+where
+data
+should
+be
+placed
+if
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="named_graph" href="#dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</a>
+is
+not
+specified.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">
+subject
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Any
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]).
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+edge
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">
+literal
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="quad" id="dfn-quad">
+quad
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+piece
+of
+information
+that
+contains
+four
+items;
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>,
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="graph_name" href="#dfn-graph_name">
+graph
+name
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+that
+contains
+rules
+for
+interpreting
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+JSON
+key
+that
+is
+specific
+to
+JSON-LD,
+specified
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="http://sites.local/json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="jsonldprocessor" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+JsonLdProcessor
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+Processor
+interface
+is
+the
+high-level
+programming
+structure
+that
+developers
+use
+to
+access
+the
+JSON-LD
+transformation
+methods.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdProcessor">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdProcessor</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">expand</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or URL</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">compact</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-fromRDF-void-QuadArray-input-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">fromRDF</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code>Quad</code></a>[]</span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-toRDF-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-QuadCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">toRDF</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object[] or URL</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType"><code>QuadCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdOptions</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h2>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+compact
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#compaction">
+Compacts
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+using
+the
+<code>
+context
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+compacted
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+exception
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+compaction
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+compact.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+context
+to
+use
+when
+compacting
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+;
+either
+in
+the
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+or
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+also
+includes
+<code>
+optimize
+</code>,
+which
+if
+set
+will
+cause
+processor-specific
+optimization.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-object-or-URL-context-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+expand
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="#expansion">
+Expands
+</a>
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+copied,
+expanded
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+expansion
+fails,
+an
+appropriate
+exception
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+thrown.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+perform
+the
+expansion
+upon
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+expand.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+context
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+An
+optional
+external
+context
+to
+use
+additionally
+to
+the
+context
+embedded
+in
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+when
+expanding
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+expansion
+algorithm
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-fromRDF-void-QuadArray-input-JsonLdCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+fromRDF
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Creates
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+given
+an
+set
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="quad" href="#idl-def-quad">
+<code>
+Quads
+</code>
+</a>.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+[]
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="dataset" href="#dfn-dataset">
+dataset
+</a>
+represented
+as
+an
+array
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="quad" href="#idl-def-quad">
+<code>
+Quads
+</code>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+processing
+is
+complete
+on
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+will
+affect
+the
+algorithm.
+This
+includes
+<code>
+notType
+</code>,
+which
+if
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true">
+true
+</a>
+causes
+the
+resulting
+document
+to
+use
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+as
+a
+property,
+instead
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-toRDF-void-object-or-object---or-URL-input-QuadCallback-callback-JsonLdOptions-options">
+<code>
+toRDF
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Processes
+the
+<code>
+input
+</code>
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm">
+Convert
+to
+RDF
+Algorithm
+</a>,
+calling
+the
+provided
+<code>
+callback
+</code>
+for
+each
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Quad" href="#idl-def-Quad">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+generated.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+input
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object[]
+or
+URL
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+or
+array
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+to
+convert
+to
+RDF
+or
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+referencing
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+convert
+to
+RDF.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+callback
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+QuadCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+when
+a
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Quad" href="#idl-def-Quad">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+created
+from
+processing
+the
+given
+<code>
+input
+</code>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+options
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptTrue">
+✔
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+affect
+the
+conversion
+to
+RDF
+such
+as,
+e.g.,
+the
+input
+document's
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="callbacks" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Callbacks
+</h3>
+<div id="jsonldcallback" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.1
+</span>
+JsonLdCallback
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+used
+to
+return
+a
+processed
+JSON-LD
+representation
+as
+the
+result
+of
+processing
+an
+API
+method.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdCallback</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdCallback-jsonLd-void-object-or-objectArray-jsonld">jsonLd</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object or object</a>[]</span> <span class="idlParamName">jsonld</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods-1" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.1.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h2>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-JsonLdCallback-jsonLd-void-object-or-objectArray-jsonld">
+<code>
+jsonLd
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+when
+processing
+is
+complete.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+jsonld
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a>
+object
+or
+object
+</a>
+[]
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+processed
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="quadcallback" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.2
+</span>
+QuadCallback
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-QuadCallback" class="idlType">
+<code>
+QuadCallback
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+called
+whenever
+the
+processor
+generates
+a
+quad
+during
+the
+<code>
+quad()
+</code>
+call.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-QuadCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">QuadCallback</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-QuadCallback-quad-void-Quad-quad">quad</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType"><code>Quad</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">quad</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="methods-2" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3.2.1
+</span>
+Methods
+</h2>
+<dl class="methods">
+<dt id="widl-QuadCallback-quad-void-Quad-quad">
+<code>
+quad
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+whenever
+a
+quad
+is
+generated
+by
+the
+processor.
+<table class="parameters">
+<tr>
+<th>
+Parameter
+</th>
+<th>
+Type
+</th>
+<th>
+Nullable
+</th>
+<th>
+Optional
+</th>
+<th>
+Description
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="prmName">
+quad
+</td>
+<td class="prmType">
+<code>
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+</code>
+</td>
+<td class="prmNullFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmOptFalse">
+✘
+</td>
+<td class="prmDesc">
+The
+quad.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<div>
+<em>
+Return
+type:
+</em>
+<code>
+<a>
+void
+</a>
+</code>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="data-structures" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Data
+Structures
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+section
+describes
+datatype
+definitions
+used
+within
+the
+JSON-LD
+API.
+</p>
+<div id="url" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.1
+</span>
+URL
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+datatype
+is
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<pre class="idl">
+<span class="idlTypedef" id="idl-def-URL">
+typedef
+<span class="idlTypedefType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>
+<span class="idlTypedefID">
+URL
+</span>
+;
+</span>
+</pre>
+<div class="idlTypedefDesc">
+This
+datatype
+indicates
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+a
+Universal
+Resource
+Locator
+identifying
+a
+document,
+which
+when
+parsed
+as
+JSON
+yields
+either
+a
+<code>
+JSON
+object
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+array
+</code>.
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="jsonldoptions" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.2
+</span>
+JsonLdOptions
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-JsonLdOptions" class="idlType">
+<code>
+JsonLdOptions
+</code>
+</a>
+type
+is
+used
+to
+convert
+a
+set
+of
+options
+to
+an
+interface
+method.
+</p>
+<pre class="idl">
+<span class="idlTypedef" id="idl-def-JsonLdOptions">
+typedef
+<span class="idlTypedefType">
+<a>
+object
+</a>
+</span>
+<span class="idlTypedefID">
+JsonLdOptions
+</span>
+;
+</span>
+</pre>
+<div class="idlTypedefDesc">
+<dt>
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+base
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+Base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+use
+when
+expanding
+the
+document.
+This
+overrides
+the
+value
+of
+<em>
+input
+</em>
+if
+it
+is
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-URL" class="idlType">
+<code>
+URL
+</code>
+</a>
+or
+if
+it
+is
+a
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+or
+<code>
+object[]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+boolean
+optimize
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+set
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+is
+allowed
+to
+optimize
+the
+output
+of
+the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+to
+produce
+even
+compacter
+representations.
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compaction
+optimization
+is
+beyond
+the
+scope
+of
+this
+specification
+and
+thus
+not
+defined.
+Consequently,
+different
+implementations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+implement
+different
+optimization
+algorithms.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+boolean
+noType
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+set
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+when
+generating
+the
+output,
+and
+will
+use
+the
+expanded
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+as
+the
+property
+instead
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</dd>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+following
+data
+structures
+are
+used
+for
+representing
+data
+about
+RDF
+quads.
+They
+are
+used
+for
+normalization,
+<a>
+fromRDF
+</a>,
+and
+from
+<a>
+toRDF
+</a>
+interfaces.
+</p>
+<div id="quad" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.3
+</span>
+Quad
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+interface
+represents
+an
+RDF
+Quad.
+See
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+definition
+for
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple">
+RDF
+triple
+</a>
+</cite>,
+which
+most
+closely
+aligns
+to
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Quad">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Quad</span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-subject">subject</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-predicate">predicate</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-object">object</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Quad-graphName">graphName</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.3.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h2>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Quad-graphName">
+<code>
+graphName
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+If
+present,
+the
+name
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>
+identifying
+it
+as
+a
+member
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="named_graph" href="#dfn-named_graph">
+named
+graph
+</a>.
+If
+it
+is
+missing,
+the
+quad
+is
+a
+member
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</a>.
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+4
+</span>
+</div>
+<div class="">
+This
+element
+is
+at
+risk,
+and
+may
+be
+removed.
+</div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-object">
+<code>
+object
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-predicate">
+<code>
+predicate
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+predicate
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+Within
+JSON-LD,
+an
+<dfn title="rdf_predicate" id="dfn-rdf_predicate">
+RDF
+predicate
+</dfn>
+is
+refered
+to
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Quad-subject">
+<code>
+subject
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#idl-def-Quad" class="idlType">
+<code>
+Quad
+</code>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="node" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.4
+</span>
+Node
+</h4>
+<p>
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Node" href="#idl-def-Node">
+<code>
+Node
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+the
+base
+class
+of
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</code>
+</a>,
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="BlankNode" href="#idl-def-BlankNode">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Literal" href="#idl-def-Literal">
+<code>
+Literal
+</code>
+</a>.
+It
+is
+the
+IDL
+representation
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Node">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Node</span> {
+};</span>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="iri" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.5
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</h4>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+that
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-IRI">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">IRI</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-IRI-value">value</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-1" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.5.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h2>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-IRI-value">
+<code>
+value
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+identifier
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+as
+a
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-UNICODE">
+UNICODE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+string.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="blank-node" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.6
+</span>
+<dfn title="blank_node" id="dfn-blank_node">
+Blank
+Node
+</dfn>
+</h4>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+that
+does
+not
+contain
+a
+de-reference-able
+identifier
+because
+it
+is
+either
+ephemeral
+in
+nature
+or
+does
+not
+contain
+information
+that
+needs
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+outside
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+A
+blank
+node
+is
+assigned
+an
+identifier
+starting
+with
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+_:
+</code>
+and
+an
+implementation
+dependent,
+auto-generated
+suffix
+that
+is
+unique
+to
+all
+information
+associated
+with
+the
+particular
+blank
+node.
+</p>
+    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-BlankNode">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">BlankNode</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-BlankNode-identifier">identifier</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-2" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.6.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h2>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-BlankNode-identifier">
+<code>
+identifier
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+temporary
+identifier
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+identifier
+</code>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+relied
+upon
+in
+any
+way
+between
+two
+separate
+processing
+runs
+of
+the
+same
+document
+or
+with
+a
+different
+document.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Developers
+and
+authors
+must
+not
+assume
+that
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>
+will
+remain
+the
+same
+between
+two
+processing
+runs.
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+values
+are
+only
+valid
+for
+the
+most
+recent
+processing
+run
+on
+the
+document.
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+values
+will
+often
+be
+generated
+differently
+by
+different
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Implementers
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+ensure
+that
+<a href="#idl-def-BlankNode" class="idlType">
+<code>
+BlankNode
+</code>
+</a>
+values
+are
+unique
+within
+the
+current
+environment,
+two
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="blanknode" href="#idl-def-blanknode">
+<code>
+BlankNodes
+</code>
+</a>
+are
+considered
+equal
+if,
+and
+only
+if,
+their
+values
+are
+strictly
+equal.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="literal" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.7
+</span>
+Literal
+</h4>
+<p>
+Literals
+represent
+values
+such
+as
+numbers,
+dates
+and
+strings
+in
+RDF
+data.
+A
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="Literal" href="#idl-def-Literal">
+<code>
+Literal
+</code>
+</a>
+is
+comprised
+of
+three
+attributes:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+<code>
+value
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+an
+optional
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+tag
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+specified
+by
+an
+<a class="datatype idlType" title="IRI" href="#idl-def-IRI">
+<code>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</code>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Literals
+representing
+plain
+text
+in
+a
+natural
+language
+may
+have
+a
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+tag
+specified
+by
+a
+string
+token,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+normalized
+to
+lowercase
+(e.g.,
+<code>
+'en'
+</code>,
+<code>
+'fr'
+</code>,
+<code>
+'en-gb'
+</code>
+).
+They
+also
+have
+a
+datatype
+attribute
+such
+as
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>.
+If
+unspecified,
+the
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+defaults
+to
+<code>
+xsd:string
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Literals
+representing
+values
+with
+a
+specific
+datatype,
+such
+as
+the
+integer
+72,
+may
+have
+a
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+attribute
+specified
+in
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+IRI
+</code>
+</a>
+(e.g.,
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+).
+</p>
+<p>
+See[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+definition
+for
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+</cite>.
+</p>
+      <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Literal">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Literal</span> : <span class="idlSuperclass"><a href="#idl-def-Node" class="idlType"><code>Node</code></a></span> {
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a></span>  <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-value">value</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-language">language</a></span>;</span>
+<span class="idlAttribute">    readonly attribute <span class="idlAttrType"><a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType"><code>IRI</code></a>?</span>       <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Literal-datatype">datatype</a></span>;</span>
+};</span>
+</pre>
+<div id="attributes-3" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4.7.1
+</span>
+Attributes
+</h2>
+<dl class="attributes">
+<dt id="widl-Literal-datatype">
+<code>
+datatype
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a href="#idl-def-IRI" class="idlType">
+<code>
+IRI
+</code>
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+optional
+datatype
+identified
+by
+a
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Literal-language">
+<code>
+language
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly,
+nullable
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+optional
+language
+tag
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+normalized
+to
+lowercase.
+</dd>
+<dt id="widl-Literal-value">
+<code>
+value
+</code>
+of
+type
+<span class="idlAttrType">
+<a>
+DOMString
+</a>
+</span>,
+readonly
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+Literal's
+value.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithms" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Algorithms
+</h2>
+<p>
+All
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section
+are
+intended
+to
+operate
+on
+language-native
+data
+structures.
+That
+is,
+the
+serialization
+to
+a
+text-based
+JSON
+document
+isn't
+required
+as
+input
+or
+output
+to
+any
+of
+these
+algorithms
+and
+language-native
+data
+structures
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+used
+where
+applicable.
+</p>
+<div id="algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="initial_context" id="dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+The
+contents
+of
+the
+initial
+context
+is
+defined
+in
+<a href="#appendix-a">
+Appendix
+A
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+The
+active
+property
+is
+represented
+in
+the
+original
+lexical
+form,
+which
+is
+used
+for
+finding
+coercion
+mappings
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+the
+context
+contained
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+has
+the
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+and
+is
+used
+as
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+without
+needing
+to
+define
+separate
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+definitions
+for
+each
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+contained
+within
+a
+common
+vocabulary
+identified
+by
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+specified
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>,
+which
+includes
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+is
+managed
+as
+a
+stack
+with
+elements
+from
+the
+previous
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+copied
+into
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+provided
+as
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-ld_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+produced
+as
+output
+by
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+term
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+defined
+in
+a
+context
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+expands
+to
+a
+vocabulary
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+It
+is
+typically
+used
+along
+with
+a
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+to
+form
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+create
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+within
+a
+vocabulary.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="language-tagged_literal" id="dfn-language-tagged_literal">
+language-tagged
+literal
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language-tagged_literal" href="#dfn-language-tagged_literal">
+language-tagged
+literal
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+without
+a
+datatype,
+including
+a
+language.
+See
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-language-tagged-literal">
+languaged-tagged
+literal
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">
+literal
+</a>
+with
+an
+associated
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+literal's
+datatype.
+See
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-typed-literal">
+languaged-tagged
+literal
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="context-processing" class="section">
+<h3 id="context">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Context
+Processing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Processing
+of
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+is
+managed
+recursively.
+During
+processing,
+each
+rule
+is
+applied
+using
+information
+provided
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Processing
+begins
+by
+pushing
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+stack
+and
+initializing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+encountered,
+information
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+merged
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+used
+for
+expanding
+properties
+and
+values
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+(or
+elements
+of
+an
+array)
+using
+a
+<dfn title="term_mapping" id="dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</dfn>.
+It
+is
+also
+used
+to
+maintain
+<dfn title="coercion_mapping" id="dfn-coercion_mapping">
+coercion
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+from
+terms
+to
+datatypes,
+<dfn title="language_mapping" id="dfn-language_mapping">
+language
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+from
+terms
+to
+language
+codes,
+and
+<dfn title="list_mapping" id="dfn-list_mapping">
+list
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+and
+<dfn title="set_mapping" id="dfn-set_mapping">
+set
+mapping
+</dfn>
+s
+for
+terms.
+Processors
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+use
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+the
+property
+when
+creating
+a
+mapping,
+as
+lookup
+is
+performed
+on
+lexical
+forms,
+not
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+representations.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+identified
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+having
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+value.
+When
+processing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+special
+processing
+rules
+apply:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+a
+new,
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Let
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+be
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="process-context">
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+equals
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+reset
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+element
+as
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+in
+order
+by
+starting
+at
+<a href="#process-context">
+Step
+2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Dereference
+<em>
+context
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+resulting
+document
+is
+a
+JSON
+document,
+extract
+the
+top-level
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+element
+using
+the
+JSON
+Pointer
+&quot;/@context&quot;
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER">
+JSON-POINTER
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Set
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+to
+the
+extracted
+content
+and
+process
+it
+by
+starting
+at
+<a href="#process-context">
+Step
+2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+Add
+the
+language
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li id="object-context">
+Otherwise,
+for
+each
+property
+in
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+property's
+value
+is
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+value
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+property
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>,
+unless
+the
+property
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>,
+in
+which
+case
+throw
+an
+exception.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+property's
+value
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+remove
+mapping,
+coercion,
+container
+and
+language
+information
+associated
+with
+property
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+'s
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+properties,
+throw
+an
+exception.
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+5
+</span>
+</div>
+<div class="">
+Undecided
+if
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+can
+take
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</div>
+</div>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+has
+the
+form
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+its
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+string
+value
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+has
+the
+form
+of
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+have
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+with
+a
+string
+value
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+absolute
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+merge
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_mapping" href="#dfn-term_mapping">
+term
+mapping
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+its
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Determine
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+by
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+If
+the
+result
+of
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+mapping
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+merge
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion_mapping" href="#dfn-coercion_mapping">
+coercion
+mapping
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+its
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_mapping" href="#dfn-list_mapping">
+list
+mapping
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="set_mapping" href="#dfn-set_mapping">
+set
+mapping
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+but
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language_mapping" href="#dfn-language_mapping">
+language
+mapping
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+lexical
+value
+of
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Repeat
+<a href="#object-context">
+Step
+2.4.2
+</a>
+until
+no
+entries
+are
+added
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+It
+can
+be
+difficult
+to
+distinguish
+between
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+and
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+may
+seem
+to
+be
+a
+valid
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>.
+When
+performing
+repeated
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion,
+a
+term
+used
+as
+a
+prefix
+may
+not
+have
+a
+valid
+mapping
+due
+to
+dependencies
+in
+resolving
+term
+definitions.
+By
+continuing
+<a href="#object-context">
+Step
+2.3.2
+</a>
+until
+no
+changes
+are
+made,
+mappings
+to
+IRIs
+created
+using
+an
+undefined
+term
+prefix
+will
+eventually
+resolve
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<span>
+Issue
+6
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/43">
+Issue
+43
+</a>
+concerns
+performing
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion
+in
+the
+key
+position
+of
+a
+context
+definition.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Keys
+and
+some
+values
+are
+evaluated
+to
+produce
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+a
+value
+representing
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+into
+an
+actual
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+fragment
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+;
+in
+the
+case
+of
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+the
+base
+location
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+for
+the
+value
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison,
+use
+the
+mapped
+value
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+split
+the
+value
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+from
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+':'.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+a
+'_'
+(underscore),
+the
+value
+represents
+a
+named
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node" href="#dfn-blank_node">
+blank
+node
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison,
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+does
+not
+does
+not
+begin
+with
+'//'
+(i.e.,
+it
+does
+not
+match
+a
+<em>
+hier-part
+</em>
+including
+<em>
+authority
+</em>
+(as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+generate
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+prefix
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+Note
+that
+an
+empty
+suffix
+and
+no
+suffix
+(meaning
+the
+value
+contains
+no
+':'
+string
+at
+all)
+are
+treated
+equivalently.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+use
+the
+value
+directly
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Previous
+versions
+of
+this
+specification
+used
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+define
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+prefixes
+used
+to
+resolve
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>.
+It
+was
+determined
+that
+this
+added
+too
+much
+complexity,
+but
+the
+issue
+can
+be
+re-examined
+in
+the
+future
+based
+on
+community
+input.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+keys
+and
+values
+are
+expressed
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+)
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+specified
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+using
+an
+optional
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+</p>
+<div id="iri-compaction-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.1
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+an
+empty
+list
+of
+terms
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+that
+will
+be
+populated
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+ranked
+according
+to
+how
+closely
+they
+match
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+Initialize
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+0
+</code>,
+and
+set
+a
+flag
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+false
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+For
+each
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+not
+a
+complete
+match
+against
+<em>
+iri
+</em>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+is
+<code>
+true
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+does
+not
+have
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+to
+the
+next
+<em>
+term
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Set
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+of
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+by
+passing
+passing
+<em>
+term
+</em>,
+<em>
+value
+</em>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a href="#term-rank-algorithm">
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+<code>
+0
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+then
+add
+<code>
+1
+</code>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+is
+<code>
+false
+</code>
+and
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
+container
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+then
+set
+<em>
+list
+container
+</em>
+to
+<code>
+true
+</code>,
+clear
+<em>
+terms
+</em>,
+set
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>,
+and
+add
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+or
+equal
+to
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+rank
+</em>
+is
+greater
+than
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>,
+clear
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+and
+set
+<em>
+highest
+rank
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+rank
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Add
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+to
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+is
+empty,
+add
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+representation
+of
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+for
+each
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+which
+maps
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+is
+a
+prefix
+for
+<em>
+iri
+</em>
+where
+the
+resulting
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+not
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+The
+resulting
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+partially
+matched
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+concatenated
+with
+a
+colon
+(:)
+character
+and
+the
+unmatched
+part
+of
+<em>
+iri
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+is
+empty,
+return
+<em>
+iri
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+return
+the
+shortest
+and
+lexicographically
+least
+value
+in
+<em>
+terms
+</em>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="term-rank-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4.2
+</span>
+Term
+Rank
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+When
+selecting
+among
+multiple
+possible
+terms
+for
+a
+given
+property,
+it
+may
+be
+that
+multiple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+are
+defined
+with
+the
+same
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+but
+differ
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+The
+purpose
+of
+this
+algorithm
+is
+to
+take
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+and
+a
+value
+and
+give
+it
+a
+<dfn title="term_rank" id="dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</dfn>.
+The
+selection
+can
+then
+be
+based,
+partly,
+on
+the
+term
+having
+the
+highest
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Given
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<em>
+term
+</em>,
+<em>
+value
+</em>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+determine
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+only
+the
+property
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+is
+an
+empty
+array,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+return
+the
+sum
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+s
+for
+every
+entry
+in
+the
+list.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_definition" href="#dfn-subject_definition">
+subject
+definition
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_reference" href="#dfn-subject_reference">
+subject
+reference
+</a>,
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+having
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+matching
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+for
+<em>
+term
+</em>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+and
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+not
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+it
+is
+<code>
+2
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+1
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+or
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+matching
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+for
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+(or
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+matches
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+),
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+and
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coerced
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+3
+</code>,
+otherwise
+if
+<em>
+term
+</em>
+has
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+and
+no
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>
+is
+<code>
+1
+</code>,
+otherwise
+<code>
+0
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Return
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term_rank" href="#dfn-term_rank">
+term
+rank
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="value-expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+compact
+form.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+expanded
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+expanding
+a
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+takes
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+It
+is
+implemented
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+already
+expanded.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+the
+target
+of
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion,
+expand
+the
+value
+into
+an
+object
+with
+a
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+not
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>,
+then
+expand
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+into
+an
+object:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Set
+the
+first
+key-value
+pair
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+unexpanded
+<em>
+value
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+the
+target
+of
+typed
+literal
+coercion,
+set
+the
+second
+key-value
+pair
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+associated
+coercion
+datatype
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+the
+target
+of
+language
+tagging,
+set
+the
+second
+key-value
+pair
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+value
+of
+the
+language
+tagging
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+already
+expanded.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="value-compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values,
+such
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literals
+</a>,
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+an
+expanded
+form
+in
+JSON-LD.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+compacted
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compacting
+an
+expanded
+value
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+takes
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+It
+is
+implemented
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+only
+has
+one
+property
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+has
+no
+default
+language,
+then
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+coercion
+target
+for
+the
+key
+that
+matches
+the
+expression
+of
+the
+value,
+compact
+the
+value
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+which
+matches
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+of
+the
+value,
+or
+the
+value
+has
+only
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+value
+contains
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+value
+is
+not
+modified.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion-1" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+all
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+datatypes,
+and
+literal
+values
+are
+expanded
+so
+that
+the
+context
+is
+no
+longer
+necessary.
+JSON-LD
+document
+expansion
+is
+typically
+used
+as
+a
+part
+of
+other
+JSON-LD
+API
+methods.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 13</span></div><pre class="example">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: {
+        &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+        &quot;@type&quot;, &quot;@id&quot;
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Expansion
+algorithm
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 14</span></div><pre class="example">{
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+4.7.1
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+takes
+three
+input
+variables:
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>,
+and
+an
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+to
+be
+expanded.
+To
+begin,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+set
+to
+the
+result
+of
+performing,
+<a href="#context-processing">
+Context
+Processing
+</a>
+on
+the
+passed
+<em>
+context
+</em>,
+or
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>
+if
+<em>
+context
+</em>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+is
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+and
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+set
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>.
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+process
+each
+entry
+in
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm,
+passing
+copies
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>.
+If
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+set
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+any
+entry
+in
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+or
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+throw
+an
+exception,
+as
+lists
+of
+lists
+are
+not
+allowed.
+If
+the
+expanded
+entry
+is
+null,
+drop
+it.
+If
+it's
+an
+array,
+merge
+its
+entries
+with
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+'s
+entries.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+is
+an
+object
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+update
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+<a href="#context-processing">
+Context
+Processing
+</a>
+and
+remove
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property.
+</li>
+<li>
+Then,
+proceed
+and
+process
+each
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+in
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+as
+follows:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Remove
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+from
+<em>
+element
+</em>,
+expand
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>.
+Set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+to
+the
+original
+un-expanded
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+if
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+not
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+does
+not
+expand
+to
+a
+keyword
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(i.e.,
+it
+doesn't
+contain
+a
+colon),
+continue
+with
+the
+next
+property
+from
+<em>
+element
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+and
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+not
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+continue
+with
+the
+next
+property
+from
+<em>
+element
+</em>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+Expand
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+according
+to
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+expand
+according
+to
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_reference" href="#dfn-subject_reference">
+subject
+reference
+</a>,
+the
+expanded
+value
+is
+the
+result
+of
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+Object
+</a>,
+it
+must
+be
+empty
+(used
+for
+<cite>
+<a href="../json-ld-framing/#framing">
+Framing
+</a>
+</cite>
+).
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+all
+elements
+must
+be
+either
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject_reference" href="#dfn-subject_reference">
+subject
+reference
+</a>.
+Expand
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+for
+each
+of
+its
+entries
+using
+the
+previous
+three
+steps.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+the
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+expand
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm,
+passing
+copies
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+<em>
+active
+property
+</em>.
+If
+the
+expanded
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+not
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+convert
+it
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>.
+If
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+any
+entry
+in
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+throw
+an
+exception,
+as
+lists
+of
+lists
+are
+not
+supported.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+expand
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm,
+passing
+copies
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+not
+a
+keyword
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+expanded
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+not
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+convert
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+whose
+value
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+(unless
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+already
+in
+that
+form).
+</li>
+<li>
+Convert
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+form
+unless
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+or
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+is
+not
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+either
+merge
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+into
+an
+existing
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+property
+of
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+or
+create
+a
+new
+<em>
+property
+</em>
+property
+with
+<em>
+value
+</em>
+as
+value.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+processed
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+has
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+have
+more
+than
+one
+other
+property,
+which
+can
+either
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value.
+</li>
+<li>
+if
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+equals
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>,
+replace
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+if
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+has
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+and
+its
+value
+is
+not
+in
+the
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+convert
+it
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+has
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+the
+only
+property.
+Set
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+to
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+;
+leave
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+untouched.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+has
+just
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property,
+set
+<em>
+element
+</em>
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+expand