Added Editors Draft for 2011-08-17.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Wed, 17 Aug 2011 12:10:35 -0400
changeset 162 a684d8ca4198
parent 161 95dcbac55003
child 163 1225b1390584
Added Editors Draft for 2011-08-17.
spec/ED/20110817/diff-20110808.html
spec/ED/20110817/index.html
spec/ED/20110817/spec.css
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/20110817/diff-20110808.html	Wed Aug 17 12:10:35 2011 -0400
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[email protected] screen {
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+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body style="display: inherit; ">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+Context-based
+JSON
+Serialization
+for
+Linking
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 id="unofficial-draft-17-august-2011">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">08
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">17
+</ins>
+August
+2011
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+<ins class="diff-new">Dave
+Longley
+</ins></a>,<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/"><ins class="diff-new">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</ins></a></dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Mark
+Birbeck
+</a>,
+<a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20110808.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linking-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Linking
+Data
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#inside-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4.1
+</span>
+Inside
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.5
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#strings" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Strings
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#datatypes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Datatypes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.8
+</span>
+Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.9
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.10
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.11
+</span>
+Framing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#curies" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">CURIEs
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.2
+</ins></span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#chaining" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Chaining
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overriding-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Overriding
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-application-programming-interface" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#jsonldprocessor" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessor
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.1.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#jsonldprocessorcallback" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.2.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#jsonldtriplecallback" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDTripleCallback
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods-2" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.3.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.
+</ins></span>
+Algorithms
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Context
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#coerce" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Coerce
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#initial-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Initial
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRI
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.8.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.9.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-state" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.11.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Normalization
+State
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+<ins class="diff-new">Relabeling
+Algorithm
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#deterministic-labeling-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.11.5
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Deterministic
+</ins>
+Labeling
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#shallow-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Shallow
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#object-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Object
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Deep
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#serialization-label-generation-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.11.10
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Serialization
+Label
+Generation
+Algorithm
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#combinatorial-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Combinatorial
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.12
+</ins>
+</span>
+Mapping
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#label-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.11.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11.13
+</ins>
+</span>
+Label
+<del class="diff-old">Generation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Serialization
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.12
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.12
+</ins>
+</span>
+Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.13
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.13
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.13.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.13.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Overview
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.13.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.13.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.13.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.13.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#experimental-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Experimental
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#disjoint-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Disjoint
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Lists
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.2.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.2.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.2.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.2.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.2.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.2.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDF
+Conversion
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Markup
+Examples
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.3
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.4
+</span>
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.5
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+Linked
+Data
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+describing
+content
+across
+different
+documents
+or
+Web
+sites.
+Web
+resources
+are
+described
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+s,
+and
+typically
+are
+dereferencable
+entities
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information,
+creating
+a
+"Web
+of
+Knowledge".
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+not
+only
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+but
+for
+adding
+semantics
+to
+existing
+JSON.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+light-weight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+interoperable
+Web
+Services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+existing
+code
+that
+is
+in
+use
+today.
+It
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+key-value
+pairs,
+RDF
+data,
+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+data,
+Microformats
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">
+MICROFORMATS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+data,
+and
+Microdata
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">
+MICRODATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+That
+is,
+it
+supports
+every
+major
+Web-based
+structured
+data
+model
+in
+use
+today.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+does
+not
+require
+many
+applications
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+adding
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+either
+in-band
+or
+out-of-band.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+migration
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON
+with
+added
+semantics.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+fast
+to
+parse,
+fast
+to
+generate,
+stream-based
+and
+document-based
+processing
+compatible,
+and
+require
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+JSON
+for
+Linked
+data.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Web
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Microformats,
+RDFa,
+or
+Microdata
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262">
+ECMA-262
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL">
+WEBIDL
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+how
+JSON-LD
+maps
+to
+RDF,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+be
+familiar
+with
+the
+basic
+RDF
+concepts
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+Examples
+may
+contain
+references
+to
+existing
+vocabularies
+and
+use
+abbreviations
+in
+<del class="diff-old">CURIEs
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="CURIE" href="#dfn-curie">
+<ins class="diff-chg">CURIE
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+and
+source
+code.
+The
+following
+is
+a
+list
+of
+all
+vocabularies
+and
+their
+abbreviations,
+as
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
+Dublin
+Core
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+dc
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+dc:title
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">
+Friend
+of
+a
+Friend
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+foaf:knows
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
+RDF
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+rdf
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+rdf:type
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">
+XSD
+</a>
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>,
+e.g.,
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+)
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC4627
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+defines
+several
+terms
+which
+are
+used
+throughout
+this
+document:
+</ins></p><dl><dt><dfn title="JSON_Object" id="dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+Object
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name/value
+pairs
+(or
+members).
+A
+name
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+unique.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="array" id="dfn-array"><ins class="diff-new">
+array
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+array
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+an
+ordered
+collection
+of
+values.
+An
+array
+begins
+with
+[
+(left
+bracket)
+and
+ends
+with
+]
+(right
+bracket).
+Values
+are
+separated
+by
+,
+(comma).
+Within
+JSON-LD,
+array
+order
+is
+not
+preserved,
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+</ins><a href="#lists"><ins class="diff-new">
+Lists
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+).
+This
+is
+because
+the
+basic
+data
+model
+of
+JSON-LD
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+which
+is
+inherently
+unordered.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="string" id="dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes.
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+A
+string
+is
+very
+much
+like
+a
+C
+or
+Java
+string.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="number" id="dfn-number"><ins class="diff-new">
+number
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+number
+is
+very
+much
+like
+a
+C
+or
+Java
+number,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="true" id="dfn-true"><ins class="diff-new">
+true
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+</ins><dfn title="false" id="dfn-false"><ins class="diff-new">
+false
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Boolean
+values.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="null" id="dfn-null"><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+use
+of
+the
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+is
+undefined
+within
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></dd></dl><p></p>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Technical
+discussion
+typically
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+on
+the
+second
+and
+fourth
+week
+of
+each
+month.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="design" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+following
+section
+outlines
+the
+design
+goals
+and
+rationale
+behind
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+language.
+</p>
+<div id="goals-and-rationale" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+considerations
+were
+explored
+during
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Developers
+need
+only
+know
+JSON
+and
+three
+keywords
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+are
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+attempts
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+an
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+must
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+must
+be
+able
+to
+express
+directed
+graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+simply
+express
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Pragmatism
+Mixing
+the
+expression
+of
+pure
+Linked
+Data
+with
+data
+that
+is
+not
+linked
+was
+an
+approach
+that
+was
+driven
+by
+pragmatism.
+JSON-LD
+attempts
+to
+be
+more
+practical
+than
+theoretical
+in
+its
+approach
+to
+Linked
+Data.
+</del>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+provides
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+developers
+to
+specify
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+At
+times,
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+can
+become
+difficult.
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+having
+JSON-LD
+support
+esoteric
+markup,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+Zero
+Edits
+was
+a
+goal,
+it
+was
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Streaming
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+format
+supports
+both
+document-based
+and
+stream-based
+processing.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="linked-data" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Linked
+Data
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+following
+definition
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+is
+the
+one
+that
+will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<dfn title="Linked_Data" id="dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</dfn>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+unordered
+</ins>
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">
+subject
+</dfn>
+is
+any
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins>
+IRI.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+edge
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">must
+</del>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+<ins class="diff-chg">should
+</ins>
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+IRI.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+IRI.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+that
+is
+a
+label
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+dereferencable
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+document
+describing
+the
+labeled
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">
+literal
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+IRI
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+the
+definition
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+above
+is
+silent
+on
+the
+topic
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes.
+Unlabeled
+nodes
+are
+not
+considered
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+However,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+of
+unlabled
+nodes,
+as
+most
+graph-based
+data
+sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+associated
+nodes
+that
+are
+not
+named
+and
+thus
+are
+not
+directly
+de-referenceable.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="linking-data" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+Linking
+Data
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+(
+<dfn title="IRI" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+),
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+mechanism
+for
+representing
+unique
+identifiers
+on
+the
+web.
+In
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+an
+IRI
+is
+commonly
+used
+for
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+defines
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+values
+to
+IRIs.
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+JSON-LD
+requires
+every
+key
+or
+value
+to
+be
+an
+IRI,
+but
+rather
+ensures
+that
+keys
+and
+values
+can
+be
+mapped
+to
+IRIs
+if
+the
+developer
+so
+desires
+to
+transform
+their
+data
+into
+Linked
+Data.
+There
+are
+a
+few
+techniques
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+Linked
+Data
+for
+the
+Web.
+JSON-LD
+formalizes
+those
+techniques.
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+will
+be
+using
+the
+following
+JSON
+markup
+as
+the
+example
+for
+the
+rest
+of
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="the-context" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+context
+is
+used
+to
+allow
+developers
+to
+map
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+s.
+A
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+term
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>.
+The
+semantic
+web,
+just
+like
+the
+document-based
+web,
+uses
+IRIs
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+that
+these
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+mean
+something
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers.
+For
+example,
+the
+term
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+constructed
+using
+the
+common
+JSON
+practice
+of
+simple
+name/value
+pairs
+while
+ensuring
+that
+the
+data
+is
+useful
+outside
+of
+the
+database
+or
+page
+in
+which
+it
+resides.
+</p>
+<p>
+These
+Linked
+Data
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+are
+typically
+collected
+in
+a
+context
+and
+then
+used
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+line
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup
+above:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  <span class="diff">"@context": "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person",</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+addition
+above
+transforms
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+specifies
+how
+the
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+avatar
+</strong>
+terms
+map
+to
+IRIs.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+the
+data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+the
+same
+IRI
+to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+more
+than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+This
+allows
+both
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+others
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+inter-operate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+semantic
+web
+uses
+a
+special
+type
+of
+document
+called
+a
+<em>
+Web
+Vocabulary
+</em>
+to
+define
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s.
+A
+context
+is
+a
+type
+of
+Web
+vocabulary.
+Typically,
+these
+Web
+Vocabulary
+documents
+have
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+associated
+with
+them
+and
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+declarations.
+A
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>,
+like
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+expands
+to
+a
+Web
+Vocabulary
+IRI.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+Prefix
+</a>
+es
+are
+helpful
+when
+a
+developer
+wants
+to
+mix
+multiple
+vocabularies
+together
+in
+a
+context,
+but
+does
+not
+want
+to
+go
+to
+the
+trouble
+of
+defining
+every
+single
+term
+in
+every
+single
+vocabulary.
+Some
+Web
+Vocabularies
+may
+have
+10-20
+terms
+defined.
+If
+a
+developer
+wants
+to
+use
+3-4
+different
+vocabularies,
+the
+number
+of
+terms
+that
+would
+have
+to
+be
+declared
+in
+a
+single
+context
+would
+become
+quite
+large.
+To
+reduce
+the
+number
+of
+different
+terms
+that
+must
+be
+defined,
+JSON-LD
+also
+allows
+prefixes
+to
+be
+used
+to
+compact
+IRIs.
+</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>
+specifies
+a
+Web
+Vocabulary
+which
+may
+be
+represented
+using
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+Web
+Vocabulary
+contains
+a
+term
+called
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>.
+If
+you
+join
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+with
+the
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>
+suffix,
+you
+can
+build
+a
+compact
+IRI
+that
+will
+expand
+out
+into
+an
+absolute
+IRI
+for
+the
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+vocabulary
+term.
+That
+is,
+the
+compact
+IRI,
+or
+short-form,
+is
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+and
+the
+expanded-form
+is
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+vocabulary
+term
+is
+used
+to
+specify
+a
+person's
+name.
+</p>
+<p>
+Developers,
+and
+machines,
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+IRI
+(plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+Much
+like
+we
+can
+use
+WordNet
+today
+to
+see
+the
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">
+definition
+</a>
+of
+words
+in
+the
+English
+language.
+Developers
+and
+machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+dictionary
+of
+terms.
+IRIs
+provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+are
+unambiguous.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+context
+provides
+a
+collection
+of
+vocabulary
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+expand
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+into
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<div id="inside-a-context" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.4.1
+</span>
+Inside
+a
+Context
+</h4>
+<p>
+In
+the
+previous
+section,
+the
+developer
+used
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+pull
+in
+an
+external
+context.
+That
+context
+document,
+if
+de-referenced,
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+    "avatar": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar"
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+context
+document
+is
+a
+simple
+mapping
+from
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+to
+expanded
+values
+such
+as
+IRIs
+or
+keywords.
+Contexts
+may
+also
+contain
+datatype
+information
+for
+certain
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+as
+well
+as
+other
+processing
+instructions
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+</p>
+<p>
+Contexts
+may
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+This
+ensures
+that
+JSON-LD
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+when
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+does
+not
+have
+access
+to
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+strives
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+don't
+have
+to
+change
+the
+JSON
+that
+is
+going
+into
+and
+being
+returned
+from
+their
+Web
+applications.
+This
+means
+that
+developers
+can
+also
+specify
+a
+context
+for
+JSON
+data
+in
+an
+out-of-band
+fashion
+via
+the
+API.
+The
+API
+is
+described
+later
+in
+this
+document.
+A
+JSON-LD
+aware
+Web
+Service
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+define
+a
+context
+that
+will
+be
+pre-loaded
+for
+all
+calls
+to
+the
+service.
+This
+allows
+services
+that
+have
+previously
+been
+publishing
+and
+receiving
+JSON
+data
+to
+accept
+JSON-LD
+data
+without
+requiring
+client
+software
+to
+change.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="from-json-to-json-ld" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.5
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</h3>
+<p>
+If
+a
+set
+of
+terms
+such
+as,
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+avatar
+</strong>,
+are
+defined
+in
+a
+context,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+JSON
+objects,
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+automatically
+expand
+the
+terms
+to
+something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org"
+  "<span class="diff">http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#avatar</span>": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+that
+use
+JSON
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="basic-concepts" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+Linked
+Data
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+author
+by
+Web
+developers.
+In
+many
+cases,
+regular
+JSON
+markup
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+context.
+As
+more
+JSON-LD
+features
+are
+used,
+more
+semantics
+are
+added
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup.
+</p>
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expressing
+IRIs
+are
+fundamental
+to
+Linked
+Data
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s
+and
+many
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+are
+named.
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+In
+general,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+to
+an
+IRI
+or
+another
+key
+in
+the
+context
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+IRI
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+There
+are
+special
+rules
+for
+processing
+keys
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+when
+dealing
+with
+keys
+that
+start
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+character.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+if
+it
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">string.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+value
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+when
+there
+are
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+rules
+in
+effect
+for
+a
+key
+named
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+IRI,
+as
+opposed
+to
+being
+interpreted
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">string..
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Term
+expansion
+occurs
+for
+IRIs
+if
+a
+term
+is
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">@context</span>": {"<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>"},
+...
+  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+Prefix
+</a>
+es
+are
+expanded
+when
+used
+in
+keys:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">  ""},
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">@context</span>": {"<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>"},
+</ins>
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "": "Manu Sporny",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">foaf:name
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">name
+</ins>
+</code>
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+value
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+key
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:homepage": { "": "http://manu.sporny.org" }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": { "<span class="diff">@iri</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org" }
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+If
+type
+coercion
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+vocabulary
+term,
+an
+IRI
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{<span class="diff">
+  "@context": 
+  {
+    ...
+    "@coerce": 
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      "@iri": "foaf:homepage"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@iri": "homepage"
+</ins>
+    }
+  }</span>
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Even
+though
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">string,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></a>,
+the
+type
+coercion
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+IRI
+when
+processed
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+Processor
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRI
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+Linked
+Data,
+and
+nodes
+should
+have
+a
+de-referencable
+identifier
+used
+to
+name
+and
+locate
+them.
+For
+nodes
+to
+be
+truely
+linked,
+de-referencing
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+node.
+Associating
+an
+IRI
+with
+a
+node
+tells
+an
+application
+that
+the
+returned
+document
+contains
+a
+description
+of
+of
+the
+identifier
+requested.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+may
+also
+contain
+descriptions
+of
+other
+nodes,
+so
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+each
+node
+which
+may
+be
+externally
+referenced.
+</ins></p><p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+a
+node
+</ins>
+is
+declared
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+subject
+is
+the
+first
+piece
+of
+information
+needed
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+in
+order
+to
+create
+the
+(subject,
+property,
+object)
+tuple,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+triple.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "<span class="diff">@subject</span>": "<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+subject
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+Specifying
+the
+type
+in
+this
+way
+will
+generate
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form
+(subject,
+type,
+<del class="diff-old">type-url).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">type-uri).
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+To
+be
+Linked
+Data,
+types
+should
+be
+uniquely
+identified
+by
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triple
+if
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+mapped
+to
+RDF
+(in
+N-Triples
+notation):
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="strings" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Strings
+</h3>
+<p>
+Regular
+text
+strings,
+also
+<del class="diff-old">refered
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">referred
+</ins>
+to
+as
+<dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</dfn>
+s,
+are
+easily
+expressed
+using
+regular
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">strings.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:name": "",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="string-internationalization" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+makes
+an
+assumption
+that
+strings
+with
+associated
+language
+encoding
+information
+are
+not
+very
+common
+when
+used
+in
+JavaScript
+and
+Web
+Services.
+Thus,
+it
+takes
+a
+little
+more
+effort
+to
+express
+strings
+with
+associated
+language
+information.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:name": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": <span class="diff">
+</ins>
+  {
+    "@literal": "花澄",
+    "@language": "ja"
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</a>
+for
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+code
+with
+the
+triple
+that
+is
+generated.
+Languages
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+expressed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+format.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="datatypes" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Datatypes
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+datatype,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</dfn>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+literal
+with
+an
+IRI
+which
+indicates
+the
+typed
+literal's
+datatype.
+Typed
+literals
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+datatype.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+express
+a
+typed
+literal:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{<span class="diff">
+  "@context": 
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    "dc":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "modified":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified",
+    "dateTime": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+</ins>
+    "@coerce": 
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      "xsd:dateTime": "dc:modified"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "dateTime": "modified"
+</ins>
+    }
+  }</span>
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "dc:modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "dc:modified": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "modified": <span class="diff">
+</ins>
+  {
+    "@literal": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+<del class="diff-old">    "@datatype": "xsd:dateTime"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@datatype": "dateTime"
+</ins>
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+an
+object
+with
+the
+literal
+value
+of
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+and
+the
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+third
+example
+uses
+a
+built-in
+native
+JSON
+type,
+a
+<del class="diff-old">number,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+<ins class="diff-chg">number
+</ins></a>,
+to
+express
+a
+datatype:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:age": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "age": <span class="diff">31</span>
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triple:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt; 
+"31"^^&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+express
+multiple
+triples
+in
+a
+compact
+way
+by
+using
+<del class="diff-old">arrays.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+If
+a
+subject
+has
+multiple
+values
+for
+the
+same
+property,
+the
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+express
+each
+property
+as
+an
+<del class="diff-old">array.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+In
+JSON-LD,
+Multiple
+objects
+on
+a
+property
+are
+not
+ordered.
+This
+is
+because
+typically
+graphs
+are
+not
+inherently
+ordered
+data
+structures.
+To
+see
+more
+on
+creating
+ordered
+collections
+in
+JSON-LD,
+see
+<a href="#lists">
+Lists
+</a>.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:nick": ,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "nick": <span class="diff">["joe", "bob", "jaybee"]</span>,
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "joe" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "bob" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+"jaybee"
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.8
+</span>
+Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+Multiple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+s
+may
+also
+be
+expressed
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+objects:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/articles/8",
+<del class="diff-old">  "dcterms:modified": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "modified": <span class="diff">
+</ins>
+  [
+    {
+      "@literal": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+<del class="diff-old">      "@datatype": "xsd:dateTime"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@datatype": "dateTime"
+</ins>
+    },
+    {
+      "@literal": "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00",
+<del class="diff-old">      "@datatype": "xsd:dateTime"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@datatype": "dateTime"
+</ins>
+    }
+  ]</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+"2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.9
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+all
+IRI,
+datatypes,
+and
+literal
+values
+are
+expanded
+so
+that
+the
+context
+is
+no
+longer
+necessary.
+JSON-LD
+document
+expansion
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+re-mapping
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+application-specific
+JSON
+documents
+or
+as
+a
+part
+of
+the
+<a href="#normalization">
+Normalization
+</a>
+process.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": "homepage"
+      }
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Expansion
+algorithm
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": 
+   {
+      "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.10
+</span>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Compaction
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+the
+most
+compact
+form
+of
+the
+document
+is
+generated.
+JSON
+is
+typically
+expressed
+in
+a
+very
+compact,
+key-value
+format.
+That
+is,
+full
+IRIs
+are
+rarely
+used
+as
+keys.
+At
+times,
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+may
+be
+received
+that
+is
+not
+in
+its
+most
+compact
+form.
+JSON-LD,
+via
+the
+API,
+provides
+a
+way
+to
+compact
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": 
+   {
+      "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Additionally,
+assume
+the
+following
+developer-supplied
+JSON-LD
+context:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+   "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+   "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+   "@coerce": 
+   {
+      "@iri": ["homepage"]
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Compaction
+algorithm
+given
+the
+context
+supplied
+above
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": "homepage"
+      }
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+compaction
+algorithm
+also
+enables
+the
+developer
+to
+map
+any
+expanded
+format
+into
+an
+application-specific
+compacted
+format.
+While
+the
+context
+provided
+above
+mapped
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+to
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+it
+could
+have
+also
+mapped
+it
+to
+any
+arbitrary
+string
+provided
+by
+the
+developer.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="framing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.11
+</span>
+Framing
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+directed
+graph.
+A
+single
+directed
+graph
+can
+have
+many
+different
+serializations,
+each
+expressing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information.
+Developers
+typically
+work
+with
+trees,
+<del class="diff-old">also
+called
+associative
+arrays,
+when
+dealing
+with
+JSON.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">represented
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+While
+mapping
+a
+graph
+to
+a
+tree
+can
+be
+done,
+the
+layout
+of
+the
+end
+result
+must
+be
+specified
+in
+advance.
+A
+<dfn title="Frame" id="dfn-frame">
+Frame
+</dfn>
+can
+be
+used
+by
+a
+developer
+on
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+specify
+a
+deterministic
+layout
+for
+a
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+Framing
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+which
+expresses
+a
+graph
+of
+information,
+and
+applying
+a
+specific
+graph
+layout
+(called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+Frame
+</a>
+).
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+document
+below
+expresses
+a
+library,
+a
+book
+and
+a
+chapter:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">   "@coerce": {
+    "dc":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "ex":  "http://example.org/"
+   },
+   "@subject": 
+   [{
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+      "@type": "ex:Library",
+      "ex:contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic"
+   }, 
+   {
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+      "@type": "ex:Book",
+      "dc:creator": "Plato",
+      "dc:title": "The Republic",
+      "ex:contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction"
+   }, 
+   {
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+      "@type": "ex:Chapter",
+      "dc:description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+      "dc:title": "The Introduction"
+   }],
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": "ex:contains"
+      },
+      "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",
+      "ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"
+   }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@coerce": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title",
+    "@coerce": 
+    {
+      "@iri": "ex:contains"
+    },
+  },
+  "@subject": 
+  [{
+    "@subject": "http://example.com/library",
+    "@type": "Library",
+    "contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic"
+  }, 
+  {
+    "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+    "@type": "Book",
+    "creator": "Plato",
+    "title": "The Republic",
+    "contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction"
+  }, 
+  {
+    "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+    "@type": "Chapter",
+    "description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+    "title": "The Introduction"
+  }]
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Developers
+typically
+like
+to
+operate
+on
+items
+in
+a
+hierarchical,
+tree-based
+fashion.
+Ideally,
+a
+developer
+would
+want
+the
+data
+above
+sorted
+into
+top-level
+libraries,
+then
+the
+books
+that
+are
+contained
+in
+each
+library,
+and
+then
+the
+chapters
+contained
+in
+each
+book.
+To
+achieve
+that
+layout,
+the
+developer
+can
+define
+the
+following
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+frame
+</a>:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">   "@context": {
+      "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",
+      "ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"
+   },
+   "@type": "ex:Library",
+   "ex:contains": {
+      "@type": "ex:Book",
+      "ex:contains": {
+         "@type": "ex:Chapter"
+      }
+   }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@type": "Library",
+  "contains": {
+    "@type": "Book",
+    "contains": {
+      "@type": "Chapter"
+    }
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+When
+the
+framing
+algorithm
+is
+run
+against
+the
+previously
+defined
+JSON-LD
+document,
+paired
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+frame
+</a>
+above,
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+the
+end
+result:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">   "@context": 
+   {
+      "ex": "http://example.org/vocab#",
+      "dc":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+   }
+   "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+   "@type": "ex:Library",
+   "ex:contains": 
+   {
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+      "@type": "ex:Book",
+      "dc:creator": "Plato",
+      "dc:title": "The Republic",
+      "ex:contains": 
+      {
+         "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+         "@type": "ex:Chapter",
+         "dc:description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+         "dc:title": "The Introduction"
+      },
+   },
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+  "@type": "Library",
+  "contains": {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@type": "Book",
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"creator": "Plato",</span>    <span class="diff">"title": "The Republic",</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+    "contains": {
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@type": "Chapter",
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",</span>      <span class="diff">"title": "The Introduction"</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+    },
+  },
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+framing
+algorithm
+allows
+developers
+to
+query
+by
+example
+and
+force
+a
+specific
+tree
+layout
+to
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="advanced-concepts" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+sections
+outline
+the
+features
+that
+are
+specific
+to
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<div id="curies" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">CURIEs
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Concepts
+in
+Linked
+Data
+documents
+may
+draw
+on
+a
+number
+of
+different
+vocabularies.
+The
[email protected]
+mechanism
+is
+useful
+to
+easily
+associate
+types
+and
+properties
+with
+a
+specific
+vocabulary,
+but
+when
+many
+vocabularies
+are
+used,
+this
+becomes
+difficult.
+Consider
+the
+following
+example:
+</ins></p>  <pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+  "@context": {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",</span>    <span class="diff">"ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"</span><ins class="diff-new">
+  },
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+  "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Library"</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"ex:contains"</span>: {<ins class="diff-new">
+    "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+    "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Book"</span>,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"dc:creator"</span>: "Plato",    <span class="diff">"dc:title"</span>: "The Republic",    <span class="diff">"ex:contains"</span>: {<ins class="diff-new">
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+      "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Chapter"</span>,
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"dc:description"</span>: "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",      <span class="diff">"dc:title"</span>: "The Introduction"<ins class="diff-new">
+    },
+  },
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+In
+this
+example,
+two
+different
+vocabularies
+are
+identified
+with
+prefixes,
+and
+used
+as
+type
+and
+property
+values
+using
+the
+CURIE
+notation.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="CURIE" id="dfn-curie"><ins class="diff-new">
+CURIE
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+compact
+way
+of
+describing
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+term
+actually
+comes
+from
+Compact
+URI.
+Generally,
+a
+CURIE
+is
+composed
+of
+a
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+a
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+suffix
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+separated
+by
+a
+':'.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+the
+prefix
+may
+be
+the
+empty
+string,
+denoting
+the
+</ins><dfn title="default_prefix" id="dfn-default_prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+default
+prefix
+</ins></dfn>.</p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+CURIEs
+are
+defined
+more
+formally
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDFA-CORE
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+</ins><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6
+"CURIE
+Syntax
+Definition"
+</ins></a></cite>.</p></div><div id="automatic-typing" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.2
+</ins></span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Since
+JSON
+is
+capable
+of
+expressing
+typed
+information
+such
+as
+doubles,
+integers,
+and
+boolean
+values.
+As
+demonstrated
+below,
+JSON-LD
+utilizes
+that
+information
+to
+create
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  // The following two values are automatically converted to a type of xsd:double
+  // and both values are equivalent to each other.
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3e0</span>,
+  // The following value is automatically converted to a type of xsd:double as well
+  "space:astronomicUnits": <span class="diff">6.5e73</span>,
+  // The following value should never be converted to a language-native type
+  "measure:stones": <span class="diff">{ "@literal": "4.8", "@datatype": "xsd:decimal" }</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  "chem:protons": <span class="diff">12</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  "sensor:active": <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+When
+dealing
+with
+a
+number
+of
+modern
+programming
+languages,
+including
+JavaScript
+ECMA-262,
+there
+is
+no
+distinction
+between
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+values.
+That
+is,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>
+<code>
+5.3
+</code>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>
+<code>
+5.3e0
+</code>
+are
+treated
+as
+if
+they
+were
+the
+same.
+When
+converting
+from
+JSON-LD
+to
+a
+language-native
+format
+and
+back,
+datatype
+information
+is
+lost
+in
+a
+number
+of
+these
+languages.
+Thus,
+one
+could
+say
+that
+<code>
+5.3
+</code>
+is
+a
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<code>
+5.3e0
+</code>
+is
+an
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+in
+JSON-LD,
+but
+when
+both
+values
+are
+converted
+to
+a
+language-native
+format
+the
+datatype
+difference
+between
+the
+two
+is
+lost
+because
+the
+machine-level
+representation
+will
+almost
+always
+be
+a
+<strong>
+double
+</strong>.
+Implementers
+should
+be
+aware
+of
+this
+potential
+round-tripping
+issue
+between
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>.
+Specifically
+objects
+with
+a
+datatype
+of
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+converted
+to
+a
+language
+native
+type.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="type-coercion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+coercion
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+types
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+data
+type
+IRIs
+to
+property
+types.
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+one
+may
+convert
+simple
+JSON
+data
+to
+properly
+typed
+RDF
+data.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</a>
+s,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+s
+and
+IRIs.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "@context": 
+  {  
+     "rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+<span class="diff">     "@coerce":
+     {
+        "xsd:integer": "age",
+        "@iri": "homepage"
+     }</span>
+  },
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": <span class="diff">"41"</span>,
+  "homepage": <span class="diff">"http://example.org/home/"</span>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      "John Smith" .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+&lt;http://example.org/home/&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="chaining" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Chaining
+</h3>
+<p>
+Object
+<dfn title="chaining" id="dfn-chaining">
+chaining
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+feature
+that
+allows
+an
+author
+to
+use
+the
+definition
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+values.
+This
+is
+a
+commonly
+used
+mechanism
+for
+creating
+a
+parent-child
+relationship
+between
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shows
+an
+two
+subjects
+related
+by
+a
+property
+from
+the
+first
+subject:
+</p>
+  <pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "": {
+    "",
+    "",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">knows</span>": {
+    "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">Person</span>",
+    "<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">Gregg Kellogg</span>",
+</ins>
+  }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+An
+object
+definition,
+like
+the
+one
+used
+above,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+as
+a
+JSON
+value
+at
+any
+point
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</h3>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+it
+becomes
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+information
+without
+being
+able
+to
+specify
+the
+subject.
+Typically,
+this
+type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+an
+unlabeled
+node
+or
+a
+blank
+node.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+unlabeled
+node
+identifiers
+are
+automatically
+created
+if
+a
+subject
+is
+not
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+However,
+authors
+may
+provide
+identifiers
+for
+unlabeled
+nodes
+by
+using
+the
+special
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+(underscore)
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="CURIE" href="#dfn-curie">
+CURIE
+</a>
+prefix.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+<code>
+_:foo
+</code>,
+which
+can
+then
+be
+used
+later
+on
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+to
+refer
+back
+to
+the
+unlabeled
+node.
+This
+practice,
+however,
+is
+usually
+frowned
+upon
+when
+generating
+Linked
+Data.
+If
+a
+developer
+finds
+that
+they
+refer
+to
+the
+unlabeled
+node
+more
+than
+once,
+they
+should
+consider
+naming
+the
+node
+using
+a
+resolve-able
+IRI.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="overriding-keywords" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Overriding
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+allows
+all
+of
+the
+syntax
+keywords,
+except
+for
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+to
+be
+overridden.
+This
+feature
+allows
+more
+legacy
+JSON
+content
+to
+be
+supported
+by
+JSON-LD.
+It
+also
+allows
+developers
+to
+design
+domain-specific
+implementations
+using
+only
+the
+JSON-LD
+context.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "@context": 
+  {  
+     <span class="diff">"url": "@subject"</span>,
+     <span class="diff">"a": "@type"</span>,
+     "name": "http://schema.org/name"
+  },
+  "url": "http://example.com/about#gregg",
+  "a": "http://schema.org/Person",
+  "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keywords
+have
+been
+overridden
+by
+<strong>
+url
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+a
+</strong>,
+respectively.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="normalization" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normalization
+</h3>
+<p>
+Normalization
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+and
+performing
+a
+deterministic
+transformation
+on
+that
+input
+that
+results
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>
+that
+any
+conforming
+JSON-LD
+processor
+would
+have
+generated
+given
+the
+same
+input.
+The
+problem
+is
+a
+fairly
+difficult
+technical
+problem
+to
+solve
+because
+it
+requires
+a
+directed
+graph
+to
+be
+ordered
+into
+a
+set
+of
+nodes
+and
+edges
+in
+a
+deterministic
+way.
+This
+is
+easy
+to
+do
+when
+all
+of
+the
+nodes
+have
+unique
+names,
+but
+very
+difficult
+to
+do
+when
+some
+of
+the
+nodes
+are
+not
+labeled.
+</p>
+<p>
+Normalization
+is
+useful
+when
+comparing
+two
+graphs
+against
+one
+another,
+when
+generating
+a
+detailed
+list
+of
+differences
+between
+two
+graphs,
+and
+when
+generating
+a
+cryptographic
+digital
+signature
+for
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph
+or
+when
+generating
+a
+hash
+of
+the
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+is
+an
+un-normalized
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": ["homepage"]
+      }
+   }
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+is
+the
+normalized
+form
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+above:
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+Whitespace
+is
+used
+below
+to
+aid
+readability.
+The
+normalization
+algorithm
+for
+JSON-LD
+remove
+all
+unnecessary
+whitespace
+in
+the
+fully
+normalized
+form.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+[{
+    "@subject": 
+    {
+        "@iri": "_:c14n0"
+    },
+    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": 
+    {
+        "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+    },
+    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
+}]
+</pre>
+<p>
+Notice
+how
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+have
+been
+expanded
+and
+sorted
+in
+alphabetical
+order.
+Also,
+notice
+how
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+has
+been
+labeled
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier-7">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</a>.
+Normalization
+ensures
+that
+any
+arbitrary
+graph
+containing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+would
+be
+normalized
+to
+exactly
+the
+same
+form
+shown
+above.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="the-application-programming-interface" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</ins></h2><p><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+API
+provides
+a
+clean
+mechanism
+that
+enables
+developers
+to
+convert
+JSON-LD
+data
+into
+a
+a
+variety
+of
+output
+formats
+that
+are
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+in
+various
+programming
+languages.
+If
+an
+API
+is
+provided
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+the
+entire
+API
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+implemented.
+</ins></p><div id="jsonldprocessor" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessor
+</ins></h3><pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JSONLDProcessor">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]<ins class="diff-new">
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JSONLDProcessor</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDProcessor-expand-object-object-input-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback">expand</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code>JSONLDProcessorCallback</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>);</span><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDProcessor-compact-object-object-input-object-context-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback">compact</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code>JSONLDProcessorCallback</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>);</span><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDProcessor-frame-object-object-input-object-frame-object-options-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback">frame</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">frame</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code>JSONLDProcessorCallback</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>);</span><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDProcessor-normalize-object-object-input-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback">normalize</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code>JSONLDProcessorCallback</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">callback</span></span>);</span><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDProcessor-triples-object-object-input-JSONLDTripleCallback-tripleCallback-JSONLDProcessorCallback-parserCallback">triples</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDTripleCallback" class="idlType"><code>JSONLDTripleCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">tripleCallback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in optional <span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code>JSONLDProcessorCallback</code></a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">parserCallback</span></span>);</span><ins class="diff-new">
+};</span>
+</ins></pre><div id="methods" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.1.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-JSONLDProcessor-compact-object-object-input-object-context-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+compact
+</ins></code></dt><dd><a href="#compaction"><ins class="diff-new">
+Compacts
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#compaction-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+copied,
+compacted
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+returned.
+</ins><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+perform
+compaction
+on.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+base
+context
+to
+use
+when
+compacting
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JSONLDProcessor-expand-object-object-input-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+expand
+</ins></code></dt><dd><a href="#expansion"><ins class="diff-new">
+Expands
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#expansion-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+copied,
+expanded
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+expansion
+fails,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+returned.
+</ins><div class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+How
+do
+we
+generate
+warning
+messages
+during
+this
+process?
+For
+example,
+what
+happens
+when
+a
+key
+that
+doesn't
+have
+a
+mapping
+is
+discovered?
+</ins></div><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+copy
+and
+perform
+the
+expansion
+upon.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JSONLDProcessor-frame-object-object-input-object-frame-object-options-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+frame
+</ins></code></dt><dd><a href="#framing"><ins class="diff-new">
+Frames
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+frame
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#framing-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+used
+to
+build
+the
+framed
+output
+and
+is
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+Exceptions
+are
+thrown
+if
+there
+are
+errors.
+</ins><div class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+Define
+what
+the
+exceptions
+are.
+We
+need
+to
+specify
+whether
+or
+not
+we
+want
+exceptions
+thrown,
+or
+errors
+returned
+to
+the
+error
+callback?
+</ins></div><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+perform
+framing
+on.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+frame
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+frame
+to
+use
+when
+re-arranging
+the
+data.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+options
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+set
+of
+options
+that
+will
+affect
+the
+framing
+algorithm.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JSONLDProcessor-normalize-object-object-input-JSONLDProcessorCallback-callback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+normalize
+</ins></code></dt><dd><a href="#normalization"><ins class="diff-new">
+Normalizes
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#normalization-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+copied,
+normalized
+and
+returned
+if
+there
+are
+no
+errors.
+If
+the
+compaction
+fails,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+returned.
+</ins><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+perform
+normalization
+upon.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+callback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+given
+JSON-LD
+string.
+</ins></td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JSONLDProcessor-triples-object-object-input-JSONLDTripleCallback-tripleCallback-JSONLDProcessorCallback-parserCallback"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+triples
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Processes
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+according
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+calling
+the
+provided
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+tripleCallback
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+for
+each
+triple
+generated.
+</ins><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+object
+to
+process
+when
+outputting
+triples.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+tripleCallback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDTripleCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDTripleCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.<div class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+callback
+should
+be
+aligned
+with
+the
+RDF
+API.
+</ins></div></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+parserCallback
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback" class="idlType"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+callback
+that
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+on
+the
+given
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+input
+</ins></code>.</td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a></code></div></dd></dl></div></div><div id="jsonldprocessorcallback" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSONLDProcessorCallback
+is
+called
+whenever
+a
+processing
+error
+occurs
+while
+processing
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</ins></a>.</p><pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JSONLDProcessorCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]<ins class="diff-new">
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JSONLDProcessorCallback</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDProcessorCallback-error-void-DOMString-error">error</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">error</span></span>);</span><ins class="diff-new">
+};</span>
+</ins></pre><div id="methods-1" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.2.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-JSONLDProcessorCallback-error-void-DOMString-error"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+error
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+whenever
+an
+error
+occurs
+during
+processing.
+</ins><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+error
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+descriptive
+error
+string
+returned
+by
+the
+processor.
+</ins></td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+void
+</ins></a></code></div></dd></dl></div></div><div id="jsonldtriplecallback" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSONLDTripleCallback
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSONLDTripleCallback
+is
+called
+whenever
+the
+processor
+generates
+a
+triple
+during
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+triple()
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+call.
+</ins></p><pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JSONLDTripleCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]<ins class="diff-new">
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JSONLDTripleCallback</span> {
+</ins><span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JSONLDTripleCallback-triple-void-DOMString-subject-DOMString-property-DOMString-objectType-DOMString-object-DOMString-datatype-DOMString-language">triple</a></span> (<span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">subject</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">property</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">objectType</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">object</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">datatype</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">in <span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">language</span></span>);</span><ins class="diff-new">
+};</span>
+</ins></pre><div id="methods-2" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+5.3.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Methods
+</ins></h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-JSONLDTripleCallback-triple-void-DOMString-subject-DOMString-property-DOMString-objectType-DOMString-object-DOMString-datatype-DOMString-language"><code><ins class="diff-new">
+triple
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+callback
+is
+invoked
+whenever
+a
+triple
+is
+generated
+by
+the
+processor.
+</ins><table class="parameters"><tr><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Parameter
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Nullable
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Optional
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Description
+</ins></th></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+subject
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+subject
+IRI
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+triple.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+property
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+property
+IRI
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+triple.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+objectType
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+type
+of
+object
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+triple.
+Valid
+values
+are
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+literal
+</ins></code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+object
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+subject
+and
+the
+property.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+datatype
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+datatype
+associated
+with
+the
+object.
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName"><ins class="diff-new">
+language
+</ins></td><td class="prmType"><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+DOMString
+</ins></a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue"><ins class="diff-new">
+✔
+</ins></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><ins class="diff-new">
+✘
+</ins></td><td class="prmDesc"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+language
+associated
+with
+the
+object
+in
+BCP47
+format.
+</ins></td></tr></table><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+No
+exceptions.
+</ins></em></div><div><em><ins class="diff-new">
+Return
+type:
+</ins></em><code><a><ins class="diff-new">
+void
+</ins></a></code></div></dd></dl></div></div></div><div id="algorithms" class="section"><h2><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.
+</ins></span>
+Algorithms
+</h2>
+<p>
+All
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section
+are
+intended
+to
+operate
+on
+language-native
+data
+structures.
+That
+is,
+the
+serialization
+to
+a
+text-based
+JSON
+document
+isn't
+required
+as
+input
+or
+output
+to
+any
+of
+these
+algorithms
+and
+language-native
+data
+structures
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+used
+where
+applicable.
+</p>
+<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+keywords
+that
+are
+using
+in
+all
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+object
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+property
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+type
+coercion
+rules.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+a
+literal
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+an
+IRI
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+language
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+datatype
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+<del class="diff-old">CURIEs
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="CURIE" href="#dfn-curie">
+<ins class="diff-chg">CURIE
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+when
+used
+in
+JSON
+keys
+or
+JSON
+values.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Sets
+the
+active
+subjects.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+type
+of
+the
+active
+subjects.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="initial_context" id="dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+<del class="diff-old">CURIEs
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="CURIE" href="#dfn-curie">
+<ins class="diff-chg">CURIE
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+the
+context
+contained
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+<del class="diff-old">at
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">within
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">associative-array
+level,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins></a>,
+specified
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>,
+which
+includes
+the
+<a class="tref" title="active__context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+<a class="tref" title="current_subject">
+current
+subject
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="tref" title="current_property">
+current
+property
+</a>.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+is
+managed
+as
+a
+stack
+with
+elements
+from
+the
+previous
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+copied
+into
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+<del class="diff-old">associative
+array.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins></a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="JSON-LD_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+provided
+as
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="JSON-LD_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+produced
+as
+output
+by
+the
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="context-1" class="section">
+<h3 id="context">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+Processing
+of
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+is
+managed
+recursively.
+During
+processing,
+each
+rule
+is
+applied
+using
+information
+provided
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Processing
+begins
+by
+pushing
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+stack
+and
+initializing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+encountered,
+information
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+merged
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+used
+for
+expanding
+keys
+and
+values
+of
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+(or
+elements
+of
+a
+list
+(see
+<span a="#list-processing">
+List
+Processing
+</span>
+)).
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+identified
+within
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+having
+a
+key
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+value.
+When
+processing
+a
+<a class="tref" title="local__context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+special
+processing
+rules
+apply:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Create
+a
+new,
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+a
+simple
+<del class="diff-old">string,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></a>,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+IRI
+and
+used
+to
+initialize
+a
+new
+JSON
+document
+which
+replaces
+the
+value
+for
+subsequent
+processing.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>,
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<del class="diff-old">associative
+array
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+absolute
+IRI.
+Add
+the
+base
+mapping
+to
+the
+<a class="tref" title="local__context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+<p class="issue">
+Turtle
+allows
[email protected]
+to
+be
+relative.
+If
+we
+did
+this,
+we
+would
+have
+to
+add
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<del class="diff-old">associative
+array
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+absolute
+IRI.
+Add
+the
+vocabulary
+mapping
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+after
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<del class="diff-old">associative
+array
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins></a>
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+it
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>.
+Add
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+performing
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+on
+the
+associated
+value(s).
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+key
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName">
+NCName
+</a>
+</cite>
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+IRI.
+Merge
+the
+key-value
+pair
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+the
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+as
+described
+<a href="#coerce">
+below
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Merge
+all
+entries
+other
+than
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<div id="coerce" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Coerce
+</h4>
+<p>
+Map
+each
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+has
+either
+a
+single
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="CURIE" href="#dfn-curie">
+CURIE
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+of
+CURIEs.
+When
+merging
+with
+an
+existing
+mapping
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+map
+all
+CURIE
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+form
+and
+replace
+with
+the
+union
+of
+the
+value
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+If
+the
+result
+is
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+with
+a
+single
+CURIE,
+the
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+represent
+this
+as
+a
+string
+value.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="initial-context" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Initial
+Context
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+initial
+context
+</a>
+is
+initialized
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+using
+<cite>
+<href="http: www.ietf.org="" rfc="" rfc2396.txt"="">
+section
+5.1
+Establishing
+a
+Base
+URI
+</href="http:>
+</cite>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Processors
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+provide
+a
+means
+of
+setting
+the
+base
+IRI
+programatically.
+</li>
+<li>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+with
+a
+single
+mapping
+from
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+    <pre class="example">
+{
+    "@base": <span class="diff">document-location</span>,
+    "@context": {
+      "@iri": "@type"
+    }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRI
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Keys
+and
+some
+values
+are
+evaluated
+to
+produce
+an
+IRI.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+a
+value
+representing
+an
+IRI
+into
+an
+actual
+IRI.
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+explicit
+string,
+or
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">CURIE,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="CURIE" href="#dfn-curie">
+<ins class="diff-chg">CURIE
+</ins></a>,
+as
+a
+value
+relative
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">CURIEs
+are
+defined
+more
+formally
+in
+[
+RDFA-CORE
+]
+section
+6
+"CURIE
+Syntax
+Definition"
+.
+Generally,
+a
+CURIE
+is
+composed
+of
+a
+prefix
+and
+a
+suffix
+separated
+by
+a
+':'.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+either
+the
+prefix
+may
+be
+the
+empty
+string,
+denoting
+the
+default
+prefix
+.
+</del>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+an
+IRI
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Split
+the
+value
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+from
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+':'.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+a
+'_'
+(underscore),
+the
+IRI
+is
+unchanged.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+generate
+an
+IRI
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+prefix
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+Note
+that
+an
+empty
+suffix
+and
+no
+suffix
+(meaning
+the
+value
+contains
+no
+':'
+string
+at
+all)
+are
+treated
+equivalently.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+IRI
+being
+processed
+is
+for
+a
+property
+(i.e.,
+a
+key
+value
+in
+<del class="diff-old">an
+associative
+array,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>,
+or
+a
+value
+in
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping)
+and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+to
+the
+suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+IRI
+being
+processed
+is
+for
+a
+subject
+or
+object
+(i.e.,
+not
+a
+property)
+and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+to
+the
+suffix
+using
+the
+method
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+use
+the
+value
+directly
+as
+an
+IRI.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRI
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+keys
+and
+values
+are
+expressed
+using
+IRIs.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+an
+IRI
+to
+a
+compact
+IRI
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+specified
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+a
+compacted
+IRI
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Search
+every
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+for
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+is
+a
+complete
+match
+against
+the
+IRI.
+If
+a
+complete
+match
+is
+found,
+the
+resulting
+compacted
+IRI
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+IRI
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+a
+complete
+match
+is
+not
+found,
+search
+for
+a
+partial
+match
+from
+the
+beginning
+of
+the
+IRI.
+For
+all
+matches
+that
+are
+found,
+the
+resulting
+compacted
+IRI
+is
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+associated
+with
+the
+partially
+matched
+IRI
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+concatenated
+with
+a
+colon
+(:)
+character
+and
+the
+unmatched
+part
+of
+the
+string.
+If
+there
+is
+more
+than
+one
+compacted
+IRI
+produced,
+the
+final
+value
+is
+the
+lexicographically
+least
+value
+of
+the
+entire
+set
+of
+compacted
+IRIs.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="value-expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Value
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+compact
+form.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+expanded
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+expanding
+a
+value
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+value
+has
+an
+associated
+coercion
+entry
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+the
+resulting
+expansion
+is
+an
+object
+populated
+according
+to
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+adding
+a
+new
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+expanded
+IRI
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+typed
+literal,
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+adding
+two
+new
+key-value
+pairs.
+The
+first
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+unexpanded
+value.
+The
+second
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+associated
+coercion
+datatype
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="value-compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Value
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p>
+Some
+values,
+such
+as
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals,
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+an
+expanded
+form
+in
+JSON-LD.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+compacted
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compacting
+a
+value
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+coercion
+target
+for
+the
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+value,
+compact
+the
+value
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</a>
+steps.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+typed
+literal,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+value
+is
+not
+modified.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion-1" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+</h3>
+<p class="issue">
+This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</p>
+<p>
+As
+stated
+previously,
+expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+input
+and
+expanding
+all
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals
+to
+their
+fully-expanded
+form.
+The
+output
+will
+not
+contain
+a
+single
+context
+declaration
+and
+will
+have
+all
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals
+fully
+expanded.
+</p>
+<div id="expansion-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.8.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+is
+an
+<del class="diff-old">array,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></a>,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+is
+an
+object,
+update
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+the
+<a href="#context">
+context
+</a>
+section.
+Process
+each
+key,
+expanding
+the
+key
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+</li>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Process
+each
+value
+associated
+with
+each
+key
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+<del class="diff-old">array,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></a>,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+object,
+process
+the
+object
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+check
+to
+see
+the
+associated
+key
+has
+an
+associated
+coercion
+rule.
+If
+the
+value
+should
+be
+coerced,
+expand
+the
+value
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#value-expansion">
+Value
+Expansion
+</a>
+rules.
+If
+the
+value
+does
+not
+need
+to
+be
+coerced,
+leave
+the
+value
+as-is.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+Remove
+the
+context
+from
+the
+object
+</li>
+</ol>
+</ol>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="compaction-1" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+</h3>
+<p class="issue">
+This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</p>
+<p>
+As
+stated
+previously,
+compaction
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+input
+and
+compacting
+all
+IRIs
+using
+a
+given
+context.
+The
+output
+will
+contain
+a
+single
+top-level
+context
+declaration
+and
+will
+only
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+and
+will
+ensure
+that
+all
+typed
+literals
+are
+fully
+compacted.
+</p>
+<div id="compaction-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.9.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compaction
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Perform
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+on
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+is
+an
+<del class="diff-old">array,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></a>,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+recursively,
+starting
+at
+this
+step.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+is
+an
+object,
+compress
+each
+key
+using
+the
+steps
+defined
+in
+<a href="#iri-compaction">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</a>
+and
+compress
+each
+value
+using
+the
+steps
+defined
+in
+<a href="#value-compaction">
+Value
+Compaction
+</a>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="framing-1" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+</h3>
+<p class="issue">
+This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+directed
+graph.
+A
+single
+directed
+graph
+can
+have
+many
+different
+serializations,
+each
+expressing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information.
+Developers
+typically
+don't
+work
+directly
+with
+graphs,
+but
+rather,
+prefer
+trees
+when
+dealing
+with
+JSON.
+While
+mapping
+a
+graph
+to
+a
+tree
+can
+be
+done,
+the
+layout
+of
+the
+end
+result
+must
+be
+specified
+in
+advance.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+mapping
+a
+graph
+to
+a
+tree
+given
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+frame
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div id="framing-algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h4>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="input_frame" id="dfn-input_frame">
+input
+frame
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+the
+initial
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">
+frame
+</a>
+provided
+to
+the
+framing
+algorithm.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="framing_context" id="dfn-framing_context">
+framing
+context
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+context
+containing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref" title="omit_default_flag">
+omit
+default
+flag
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="object_embed_flag" id="dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+flag
+specifying
+that
+objects
+should
+be
+directly
+embedded
+in
+the
+output,
+instead
+of
+being
+referred
+to
+by
+their
+IRI.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="explicit_inclusion_flag" id="dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+flag
+specifying
+that
+for
+properties
+to
+be
+included
+in
+the
+output,
+they
+must
+be
+explicitly
+declared
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">
+framing
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="omit_missing_properties_flag" id="dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+a
+flag
+specifying
+that
+properties
+that
+are
+missing
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+should
+be
+omitted
+from
+the
+output.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="match_limit" id="dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+value
+specifying
+the
+maximum
+number
+of
+matches
+to
+accept
+when
+building
+arrays
+of
+values
+during
+the
+framing
+algorithm.
+A
+value
+of
+-1
+specifies
+that
+there
+is
+no
+match
+limit.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="map_of_embedded_subjects" id="dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">
+map
+of
+embedded
+subjects
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+map
+that
+tracks
+if
+a
+subject
+has
+been
+embedded
+in
+the
+output
+of
+the
+<a href="#framing-algorithm">
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="framing-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Framing
+Algorithm
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+framing
+algorithm
+takes
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</a>
+that
+has
+been
+normalized
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm">
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</a>
+(
+<strong>
+normalized
+input
+</strong>
+),
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="input_frame" href="#dfn-input_frame">
+input
+frame
+</a>
+that
+has
+been
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</a>
+(
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+),
+and
+a
+number
+of
+options
+and
+produces
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>.
+The
+following
+series
+of
+steps
+is
+the
+recursive
+portion
+of
+the
+framing
+algorithm:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Initialize
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">
+framing
+context
+</a>
+by
+setting
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">
+object
+embed
+flag
+</a>,
+clearing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">
+explicit
+inclusion
+flag
+</a>,
+and
+clearing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">
+omit
+missing
+properties
+flag
+</a>.
+Override
+these
+values
+based
+on
+input
+options
+provided
+to
+the
+algorithm
+by
+the
+application.
+</li>
+<li>
+Generate
+a
+<dfn title="list_of_frames" id="dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</dfn>
+by
+processing
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+is
+not
+an
+<del class="diff-old">array,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></a>,
+set
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">
+match
+limit
+</a>
+to
+1,
+place
+the
+<strong>
+expanded
+frame
+</strong>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">
+list
+of
+frames
+</a>,
+and
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</a>