Added date-stamped version of the JSON-LD Syntax spec for review.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Sat, 29 Sep 2012 20:47:10 -0400
changeset 882 a43887c9b598
parent 881 a10bcff5fadf
child 883 82787f178faa
Added date-stamped version of the JSON-LD Syntax spec for review.
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120930/diff-20120830.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120930/index.html
spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120930/linked-data-graph.png
spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120930/diff-20120830.html	Sat Sep 29 20:47:10 2012 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,18797 @@
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+
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+<style type='text/css'>
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+</head>
+
+
+<body>
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+Context-based
+JSON
+Serialization
+for
+Linking
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 id="w3c-editor-s-draft-30-september-2012">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Editor's
+Draft
+30
+<del class="diff-old">August
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">September
+</ins>
+2012
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120830/index.html
+</del>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html">
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Mark Birbeck" href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Mark
+Birbeck
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20120830.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2010-2012
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+has
+been
+under
+development
+for
+over
+<del class="diff-old">18
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">20
+</ins>
+months
+in
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group.
+The
+document
+has
+recently
+been
+transferred
+to
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+for
+review,
+improvement,
+and
+publication
+along
+the
+Recommendation
+track.
+The
+specification
+has
+undergone
+significant
+development,
+review,
+and
+changes
+during
+the
+course
+of
+the
+last
+<del class="diff-old">18
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">20
+</ins>
+months.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+currently
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">
+five
+interoperable
+implementations
+</a>
+of
+this
+specification.
+There
+is
+a
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">
+fairly
+complete
+test
+suite
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">
+live
+JSON-LD
+editor
+</a>
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+demonstrating
+the
+features
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+While
+development
+on
+implementations,
+the
+test
+suite
+and
+the
+live
+editor
+will
+continue,
+they
+are
+believed
+to
+be
+mature
+enough
+to
+be
+integrated
+into
+a
+non-production
+system
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time
+with
+the
+expectation
+that
+they
+could
+be
+used
+in
+a
+production
+system
+within
+the
+next
+year.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+</li>
+<li>
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+to
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>
+if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+an
+Editor's
+Draft.
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+).
+All
+feedback
+is
+welcome.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+an
+Editor's
+Draft
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">1.2
+General
+Terminology
+</del>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#benefits-of-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Benefits
+of
+JSON-LD
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#json-ld-data-model" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+Data
+<ins class="diff-new">Model
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-terminology" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+3.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+General
+Terminology
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-identifiers" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Identifiers
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#json-ld-syntax" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#typed-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#language-tagged-strings" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+Language-tagged
+Strings
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#property-generators" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+Property
+Generators
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.8
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+Within
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.10
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.11
+</span>
+Named
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.12
+</span>
+Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.13
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.14
+</span>
+Expanded
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.15
+</span>
+Compact
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-node-definition" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+Node
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-node-reference" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+Node
+Reference
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-language-map" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.3
+</span>
+Language
+Map
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-expanded-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.4
+</span>
+Expanded
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-set-list" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.5
+</span>
+List
+and
+Set
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.6
+</span>
+Context
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#relationship-to-other-linked-data-formats-and-data-models" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Relationship
+to
+Other
+Linked
+Data
+Formats
+and
+Data
+Models
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.1
+</span>
+RDF
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#turtle" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Turtle
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#prefix-definitions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.1.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Prefix
+definitions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.1.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.1.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">D.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">C.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">C.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">C.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="introduction">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+network
+of
+inter-connected
+data
+across
+different
+Web
+documents
+and
+Web
+sites.
+A
+<em>
+document
+</em>
+in
+this
+data
+network
+is
+typically
+identified
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier).
+A
+software
+program
+can
+typically
+follow
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+just
+like
+you
+follow
+a
+URL
+by
+putting
+it
+into
+your
+browser's
+location
+bar.
+By
+following
+IRIs,
+a
+software
+program
+can
+find
+more
+information
+about
+the
+<em>
+document
+</em>
+and
+the
+<em>
+thing
+</em>
+s
+that
+the
+document
+describes.
+These
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+may
+also
+be
+identified
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+allows
+a
+software
+program
+to
+start
+at
+one
+<em>
+document
+</em>
+and
+follow
+links
+to
+other
+<em>
+documents
+</em>
+or
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+in
+order
+to
+learn
+more
+about
+all
+of
+the
+<em>
+documents
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+described
+on
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+lightweight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+inter-operable
+Web
+services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+does
+not
+necessarily
+require
+applications
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+allows
+one
+to
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+simply
+adding
+or
+referencing
+a
+context.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+easy
+to
+parse,
+efficient
+to
+generate,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">only
+requires
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+operate
+inside
+of
+devices
+that
+contain
+</ins>
+very
+<del class="diff-old">small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">little
+memory.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<section id="how-to-read-this-document">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+<del class="diff-old">way
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">variety
+of
+programing
+languages
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+use
+</ins>
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+describe
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax.
+The
+specification
+that
+describes
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents
+is
+the
+JSON-LD
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</section>
+<del class="diff-old">1.2
+General
+Terminology
+The
+following
+is
+an
+explanation
+of
+the
+general
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+JSON
+object
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name-value
+pairs.
+A
+name
+is
+a
+string
+.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+should
+be
+unique.
+array
+In
+JSON,
+an
+array
+is
+an
+ordered
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+An
+array
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+that
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+the
+same
+array
+representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+unordered
+by
+default.
+While
+order
+is
+preserved
+in
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+4.9
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+).
+string
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+number
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+true
+and
+false
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+null
+The
+null
+value
+is
+used
+to
+make
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+&quot;forget&quot;
+any
+previously
+defined
+JSON
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+null
+value.
+If
+a
+previous
+definition
+doesn't
+exist,
+the
+entire
+key-value
+is
+ignored.
+If
+a
+previous
+definition
+of
+the
+key
+does
+exist,
+the
+previous
+definition
+is
+undefined.
+node
+definition
+A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+node
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+node.
+A
+JSON
+object
+is
+a
+node
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+they
+keys
[email protected]
+,
[email protected]
+or
[email protected]
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
[email protected]
+.
+A
+node
+definition
+may
+be
+spread
+among
+different
+parts
+of
+a
+document
+or
+even
+between
+different
+documents.
+node
+reference
+A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+reference
+a
+node
+having
+only
+the
[email protected]
+key.
+</del>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="design-goals-and-rationale">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+goals
+were
+established
+before
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+should
+be
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+will
+provide
+developers
+with
+a
+very
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+Developers
+need
+only
+know
+JSON
+and
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+(
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+)
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+must
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+must
+be
+able
+to
+express
+directed
+graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+effort
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+must
+provide
+a
+<a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
+mechanism
+</a>
+that
+allows
+developers
+to
+specify
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+documents
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+At
+times,
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+can
+become
+difficult.
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+having
+JSON-LD
+support
+an
+esoteric
+use
+case,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+Zero
+Edits
+is
+a
+design
+goal,
+it
+is
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+One-pass
+Processing
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+one-pass
+processing,
+which
+results
+in
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+when
+processing
+documents.
+For
+example,
+to
+expand
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+from
+a
+compacted
+form,
+only
+one
+pass
+is
+required
+over
+the
+data.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Linked
+Data-centric
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+focus
+on
+Linked
+Data
+is
+placed
+at
+a
+much
+higher
+priority
+than
+the
+focus
+on
+the
+Semantic
+Web.
+One
+outcome
+of
+this
+ordering
+of
+priorities
+is
+an
+aggressively
+reduced
+focus
+on
+the
+Semantic
+Web
+stack
+(RDF
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+TURTLE
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE-TR">
+TURTLE-TR
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+triple
+stores,
+and
+SPARQL
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-SPARQL-QUERY">
+RDF-SPARQL-QUERY
+</a>
+</cite>
+]).
+While
+this
+may
+be
+off-putting
+to
+proponents
+of
+the
+Semantic
+Web,
+the
+audience
+for
+this
+specification
+are
+Web
+developers
+that
+want
+a
+gentler
+introduction
+and
+a
+simpler
+technology
+stack
+for
+using
+Linked
+Data
+in
+their
+Web
+applications.
+Semantic
+Web
+concepts,
+such
+as
+conversion
+to
+and
+from
+RDF,
+are
+fully
+supported
+by
+JSON-LD,
+but
+the
+implementation
+of
+these
+features
+are
+not
+elaborated
+upon
+in
+this
+specification.
+See
+<a href="#relationship-to-other-linked-data-formats-and-data-models" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Relationship
+to
+Other
+Linked
+Data
+Formats
+and
+Data
+Models
+</span>
+</a>
+for
+more
+information
+about
+how
+JSON-LD
+integrates
+into
+the
+more
+traditional
+Semantic
+Web
+stack.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="basic-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+normative.
+</em>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+create
+by
+Web
+authors.
+In
+many
+cases,
+regular
+JSON
+markup
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>.
+As
+more
+JSON-LD
+features
+are
+used,
+more
+semantics
+are
+added
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup.
+</p>
+<section id="benefits-of-json-ld">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Benefits
+of
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+following
+definition
+for
+Linked
+Data
+is
+the
+one
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+provides
+a
+number
+of
+benefits
+to
+software
+developers
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">need
+to
+serialize
+data:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">It
+</ins>
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">easy
+for
+humans
+to
+read
+and
+write.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+It
+is
+easy
+for
+machines
+to
+parse
+and
+generate.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+It
+has
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">set
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">syntax
+that
+is
+familiar
+across
+a
+large
+number
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">documents,
+each
+containing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">programming
+languages.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+It
+is
+capable
+of
+representing
+many
+different
+types
+of
+data
+using
+two
+universal
+data
+structures;
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">representation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">collection
+</ins>
+of
+<ins class="diff-new">key-value
+pairs
+and
+lists.
+</ins></li></ol><p><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+has
+become
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">linked
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">very
+popular
+data-interchange
+format
+on
+the
+Web,
+particularly
+for
+</ins><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST"><ins class="diff-chg">
+REST
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+-based
+Web
+Services.
+Unfortunately,
+it
+has
+a
+number
+of
+short-comings
+that
+other
+Web-native
+</ins>
+data
+<del class="diff-old">graph
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">formats
+do
+not
+have:
+</ins></p><ol>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+linked
+data
+graph
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">There
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">an
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+IRIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">no
+standardized,
+universal
+identifier
+mechanism
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+Blank
+Nodes
+,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+meaning
+of
+the
+keys
+used
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+are
+ambiguous
+and
+often
+conflict
+with
+</ins>
+other
+<del class="diff-old">values.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+published
+on
+the
+Web.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+node
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">There
+is
+no
+standardized
+way
+for
+a
+value
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">having
+an
+outgoing
+edge
+must
+be
+an
+IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+refer
+to
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+Blank
+Node
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">on
+a
+different
+site
+on
+the
+Web.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">node
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+cannot
+express
+the
+language
+associated
+with
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+string
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">having
+an
+incoming
+edge
+must
+be
+an
+IRI
+,
+Blank
+Node
+,
+or
+</del>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">such
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">number
+or
+string.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">standardized
+manner.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+node
+may
+have
+both
+incoming
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">There
+is
+no
+standard
+mechanism
+to
+associate
+datatypes
+with
+values
+such
+as
+dates,
+times,
+weights,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">outgoing
+edges.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">distances.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+edge
+must
+be
+labeled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">There
+is
+no
+facility
+to
+express
+a
+Web
+of
+information
+(directed
+graph),
+such
+as
+a
+social
+network,
+in
+a
+standardized
+manner.
+</ins></li></ol><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+web-native
+standard,
+is
+100%
+compatible
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">an
+absolute
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON,
+provides
+all
+of
+the
+facilities
+that
+JSON
+provides,
+and
+extends
+the
+language
+to
+provide
+the
+following
+core
+advantages:
+</ins></p><ol><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+universal
+identifier
+mechanism
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+via
+the
+use
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">,
+within
+the
+JSON-LD
+syntax,
+this
+label
+is
+called
+a
+property
+.
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+used
+within
+a
+linked
+data
+graph
+should
+be
+dereferenceable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+way
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">a
+Linked
+Data
+document
+describing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dis-ambiguate
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">resource
+denoted
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keys
+used
+between
+multiple
+JSON
+documents
+</ins>
+by
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">mapping
+them
+to
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">s
+via
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<li>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">mechanism
+in
+which
+a
+value
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">document
+does
+not
+necessarily
+need
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+refer
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD.
+The
+notion
+of
+Linked
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">on
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">concept
+independent
+of
+any
+given
+serialization
+format.
+In
+particular,
+any
+document
+based
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">different
+site
+</ins>
+on
+<del class="diff-old">an
+RDF
+serialization
+format
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+Web.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+ability
+to
+express
+the
+language
+associated
+with
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+Data
+document.
+This
+definition
+of
+Linked
+Data
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+entirely
+consistent
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+way
+to
+associate
+datatypes
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+such
+as
+dates,
+times,
+weights,
+and
+distances.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+facility
+to
+express
+one
+or
+more
+directed
+graphs,
+such
+as
+a
+social
+network,
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">[
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+],
+although
+Linked
+Data
+may
+not
+be
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">valid
+RDF
+document,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">single
+document.
+</ins></li></ol><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Developers
+that
+require
+</ins>
+any
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+document
+is
+an
+expression
+</del>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+Data
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+facilities
+listed
+above
+will
+find
+JSON-LD
+of
+interest.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="json-ld-data-model">
+<h3>
+<del class="diff-old">Issue
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+illustration
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+Data
+Model
+</ins></h3><p><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">linked
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">way
+of
+publishing
+</ins>
+data
+<del class="diff-old">graph
+would
+probably
+help
+here.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">on
+the
+Web.
+In
+general,
+Linked
+Data
+has
+four
+properties;
+1)
+It
+uses
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">Issue
+47
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">s
+to
+name
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+things
+</ins></em>,<ins class="diff-new">
+2)
+It
+uses
+HTTP
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">Richard
+Cyganiak
+suggests
+that
+the
+data
+model
+is
+at
+odds
+with
+[
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF-CONCEPTS
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+and
+should
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s
+for
+those
+names,
+3)
+The
+name
+links,
+when
+followed,
+provide
+</ins>
+more
+<del class="diff-old">closely
+aligned
+with
+it
+instead
+of
+creating
+new
+terminology.
+Note
+that
+this
+definition
+is
+provisional,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">information
+about
+the
+name,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">may
+be
+reverted
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4)
+The
+data
+expresses
+links
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">something
+closer
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+on
+other
+Web
+sites.
+These
+properties
+allow
+data
+published
+on
+the
+Web
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">work
+much
+like
+Web
+pages
+do
+today.
+One
+can
+start
+at
+one
+piece
+of
+Linked
+Data,
+and
+follow
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">original
+depending
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">links
+to
+other
+pieces
+of
+data
+that
+are
+hosted
+</ins>
+on
+<del class="diff-old">community
+feedback.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">different
+sites
+across
+the
+Web.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+is
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">on
+the
+Web.
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+model
+encapsulates
+the
+following
+concepts:
+</ins></p><ol><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+model
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+to
+represent
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+<del class="diff-old">nodes
+are
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">each
+</ins><dfn title="node" id="dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+<del class="diff-old">s,
+</del>
+</a>,
+and
+edges
+are
+labeled
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+properties
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">
+subject
+</dfn>
+is
+any
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(an
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]).
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">
+object
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+such
+as
+plain
+text,
+internationalized
+text,
+or
+a
+strictly-typed
+data
+value.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+</a>
+and
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+</a>
+at
+the
+same
+time.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">
+property
+</dfn>
+is
+the
+label
+on
+an
+edge
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+that
+is
+a
+label
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>
+be
+dereferencable
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+document
+describing
+the
+labeled
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+object
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+allows
+properties
+to
+be
+BNodes,
+while
+RDF
+</del>
+<div class="">
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+document
+</ins>
+does
+<del class="diff-old">not.
+When
+used
+as
+just
+JSON-LD,
+this
+is
+</del>
+not
+<del class="diff-old">unreasonable;
+it
+only
+becomes
+an
+issue
+(and
+could
+raise
+an
+exception)
+when
+transformed
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">necessarily
+need
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">RDF.
+Note
+that
+the
+definition
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD.
+The
+notion
+of
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">above
+</del>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">silent
+on
+the
+topic
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+concept
+independent
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">unlabeled
+nodes
+.
+Nevertheless,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">any
+given
+serialization
+format.
+</ins></p></div></div><img style="padding: 5px; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="linked-data-graph.png" title="An example of a linked data graph" longdesc="An example of a linked data graph showing two main nodes labeled with URLs for Alice and Bob. The Alice node contains two other connected nodes showing Alice's age (32) and name (Alice)." /><p style="text-align: center;"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Figure
+1:
+An
+example
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">unlabeled
+nodes
+,
+as
+most
+graph-based
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+linked
+</ins>
+data
+<del class="diff-old">sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+are
+</ins>
+a
+number
+of
+<del class="diff-old">associated
+nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">best
+practices
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">are
+not
+named
+and
+thus
+are
+not
+directly
+de-referenceable.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+Linked
+Data
+for
+the
+Web.
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">defines
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">formalizes
+those
+techniques
+by
+providing
+</ins>
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">terms,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data,
+</ins>
+i.e.,
+keys
+and
+values,
+to
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+JSON-LD
+requires
+every
+key
+or
+value
+to
+be
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+but
+rather
+ensures
+that
+keys
+and
+values
+can
+be
+mapped
+to
+IRIs
+if
+the
+developer
+desires
+to
+transform
+their
+data
+into
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">There
+are
+a
+few
+techniques
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+Linked
+Data
+for
+the
+Web.
+JSON-LD
+formalizes
+those
+techniques.
+</del>
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="general-terminology">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">3.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+General
+Terminology
+</ins></h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">We
+will
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+following
+is
+an
+explanation
+of
+the
+general
+terminology
+used
+in
+this
+document.
+Many
+of
+the
+terms
+should
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">familiar
+to
+developers
+that
+have
+used
+JSON:
+</ins></p><dl><dt><dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+key-value
+pairs.
+A
+key
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+string
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+key,
+separating
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">key
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+</ins>
+following
+<ins class="diff-new">key.
+The
+keys
+within
+an
+object
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+unique.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="array" id="dfn-array"><ins class="diff-new">
+array
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+In
+JSON,
+an
+array
+is
+an
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+ordered
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+An
+array
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+that
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+the
+same
+array
+representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+unordered
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+by
+default.
+While
+order
+is
+preserved
+in
+regular
+</ins>
+JSON
+<ins class="diff-new">arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+unless
+specific
+</ins>
+markup
+<ins class="diff-new">is
+provided
+(see
+</ins><a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.9
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-new">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</ins></span></a><ins class="diff-new">
+).
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="string" id="dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+</ins>
+as
+<ins class="diff-new">a
+single
+character
+string.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="number" id="dfn-number"><ins class="diff-new">
+number
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">example
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="true" id="dfn-true"><ins class="diff-chg">
+true
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><dfn title="false" id="dfn-false"><ins class="diff-chg">
+false
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="null" id="dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+null
+value
+is
+used
+to
+make
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+&quot;forget&quot;
+any
+previously
+defined
+JSON
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">rest
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">null
+value.
+If
+a
+previous
+definition
+doesn't
+exist,
+the
+entire
+key-value
+is
+ignored.
+If
+a
+previous
+definition
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">this
+section:
+{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+key
+does
+exist,
+the
+previous
+definition
+is
+undefined.
+</ins></dd><dt>
+<dfn title="node_definition" id="dfn-node_definition">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+definition
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+node.
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+node
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+the
+keys
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+node
+definition
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+spread
+among
+different
+parts
+of
+a
+document
+or
+even
+between
+different
+documents.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="node_reference" id="dfn-node_reference"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+reference
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+used
+to
+refer
+to
+a
+node
+that
+contains
+a
+single
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</dd></dl><p></p>
+</section>
+<section id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</dfn>
+that
+are
+a
+core
+part
+of
+the
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+define
+the
+short-hand
+names
+that
+are
+used
+throughout
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+These
+short-hand
+names
+are
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+help
+developers
+to
+express
+specific
+identifiers
+in
+a
+compact
+manner.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+detail
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#the-context" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+The
+Context
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+explicitly
+label
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.11
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Named
+Graphs
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+that
+are
+being
+described
+in
+the
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#node-identifiers" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Node
+Identifiers
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+data
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+String
+Internationalization
+</span>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#typed-values" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Typed
+Values
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+native
+language
+for
+a
+particular
+value
+or
+the
+default
+language
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+String
+Internationalization
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#typed-values" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Typed
+Values
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+container
+of
+a
+particular
+value.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+unordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+all
+property
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+section
+<a href="#iris" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+IRIs
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+For
+the
+avoidance
+of
+doubt,
+all
+keys,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>,
+and
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="the-context">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
+context
+</dfn>
+is
+used
+to
+map
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s,
+i.e.,
+properties
+with
+associated
+values
+in
+an
+JSON
+document,
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+A
+<dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">
+term
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+expands
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+as
+any
+valid
+JSON
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+other
+than
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+To
+avoid
+forward-compatibility
+issues,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+starting
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+character
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">
+should
+not
+</em>
+be
+used
+as
+they
+might
+be
+used
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+in
+future
+versions
+of
+JSON-LD.
+Furthermore,
+the
+use
+of
+empty
+terms
+(
+<code>
+&quot;&quot;
+</code>
+)
+is
+discouraged
+as
+not
+all
+programming
+languages
+are
+able
+to
+handle
+empty
+property
+names.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+Web
+uses
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+that
+these
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+mean
+something
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers
+and
+that
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+give
+them
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+That
+is,
+it
+is
+useful
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+to
+expand
+to
+IRIs
+so
+that
+developers
+don't
+accidentally
+step
+on
+each
+other's
+<dfn title="vocabulary" id="dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</dfn>
+terms
+and
+other
+resources.
+Furthermore,
+developers,
+and
+machines,
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(by
+plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+This
+mechanism
+is
+analogous
+to
+the
+way
+we
+can
+use
+<a href="http://wordnet.princeton.edu/">
+WordNet
+</a>
+today
+to
+see
+the
+definition
+of
+words
+in
+the
+English
+language.
+Developers
+and
+machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+definition
+of
+terms.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+are
+unambiguous.
+For
+example,
+the
+term
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+constructed
+using
+the
+common
+JSON
+practice
+of
+simple
+<del class="diff-old">name/value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key-value
+</ins>
+pairs
+while
+ensuring
+that
+the
+data
+is
+useful
+outside
+of
+the
+page,
+API
+or
+database
+in
+which
+it
+resides.
+The
+value
+of
+a
+term
+mapping
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+either;
+1)
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+2)
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+3)
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+(all
+other
+keywords
+are
+ignored
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor).
+</p>
+<p>
+These
+Linked
+Data
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+are
+typically
+collected
+in
+a
+context
+document
+that
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span>: Context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Assuming
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Let's
+assume
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">this
+context
+document
+can
+be
+retrieved
+at
+http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld
+,
+it
+can
+be
+referenced
+from
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+document
+by
+adding
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+starts
+with
+the
+following
+JSON
+document:
+</ins></p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span>: Sample JSON object</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+developer
+can
+add
+</ins>
+a
+single
+<del class="diff-old">line.
+The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">line
+to
+the
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">markup
+shown
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+above
+to
+reference
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">previous
+section
+could
+be
+changed
+as
+follows:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+and
+transform
+it
+into
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span>: Adding context reference to JSON document</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+additions
+above
+transform
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+specifies
+how
+the
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+depiction
+</strong>
+terms
+map
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+the
+data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+the
+same
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+more
+than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+This
+allows
+both
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+others'
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+interoperate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+Contexts
+may
+also
+contain
+type
+information
+for
+certain
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+as
+well
+as
+other
+processing
+instructions
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+contain
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+declared
+in
+the
+document.
+When
+importing
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+from
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+context
+document,
+any
+extra
+information
+contained
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+Contexts
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+This
+ensures
+that
+JSON-LD
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+when
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+does
+not
+have
+access
+to
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span>: In-line context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  },</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Contexts
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+at
+any
+time
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>
+is
+defined.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+specify
+multiple
+contexts,
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+which
+is
+processed
+in
+order.
+This
+is
+useful
+when
+an
+author
+would
+like
+to
+use
+an
+existing
+context
+and
+add
+application-specific
+terms
+to
+the
+existing
+context.
+Duplicate
+context
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+overridden
+using
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+mechanism.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span>: Scoped contexts within node definitions</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
+    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  ...
+  &quot;details&quot;:
+  {
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/organization#name&quot;
+    },</span>
+    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Graz University of Technology&quot;
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+prefix
+is
+overridden
+in
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+<code>
+details
+</code>
+structure.
+Note
+that
+this
+is
+rarely
+a
+good
+authoring
+practice
+and
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+there
+exist
+legacy
+applications
+that
+depend
+on
+the
+specific
+structure
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+re-defined
+within
+a
+context,
+all
+previous
+rules
+associated
+with
+the
+previous
+definition
+are
+removed.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+in
+a
+previous
+context
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+removed,
+if
+it
+is
+re-defined
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+a
+specific
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+as
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+s.
+Setting
+the
+context
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+effectively
+resets
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+an
+empty
+context.
+The
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+a
+specific
+point
+within
+the
+document.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+a
+local
+context
+on
+top
+of
+the
+external
+context:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span>: Combining external and local contexts</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
+    }
+  ],</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+at
+the
+top
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+is
+processed.
+This
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+certain
+types
+of
+low-memory
+footprint
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+value
+is
+processed
+in
+a
+special
+way
+in
+JSON-LD.
+Unless
+otherwise
+specified,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+act
+as
+if
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+never
+declared
+when
+the
+value
+equals
+<em>
+null
+</em>.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+null
+</em>
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+ignored.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<em>
+null
+</em>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+reset
+and
+when
+used
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+it
+removes
+any
+definition
+associated
+with
+the
+key,
+unless
+otherwise
+specified.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="from-json-to-json-ld">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</h3>
+<p>
+If
+a
+set
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+such
+as,
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+depiction
+</strong>,
+are
+defined
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+objects
+</a>,
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+automatically
+expand
+the
+terms
+to
+something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span>: Expanded terms</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction</span>&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+The
+example
+above
+does
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+to
+identify
+the
+node
+being
+described
+above.
+This
+type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+node
+</a>.
+It
+is
+advised
+that
+all
+nodes
+described
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+given
+unique
+identifiers
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+unless
+the
+data
+is
+not
+intended
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+other
+data
+sets.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+is
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+Node
+definitions
+</a>
+do
+not
+require
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+Node
+definitions
+</a>
+that
+do
+not
+contain
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+known
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+nodes
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="iris">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+fundamental
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+s
+and
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+properties
+</a>
+are
+identified.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+(an
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier)
+is
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+])
+and
+the
+use
+with
+JSON-LD
+conforms
+to
+the
+definition
+of
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+Except
+within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+or
+a
+vocabulary
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+in
+effect
+that
+identify
+the
+value
+as
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+as
+a
+value
+relative
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+fragment
+</em>
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+to
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+In
+JSON-LD
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+are
+resolved
+relative
+to
+the
+<dfn title="base_iri" id="dfn-base_iri">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+associated
+with
+the
+document
+(typically,
+the
+directory
+that
+contains
+the
+document
+or
+the
+document
+itself).
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span>: IRI as a key</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+because
+it
+contains
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+)
+and
+the
+'http'
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+does
+not
+exist
+in
+the
+context.
+</p>
+<p>
+Term
+expansion
+occurs
+for
+IRIs
+if
+the
+value
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span>: Term expansion from context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;status&quot;: &quot;trollin'&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+are
+case
+sensitive,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+matched
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+are
+ignored,
+or
+removed
+in
+some
+cases,
+by
+the
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+However,
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+include
+a
+mapping
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+are
+still
+considered
+valid
+expressions
+in
+JSON-LD
+documents
+-
+the
+keys
+just
+don't
+have
+any
+machine-readable,
+semantic
+meaning.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+Prefix
+</a>
+es
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+represented
+as
+a
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+combination,
+and
+the
+prefix
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span>: Prefix expansion</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+See
+<a href="#compact-iris" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Compact
+IRIs
+</span>
+</a>
+for
+more
+details.
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set,
+all
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+match
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+are
+It
+is
+often
+common
+that
+all
+types
+and
+properties
+come
+from
+the
+same
+vocabulary.
+JSON-LD's
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+allows
+to
+set
+a
+base
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+be
+used
+for
+all
+properties
+and
+types
+that
+that
+do
+not
+match
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>,
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(i.e.,
+do
+not
+contain
+a
+colon).
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span>: Vocabulary base IRI</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@vocab&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/1.0/&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;Person&quot;</span>,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;name&quot;</span>: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+used
+in
+the
+value
+position
+that
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span>: Expanded IRI definition</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Specifying
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+is
+used
+to
+identify
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+When
+the
+object
+has
+only
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+it
+is
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>.
+This
+facility
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+to
+link
+to
+another
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>
+using
+a
+mechanism
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="embedding" href="#dfn-embedding">
+embedding
+</a>,
+which
+is
+covered
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#embedding" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.10
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Embedding
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+If
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+property
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 13</span>: Type coercion</div><pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+  }</span>
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+even
+though
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+expressed
+as
+a
+JSON
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+the
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+when
+processed
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+Processor.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="node-identifiers">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Identifiers
+</h3>
+<p>
+To
+be
+able
+to
+externally
+reference
+nodes
+in
+a
+graph,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+each
+node
+has
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+and
+nodes
+should
+have
+a
+de-referencable
+identifier
+used
+to
+name
+and
+locate
+them.
+For
+nodes
+to
+be
+truly
+linked,
+de-referencing
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+node
+(for
+example,
+using
+a
+URL
+to
+retrieve
+a
+web
+page).
+Associating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+with
+a
+node
+tells
+an
+application
+that
+the
+returned
+document
+contains
+a
+description
+of
+the
+node
+requested.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+documents
+may
+also
+contain
+descriptions
+of
+other
+nodes,
+so
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+each
+node
+which
+may
+be
+externally
+referenced.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+node
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 14</span>: Identifying a node</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+  },
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+contains
+a
+node
+identified
+by
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+is
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+Node
+definitions
+</a>
+do
+not
+require
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>
+that
+does
+not
+contain
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+property
+defines
+properties
+of
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="unlabeled_node" href="#dfn-unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+node
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+Node
+definitions
+</a>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+spread
+among
+different
+parts
+of
+a
+document
+or
+even
+between
+different
+documents.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+when
+possible,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+s,
+such
+as
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+before
+other
+key-value
+pairs
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+However,
+keys
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+are
+not
+ordered,
+so
+processors
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+depend
+on
+key
+ordering.
+If
+keywords
+are
+not
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+at
+least
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+processed.
+Not
+specifying
+those
+keywords
+first
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+low-memory
+footprint
+processors,
+forcing
+them
+to
+use
+more
+memory
+and
+computing
+cycles
+than
+necessary.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="specifying-the-type">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+node
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+To
+be
+considered
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+types
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+uniquely
+identified
+by
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 15</span>: Specifying the type for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+node
+can
+be
+assigned
+more
+than
+one
+type
+by
+using
+the
+following
+markup
+pattern:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 16</span>: Specifying multiple types for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: <span class="diff">[&quot;http://schema.org/Restaurant&quot;, &quot;http://schema.org/Brewery&quot;]</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="string-internationalization">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</h3>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+annotate
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+its
+language.
+In
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+possible
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+ways.
+Firstly,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+default
+language
+for
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+setting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+definition:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 17</span>: String Internationalization</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;花澄&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;科学者&quot;</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+code
+with
+the
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+s
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+科学者
+</em>.
+Languages
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+well-formed
+language
+tags
+according
+to
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+by
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+a
+value:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 18</span>: Expanded value with language</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+or
+specify
+a
+plain
+value
+by
+omitting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+tag
+or
+setting
+it
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+when
+expressing
+the
+expanded
+value:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 19</span>: Expanded value to remove language</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Frank&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: <span class="diff"> {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }</span>,
+  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Please
+note
+that
+language
+associations
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+only
+be
+applied
+to
+plain
+literal
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+s.
+That
+is,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s
+or
+values
+that
+are
+subject
+to
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Type
+Coercion
+</span>
+</a>
+won't
+be
+language
+tagged.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+To
+clear
+the
+default
+language
+for
+a
+subtree,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+can
+be
+set
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 20</span>: Clearing default language</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;details&quot;: {
+<span class="diff">    &quot;@context&quot;: {
+      &quot;@language&quot;: null
+    },</span>
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+JSON-LD
+allows
+one
+to
+associate
+language
+information
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s.
+See
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</span>
+</a>
+for
+more
+details.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="json-ld-syntax">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+first,
+and
+foremost,
+a
+JSON
+document
+(as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+and
+any
+syntactically
+correct
+JSON
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+processed
+by
+a
+conforming
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+However,
+JSON-LD
+describes
+a
+specific
+syntax
+to
+use
+for
+expressing
+Linked
+Data.
+This
+includes
+the
+use
+of
+specific
+keywords,
+as
+identified
+in
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</span>
+</a>
+for
+expressing
+<a title="node definition">
+node
+definitions
+</a>,
+values,
+and
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" class="internalDFN">
+context
+</a>.
+See
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</span>
+</a>
+for
+authoring
+guidelines
+and
+a
+BNF
+description
+of
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="advanced-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+normative.
+</em>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+section
+describes
+this
+advanced
+functionality
+in
+more
+detail.
+</p>
+<section id="compact-iris">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+documents
+may
+draw
+from
+a
+number
+of
+different
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabularies
+</a>.
+At
+times,
+declaring
+every
+single
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+a
+document
+uses
+can
+require
+the
+developer
+to
+declare
+tens,
+if
+not
+hundreds
+of
+potential
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+used
+across
+an
+application.
+This
+is
+a
+concern
+for
+at
+least
+two
+reasons:
+the
+first
+is
+the
+cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer
+of
+remembering
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s,
+and
+the
+second
+is
+the
+serialized
+size
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+if
+it
+is
+specified
+inline.
+In
+order
+to
+address
+these
+issues,
+the
+concept
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+introduced.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+)
+which
+is
+similar
+to
+the
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies">
+CURIE
+Syntax
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+taken
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+is
+a
+short
+string
+identifying
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+For
+example,
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+a
+short
+hand
+for
+the
+Friend-of-a-Friend
+vocabulary,
+which
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+A
+developer
+may
+append
+any
+of
+the
+FOAF
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+terms
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+prefix
+to
+specify
+a
+short-hand
+version
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+term.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+would
+be
+expanded
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+Instead
+of
+having
+to
+remember
+and
+type
+out
+the
+entire
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+developer
+can
+instead
+use
+the
+prefix
+in
+their
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+</p>
+<p>
+Terms
+are
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+if
+they
+contain
+at
+least
+one
+colon
+and
+the
+first
+colon
+is
+not
+followed
+by
+two
+slashes
+(
+<code>
+//
+</code>,
+as
+in
+<code>
+http://example.com
+</code>
+).
+To
+generate
+the
+full
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+the
+value
+is
+first
+split
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+at
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+).
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+term
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+If
+no
+prefix
+mapping
+is
+defined,
+the
+value
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+an
+underscore
+(
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+),
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+remains
+unchanged.
+This
+effectively
+means
+that
+every
+term
+containing
+a
+colon
+will
+be
+interpreted
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+as
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Consider
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 21</span>: Compact IRIs</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    <span class="diff">&quot;dc&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot;,</span>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/vocab#&quot;</span>
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Library&quot;</span>,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>:
+  {
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Book&quot;</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:creator&quot;</span>: &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Chapter&quot;</span>,
+      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:description&quot;</span>: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+    }
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+two
+different
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabularies
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+using
+prefixes.
+Those
+prefixes
+are
+then
+used
+as
+type
+and
+property
+values
+using
+the
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+notation.
+</p>
+<p>
+It's
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+within
+the
+context
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 22</span>: Using vocabularies</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:homepage&quot;</span>: { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },
+    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:depiction&quot;</span>, &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="typed-values">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+type,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn title="typed_value" id="dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</dfn>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+value
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+value's
+type.
+Typed
+values
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+values.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+type
+such
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true">
+true
+</a>,
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="false" href="#dfn-false">
+false
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 23</span>: Expanded term definition with type coercion</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+    }
+  },</span>
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+modified
+</em>
+key's
+value
+above
+is
+automatically
+type
+coerced
+to
+a
+datetime
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+setting
+the
+type
+information
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 24</span>: Expanded value with type</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+  <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+value
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+with
+the
+type
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+Note
+that
+it
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+express
+the
+value
+of
+a
+type.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+also
+used
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+The
+concept
+of
+an
+<dfn title="node_type" id="dfn-node_type">
+node
+type
+</dfn>
+and
+a
+<dfn title="value_type" id="dfn-value_type">
+value
+type
+</dfn>
+are
+different.
+This
+is
+similar
+to
+object-oriented
+programming
+languages
+where
+both
+scalar
+and
+structured
+types
+use
+the
+same
+class
+inheritance
+mechanism,
+even
+though
+scalar
+types
+and
+structured
+types
+are
+inherently
+different.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 25</span>: Example demonstrating the context-sensitivity for @type</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia&quot;,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/BlogPosting&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;</span>
+  }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+first
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associates
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_type" href="#dfn-node_type">
+node
+type
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</code>
+)
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>,
+which
+is
+expressed
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+The
+second
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associates
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value_type" href="#dfn-value_type">
+value
+type
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>
+)
+with
+the
+value
+expressed
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+As
+a
+general
+rule,
+when
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+used
+in
+the
+same
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value_type" href="#dfn-value_type">
+value
+type
+</a>.
+Otherwise,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_type" href="#dfn-node_type">
+node
+type
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="language-tagged-strings">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+Language-tagged
+Strings
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+string
+with
+an
+associated
+language,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn title="language-tagged_string" id="dfn-language-tagged_string">
+language-tagged
+string
+</dfn>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+string
+with
+an
+language
+code
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Language-tagged
+strings
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+four
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+defining
+a
+global
+language
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+values.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+with
+a
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+This
+usage
+pattern
+is
+called
+a
+<dfn title="language_map" id="dfn-language_map">
+language
+map
+</dfn>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 26</span>: Expanded term definition with language coercion</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;title&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+    }
+  },</span>
+...
+  &quot;title&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Syntax&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+modified
+</em>
+key's
+value
+above
+is
+automatically
+language
+coerced
+to
+a
+English
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+setting
+the
+language
+information
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 27</span>: Expanded value with language</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;title&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;title&quot;:
+  <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Syntax&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+value
+<code>
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</code>
+tagged
+with
+the
+language
+<code>
+en
+</code>
+;
+which
+is
+the
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+code
+for
+the
+English
+language.
+</p>
+<p>
+Systems
+that
+support
+multiple
+languages
+often
+need
+to
+express
+data
+values
+in
+each
+language.
+Typically,
+such
+systems
+also
+try
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+a
+programatically
+easy
+way
+to
+navigate
+the
+datastructures
+for
+the
+language-specific
+data.
+In
+this
+case,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language_map" href="#dfn-language_map">
+language
+map
+</a>
+s
+may
+be
+utilized.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 28</span>: Language map expressing a property in three languages</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;title&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@language&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;title&quot;:
+  <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;en&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Syntax&quot;,
+    &quot;ru&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Синтаксис&quot;,
+    &quot;ja&quot;: &quot;JSON-LDの構文&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+title
+is
+expressed
+in
+three
+languages;
+English,
+Russian,
+and
+Japanese.
+To
+access
+the
+data
+above
+in
+a
+programming
+language
+supporting
+dot-notation
+accessors
+for
+object
+properties,
+a
+developer
+may
+use
+the
+<code>
+property.language
+</code>
+pattern.
+For
+example,
+to
+access
+the
+Japanese
+version
+of
+the
+title,
+a
+developer
+would
+use
+the
+following
+code
+snippet:
+<code>
+obj.title.ja
+</code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</h3>
+<p>
+Ordinary
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+transformed
+into
+JSON-LD
+documents
+by
+referencing
+to
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header.
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow
+and
+provides
+an
+upgrade
+path
+for
+existing
+infrastructure
+without
+breaking
+existing
+clients
+that
+rely
+on
+the
+<code>
+application/json
+</code>
+media
+type.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document,
+an
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+specify
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5988">
+RFC5988
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+using
+the
+<code>
+describedby
+</code>
+link
+relation.
+The
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+top-level
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+within
+that
+object
+is
+added
+to
+the
+top-level
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definition
+</a>
+of
+the
+referencing
+document.
+If
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+is
+at
+the
+top-level
+of
+the
+referencing
+document
+and
+its
+items
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_definition" href="#dfn-node_definition">
+node
+definitions
+</a>,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+is
+added
+to
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+items.
+All
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+in
+the
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 29</span>: Specifing context through HTTP header</div><pre class="example">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+Host: example.com
+Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+====================================
+HTTP/1.0 200 OK
+...
+Content-Type: <span class="diff">application/json</span>
+<span class="diff">Link: &lt;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&gt;; rel=&quot;describedby&quot;; type=&quot;application/ld+json&quot;</span>
+{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+served
+with
+the
+<code>
+application/ld+json
+</code>
+media
+type
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+all
+context
+information,
+including
+references
+to
+external
+contexts,
+within
+the
+body
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="expanded-term-definition">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</h3>
+<p>
+Within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+using
+an
+expanded
+notation
+to
+allow
+for
+additional
+information
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+to
+be
+specified
+(see
+also
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Type
+Coercion
+</span>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>
+).
+</p>
+<p>
+Instead
+of
+using
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+specified
+using
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+having
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+either
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Such
+an
+object
+is
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">
+node
+reference
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 30</span>: Expanded term definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot; }</span>,
+    &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot; }</span>,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:homepage&quot; }</span>,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:depiction&quot; }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+This
+allows
+additional
+information
+to
+be
+associated
+with
+the
+term.
+This
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+for
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Type
+Coercion
+</span>
+</a>,
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>
+),
+or
+to
+associate
+language
+information
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 31</span>: Expanded term definition with language</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:name&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: null</span> },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot; },
+    &quot;occupation_en&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;</span> },
+    &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;, <span class="diff">&quot;@language&quot;: &quot;cs&quot;</span> }
+  },
+  <span class="diff">&quot;name&quot;: &quot;Yagyū Muneyoshi&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;忍者&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_en&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: &quot;Nindža&quot;,</span>
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+<em>
+忍者
+</em>
+with
+the
+specified
+default
+language
+code
+<code>
+ja
+</code>,
+<em>
+Ninja
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+en
+</code>,
+and
+<em>
+Nindža
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+cs
+</code>.
+The
+value
+of
+<code>
+name
+</code>,
+<em>
+Yagyū
+Muneyoshi
+</em>
+wouldn't
+be
+associated
+with
+any
+language
+code
+since
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+was
+reset
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+in
+the
+expanded
+term
+definition.
+</p>
+<p>
+Expanded
+terms
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+as
+keys.
+If
+the
+definition
+does
+not
+include
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+the
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+determined
+by
+performing
+expansion
+of
+the
+key
+within
+the
+current
+active
+context.
+This
+mechanism
+is
+mainly
+used
+to
+associate
+type
+or
+language
+information
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+While
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+an
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+expand
+to
+some
+other
+unrelated
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(for
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+expanding
+to
+<code>
+http://example.org/unrelated#species
+</code>
+),
+such
+usage
+is
+strongly
+discouraged.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="type-coercion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+<dfn title="coercion" id="dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</dfn>
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+values
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+data
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+s.
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+the
+data
+type
+to
+be
+specified
+with
+each
+piece
+of
+data.
+</p>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</span>
+</a>
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+this
+key
+represents
+a
+type
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+take
+the
+form
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Specifying
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+indicates
+that
+within
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+a
+string
+value
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+coerced
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Terms
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+used
+as
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+within
+the
+same
+context.
+This
+means
+that
+one
+may
+specify
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+like
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+and
+then
+use
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+within
+the
+same
+context
+definition
+-
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+be
+able
+to
+determine
+the
+proper
+expansion
+for
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s,
+IRIs
+and
+lists.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 32</span>: Expanded term definition with types</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;:
+    <span class="diff">{
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    }</span>,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    <span class="diff">{
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;,
+      &quot;@container&quot;: &quot;@list&quot;
+    }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;:
+  <span class="diff">[
+    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
+  ]</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+Turtle:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 33</span></div><pre class="example">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
+[ foaf:name &quot;John Smith&quot;;
+  foaf:age  &quot;41&quot;^^xsd:integer;
+  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
+]
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Terms
+may
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+This
+allows
+coercion
+rules
+to
+be
+applied
+to
+keys
+which
+are
+not
+represented
+as
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+For
+example:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 34</span>: Term definition with absolute IRI</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>&quot;:
+    <span class="diff">{
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:
+  <span class="diff">[
+    &quot;http://personal.example.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&quot;
+  ]</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+this
+case
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+is
+optional,
+but
+if
+it
+does
+exist,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+treated
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+(not
+a
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+construct)
+so
+that
+the
+actual
+definition
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+becomes
+unnecessary.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Keys
+in
+the
+context
+are
+treated
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+for
+the
+purpose
+of
+expansion
+and
+value
+coercion.
+At
+times,
+this
+may
+result
+in
+multiple
+representations
+for
+the
+same
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+<code>
+dog
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+cat
+</code>
+both
+expanded
+to
+<code>
+http://example.com/vocab#animal
+</code>.
+Doing
+this
+could
+be
+useful
+for
+establishing
+different
+type
+coercion
+or
+language
+specification
+rules.
+It
+also
+allows
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(or
+even
+an
+absolute
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+)
+to
+be
+defined
+as
+something
+else
+entirely.
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<code>
+http://example.org/zoo
+</code>
+should
+expand
+to
+<code>
+http://example.org/river
+</code>,
+but
+this
+usage
+is
+discouraged
+because
+it
+would
+lead
+to
+a
+great
+deal
+of
+confusion
+among
+developers
+attempting
+to
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+performed
+using
+the
+unexpanded
+value
+of
+the
+key,
+which
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+an
+exact
+match
+for
+an
+entry
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="property-generators">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.7
+</span>
+Property
+Generators
+</h3>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+an
+author
+may
+find
+that
+they
+need
+to
+express
+the
+same
+value
+for
+multiple
+properties.
+The
+simplest
+approach
+to
+accomplish
+this
+goal
+would
+be
+to
+do
+the
+following:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 35</span>: Verbose expression of multiple properties with the same value</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    <span class="diff">&quot;title1&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;title2&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;title3&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot;</span>
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/book&quot;,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;title1&quot;: &quot;The Count of Monte Cristo&quot;</span>,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;title2&quot;: &quot;The Count of Monte Cristo&quot;</span>,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;title3&quot;: &quot;The Count of Monte Cristo&quot;</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Unfortunately,
+the
+approach
+above
+produces
+redundant
+data
+and
+would
+become
+a
+publishing
+burden
+for
+large
+data
+sets.
+In
+these
+situations,
+the
+author
+may
+use
+a
+<dfn title="property_generator" id="dfn-property_generator">
+property
+generator
+</dfn>
+to
+express
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+once,
+but
+have
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+expand
+the
+single
+statement
+into
+multiple
+statements.
+This
+method
+can
+be
+accomplished
+by
+using
+the
+following
+markup
+pattern:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 36</span>: Generating multiple properties using a single term</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;title&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: [&quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+                       &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;,
+                       &quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot;] },
+</del>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;title&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: [ &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+<ins class="diff-chg">                        &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;,
+                        &quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot; ] }</span>
+</ins>
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/book&quot;,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Count of Monte Cristo&quot;</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+While