Added LC-ready JSON-LD 1.0 Syntax specification for RDF WG.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Wed, 27 Mar 2013 10:34:05 -0400
changeset 1489 81a2d9a3dac7
parent 1488 d3d2705d55fe
child 1490 c2c0c3727efe
Added LC-ready JSON-LD 1.0 Syntax specification for RDF WG.
spec/WD/json-ld-syntax/20130404/diff-20120712.html
spec/WD/json-ld-syntax/20130404/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/WD/json-ld-syntax/20130404/diff-20120712.html	Wed Mar 27 10:34:05 2013 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,26741 @@
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.1//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-2.dtd'>
+<html dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" prefix='bibo: http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/' typeof="bibo:Document">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD 1.0</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
+
+
+
+<style type="text/css">
+  .diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
+  table, thead, tr, td { padding: 5px; border-width: 1px; border-spacing: 0px; border-style: solid; border-collapse: collapse;}
+</style>
+<style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+
+/* --- --- */
+ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
+table.simple {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- EXAMPLES --- */
+div.example-title {
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.example-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;   
+}
+aside.example, div.example, div.illegal-example {
+    padding: 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+div.illegal-example { color: red }
+div.illegal-example p { color: black }
+aside.example, div.example {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+    border-color: #e0cb52;
+    background: #fcfaee;    
+}
+
+aside.example div.example {
+    border-left-width: .1em;
+    border-color: #999;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+aside.example div.example div.example-title {
+    color: #999;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
+div.note-title { color: #52e052; }
+div.issue-title span, div.note-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;
+}
+div.note, div.issue {
+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+.note > p:first-child, .issue > p:first-child { margin-top: 0 }
+.issue, .note {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+}
+div.issue, div.note {
+    padding: 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+span.note, span.issue { padding: .1em .5em .15em; }
+
+.issue {
+    border-color: #e05252;
+    background: #fbe9e9;
+}
+.note {
+    border-color: #52e052;
+    background: #e9fbe9;
+}
+
+
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD" />
+<!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+
+<!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+<style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
+.diff-new { background-color: yellow; }
+.diff-chg { background-color: lime; }
+.diff-new:before,
+.diff-new:after
+    { content: "\2191" }
+.diff-chg:before, .diff-chg:after
+    { content: "\2195" }
+.diff-old { text-decoration: line-through; background-color: #FBB; }
+.diff-old:before,
+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body>
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" />
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">Syntax
+</del>
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+<del class="diff-old">Context-based
+JSON
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-based
+</ins>
+Serialization
+for
+<del class="diff-old">Linking
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+</ins>
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 id="w3c-working-draft-04-april-2013">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Working
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">12
+July
+2012
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">04
+April
+2013
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-json-ld-syntax-20120712/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-json-ld-20130404/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-json-ld-20130404/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html">
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<ins class="diff-new">Previous
+version:
+</ins></dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-json-ld-20120712/"><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-json-ld-20120712/
+</ins></a></dd><dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<del class="diff-old">Mark
+Birbeck
+,
+Sidewinder
+Labs
+</del>
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Niklas Lindström" href="http://neverspace.net/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Niklas
+Lindström
+</ins></a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a rel="alternate" href="diff-20120712.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+<del class="diff-old">2010-2012
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2010-2013
+</ins>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+<ins class="diff-new">Beihang
+</ins>
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#abstract" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+<del class="diff-old">In
+an
+attempt
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+specification
+defines
+JSON-LD,
+a
+JSON-based
+format
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">serialize
+</ins>
+Linked
+<del class="diff-old">Data
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Data.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+</ins>
+JSON,
+<del class="diff-old">this
+specification
+outlines
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">but
+provide
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">common
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+JSON-LD.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+</ins>
+Linked
+Data
+<ins class="diff-new">in
+Web-based
+programming
+environments,
+to
+build
+interoperable
+Web
+services,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">non-Linked
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+store
+Linked
+</ins>
+Data
+in
+<del class="diff-old">a
+single
+document.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-based
+storage
+engines.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sotd" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+has
+been
+under
+development
+for
+over
+<del class="diff-old">18
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">25
+</ins>
+months
+in
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group.
+The
+document
+has
+recently
+been
+transferred
+to
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+for
+review,
+improvement,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">publication
+along
+the
+Recommendation
+track.
+While
+this
+is
+a
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+publication,
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">publication.
+The
+</ins>
+specification
+has
+undergone
+significant
+development,
+review,
+and
+changes
+during
+the
+course
+of
+the
+last
+<del class="diff-old">18
+months
+and
+is
+more
+mature
+than
+the
+First
+Public
+Working
+Draft
+status
+implies.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">25
+months.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+<del class="diff-old">currently
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">several
+independent
+</ins>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">
+<del class="diff-old">five
+</del>
+interoperable
+implementations
+</a>
+of
+this
+specification.
+There
+is
+a
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">
+fairly
+complete
+test
+suite
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">
+live
+JSON-LD
+editor
+</a>
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+demonstrating
+the
+features
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+While
+development
+on
+implementations,
+the
+test
+suite
+and
+the
+live
+editor
+will
+continue,
+they
+are
+believed
+to
+be
+mature
+enough
+to
+be
+integrated
+into
+a
+non-production
+system
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time
+with
+the
+expectation
+that
+they
+could
+be
+used
+in
+a
+production
+system
+within
+the
+next
+year.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+</li>
+<li>
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+to
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>
+if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">First
+Public
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Last
+Call
+</ins>
+Working
+Draft.
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Recommendation.
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+).
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+Last
+Call
+period
+ends
+04
+May
+2013.
+</ins>
+All
+<del class="diff-old">feedback
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">comments
+are
+</ins>
+welcome.
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+a
+Working
+Draft
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+<ins class="diff-new">is
+a
+Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+and
+thus
+the
+Working
+Group
+has
+determined
+that
+this
+document
+has
+satisfied
+the
+relevant
+technical
+requirements
+and
+is
+sufficiently
+stable
+to
+advance
+through
+the
+Technical
+Recommendation
+process.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+</ins>
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Basic
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Terminology
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#general-terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Linking
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">General
+Terminology
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.1.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformance" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.1.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Conformance
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.1.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Basic
+Concepts
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Context
+</ins></a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-identifiers" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Node
+Identifiers
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">String
+Internationalization
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Advanced
+Concepts
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#base-iri" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#default-vocabulary" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Advanced
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Default
+Vocabulary
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#typed-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">External
+Contexts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+Coercion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Embedding
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-context-usage" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Advanced
+Context
+Usage
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Type
+Coercion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+6.9
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+String
+Internationalization
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+<del class="diff-old">Within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">within
+</ins>
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#reverse-properties" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.12
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Embedding
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Reverse
+Properties
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.13
+</ins>
+</span>
+Named
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-blank-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.14
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+<del class="diff-old">Unlabeled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Blank
+</ins>
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.12
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.15
+</ins>
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-indexing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.16
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Data
+Indexing
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.13
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.17
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expanded
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.14
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.18
+</ins>
+</span>
+Compact
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#flattened-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.19
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Flattened
+Document
+Form
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#embedding-json-ld-in-html-documents" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.20
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Embedding
+JSON-LD
+in
+HTML
+Documents
+</ins></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-model" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+Authoring
+Guidelines
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Data
+Model
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Relationship
+to
+other
+RDF
+Formats
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-objects" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Turtle
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Node
+Objects
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-objects" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Prefix
+definitions
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Value
+Objects
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists-and-sets" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Embedding
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
+and
+Sets
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#language-maps" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.2.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Lists
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Language
+Maps
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#index-maps" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+B.6
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Index
+Maps
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#context-definitions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+B.7
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Context
+Definitions
+</ins></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#relationship-to-rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+C.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Relationship
+to
+RDF
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#transformation-from-json-ld-to-rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+C.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Transformation
+from
+JSON-LD
+to
+RDF
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#relationship-to-other-linked-data-formats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">D.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Relationship
+to
+Other
+Linked
+Data
+Formats
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#turtle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+D.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Turtle
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">D.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">E.
+</ins>
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">D.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">F.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">G.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">G.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">E.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">G.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="introduction">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+RFC4627
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+</del>
+<dfn title="linked-data" id="dfn-linked-data">
+Linked
+Data
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+network
+of
+inter-connected
+data
+across
+different
+<del class="diff-old">Web
+</del>
+documents
+and
+Web
+sites.
+<del class="diff-old">A
+document
+in
+this
+data
+network
+is
+typically
+identified
+using
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+general,
+Linked
+Data
+has
+four
+properties:
+1)
+it
+uses
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier).
+A
+software
+program
+can
+typically
+follow
+an
+IRI
+just
+like
+you
+follow
+a
+URL
+by
+putting
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+name
+things;
+2)
+</ins>
+it
+<del class="diff-old">into
+your
+browser's
+location
+bar.
+By
+following
+IRIs,
+a
+software
+program
+can
+find
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">uses
+HTTP
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+for
+those
+names;
+3)
+the
+name
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+when
+dereferenced,
+provide
+</ins>
+more
+information
+about
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">thing;
+</ins>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">4)
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">thing
+s
+that
+the
+document
+describes.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+expresses
+links
+to
+data
+on
+other
+Web
+sites.
+</ins>
+These
+<del class="diff-old">things
+may
+also
+be
+identified
+using
+IRI
+s.
+The
+IRI
+allows
+a
+software
+program
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">properties
+allow
+data
+published
+on
+the
+Web
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">work
+much
+like
+Web
+pages
+do
+today.
+One
+can
+</ins>
+start
+at
+one
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">piece
+of
+Linked
+Data,
+</ins>
+and
+follow
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins>
+links
+to
+other
+<del class="diff-old">documents
+or
+things
+in
+order
+to
+learn
+more
+about
+all
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pieces
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">the
+documents
+and
+things
+described
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+that
+are
+hosted
+</ins>
+on
+<ins class="diff-new">different
+sites
+across
+</ins>
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+<del class="diff-old">designed
+as
+</del>
+a
+lightweight
+syntax
+<del class="diff-old">that
+can
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+serialize
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked-data" href="#dfn-linked-data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+JSON
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC4627
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+Its
+design
+allows
+existing
+JSON
+to
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transformed
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+</del>
+Linked
+Data
+<del class="diff-old">.
+It
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+minimal
+changes.
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+<del class="diff-old">Javascript
+and
+other
+</del>
+Web-based
+programming
+<del class="diff-old">environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+inter-operable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">environments,
+to
+build
+interoperable
+</ins>
+Web
+<del class="diff-old">services
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">services,
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">when
+storing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+store
+</ins>
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
+storage
+engines.
+<del class="diff-old">It
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Since
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON,
+</ins>
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+<del class="diff-old">today.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">today
+can
+be
+reused.
+In
+addition
+to
+all
+the
+features
+JSON
+provides,
+JSON-LD
+introduces:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+syntax
+does
+not
+necessarily
+require
+applications
+</del>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+universal
+identifier
+mechanism
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+objects
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+via
+the
+use
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+way
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">change
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">disambiguate
+keys
+shared
+among
+different
+JSON
+documents
+by
+mapping
+them
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+via
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a>,</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+mechanism
+in
+which
+a
+value
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+refer
+to
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+on
+a
+different
+site
+on
+the
+Web,
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+ability
+to
+annotate
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+strings
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+</ins>
+their
+<del class="diff-old">JSON,
+but
+allows
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">language,
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+way
+to
+associate
+datatypes
+with
+values
+such
+as
+dates
+and
+times,
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+a
+facility
+to
+express
+</ins>
+one
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+more
+directed
+graphs,
+such
+as
+a
+social
+network,
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</ins></li></ul><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Developers
+that
+require
+any
+of
+the
+facilities
+listed
+above
+or
+need
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+simply
+adding
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">serialize
+an
+RDF
+graph
+</ins>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">referencing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dataset
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+in
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-based
+syntax
+will
+find
+JSON-LD
+of
+interest.
+</ins>
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD.
+<del class="diff-old">Finally,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Since
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+easy
+to
+parse,
+efficient
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">shape
+of
+such
+data
+varies
+wildly,
+JSON-LD
+features
+mechanisms
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">generate,
+and
+only
+requires
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">reshape
+documents
+into
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">deterministic
+structure
+which
+simplifies
+their
+processing.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<section class="informative" id="how-to-read-this-document">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">who
+</ins>
+want
+to
+encode
+Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+<del class="diff-old">way
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">variety
+of
+programming
+languages
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+use
+</ins>
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">who
+want
+to
+convert
+existing
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Software
+developers
+who
+</ins>
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">who
+</ins>
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+specification
+does
+not
+describe
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+companion
+document,
+</ins>
+the
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">Syntax.
+The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Processing
+Algorithms
+and
+API
+</ins>
+specification
+<del class="diff-old">that
+describes
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents
+is
+the
+JSON-LD
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+</del>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">].
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">],
+specifies
+how
+to
+work
+with
+JSON-LD
+at
+a
+higher
+level
+by
+providing
+a
+standard
+library
+interface
+for
+common
+JSON-LD
+operations.
+Although
+that
+document
+is
+not
+required
+for
+understanding
+and
+working
+with
+JSON-LD,
+for
+some
+readers
+it
+will
+be
+a
+better
+starting
+point.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+[
+RFC4627
+]
+defines
+several
+terms
+which
+are
+used
+throughout
+this
+document:
+JSON
+object
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name-value
+pairs.
+A
+name
+is
+a
+string
+.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+should
+be
+unique.
+array
+In
+JSON,
+an
+array
+is
+an
+ordered
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+An
+array
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+that
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+the
+same
+array
+representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+unordered
+by
+default.
+While
+order
+is
+preserved
+in
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+).
+string
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+number
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+true
+and
+false
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+null
+The
+null
+value
+is
+used
+to
+make
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+&quot;forget&quot;
+any
+previously
+defined
+JSON
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+null
+value.
+If
+a
+previous
+definition
+doesn't
+exist,
+the
+entire
+key-value
+is
+ignored.
+If
+a
+previous
+definition
+of
+the
+key
+does
+exist,
+the
+previous
+definition
+is
+undefined.
+subject
+definition
+A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+represent
+a
+subject
+and
+one
+or
+more
+properties
+of
+that
+subject.
+A
+JSON
+object
+is
+a
+subject
+definition
+if
+it
+does
+not
+contain
+they
+keys
[email protected]
+,
[email protected]
+or
[email protected]
+and
+it
+has
+one
+or
+more
+keys
+other
+than
[email protected]
+.
+subject
+reference
+A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+reference
+a
+subject
+having
+only
+the
[email protected]
+key.
+</del>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="design-goals-and-rationale">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+number
+of
+design
+goals
+were
+established
+before
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+satisfies
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">following
+design
+goals:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+should
+be
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+will
+provide
+developers
+with
+a
+very
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+Developers
+<del class="diff-old">need
+</del>
+only
+<ins class="diff-new">need
+to
+</ins>
+know
+JSON
+and
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+(
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+)
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">markup
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+</ins>
+must
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+must
+be
+able
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">serialize
+</ins>
+directed
+<del class="diff-old">graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">graphs.
+This
+ensures
+that
+</ins>
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+<del class="diff-old">model.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">model
+can
+be
+expressed.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+effort
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+must
+<del class="diff-old">provide
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+developers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">make
+the
+transition
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">specify
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+as
+simple
+as
+possible.
+In
+many
+cases,
+zero
+edits
+to
+the
+JSON
+document
+and
+the
+addition
+of
+one
+line
+to
+the
+HTTP
+response
+should
+suffice
+(see
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+6.8
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">).
+</ins>
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+<del class="diff-old">add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+documents
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">use
+JSON-LD's
+features
+</ins>
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+<del class="diff-old">At
+times,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">However,
+there
+are
+times
+where
+</ins>
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+<del class="diff-old">can
+become
+difficult.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+more
+complex
+than
+a
+simple
+one-line
+change.
+</ins>
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+<del class="diff-old">having
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">extending
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<ins class="diff-new">to
+</ins>
+support
+an
+esoteric
+use
+case,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+<del class="diff-old">case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">case.
+While
+</ins>
+Zero
+Edits
+is
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">design
+</ins>
+goal,
+it
+is
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+<del class="diff-old">One-pass
+Processing
+JSON-LD
+supports
+one-pass
+processing,
+which
+results
+in
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">We
+should
+focus
+on
+simplicity
+</ins>
+when
+<del class="diff-old">processing
+documents.
+For
+example,
+to
+expand
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+from
+a
+compacted
+form,
+only
+one
+pass
+is
+required
+over
+the
+data.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">possible.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="terminology">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Basic
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Terminology
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+section
+is
+normative.
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+Linked
+Data
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+create
+by
+Web
+authors.
+In
+many
+cases,
+regular
+JSON
+markup
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+context
+.
+As
+more
+JSON-LD
+features
+are
+used,
+more
+semantics
+are
+added
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup.
+</del>
+<section class="normative" id="general-terminology">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Linking
+Data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">General
+Terminology
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+following
+definition
+for
+Linked
+Data
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+document
+uses
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">one
+that
+will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+Linked
+Data
+is
+a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph
+.
+A
+linked
+data
+graph
+is
+an
+unordered
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+subject
+s
+or
+object
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+labeled
+using
+properties
+.
+A
+subject
+is
+any
+node
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">following
+terms
+as
+defined
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">a
+linked
+data
+graph
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+A
+subject
+should
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+[
+</ins><cite>
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC4627
+</ins></a>
+<del class="diff-old">(an
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+as
+described
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">].
+Refer
+to
+the
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+Grammar
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+</ins>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RFC3987
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC4627
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">]).
+An
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">]
+for
+formal
+definitions.
+</ins></p><dl><dt><dfn title="json-object" id="dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+</ins>
+object
+</dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+linked
+data
+graph
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+An
+object
+may
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+</dt>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+a
+label
+that
+</del>
+<dd>
+<ins class="diff-chg">An
+object
+structure
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+an
+IRI
+such
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">represented
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">plain
+text,
+internationalized
+text,
+or
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">strictly-typed
+data
+value.
+A
+node
+may
+be
+a
+subject
+and
+an
+object
+at
+the
+same
+time.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+key-value
+pairs.
+</ins>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">property
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">the
+label
+on
+an
+edge
+in
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">linked
+data
+graph
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+</a>.
+A
+<del class="diff-old">property
+should
+be
+an
+IRI
+.
+An
+IRI
+that
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+key,
+separating
+the
+key
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">label
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+from
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">linked
+data
+graph
+should
+be
+dereferencable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">following
+key.
+In
+contrast
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">a
+Linked
+Data
+document
+describing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON,
+in
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">labeled
+subject
+,
+property
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keys
+in
+an
+</ins>
+object
+<del class="diff-old">.
+Issue
+1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">must
+be
+unique.
+</ins></dd><dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+</ins></dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+<del class="diff-old">illustration
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+Values
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+In
+JSON,
+an
+array
+is
+an
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+ordered
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+sequence
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">a
+linked
+data
+graph
+would
+probably
+help
+here.
+Issue
+2
+EricP
+suggests
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">zero
+or
+more
+values.
+While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">definitions
+of
+subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">same
+array
+representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+unordered
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+by
+default.
+While
+order
+is
+preserved
+in
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+specifically
+defined
+(see
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+6.11
+Sets
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">object,
+while
+being
+practical,
+are
+at
+odds
+with
+[
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">).
+</ins></dd><dt>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+use
+in
+their
+roles
+within
+a
+triple.
+</del>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></dfn>
+</dt>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<dd>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+</ins></dd><dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+<ins class="diff-chg">number
+</ins></dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+allows
+properties
+to
+be
+BNodes,
+while
+RDF
+does
+not.
+When
+used
+as
+just
+JSON-LD,
+this
+</del>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+number
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+unreasonable;
+it
+only
+becomes
+an
+issue
+(and
+could
+raise
+an
+exception)
+when
+transformed
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">similar
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">RDF.
+Note
+</del>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">the
+definition
+for
+Linked
+Data
+above
+is
+silent
+on
+the
+topic
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes
+.
+Nevertheless,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes
+,
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+in
+</ins>
+most
+<del class="diff-old">graph-based
+data
+sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+associated
+nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">programming
+languages,
+except
+</ins>
+that
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+</ins>
+are
+not
+<del class="diff-old">named
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">thus
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">leading
+zeros
+</ins>
+are
+not
+<del class="diff-old">directly
+de-referenceable.
+JSON-LD
+defines
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+terms,
+i.e.,
+keys
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allowed.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="true" id="dfn-true"><ins class="diff-chg">
+true
+</ins></dfn>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">values,
+to
+IRIs.
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+</del>
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+<ins class="diff-chg">false
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Values
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+requires
+every
+key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="null" id="dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+value,
+which
+is
+typically
+used
+to
+clear
+</ins>
+or
+<ins class="diff-new">forget
+data.
+For
+example,
+A
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+where
+the
+</ins>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">to
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+explicitly
+decouples
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+'s
+association
+with
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">,
+but
+rather
+ensures
+that
+keys
+and
+values
+can
+be
+mapped
+to
+IRIs
+if
+the
+developer
+desires
+to
+transform
+their
+data
+into
+Linked
+Data
+</del>
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">There
+are
+a
+few
+techniques
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+Linked
+Data
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+key-value
+pair
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">Web.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">body
+of
+a
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">formalizes
+those
+techniques.
+We
+will
+be
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+whose
+value
+is
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+has
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">following
+JSON
+markup
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">same
+meaning
+</ins>
+as
+<ins class="diff-new">if
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">example
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key-value
+pair
+was
+not
+defined.
+If
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+set
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">rest
+of
+this
+section:
+{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">entire
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+ignored.
+</ins></dd></dl></section><section class="normative" id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords"><h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.1.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</dfn>
+that
+are
+a
+core
+part
+of
+the
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+define
+the
+short-hand
+names
+that
+are
+used
+throughout
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+These
+short-hand
+names
+are
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+and
+help
+developers
+to
+express
+specific
+identifiers
+in
+a
+compact
+manner.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+detail
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#the-context">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.1
+</ins>
+The
+Context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@graph
+Used
+to
+explicitly
+label
+a
+linked
+data
+graph
+.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+Named
+Graphs
+.
+</del>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+that
+are
+being
+described
+in
+the
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#node-identifiers">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+Node
+Identifiers
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+data
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+sections
+titled
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#string-internationalization">
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+6.9
+</ins>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+and
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#typed-values">
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+6.4
+</ins>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+<del class="diff-old">native
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">natural
+(human)
+</ins>
+language
+for
+a
+particular
+value
+or
+the
+default
+language
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#string-internationalization">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.9
+</ins>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#typed-values">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4
+</ins>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">default
+</ins>
+container
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">type
+for
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">particular
+value.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11
+</ins>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11
+</ins>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+unordered
+set
+of
+<del class="diff-old">data.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+and
+to
+ensure
+that
+values
+are
+always
+represented
+as
+arrays.
+</ins>
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">titled
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.11
+</ins>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-new">@reverse
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Used
+to
+express
+reverse
+properties.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#reverse-properties"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6.12
+Reverse
+Properties
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Used
+to
+specify
+that
+a
+container
+is
+used
+to
+index
+information
+and
+that
+processing
+should
+continue
+deeper
+into
+a
+JSON
+data
+structure.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#data-indexing"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6.16
+Data
+Indexing
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+against
+which
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+relative
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+resolved.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#base-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6.1
+Base
+IRI
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Used
+to
+expand
+properties
+and
+values
+in
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+with
+a
+common
+prefix
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#default-vocabulary"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6.2
+Default
+Vocabulary
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Used
+to
+explicitly
+label
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-graph" href="#dfn-json-ld-graph"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+graph
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#named-graphs"><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+6.13
+Named
+Graphs
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">For
+the
+avoidance
+of
+doubt,
+all
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">All
+</ins>
+keys,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>,
+and
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="conformance">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.1.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Conformance
+</ins></h2>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+specification
+describes
+the
+conformance
+criteria
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+This
+criteria
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">relevant
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">map
+term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">authors
+and
+authoring
+tool
+implementers.
+As
+well
+as
+sections
+marked
+as
+non-normative,
+all
+authoring
+guidelines,
+diagrams,
+examples,
+and
+notes
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+non-normative.
+Everything
+else
+in
+this
+specification
+is
+normative.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s,
+i.e.,
+properties
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">complies
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">associated
+values
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">this
+specification
+if
+it
+follows
+the
+normative
+statements
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">an
+JSON
+document,
+to
+IRI
+s.
+A
+term
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+expands
+to
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">appendix
+</ins><a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="sec-ref">
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</ins></span>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">Term
+s
+may
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+documents
+can
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">defined
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">interpreted
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">any
+valid
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+by
+following
+the
+normative
+statements
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+6.8
+Interpreting
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">string
+other
+than
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">as
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">keyword
+</del>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">To
+avoid
+forward-compatibility
+issues,
+term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">For
+convenience,
+normative
+statements
+for
+documents
+are
+often
+phrased
+as
+statements
+on
+the
+properties
+of
+the
+document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+key
+words
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="MUST"><ins class="diff-chg">
+MUST
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT"><ins class="diff-chg">
+MUST
+NOT
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED"><ins class="diff-chg">
+REQUIRED
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="SHALL"><ins class="diff-chg">
+SHALL
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="SHALL NOT"><ins class="diff-chg">
+SHALL
+NOT
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD"><ins class="diff-chg">
+SHOULD
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT"><ins class="diff-chg">
+SHOULD
+NOT
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RECOMMENDED
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="NOT RECOMMENDED"><ins class="diff-chg">
+NOT
+RECOMMENDED
+</ins></em>,<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY"><ins class="diff-chg">
+MAY
+</ins></em>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL"><ins class="diff-chg">
+OPTIONAL
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+this
+specification
+have
+the
+meaning
+defined
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC2119
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+starting
+with
+an
[email protected]
+character
+should
+not
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">].
+</ins></p></section><section class="informative" id="basic-concepts"><h2><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Basic
+Concepts
+</ins></h2><p><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins>
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">be
+used
+as
+they
+might
+be
+used
+as
+keywords
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC4627
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">in
+future
+versions
+of
+JSON-LD.
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">]
+is
+a
+lightweight,
+language-independent
+data-interchange
+format.
+It
+is
+easy
+to
+parse
+and
+easy
+to
+generate.
+However,
+it
+is
+difficult
+to
+integrate
+JSON
+from
+different
+sources
+as
+the
+data
+has
+just
+local
+meaning.
+</ins>
+Furthermore,
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON
+has
+no
+built-in
+support
+for
+hyperlinks
+-
+a
+fundamental
+building
+block
+on
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Web.
+Let's
+look
+at
+an
+example
+that
+we
+will
+be
+using
+for
+the
+rest
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">empty
+terms
+(
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">this
+section:
+</ins></p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span>: Sample JSON document</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;image&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png&quot;
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+It's
+obvious
+to
+humans
+that
+the
+data
+is
+about
+a
+person
+whose
+name
+is
+&quot;Manu
+Sporny&quot;
+and
+that
+the
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">homepage
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+contains
+the
+URL
+of
+that
+person's
+homepage.
+A
+machine
+doesn't
+have
+such
+an
+intuitive
+understanding
+and
+sometimes,
+even
+for
+humans,
+it
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">discouraged
+as
+not
+all
+programming
+languages
+are
+able
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">difficult
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">handle
+empty
+property
+names.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">resolve
+ambiguities
+in
+such
+representations.
+This
+problem
+can
+be
+solved
+by
+using
+unambiguous
+identifiers
+to
+denote
+the
+different
+concepts
+instead
+of
+tokens
+such
+as
+&quot;name&quot;,
+&quot;homepage&quot;,
+etc.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked-data" href="#dfn-linked-data">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+Data
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+the
+</ins>
+Web
+<ins class="diff-new">in
+general,
+</ins>
+uses
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers
+as
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+])
+</ins>
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+<del class="diff-old">that
+these
+term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+assign
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+mean
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins>
+something
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers
+and
+that
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+give
+them
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+That
+is,
+it
+is
+useful
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+to
+expand
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+so
+that
+developers
+don't
+accidentally
+step
+on
+each
+other's
+<del class="diff-old">vocabulary
+terms
+and
+other
+resources.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms.
+</ins>
+Furthermore,
+<del class="diff-old">developers,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developers
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">machines,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">machines
+</ins>
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(by
+<del class="diff-old">plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+</ins>
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+mechanism
+is
+analogous
+to
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Leveraging
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">way
+we
+can
+use
+WordNet
+today
+to
+see
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">well-known
+</ins><a href="http://schema.org/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+schema.org
+vocabulary
+</ins></a>,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">definition
+of
+words
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+above
+could
+be
+unambiguously
+expressed
+as
+follows:
+</ins></p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span>: Sample JSON-LD document using full IRIs instead of terms</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://schema.org/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://schema.org/url</span>&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: </span>&quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot; <span class="diff">}</span>,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://schema.org/image</span>&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@id&quot;: </span>&quot;http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png&quot; <span class="diff">}</span>
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+In
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">English
+language.
+Developers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+above,
+every
+property
+is
+unambiguously
+identified
+by
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+definition
+of
+terms.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">all
+values
+representing
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+</del>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">unambiguous.
+For
+example,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">explicitly
+marked
+as
+such
+by
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">name
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+IRI
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+.
+This
+allows
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+<ins class="diff-chg">keyword
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+While
+this
+is
+a
+valid
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">documents
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+that
+is
+very
+specific
+about
+its
+data,
+the
+document
+is
+also
+overly
+verbose
+and
+difficult
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">be
+constructed
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">work
+with
+for
+human
+developers.
+To
+address
+this
+issue,
+JSON-LD
+introduces
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">common
+JSON
+practice
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">notion
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">simple
+name/value
+pairs
+while
+ensuring
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+as
+described
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">next
+section.
+</ins></p><section class="informative" id="the-context"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Context
+</ins></h3><p><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+This
+section
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">useful
+outside
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative.
+</ins></em></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Simply
+speaking,
+a
+</ins><dfn title="context" id="dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+used
+to
+map
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+are
+case
+sensitive
+and
+any
+valid
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+that
+is
+not
+a
+reserved
+JSON-LD
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+be
+used
+as
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">page,
+API
+or
+database
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">sample
+document
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">which
+it
+resides.
+The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+previous
+section,
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</ins></p>    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span>: Context for the sample document in the previous section</div><pre class="example">{  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;,
+    &quot;image&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/image&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/url&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  }</span>
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+As
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+above
+shows,
+the
+</ins>
+value
+of
+a
+<dfn title="term-definition" id="dfn-term-definition">
+term
+<del class="diff-old">mapping
+must
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">definition
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+either
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">either;
+1)
+</del>
+a
+simple
+<del class="diff-old">string
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string,
+mapping
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">lexical
+form
+of
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">absolute
+IRI
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">or
+2)
+compact
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+<del class="diff-old">3)
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+When
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">containing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+associated
+with
+a
+term,
+it
+is
+called
+</ins>
+an
+<dfn title="expanded-term-definition" id="dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+<ins class="diff-new">expanded
+term
+definition
+</ins></dfn>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+above
+specifies
+that
+the
+values
+of
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@id
+,
[email protected]
+,
[email protected]
+,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">image
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@container
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">homepage
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">keyword
+(all
+other
+keywords
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">ignored
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor).
+These
+Linked
+Data
+term
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+They
+also
+allow
+terms
+to
+be
+used
+for
+</ins><a href="#data-indexing"><ins class="diff-chg">
+index
+maps
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+to
+specify
+whether
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
+array
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+values
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">typically
+collected
+in
+a
+context
+document
+that
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  }
+}
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+</ins><a href="#sets-and-lists"><ins class="diff-chg">
+sets
+or
+lists
+</ins></a>.<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expanded
+term
+definitions
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+be
+defined
+using
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+as
+keys,
+which
+is
+mainly
+used
+to
+associate
+type
+or
+language
+information
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+<ins class="diff-new">Contexts
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+can
+either
+be
+directly
+embedded
+into
+the
+document
+or
+be
+referenced.
+</ins>
+Assuming
+<del class="diff-old">that
+this
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+context
+document
+<ins class="diff-new">in
+the
+previous
+example
+</ins>
+can
+be
+retrieved
+at
+<code>
+http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld
+</code>,
+it
+can
+be
+referenced
+<del class="diff-old">from
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+</del>
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+<del class="diff-old">line.
+The
+JSON
+markup
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">line
+and
+allows
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+be
+expressed
+much
+more
+concisely
+as
+</ins>
+shown
+in
+the
+<del class="diff-old">previous
+section
+could
+be
+changed
+as
+follows:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+below:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span>: Referencing a JSON-LD context</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;image&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">additions
+above
+transform
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">referenced
+context
+not
+only
+</ins>
+specifies
+how
+the
+<del class="diff-old">name
+,
+homepage
+,
+and
+depiction
+</del>
+terms
+map
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+<del class="diff-old">.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Schema.org
+vocabulary
+but
+also
+specifies
+that
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+of
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+homepage
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+image
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+&quot;@type&quot;:
+&quot;@id&quot;
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+see
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#iris"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+5.2
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+for
+</ins>
+more
+<del class="diff-old">than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">details).
+</ins>
+This
+<ins class="diff-new">information
+</ins>
+allows
+<del class="diff-old">both
+</del>
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+<del class="diff-old">others'
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">other's
+</ins>
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+interoperate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+<del class="diff-old">Contexts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+</ins>
+may
+<del class="diff-old">also
+</del>
+contain
+<del class="diff-old">type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">extra
+</ins>
+information
+<del class="diff-old">for
+certain
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">located
+outside
+of
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+as
+well
+as
+other
+processing
+instructions
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">declared
+in
+the
+document.
+Information
+contained
+outside
+of
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+is
+ignored
+when
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">document
+is
+used
+as
+an
+external
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">processor.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Contexts
+may
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+This
+ensures
+that
+JSON-LD
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+</ins>
+documents
+can
+be
+<del class="diff-old">processed
+when
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">transformed
+to
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">processor
+does
+not
+have
+access
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">without
+having
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">the
+Web.
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+Contexts
+may
+</del>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used
+at
+any
+time
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">modified
+by
+referencing
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+definition
+is
+defined.
+A
+subject
+definition
+may
+specify
+multiple
+contexts,
+using
+an
+array
+,
+which
+is
+processed
+in
+order.
+This
+is
+useful
+when
+an
+author
+would
+like
+to
+use
+an
+existing
+context
+and
+add
+application-specific
+terms
+to
+the
+existing
+context.
+Duplicate
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+<del class="diff-old">term
+s
+must
+be
+overridden
+using
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+mechanism.
+Note
+If
+a
+term
+is
+re-defined
+within
+a
+context,
+all
+previous
+rules
+associated
+with
+the
+previous
+definition
+are
+removed.
+A
+term
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">defined
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">via
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+as
+described
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">a
+previous
+context
+must
+be
+removed,
+if
+it
+</del>
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+6.8
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+It
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">re-defined
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">also
+possible
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">null
+.
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">apply
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">specific
+subject
+definition
+are
+referred
+to
+as
+local
+context
+s.
+Setting
+the
+context
+to
+null
+effectively
+sets
+the
+local
+context
+to
+the
+initial
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">custom
+</ins>
+context
+<del class="diff-old">(further
+explained
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+</ins>
+the
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">API,
+Appendix
+A,
+Initial
+Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">API
+</ins>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+<del class="diff-old">]
+).
+The
+active
+context
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+local
+context
+s
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+a
+specific
+point
+within
+the
+document.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+a
+local
+context
+on
+top
+of
+the
+external
+context:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">].
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
+    }
+  ],
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  
+}
+Note
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+context
+definition
+at
+the
+top
+of
+the
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">document.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">documents
+</ins></a>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+<del class="diff-old">context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">contexts
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+processed.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+also
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+</ins>
+This
+<del class="diff-old">creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+certain
+types
+of
+low-memory
+footprint
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+Note
+The
+null
+value
+is
+processed
+in
+a
+special
+way
+in
+JSON-LD.
+Unless
+otherwise
+specified,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+must
+act
+as
+if
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+never
+declared
+when
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">has
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+equals
+null
+.
+If
[email protected]
+,
[email protected]
+,
+or
[email protected]
+is
+set
+to
+null
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">advantage
+that
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+even
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+JSON
+object
+is
+ignored.
+If
[email protected]
+is
+set
+to
+null
+,
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">active
+context
+is
+reset
+and
+when
+used
+within
+a
+context
+,
+it
+removes
+any
+definition
+associated
+with
+the
+key,
+unless
+otherwise
+specified.
+3.1.3
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+If
+a
+set
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">absence
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">term
+s
+such
+as,
+name
+,
+homepage
+,
+and
+depiction
+,
+are
+defined
+in
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context
+,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+JSON
+objects
+,
+machines
+are
+able
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">connection
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">automatically
+expand
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">terms
+to
+something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Web.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span>: In-line context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;,
+    &quot;image&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/image&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/url&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+  },</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;image&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow.
+</del>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="iris">
+<h3>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">IRIs
+</ins></h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+example
+above
+does
+not
+use
+the
[email protected]
+keyword
+to
+set
+the
+subject
+of
+the
+node
+being
+described
+above.
+</del>
+<em>
+This
+<del class="diff-old">type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+an
+unlabeled
+node
+.
+It
+is
+advised
+that
+all
+nodes
+described
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+given
+unique
+identifiers
+via
+the
[email protected]
+keyword
+unless
+the
+data
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+intended
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+other
+data
+sets.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative.
+</ins></em>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+is
+called
+a
+subject
+definition
+.
+Subject
+definitions
+do
+not
+require
+an
[email protected]
+.
+Subject
+definitions
+that
+do
+not
+contain
+an
[email protected]
+are
+known
+as
+an
+unlabeled
+nodes
+.
+</del>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">3.2
+IRIs
+</del>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers
+[
+</ins><cite>
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC3987
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">])
+</ins>
+are
+fundamental
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked-data" href="#dfn-linked-data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s,
+all
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+properties
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+many
+object
+s
+</del>
+are
+identified.
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+s
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD.
+Except
+within
+a
+context
+definition,
+term
+s
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+a
+JSON
+object
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+to
+an
+absolute
+IRI
+or
+another
+term
+in
+the
+active
+context
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+IRI
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+string
+value
+specified
+using
[email protected]
+or
[email protected]
+.
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+string
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+coercion
+rules
+in
+effect
+that
+identify
+the
+value
+as
+an
[email protected]
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+JSON-LD,
+</ins>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">,
+a
+relative
+IRI
+,
+a
+term
+,
+</del>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<del class="diff-old">compact
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">relative
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+An
+<dfn title="absolute-iri" id="dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+<ins class="diff-new">as
+</ins>
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+fragment
+</em>
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative-iri" id="dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+to
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+In
+JSON-LD
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+are
+resolved
+relative
+to
+the
+<dfn title="base-iri" id="dfn-base-iri">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+associated
+with
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+(typically,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+when
+it
+is
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">directory
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+of
+an
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+member:
+</ins></p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span>: Values of @id are interpreted as IRI</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot; }
+...
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Values
+that
+are
+interpreted
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+also
+be
+expressed
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+relative
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+assuming
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">contains
+</del>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">following
+</ins>
+document
+<del class="diff-old">or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+located
+at
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/about/
+</ins></code>,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+itself).
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><code>../</code><ins class="diff-chg">
+would
+expand
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+(for
+more
+information
+on
+where
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+relative
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+be
+used,
+please
+refer
+to
+appendix
+</ins><a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="sec-ref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+B.
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</ins></span></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+).
+</ins>
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span>: IRIs can be relative</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;<span class="diff">@id</span>&quot;: &quot;../&quot; }
+...
+}
+</ins></pre></div>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+<ins class="diff-new">Absolute
+</ins>
+IRIs
+</a>
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span>: IRI as a key</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">http://schema.org/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://schema.org/name
+</ins>
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+because
+it
+contains
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+)
+and
+<del class="diff-old">the
+'http'
+prefix
+does
+not
+exist
+in
+the
+context.
+Term
+expansion
+occurs
+for
+IRIs
+if
+the
+value
+matches
+a
+term
+defined
+within
+the
+active
+context
+:
+{
+  &quot;&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;status&quot;: &quot;trollin'&quot;,
+...
+}
+Term
+s
+are
+case
+sensitive,
+and
+must
+be
+matched
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">it
+is
+neither
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">case-sensitive
+comparison.
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+absolute
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+ignored,
+or
+removed
+in
+some
+cases,
+by
+the
+[
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD-API
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">].
+However,
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+include
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">nor
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">mapping
+in
+the
+context
+are
+still
+considered
+valid
+expressions
+in
+JSON-LD
+documents
+-
+the
+keys
+just
+don't
+have
+any
+machine-readable,
+semantic
+meaning.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node-identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">blank
+node
+identifier
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Prefix
+es
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+is
+a
+compact
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Term-to-
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">represented
+as
+a
+prefix:suffix
+combination,
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expansion
+occurs
+if
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+</ins>
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span>: Term expansion from context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;&quot;
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://schema.org/name</span>&quot;
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;status&quot;: &quot;trollin'&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">foaf:name
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+IRI
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+.
+See
+Compact
+IRIs
+for
+more
+details.
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+</del>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">object
+is
+used
+in
+the
+value
+position
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keys
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">contains
+an
[email protected]
+keyword:
+{
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+...
+}
+Note
+Specifying
+a
+JSON
+object
+with
+an
[email protected]
+key
+is
+used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">do
+not
+expand
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">identify
+that
+object
+using
+</del>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">.
+When
+the
+object
+has
+only
+the
[email protected]
+,
+it
+is
+called
+a
+subject
+reference
+.
+This
+facility
+may
+also
+be
+used
+to
+link
+to
+another
+subject
+definition
+using
+a
+mechanism
+called
+embedding
+</del>
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">which
+is
+covered
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">such
+as
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+status
+</ins></code>
+in
+the
+<del class="diff-old">section
+titled
+Embedding
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+above,
+are
+not
+Linked
+Data
+and
+thus
+ignored
+when
+processed.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+property
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span>: Type coercion</div><pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/homepage&quot;,
+</ins>
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+  }</span>
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+even
+though
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+expressed
+as
+a
+JSON
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+the
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+when
+<del class="diff-old">processed
+by
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">generating
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-graph" href="#dfn-json-ld-graph">
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">Processor.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">graph
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+See
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#type-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+6.5
+Type
+Coercion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+for
+more
+details
+about
+this
+feature.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+summary,
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD:
+</ins></p><ol><li><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+keys
+that
+have
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+mapping
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+expand
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(only
+applies
+outside
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context-definition" href="#dfn-context-definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+definition
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+).
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+specified
+using
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+coercion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+rules
+that
+contain
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key
+that
+is
+set
+to
+a
+value
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</li></ol></section><section class="informative" id="node-identifiers">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Node
+Identifiers
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins></em></p>
+<p>
+To
+be
+able
+to
+externally
+reference
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+in
+a
+<del class="diff-old">graph,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-graph" href="#dfn-json-ld-graph">
+<ins class="diff-chg">graph
+</ins></a>,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+<del class="diff-old">each
+node
+has
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+have
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">unambiguous
+</del>
+identifier.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+</del>
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked-data" href="#dfn-linked-data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">and
+nodes
+should
+have
+a
+de-referencable
+identifier
+used
+to
+name
+and
+locate
+them.
+For
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+to
+be
+truly
+linked,
+<del class="diff-old">de-referencing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dereferencing
+</ins>
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">(for
+example,
+using
+a
+URL
+to
+retrieve
+a
+web
+page).
+Associating
+an
+IRI
+with
+a
+node
+tells
+</del>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+may
+allow
+</ins>
+an
+application
+<del class="diff-old">that
+the
+returned
+document
+contains
+a
+description
+of
+the
+node
+requested.
+JSON-LD
+documents
+may
+also
+contain
+descriptions
+of
+other
+nodes,
+so
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">uniquely
+identify
+each
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">retrieve
+further
+information
+about
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">which
+may
+be
+externally
+referenced.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+subject
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+JSON-LD,
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+object
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins>
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+node
+</del>
+identified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">key.
+The
+subject
+is
+the
+first
+piece
+of
+information
+needed
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+in
+order
+to
+create
+the
+(subject,
+property,
+object)
+tuple,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+triple.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+<ins class="diff-chg">keyword
+</ins></a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span>: Identifying a node</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+<del class="diff-old">would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+the
+IRI
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+.
+A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+is
+called
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">contains
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+definition
+.
+Subject
+definitions
+do
+not
+require
+an
[email protected]
+.
+A
+subject
+definition
+that
+does
+not
+contain
+an
[email protected]
+property
+defines
+properties
+of
+an
+unlabeled
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-object" href="#dfn-node-object">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">.
+Note
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+when
+possible,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+JSON-LD
+keyword
+s,
+such
+as
[email protected]
+and
[email protected]
+before
+other
+key-value
+pairs
+in
+a
+JSON
+object
+.
+However,
+keys
+in
+a
+JSON
+</del>
+object
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+not
+ordered,
+so
+processors
+must
+not
+depend
+on
+key
+ordering.
+If
+keywords
+are
+not
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+at
+least
+the
[email protected]
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">identified
+by
+</ins>
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@id
+are
+processed.
+Not
+specifying
+those
+keywords
+first
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+low-memory
+footprint
+processors,
+forcing
+them
+to
+use
+more
+memory
+and
+computing
+cycles
+than
+necessary.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/
+</ins></code>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="specifying-the-type">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins></em></p>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins>
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">Specifying
+the
+type
+in
+this
+way
+will
+generate
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form
+(subject,
+type,
+type-
+IRI
+).
+To
+be
+considered
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked-data" href="#dfn-linked-data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+types
+<del class="diff-old">must
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+</ins>
+uniquely
+identified
+<del class="diff-old">by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span>: Specifying the type for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://schema.org/Restaurant</span>&quot;,
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+node
+can
+be
+assigned
+more
+than
+one
+type
+by
+using
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
+array
+</ins></a>:</p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 13</span>: Specifying multiple types for a node</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: <span class="diff">[ &quot;http://schema.org/Restaurant&quot;, &quot;http://schema.org/Brewery&quot; ],</span>
+...
+}
+</ins></pre>
+<del class="diff-old">3.5
+String
+Internationalization
+</del>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">At
+times,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+annotate
+a
+string
+with
+its
+language.
+In
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+possible
+in
+a
+variety
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+value
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">ways.
+Firstly,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+default
+language
+for
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+document
+by
+setting
+the
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+key
+<del class="diff-old">in
+the
[email protected]
+or
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+also
+be
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">definition:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">defined
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 14</span>: Using a term to specify the type</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+</ins>
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: ,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: 
+</del>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;Restaurant&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/Restaurant&quot;, </span>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;Brewery&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/Brewery&quot;</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  }
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;@type&quot;: [ &quot;Restaurant&quot;, &quot;Brewery&quot; ]</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="advanced-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</ins></h2>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+example
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+</ins>
+above
+<del class="diff-old">would
+associate
+the
+ja
+language
+code
+with
+the
+two
+string
+s
+花澄
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">科学者
+.
+Languages
+must
+be
+well-formed
+language
+tags
+according
+to
+[
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+section
+describes
+this
+advanced
+functionality
+in
+more
+detail.
+</ins></p><section class="informative" id="base-iri"><h3>
+<del class="diff-old">BCP47
+</del>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></h3>
+<del class="diff-old">].
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">It
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+section
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+by
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+a
+value:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative.
+</ins></em>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }
+}
+</del>
+<div class="issue">
+<div class="issue-title">
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/223">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Issue
+223
+</ins></span></a>:<ins class="diff-new">
+Feature
+at
+risk
+</ins>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">It
+</del>
+<p class="atrisk">
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+feature
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">also
+possible
+to
+override
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">at
+risk
+as
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">default
+language
+or
+specify
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">fact
+that
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">plain
+value
+by
+omitting
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+may
+have
+multiple
+base
+IRIs
+is
+potentially
+confusing
+for
+developers.
+It
+is
+also
+being
+discussed
+whether
+relative
+IRIs
+are
+allowed
+as
+values
+of
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@base
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">tag
+</del>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">setting
+it
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">whether
+the
+empty
+string
+should
+be
+used
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">null
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">explicitly
+specify
+that
+there
+isn't
+a
+base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+could
+be
+used
+to
+ensure
+that
+relative
+IRIs
+remain
+relative
+</ins>
+when
+<del class="diff-old">expressing
+the
+expanded
+value:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expanding.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Frank&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;occupation&quot;:  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
+}
+</del>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+allows
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Please
+note
+that
+language
+associations
+must
+only
+be
+applied
+to
+plain
+literal
+string
+s.
+That
+is,
+typed
+value
+</del>
+</a>
+s
+<del class="diff-old">or
+values
+that
+are
+subject
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">type
+coercion
+won't
+</del>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">language
+tagged.
+To
+clear
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specified
+in
+a
+relative
+form
+which
+is
+resolved
+against
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">default
+language
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+base
+according
+</ins><cite><a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+5.1
+Establishing
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subtree,
[email protected]
+can
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Base
+URI
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+of
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3986
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+The
+base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins>
+be
+<ins class="diff-new">explicitly
+</ins>
+set
+<del class="diff-old">to
+null
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">local
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">as
+follows:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">For
+example,
+if
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+retrieved
+from
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/document.jsonld
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+relative
+IRIs
+would
+resolve
+against
+that
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>:</p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 15</span>: Use a relative IRI as node identifier</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+<del class="diff-old">    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    &quot;label&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot;
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;details&quot;: {
+    &quot;@context&quot;: {
+      &quot;@language&quot;: null
+    },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;&quot;</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;label&quot;: &quot;Just a simple document&quot;
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+JSON-LD
+allows
+one
+to
+associate
+language
+information
+with
+term
+s.
+See
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+for
+more
+details.
+3.6
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+JSON-LD
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+document
+uses
+an
+empty
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+resolves
+to
+the
+document
+base.
+However,
+if
+the
+</ins>
+document
+is
+<del class="diff-old">first,
+and
+foremost,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">moved
+to
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+document
+(as
+defined
+in
+[
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">different
+location,
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">RFC5988
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">would
+change.
+To
+prevent
+this
+without
+having
+to
+use
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">]),
+and
+any
+syntactically
+correct
+JSON
+document
+must
+be
+processed
+by
+</del>
+</a>,
+a
+<del class="diff-old">conforming
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+However,
+JSON-LD
+describes
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+define
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">specific
+syntax
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@base
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+mapping,
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">use
+for
+expressing
+Linked
+Data.
+This
+includes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">overwrite
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">use
+of
+specific
+keywords,
+as
+identified
+in
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">base
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+for
+<del class="diff-old">expressing
+subject
+definitions
+,
+values,
+and
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">context
+.
+See
+Appendix
+A
+for
+authoring
+guidelines
+and
+a
+BNF
+description
+of
+JSON-LD.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 16</span>: Setting the document base in a document</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@base&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/document.jsonld&quot;</span><ins class="diff-new">
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;&quot;,
+  &quot;label&quot;: &quot;Just a simple document&quot;
+}
+</ins></pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="default-vocabulary">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Advanced
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Default
+Vocabulary
+</ins></h3><p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+<del class="diff-old">normative.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative.
+</ins>
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+section
+describes
+this
+advanced
+functionality
+in
+more
+detail.
+</del>
+<del class="diff-old">4.1
+Compact
+IRIs
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Term
+s
+in
+Linked
+Data
+documents
+may
+draw
+from
+a
+number
+of
+different
+vocabularies
+.
+</del>
+At
+times,
+<del class="diff-old">declaring
+every
+single
+term
+that
+a
+document
+uses
+can
+require
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">all
+properties
+and
+types
+may
+come
+from
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">developer
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">same
+vocabulary.
+JSON-LD's
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+allows
+an
+author
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">declare
+tens,
+if
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">set
+a
+common
+prefix
+to
+be
+used
+for
+all
+properties
+and
+types
+that
+do
+</ins>
+not
+<del class="diff-old">hundreds
+of
+potential
+vocabulary
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">match
+a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">or
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">used
+across
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">neither
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+nor
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">application.
+This
+is
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(i.e.,
+they
+do
+not
+contain
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">concern
+for
+at
+least
+two
+reasons:
+the
+first
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">colon).
+</ins></p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 17</span>: Using a common vocabulary prefix</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@vocab&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/&quot;</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+  }
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;Restaurant&quot;</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;name&quot;</span>: &quot;Brew Eats&quot;<ins class="diff-chg">
+  ...
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">used
+but
+certain
+keys
+in
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-new">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+should
+not
+be
+expanded
+using
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer
+of
+remembering
+all
+of
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">vocabulary
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s,
+and
+the
+second
+is
+the
+serialized
+size
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+be
+explicitly
+set
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null"><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+<del class="diff-old">if
+it
+is
+specified
+inline.
+In
+order
+to
+address
+these
+issues,
+</del>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">For
+instance,
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">concept
+of
+a
+compact
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+below
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+databaseId
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+member
+would
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 18</span>: Using the null keyword to ignore data</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+     &quot;@vocab&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/&quot;,
+</ins>     <span class="diff">&quot;databaseId&quot;: null</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+  },
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Restaurant&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Brew Eats&quot;,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;databaseId&quot;</span>: &quot;23987520&quot;<ins class="diff-chg">
+}
+</ins></pre></div></section><section class="informative" id="compact-iris"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+6.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compact
+IRIs
+</ins></h3><p><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+This
+section
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">introduced.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-normative.
+</ins></em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn title="compact-iri" id="dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">)
+which
+is
+similar
+to
+the
+CURIE
+Syntax
+in
+[
+RDFA-CORE
+].
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">).
+</ins>
+The
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+taken
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+is
+a
+short
+string
+identifying
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+For
+example,
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+a
+short
+hand
+for
+the
+Friend-of-a-Friend
+vocabulary,
+which
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+A
+developer
+may
+append
+any
+of
+the
+FOAF
+vocabulary
+terms
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+prefix
+to
+specify
+a
+short-hand
+version
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+vocabulary
+term.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+would
+be
+expanded
+<del class="diff-old">out
+</del>
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+<del class="diff-old">Instead
+of
+having
+</del>
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 19</span>: Prefix expansion</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">foaf</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>&quot;
+  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>&quot;: &quot;Dave Longley&quot;,
+...
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf:name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+expands
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">remember
+and
+type
+out
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">entire
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">,
+the
+developer
+can
+instead
+use
+the
+prefix
+in
+their
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+</del>
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf:Person
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+expands
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
+</ins></code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Terms
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Prefixes
+</ins></a>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">interpreted
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">s
+if
+they
+contain
+at
+least
+one
+colon
+and
+the
+first
+colon
+is
+not
+followed
+by
+two
+slashes
+(
+//
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">represented
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">http://example.com
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefix:suffix
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+To
+generate
+the
+full
+IRI
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">combination,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+is
+first
+split
+into
+a
+</del>
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+<ins class="diff-new">matches
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+defined
+within
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>,
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins>
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+<del class="diff-old">at
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+a
+colon
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">does
+not
+begin
+with
+two
+slashes
+</ins>
+(
+<del class="diff-old">:
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">//
+</ins>
+</code>
+).
+<del class="diff-old">If
+the
+active
+context
+contains
+a
+term
+mapping
+for
+prefix
+,
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">generated
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expanded
+</ins>
+by
+<del class="diff-old">prepending
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">concatenating
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-new">IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>
+mapped
+<ins class="diff-new">to
+the
+</ins>
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<em>
+suffix
+<del class="diff-old">using
+textual
+concatenation.
+</del>
+</em>.
+If
+<del class="diff-old">no
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><em>
+prefix
+<del class="diff-old">mapping
+</del>
+</em>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">defined,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">not
+defined
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+the
+suffix
+begins
+with
+two
+slashes
+(such
+as
+in
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+),
+</ins>
+the
+value
+is
+interpreted
+as
+<del class="diff-old">an
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">instead.
+</ins>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+an
+underscore
+(
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+),
+the
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+remains
+unchanged.
+This
+effectively
+means
+that
+every
+term
+containing
+a
+colon
+will
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+is
+</ins>
+interpreted
+<del class="diff-old">by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+</del>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">an
+IRI
+.
+Consider
+the
+following
+example:
+  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    
+    
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+  :
+  {
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+    : &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    : &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    :
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+      : &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      : &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+    }
+  }
+}
+In
+this
+example,
+two
+different
+vocabularies
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node-identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">blank
+node
+identifier
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+referred
+to
+using
+prefixes.
+Those
+prefixes
+are
+then
+used
+as
+type
+and
+property
+values
+using
+the
+compact
+IRI
+prefix:suffix
+notation.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">instead.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+It's
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+within
+the
+context
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 20</span>: Using vocabularies</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+</del>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:homepage&quot;</span>: { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },
+    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;foaf:depiction&quot;</span>, &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="typed-values">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins></em></p>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+type,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+value
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</a>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+value
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+value's
+type.
+Typed
+values
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+<del class="diff-old">two
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">three
+</ins>
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+<del class="diff-old">the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-object" href="#dfn-value-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+object
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+type
+such
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number"><ins class="diff-chg">
+number
+</ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true"><ins class="diff-chg">
+true
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="false" href="#dfn-false"><ins class="diff-chg">
+false
+</ins></a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 21</span>: Expanded term definition with type coercion</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+    }
+  },</span>
+...
+<ins class="diff-new">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/docs/1&quot;,
+</ins>
+  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+modified
+</em>
+key's
+value
+above
+is
+automatically
+type
+coerced
+to
+a
+<del class="diff-old">datetime
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dateTime
+</ins></em>
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+<ins class="diff-new">A
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+interpret
+the
+example
+above
+as
+follows:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+<ins class="diff-new">Subject
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Property
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Value
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Value
+Type
+</ins></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://example.com/docs/1
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</ins></td></tr></tbody></table>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+setting
+the
+type
+information
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 22</span>: Expanded value with type</div><pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+  <span class="diff">{
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+<del class="diff-old">an
+object
+with
+</del>
+the
+value
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+</ins>
+the
+type
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+Note
+that
+it
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+express
+the
+value
+of
+a
+type.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+</del>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+also
+used
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">Although
+the
+same
+keyword
+is
+used
+in
+both
+places,
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins>
+concept
+of
+<del class="diff-old">an
+object
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-type" href="#dfn-node-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins>
+type
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-type" href="#dfn-value-type">
+value
+type
+</a>
+are
+different.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Generally
+speaking,
+a
+</ins><dfn title="node-type" id="dfn-node-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+type
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+specifies
+the
+type
+of
+thing
+that
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">similar
+to
+object-oriented
+programming
+languages
+where
+both
+scalar
+and
+structured
+types
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">being
+described,
+like
+a
+person,
+place,
+event,
+or
+web
+page.
+A
+</ins><dfn title="value-type" id="dfn-value-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+type
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+specifies
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+value,
+such
+as
+an
+integer,
+a
+floating
+point
+number,
+or
+a
+date.
+</ins></p><div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 23</span>: Example demonstrating the context-sensitivity for @type</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia&quot;,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">&quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/BlogPosting&quot;</span>,   &lt;- This is a node type<ins class="diff-chg">
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">&quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;</span> &lt;- This is a value type<ins class="diff-chg">
+  }
+...
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+first
+</ins>
+use
+<ins class="diff-new">of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+associates
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-type" href="#dfn-node-type"><ins class="diff-new">
+node
+type
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+)
+with
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+class
+inheritance
+mechanism,
+even
+though
+scalar
+types
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+is
+expressed
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+second
+use
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+associates
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-type" href="#dfn-value-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+type
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+with
+the
+value
+expressed
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+As
+a
+general
+rule,
+when
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">structured
+types
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins></code>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">inherently
+different.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+in
+the
+same
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+expressing
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-type" href="#dfn-value-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+type
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Otherwise,
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+expressing
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-type" href="#dfn-node-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+type
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+example
+above
+expresses
+the
+following
+data:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Subject
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Property
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+Type
+</ins></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</ins></td><td style="text-align:center;"><ins class="diff-chg">
+-
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</ins></td></tr></tbody></table></section><section class="informative" id="type-coercion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">External
+Contexts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+Coercion
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Authors
+may
+choose
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</ins></em></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">declare
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+</ins><dfn title="coercion" id="dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+coercion
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">context
+s
+in
+external
+documents
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">promote
+re-use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+values
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">contexts
+as
+well
+as
+reduce
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+type
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">size
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+type
+to
+be
+specified
+with
+each
+piece
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+documents.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">author
+must
+specify
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+<ins class="diff-chg">expanded
+term
+definition
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+this
+key
+expands
+to
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-new">Alternatively,
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-new">
+keywords
+</ins>
+</a>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-new">@id
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+be
+used
+as
+value
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">indicate
+that
+within
+the
+body
+of
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">valid
+</del>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">document.
+The
+referenced
+document
+must
+have
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document,
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">top-level
+subject
+definition
+.
+The
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins></a>
+value
+of
+<del class="diff-old">any
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+coerced
+to
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">key
+within
+that
+object
+</del>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">substituted
+for
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">within
+</del>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+difference
+between
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+how
+values
+are
+expanded
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.<code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+first
+tries
+to
+expand
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">referencing
+document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+by
+interpreting
+it
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+no
+matching
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+found
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+it
+tries
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">have
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expand
+it
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+if
+there's
+a
+colon
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+effect
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value;
+otherwise,
+it
+will
+expand
+the
+value
+using
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context's
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+vocabulary
+mapping,
+if
+present,
+or
+by
+interpreting
+it
+</ins>
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+<ins class="diff-new">relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">