Change "json-ld-syntax" to "json-ld"
authorMarkus Lanthaler <mark_lanthaler@gmx.net>
Thu, 28 Mar 2013 15:14:23 +0100
changeset 1501 6dd959837c6e
parent 1500 1d2acd15e3cb
child 1502 d67e30da4118
Change "json-ld-syntax" to "json-ld"

Added a 301 redirect and fixed cross-document references
spec/latest/index.html
spec/latest/index.php
spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-connect/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-framing/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-rdf/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/linked-data-graph.dia
spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/linked-data-graph.png
spec/latest/json-ld/index.html
spec/latest/json-ld/linked-data-graph.dia
spec/latest/json-ld/linked-data-graph.png
spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/latest/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,69 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
+<html version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
+   xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#"
+   xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+   xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
+   xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+   xmlns:vcard="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#"
+   xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"
+   >
+   <head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
+      <title>JSON-LD - Specifications</title>
+      <link href="../../site.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+      <link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../favicon.ico" />
+   </head>
+
+   <body>
+      <div id="container">
+         <div id="header">
+            <span class="col">
+               <img class="banner" src="../../images/json-ld-logo-1.png" />
+               <img class="banner" src="../../images/json-ld-logo-2.png" />
+               <img class="banner" src="../../images/json-ld-logo-3.png" />
+               <h1>Latest Specifications</h1>
+            </span>
+         </div>
+
+         <div id="content">
+            <div class="breadcrumbs"><a href="../../">JSON-LD</a> &gt; <a href="../">Specifications</a> &gt; Latest</div>
+            <div id="info">
+               <h1>Latest Specifications</h1>
+               <p>There are four specifications that are being actively developed
+               at the moment:</p>
+               <ul>
+                 <li><a href="json-ld/">The JSON-LD Syntax</a> -
+                   The JSON-LD language syntax describes how to author documents
+                   in JSON-LD, including all of the features of the language
+                   as well as the syntax constraints of the language.</li>
+                 <li><a href="json-ld-api/">The JSON-LD API</a> - The JSON-LD
+                   API describes the Application Programming Interface that can
+                   be used by developers to interface with JSON-LD documents at
+                   a higher level.</li>
+                 <li><a href="json-ld-framing/">JSON-LD Framing</a> - JSON-LD
+                   Framing describes the Application Programming Interface for
+                   flattening and framing JSON-LD documents.</li>
+                 <li><a href="json-ld-rdf/">JSON-LD RDF API</a> - JSON-LD
+                   RDF AP describes the Application Programming Interface for
+                   transforming JSON-LD to RDF.</li>
+                   <li><a href="rdf-graph-normalization/">RDF Graph Normalization</a> -
+                   The RDF Graph Normalization document is a general algorithm for
+                   serializing RDF graphs. It is most useful when comparing
+                   differences of graphs, creating serializations of graphs and
+                   digitally signing graphs.</li>
+               </ul>
+            </div>
+         </div>
+
+         <div id="footer">
+            <p id="copyright">
+               Website content released under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license</a> except where an alternate is specified.
+            </p>
+            <p id="legal">
+               Part of the <a href="http://payswarm.com/">payswarm.com</a> initiative.
+            </p>
+         </div>
+      </div>
+   </body>
+</html>
--- a/spec/latest/index.php	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,76 +0,0 @@
-<?php
-print <<< htmlcode
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> 
-<html version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
-   xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#"
-   xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
-   xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
-   xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
-   xmlns:vcard="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#"
-   xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"
-   > 
-   <head> 
-      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> 
-      <title>JSON-LD - Specifications</title> 
-      <link href="../../site.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> 
-      <link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../favicon.ico" /> 
-   </head> 
- 
-   <body> 
-      <div id="container"> 
-         <div id="header"> 
-            <span class="col"> 
-               <img class="banner" src="../../images/json-ld-logo-1.png" />
-               <img class="banner" src="../../images/json-ld-logo-2.png" />
-               <img class="banner" src="../../images/json-ld-logo-3.png" />
-               <h1>Latest Specifications</h1>
-            </span> 
-         </div> 
-
-         <div id="content"> 
-            <div class="breadcrumbs"><a href="../../">JSON-LD</a> &gt; <a href="../">Specifications</a> &gt; Latest</div>
-            <div id="info"> 
-               <h1>Latest Specifications</h1> 
-               <p>There are four specifications that are being actively developed
-               at the moment:</p>
-               <ul>
-                 <li><a href="json-ld-syntax/">The JSON-LD Syntax</a> - 
-                 The JSON-LD language syntax describes how to author documents
-                 in JSON-LD, including all of the features of the language
-                 as well as the syntax constraints of the language.</li>
-                 <li><a href="json-ld-api/">The JSON-LD API</a> - The JSON-LD
-                 API describes the Application Programming Interface that can
-                 be used by developers to interface with JSON-LD documents at
-                 a higher level.</li>
-                 <li><a href="json-ld-framing/">JSON-LD Framing</a> - JSON-LD
-                 Framing describes the Application Programming Interface for
-                 flattening and framing JSON-LD documents.</li>
-                 <li><a href="json-ld-rdf/">JSON-LD RDF API</a> - JSON-LD
-                 RDF AP describes the Application Programming Interface for
-                 transforming JSON-LD to RDF.</li>
-                 <li><a href="rdf-graph-normalization/">RDF Graph Normalization</a> - 
-                 The RDF Graph Normalization document is a general algorithm for
-                 serializing RDF graphs. It is most useful when comparing
-                 differences of graphs, creating serializations of graphs and
-                 digitally signing graphs.</li>
-               </ul>
-            </div>
-         </div>
- 
-         <div id="footer"> 
-            <p id="copyright"> 
-               Website content released under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license</a> except where an alternate is specified.
-            </p> 
-            <p id="legal"> 
-               Part of the <a href="http://payswarm.com/">payswarm.com</a> initiative.
-            </p>
-         </div> 
-      </div> 
-   </body> 
-</html>
-
-htmlcode;
-
-?>
-
--- a/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ b/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -642,10 +642,10 @@
     <dt><tdef>keyword</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A JSON key that is specific to JSON-LD, specified in the JSON-LD Syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]]
       in the section titled
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
+      <cite><a href="../json-ld/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>context</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A a set of rules for interpreting a JSON-LD document as specified in
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the
+      <cite><a href="../json-ld/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the
       [[!JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>JSON-LD document</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> is a serialization of a collection of
@@ -659,7 +659,7 @@
     <dt><tdef>JSON-LD graph</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A labeled directed graph, i.e., a set of <tref title="node">nodes</tref>
       connected by <tref title="edge">edges</tref>,
-      as specified in the <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#data-model">Data Model</a></cite>
+      as specified in the <cite><a href="../json-ld/#data-model">Data Model</a></cite>
       section of the JSON-LD syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]].</dd>
     <dt><tdef>edge</tdef></dt>
     <dd>Every <tref>edge</tref> has a direction associated with it and is labeled with
@@ -1552,7 +1552,7 @@
             <li>Otherwise, if <i>key</i>'s <tref>container mapping</tref> in
               <tref>active context</tref> is <code>@language</code> and
               <i>value</i> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> then <i>value</i>
-              is expanded from a <tref href="../json-ld-syntax/#dfn-language-map">language map</tref>
+              is expanded from a <tref href="../json-ld/#dfn-language-map">language map</tref>
               as follows:
               <ol class="algorithm">
                 <li>Initialize <i>expanded value</i> to an empty
@@ -2756,7 +2756,7 @@
         which collects all properties of a <tref>node</tref> in a single
         <tref>JSON object</tref>. In the next step, the <i>node map</i> is
         converted to a JSON-LD document in
-        <tref href="../json-ld-syntax/#flattened-document-form">flattened document form</tref>.
+        <tref href="../json-ld/#flattened-document-form">flattened document form</tref>.
         Finally, if a <tref>context</tref> has been passed, the flattened document
         is compacted using the <a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction algorithm</a>
         before being returned.</p>
@@ -3985,7 +3985,7 @@
         <dd>A <tref>set object</tref> or <tref>list object</tref> with
           disallowed members has been detected.</dd>
         <dt>invalid language map value</dt>
-        <dd>An invalid value in a <tref href="../json-ld-syntax/#dfn-language-map">language map</tref>
+        <dd>An invalid value in a <tref href="../json-ld/#dfn-language-map">language map</tref>
           has been detected. It has to be a <tref>string</tref> or an <tref>array</tref> of
           <tref title="string">strings</tref>.</dd>
         <dt>compaction to list of lists</dt>
--- a/spec/latest/json-ld-connect/index.html	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ b/spec/latest/json-ld-connect/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -182,10 +182,10 @@
     <dd>The use of the <tref>null</tref> value within JSON-LD is used to ignore or reset values.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>keyword</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A JSON key that is specific to JSON-LD, specified in the JSON-LD Syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]]
-      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
+      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>context</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A a set of rules for interpreting a JSON-LD document as specified in
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
+      <cite><a href="../json-ld/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
     <dt><tdef><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></tdef></dt>
     <dd>An Internationalized Resource Identifier as described in [[!RFC3987]].</dd>
     <dt><tdef>Linked Data</tdef></dt>
--- a/spec/latest/json-ld-framing/index.html	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ b/spec/latest/json-ld-framing/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -186,10 +186,10 @@
     <dd>The use of the <tref>null</tref> value within JSON-LD is used to ignore or reset values.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>keyword</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A JSON key that is specific to JSON-LD, specified in the JSON-LD Syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]]
-      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
+      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>context</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A a set of rules for interpreting a JSON-LD document as specified in
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
+      <cite><a href="../json-ld/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
     <dt><tdef><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></tdef></dt>
     <dd>An Internationalized Resource Identifier as described in [[!RFC3987]].</dd>
     <dt><tdef>Linked Data</tdef></dt>
--- a/spec/latest/json-ld-rdf/index.html	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ b/spec/latest/json-ld-rdf/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -166,10 +166,10 @@
     <dd>The use of the <tref>null</tref> value within JSON-LD is used to ignore or reset values.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>keyword</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A JSON key that is specific to JSON-LD, specified in the JSON-LD Syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]]
-      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
+      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
     <dt><tdef>context</tdef></dt>
     <dd>A a set of rules for interpreting a JSON-LD document as specified in
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
+      <cite><a href="../json-ld/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
     <dt><tdef><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></tdef></dt>
     <dd>An Internationalized Resource Identifier as described in [[!RFC3987]].</dd>
     <dt><tdef>Absolute IRI</tdef></dt>
--- a/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,3712 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html>
-<html>
-<head>
-<title>JSON-LD 1.0</title>
-<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
-<script type="text/javascript" src="../respec-w3c-common.js" class="remove"></script>
-<script type="text/javascript" src="../respec-w3c-extensions.js" class="remove"></script>
-<script type="text/javascript" class="remove">
-//<![CDATA[
-  var respecConfig = {
-      // extend the bibliography entries
-      "localBiblio": localBibliography,
-
-      doRDFa: "1.1",
-      // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
-      specStatus:           "ED",
-      // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
-      //publishDate:          "2012-12-25",
-      copyrightStart:       "2010",
-
-      // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
-      shortName:            "json-ld",
-      subtitle:             "A JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data",
-
-      // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
-      // and its maturity status
-      previousPublishDate:  "2013-02-02",
-      previousMaturity:     "CG-FINAL",
-      previousDiffURI:      "http://json-ld.org/spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20130222/",
-
-      // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
-      edDraftURI:           "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html",
-
-      // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
-      // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
-
-      issueBase: "https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/",
-
-      // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
-      // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
-      // extraCSS:             [],
-
-      // editors, add as many as you like
-      // only "name" is required
-      editors:  [
-          { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
-          { name: "Gregg Kellogg", url: "http://greggkellogg.net/",
-            company: "Kellogg Associates", companyURL: "http://kellogg-assoc.com/" },
-          { name: "Markus Lanthaler", url: "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-            company: "Graz University of Technology", companyURL: "http://www.tugraz.at/" }
-      ],
-
-      // authors, add as many as you like.
-      // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
-      // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
-      authors:  [
-          { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
-            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
-          { name: "Dave Longley", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
-            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/"},
-          { name: "Gregg Kellogg", url: "http://greggkellogg.net/",
-            company: "Kellogg Associates", companyURL: "http://kellogg-assoc.com/" },
-          { name: "Markus Lanthaler", url: "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-            company: "Graz University of Technology", companyURL: "http://www.tugraz.at/" },
-          { name: "Niklas Lindström", url: "http://neverspace.net/" }
-      ],
-
-      // name of the WG
-      wg:           "RDF Working Group",
-
-      // URI of the public WG page
-      wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/",
-
-      // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
-      wgPublicList: "public-rdf-comments",
-
-      // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
-      // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
-      // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
-      // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
-      // Team Contact.
-      wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status",
-      maxTocLevel: 2,
-      preProcess: [ preProc ]
-      // alternateFormats: [ {uri: "diff-20130202.html", label: "diff to previous version"} ]
-  };
-//]]>
-</script>
-<style type="text/css">
-  .diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
-  table, thead, tr, td { padding: 5px; border-width: 1px; border-spacing: 0px; border-style: solid; border-collapse: collapse;}
-</style>
-</head>
-
-<body>
-<section id="abstract">
-  <p>JSON has proven to be a highly useful object serialization and messaging
-    format. This specification defines JSON-LD, a JSON-based format to serialize
-    Linked Data. The syntax is designed to not disturb already deployed systems
-    running on JSON, but provide a smooth upgrade path from JSON to JSON-LD.
-    It is primarily intended to be a way to use Linked Data in Web-based
-    programming environments, to build interoperable Web services, and to
-    store Linked Data in JSON-based storage engines.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section id="sotd">
-  <p>This document has been under development for over 25 months in the
-    JSON for Linking Data Community Group. The document has recently been
-    transferred to the RDF Working Group for review, improvement, and publication.
-    The specification has undergone significant development, review, and changes
-    during the course of the last 25 months.</p>
-
-  <p>There are several independent
-    <a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">interoperable implementations</a> of
-    this specification. There is a
-    <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">fairly complete test suite</a>
-    and a <a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">live JSON-LD editor</a>
-    that is capable of demonstrating the features described in
-    this document. While development on implementations, the test suite
-    and the live editor will continue, they are believed to be mature enough
-    to be integrated into a non-production system at this point in time with
-    the expectation that they could be used in a production system within the
-    next six months.</p>
-
-  <p>There are a number of ways that one may participate in the development of
-    this specification:</p>
-
-  <ul>
-    <li>If you want to make sure that your feedback is formally addressed by
-      the RDF Working Group, you should send it to public-rdf-comments:
-      <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">[email protected]</a></li>
-
-    <li>Ad-hoc technical discussion primarily occurs on the public community mailing list:
-      <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">[email protected]</a></li>
-
-    <li><a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">Public JSON-LD Community Group teleconferences</a>
-    are held on Tuesdays at 1500UTC every week.</li>
-
-    <li>RDF Working Group teleconferences are held on Wednesdays at 1500UTC
-    every week. Participation is limited to RDF Working Group members.</li>
-
-    <li>Specification bugs and issues should be reported in the
-      <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">issue tracker</a>
-      if you do not want to send an e-mail to the public-rdf-comments mailing
-      list.</li>
-
-    <li><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">Source code</a>
-      for the specification can be found on Github.</li>
-
-    <li>The <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">#json-ld</a>
-      IRC channel is available for real-time discussion on irc.freenode.net.</li>
-  </ul>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h1>Introduction</h1>
-
-  <p><tdef>Linked Data</tdef> is a technique for creating a network
-    of inter-connected data across different documents and Web sites. In general,
-    Linked Data has four properties: 1)&nbsp;it uses <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
-    to name things; 2)&nbsp;it uses HTTP <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
-    for those names; 3)&nbsp;the name <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>, when dereferenced,
-    provide more information about the thing; and 4)&nbsp;the data expresses links
-    to data on other Web sites. These properties allow data published on the Web
-    to work much like Web pages do today. One can start at one piece of Linked Data,
-    and follow the links to other pieces of data that are hosted on different
-    sites across the Web.</p>
-
-  <p>JSON-LD is a lightweight syntax to serialize <tref>Linked Data</tref> in
-    JSON [[!RFC4627]]. Its design allows existing JSON to be transformed to
-    Linked Data with minimal changes. JSON-LD is primarily intended to be a
-    way to use Linked Data in Web-based programming environments, to build
-    interoperable Web services, and to store Linked Data in JSON-based storage engines. Since
-    JSON-LD is 100% compatible with JSON, the large number of JSON parsers and libraries
-    available today can be reused. In addition to all the features JSON provides,
-    JSON-LD introduces:</p>
-
-  <ul>
-    <li>a universal identifier mechanism for <tref title="JSON object">JSON objects</tref>
-      via the use of <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,</li>
-    <li>a way to disambiguate keys shared among different JSON documents by mapping
-      them to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> via a <tref>context</tref>,</li>
-    <li>a mechanism in which a value in a <tref>JSON object</tref> may refer
-      to a <tref>JSON object</tref> on a different site on the Web,</li>
-    <li>the ability to annotate <tref title="string">strings</tref> with their language,</li>
-    <li>a way to associate datatypes with values such as dates and times,</li>
-    <li>and a facility to express one or more directed graphs, such as a social
-      network, in a single document.</li>
-  </ul>
-
-  <p>Developers that require any of the facilities listed above or need to serialize
-    an RDF graph or dataset [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]] in a JSON-based syntax will find
-    JSON-LD of interest. The syntax is designed to not disturb already deployed
-    systems running on JSON, but provide a smooth upgrade path from JSON to
-    JSON-LD. Since the shape of such data varies wildly, JSON-LD features mechanisms
-    to reshape documents into a deterministic structure which simplifies their
-    processing.</p>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h2>How to Read this Document</h2>
-
-    <p>This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of Linked
-      Data in JSON. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>Software developers who want to encode Linked Data in a variety of
-        programming languages that can use JSON.</li>
-      <li>Software developers who want to convert existing JSON to JSON-LD.</li>
-      <li>Software developers who want to understand the design decisions and
-        language syntax for JSON-LD.</li>
-      <li>Software developers who want to implement processors and APIs for
-        JSON-LD.</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>A companion document, the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification
-      [[JSON-LD-API]], specifies how to work with JSON-LD at a higher level by
-      providing a standard library interface for common JSON-LD operations. Although that
-      document is not required for understanding and working with JSON-LD, for some
-      readers it will be a better starting point.</p>
-
-    <p>To understand the basics in this specification you must first be familiar with
-      JSON, which is detailed in [[!RFC4627]].</p>
-  </section>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h1>Design Goals and Rationale</h1>
-
-  <p>JSON-LD satisfies the following design goals:</p>
-
-  <dl>
-   <dt>Simplicity</dt>
-   <dd>No extra processors or software libraries should be necessary to use JSON-LD
-     in its most basic form. The language will provide developers with a very easy
-     learning curve. Developers only need to know JSON and two
-     <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> (<code>@context</code>
-     and <code>@id</code>) to use the basic functionality in JSON-LD.</dd>
-   <dt>Compatibility</dt>
-   <dd>A JSON-LD document must be 100% compatible with JSON. This ensures that
-    all of the standard JSON libraries work seamlessly with JSON-LD documents.</dd>
-   <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
-   <dd>The syntax must be able to serialize directed graphs. This ensures that almost
-    every real world data model can be expressed.</dd>
-   <dt>Terseness</dt>
-   <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable, requiring as
-    little effort as possible from the developer.</dd>
-   <dt>Zero Edits, most of the time</dt>
-   <dd>JSON-LD must make the transition to JSON-LD as simple as possible. In many cases,
-     zero edits to the JSON document and the addition of one line to the HTTP response
-     should suffice (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"></a>).
-     This allows organizations that have
-     already deployed large JSON-based infrastructure to use JSON-LD's features
-     in a way that is not disruptive to their day-to-day operations and is
-     transparent to their current customers. However, there are times where
-     mapping JSON to a graph representation is more complex than a simple one-line
-     change. In these instances, rather than extending JSON-LD to support an
-     esoteric use case, we chose not to support the use case. While Zero Edits is
-     a design goal, it is not always possible without adding great complexity
-     to the language. We should focus on simplicity when possible.</dd>
-  </dl>
-</section>
-
-<section class="normative">
-  <h1>Terminology</h1>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>General Terminology</h2>
-
-    <p>This document uses the following terms as defined in JSON [[!RFC4627]]. Refer
-      to the <em>JSON Grammar</em> section in [[!RFC4627]] for formal definitions.</p>
-
-    <dl>
-      <dt><tdef>JSON object</tdef></dt><dd>
-        An object structure is represented as a pair of curly brackets surrounding
-        zero or more key-value pairs. A key is a <tref>string</tref>.
-        A single colon comes after each key, separating the key from the value.
-        A single comma separates a value from a following key. In contrast to JSON,
-        in JSON-LD the keys in an object must be unique.</dd>
-      <dt><tdef>array</tdef></dt>
-      <dd>An array structure is represented as square brackets surrounding zero
-        or more values. Values are separated by commas.
-        In JSON, an array is an <em>ordered</em> sequence of zero or more values.
-        While JSON-LD uses the same array representation as JSON,
-        the collection is <em>unordered</em> by default. While order is
-        preserved in regular JSON arrays, it is not in regular JSON-LD arrays
-        specifically defined (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>).</dd>
-      <dt><tdef>string</tdef></dt><dd>
-        A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters,
-        wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes (if necessary).</dd>
-      <dt><tdef>number</tdef></dt>
-      <dd>A number is similar to that used in most programming languages, except
-        that the octal and hexadecimal formats are not used and leading zeros
-        are not allowed.</dd>
-      <dt><tdef>true</tdef> and <tdef>false</tdef></dt><dd>
-        Values that are used to express one of two possible boolean states.</dd>
-      <dt><tdef>null</tdef></dt>
-      <dd>The <tref>null</tref> value, which is typically used to clear or forget
-        data. For example, A key-value pair in the
-        <code>@context</code> where the value is <tref>null</tref> explicitly
-        decouples a <tref>term</tref>'s association with an <tref>IRI</tref>.
-        A key-value pair in the body of a JSON-LD document whose
-        value is <tref>null</tref> has the same meaning as if the key-value pair
-        was not defined. If <code>@value</code>, <code>@list</code>, or
-        <code>@set</code> is set to <tref>null</tref> in expanded form, then
-        the entire <tref>JSON object</tref> is ignored.</dd>
-    </dl>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Syntax Tokens and Keywords</h2>
-
-    <p>JSON-LD specifies a number of syntax tokens and <tdef title="keyword">keywords</tdef>
-    that are a core part of the language:</p>
-
-    <dl>
-      <dt><code>@context</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to define the short-hand names that are used throughout a JSON-LD
-        document. These short-hand names are called <tref title="term">terms</tref> and help
-        developers to express specific identifiers in a compact manner. The
-        <code>@context</code> keyword is described in detail in
-        <a class="sectionRef" href="#the-context"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@id</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to uniquely identify <em>things</em> that are being described in the document.
-        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#node-identifiers"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@value</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to specify the data that is associated with a particular
-        <tref>property</tref> in the graph. This keyword is described in
-        <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a> and
-        <a class="sectionRef" href="#typed-values"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@language</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to specify the natural (human) language for a particular value or the default
-        language of a JSON-LD document. This keyword is described in
-        <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@type</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to set the data type of a <tref>node</tref> or
-        <tref>typed value</tref>. This keyword is described in
-        <a class="sectionRef" href="#typed-values"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@container</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to set the default container type for a <tref>term</tref>.
-        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@list</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to express an ordered set of data.
-        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@set</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to express an unordered set of data and to ensure that values are always
-         represented as arrays. This keyword is described in
-         <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@reverse</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to express reverse properties. This keyword is described in
-        <a class="sectionRef" href="#reverse-properties"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@index</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to specify that a container is used to index information and
-        that processing should continue deeper into a JSON data structure.
-        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#data-indexing"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@base</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to set the base IRI against which <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref>
-        are resolved. This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#base-iri"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@vocab</code></dt>
-      <dd>Used to expand properties and values in <code>@type</code> with a common prefix
-        <tref>IRI</tref>. This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#default-vocabulary"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>@graph</code></dt><dd>Used to explicitly label a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>.
-        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#named-graphs"></a>.</dd>
-      <dt><code>:</code></dt>
-      <dd>The separator for JSON keys and values that use
-        <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref>.</dd>
-    </dl>
-
-    <p>All keys, <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>, and values in JSON-LD are case-sensitive.</p>
-  </section>
-</section>
-
-<section class="normative">
-  <h1>Conformance</h1>
-
-  <p>This specification describes the conformance criteria for JSON-LD documents.
-    This criteria is relevant to authors and authoring tool implementers. As well
-    as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples,
-    and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this
-    specification is normative.</p>
-
-  <p>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> complies with this specification if it follows
-    the normative statements in appendix <a href="#json-ld-grammar"></a>. JSON documents
-    can be interpreted as JSON-LD by following the normative statements in
-    <a class="sectionRef" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"></a>. For convenience, normative
-    statements for documents are often phrased as statements on the properties of the document.</p>
-
-  <p>The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT,
-    RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this specification have the
-    meaning defined in [[!RFC2119]].</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h1>Basic Concepts</h1>
-
-  <p>JSON [[RFC4627]] is a lightweight, language-independent data-interchange format.
-    It is easy to parse and easy to generate. However, it is difficult to integrate JSON
-    from different sources as the data has just local meaning. Furthermore, JSON has no
-    built-in support for hyperlinks - a fundamental building block on the Web. Let's look
-    at an example that we will be using for the rest of this section:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Sample JSON document">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "name": "Manu Sporny",
-    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-    "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>It's obvious to humans that the data is about a person whose name is "Manu Sporny"
-    and that the <code>homepage</code> property contains the URL of that person's homepage.
-    A machine doesn't have such an intuitive understanding and sometimes,
-    even for humans, it is difficult to resolve ambiguities in such representations. This problem
-    can be solved by using unambiguous identifiers to denote the different concepts instead of
-    tokens such as "name", "homepage", etc.</p>
-
-  <p><tref>Linked Data</tref>, and the Web in general, uses <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
-    (Internationalized Resource Identifiers as described in [[!RFC3987]]) for unambiguous
-    identification. The idea is to assign <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> to something that may
-    be of use to other developers and that it is useful to give them an unambiguous identifier.
-    That is, it is useful for <tref title="term">terms</tref> to expand to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
-    so that developers don't accidentally step on each other's terms. Furthermore, developers and
-    machines are able to use this <tref>IRI</tref> (by using a web browser, for instance) to go to
-    the term and get a definition of what the term means.</p>
-
-  <p>Leveraging the well-known <a href="http://schema.org/">schema.org vocabulary</a>,
-    the example above could be unambiguously expressed as follows:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Sample JSON-LD document using full IRIs instead of terms">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "****http://schema.org/name****": "Manu Sporny",
-    "****http://schema.org/url****": ****{ "@id": ****"http://manu.sporny.org/" ****}****,
-    "****http://schema.org/image****": ****{ "@id": ****"http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png" ****}****
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, every property is unambiguously identified by an <tref>IRI</tref> and all values
-    representing <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> are explicitly marked as such by the
-    <code>@id</code> <tref>keyword</tref>. While this is a valid JSON-LD
-    document that is very specific about its data, the document is also overly verbose and difficult
-    to work with for human developers. To address this issue, JSON-LD introduces the notion
-    of a <tref>context</tref> as described in the next section.</p>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h2>The Context</h2>
-
-    <p>Simply speaking, a <tdef>context</tdef> is used to map <tref title="term">terms</tref>, to
-      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>. <tref title="term">Terms</tref> are case sensitive
-      and any valid <tref>string</tref> that is not a reserved JSON-LD <tref>keyword</tref>
-      can be used as a <tref>term</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>For the sample document in the previous section, a <tref>context</tref> would
-      look something like this:</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Context for the sample document in the previous section">
-    <!--
-    {
-      ****"@context":
-      {
-        "name": "http://schema.org/name",
-        "image": {
-          "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
-          "@type": "@id"
-        },
-        "homepage": {
-          "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
-          "@type": "@id"
-        }
-      }****
-    }
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>As the <tref>context</tref> above shows, the value of a <tdef>term definition</tdef> can
-      either be a simple string, mapping the <tref>term</tref> to an <tref>IRI</tref>,
-      or a <tref>JSON object</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>When a <tref>JSON object</tref> is
-      associated with a term, it is called an <tdef>expanded term definition</tdef>.
-      The example above specifies that the values of <code>image</code> and
-      <code>homepage</code> terms are <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.
-      They also allow terms to be used for <a href="#data-indexing">index maps</a>
-      and to specify whether <tref title="array">array</tref> values are to be
-      interpreted as <a href="#sets-and-lists">sets or lists</a>.
-      <tref title="expanded term definition">Expanded term definitions</tref> may
-      be defined using <tref title="absolute iri">absolute</tref> or
-      <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref> as keys, which is
-      mainly used to associate type or language information with an
-      <tref title="absolute iri">absolute</tref> or <tref>compact IRI</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p><tref title="context">Contexts</tref> can either be directly embedded
-      into the document or be referenced. Assuming the context document in the previous
-      example can be retrieved at <code>http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld</code>,
-      it can be referenced by adding a single line and allows a JSON-LD document to
-      be expressed much more concisely as shown in the example below:</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Referencing a JSON-LD context">
-    <!--
-    {
-      ****"@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",****
-      "name": "Manu Sporny",
-      "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-      "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
-    }
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>The referenced context not only specifies how the terms map to
-      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> in the Schema.org vocabulary but also specifies that
-      the values of the <code>homepage</code> and <code>image</code> property
-      can be interpreted as an <tref>IRI</tref> (<code>"@type": "@id"</code>,
-      see <a class="sectionRef" href="#iris"></a> for more details). This information allows developers
-      to re-use each other's data without having to agree to how their data will interoperate
-      on a site-by-site basis. External JSON-LD context documents may contain extra
-      information located outside of the <code>@context</code> key, such as
-      documentation about the <tref title="term">terms</tref> declared in the
-      document. Information contained outside of the <code>@context</code> value
-      is ignored when the document is used as an external JSON-LD context document.</p>
-
-    <p>JSON documents can be transformed to JSON-LD without having to be modified by
-      referencing a <tref>context</tref> via an HTTP Link Header
-      as described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"></a>. It is also
-      possible to apply a custom context using the JSON-LD API [[JSON-LD-API]].</p>
-
-    <p>In <tref title="JSON-LD document">JSON-LD documents</tref>
-      <tref title="context">contexts</tref> may also be specified in-line.
-      This has the advantage that documents can be processed even in the
-      absence of a connection to the Web.</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="In-line context definition">
-    <!--
-    {
-      ****"@context":
-      {
-        "name": "http://schema.org/name",
-        "image": {
-          "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
-          "@type": "@id"
-        },
-        "homepage": {
-          "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
-          "@type": "@id"
-        }
-      },****
-      "name": "Manu Sporny",
-      "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-      "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
-    }
-    -->
-    </pre>
-  </section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>IRIs</h2>
-
-  <p><tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> (Internationalized Resource Identifiers
-    [[!RFC3987]]) are fundamental to <tref>Linked Data</tref> as that is how most
-    <tref title="node">nodes</tref> and <tref title="property">properties</tref>
-    are identified. In JSON-LD, IRIs may be represented as an
-    <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or a <tref>relative IRI</tref>. An
-    <tdef>absolute IRI</tdef> is defined in [[!RFC3987]] as containing a
-    <em>scheme</em> along with <em>path</em> and optional <em>query</em> and
-    <em>fragment</em> segments. A <tdef>relative IRI</tdef> is an IRI
-    that is relative to some other <tref>absolute IRI</tref>.
-    In JSON-LD all <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref> are resolved
-    relative to the <tdef>base IRI</tdef> associated with the document.</p>
-
-  <p>A <tref>string</tref> is interpreted as an <tref>IRI</tref> when it is the
-    value of an <code>@id</code> member:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Values of @id are interpreted as IRI">
-  <!--
-  {
-  ...
-    "homepage": { "****@id****": "http://example.com/" }
-  ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Values that are interpreted as <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>, can also be
-    expressed as <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref>. For example,
-    assuming that the following document is located at
-    <code>http://example.com/about/</code>, the <tref>relative IRI</tref>
-    <code>../</code> would expand to <code>http://example.com/</code> (for more
-    information on where  <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref> can be
-    used, please refer to appendix <a href="#json-ld-grammar"></a>).</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="IRIs can be relative">
-  <!--
-  {
-  ...
-    "homepage": { "****@id****": "../" }
-  ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p><tref title="absolute iri">Absolute IRIs</tref> can be expressed directly
-    in the key position like so:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="IRI as a key">
-  <!--
-  {
-  ...
-    "****http://schema.org/name****": "Manu Sporny",
-  ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, the key <code>http://schema.org/name</code>
-    is interpreted as an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> because it contains a colon
-    (<code>:</code>) and it is neither a <tref>compact IRI</tref> nor a
-    <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>Term-to-IRI expansion occurs if the key matches a <tref>term</tref> defined
-    within the <tref>active context</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Term expansion from context definition">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "****@context****":
-    {
-      "****name****": "****http://schema.org/name****"
-    },
-    "****name****": "Manu Sporny",
-    "status": "trollin'"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>JSON keys that do not expand to an <tref>IRI</tref>, such as <code>status</code>
-    in the example above, are not Linked Data and thus ignored when processed.</p>
-
-  <p>If type <tref>coercion</tref> rules are specified in the <code>@context</code> for
-    a particular <tref>term</tref> or property IRI, an IRI is generated:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Type coercion">
-  <!--
-  {****
-    "@context":
-    {
-      ...
-      "homepage":
-      {
-        "@id": "http://schema.org/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-      ...
-    }****
-  ...
-    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-  ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, even though the value <code>http://manu.sporny.org/</code>
-    is expressed as a JSON <tref>string</tref>, the type <tref>coercion</tref>
-    rules will transform the value into an IRI when generating the
-    <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>. See <a class="sectionRef" href="#type-coercion"></a> for more
-    details about this feature.</p>
-
-  <p>In summary, <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> can be expressed in a variety of
-    different ways in JSON-LD:</p>
-
-  <ol>
-    <li><tref>JSON object</tref> keys that have a <tref>term</tref> mapping in
-      the <tref>active context</tref> expand to an <tref>IRI</tref>
-      (only applies outside of the <tref>context definition</tref>).</li>
-    <li>An <tref>IRI</tref> is generated for the <tref>string</tref> value specified using
-      <code>@id</code> or <code>@type</code>.</li>
-    <li>An <tref>IRI</tref> is generated for the <tref>string</tref> value of any key for which there
-      are <tref>coercion</tref> rules that contain a <code>@type</code> key that is
-      set to a value of <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code>.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Node Identifiers</h2>
-
-  <p>To be able to externally reference <tref title="node">nodes</tref>
-    in a <tref title="json-ld graph">graph</tref>, it is important that
-    <tref title="node">nodes</tref> have an identifier. <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
-    are a fundamental concept of <tref>Linked Data</tref>, for
-    <tref title="node">nodes</tref> to be truly linked, dereferencing the
-    identifier should result in a representation of that <tref>node</tref>.
-    This may allow an application to retrieve further information about a
-    <tref>node</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>In JSON-LD, a <tref>node</tref> is identified using the <code>@id</code>
-    <tref>keyword</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Identifying a node">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context":
-    {
-      ...
-      "name": "http://schema.org/name"
-    },
-    ****"@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/"****,
-    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The example above contains a <tref>node object</tref> identified by the IRI
-    <code>http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/</code>.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-<h2>Specifying the Type</h2>
-
-<p>The type of a particular node can be specified using the <code>@type</code>
-  <tref>keyword</tref>. In <tref>Linked Data</tref>, types are uniquely
-  identified with an <tref>IRI</tref>.</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Specifying the type for a node">
-<!--
-{
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
-  "****@type****": "****http://schema.org/Restaurant****",
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>A node can be assigned more than one type by using an <tref>array</tref>:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Specifying multiple types for a node">
-<!--
-{
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
-  "****@type****": ****[ "http://schema.org/Restaurant", "http://schema.org/Brewery" ],****
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>The value of a <code>@type</code> key may also be a <tref>term</tref> defined in the <tref>active context</tref>:</p>
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Using a term to specify the type">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context": {
-    ...
-    ****"Restaurant": "http://schema.org/Restaurant", ****
-    ****"Brewery": "http://schema.org/Brewery"****
-  }
-  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
-  ****"@type": [ "Restaurant", "Brewery" ]****,
-  ...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-</section>
-</section>
-
-<section class="normative">
-<h1>Advanced Concepts</h1>
-
-<p>JSON-LD has a number of features that provide functionality above and beyond
-  the core functionality described above. The following section describes this
-  advanced functionality in more detail.</p>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Base IRI</h2>
-
-  <p class="issue atrisk" data-number="223" title="Feature at risk">This feature is
-    at risk as the fact that a document may have multiple base IRIs is potentially
-    confusing for developers. It is also being discussed whether relative IRIs
-    are allowed as values of <code>@base</code> or whether the empty string
-    should be used to explicitly specify that there isn't a base IRI, which
-    could be used to ensure that relative IRIs remain relative when expanding.</p>
-
-  <p>JSON-LD allows <tref>IRI</tref>s to be specified in a relative form which is
-    resolved against the document base according
-    <cite><a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1">section 5.1 Establishing a Base URI</a></cite>
-    of [[RFC3986]]. The base IRI may be explicitly set with a <tref>context</tref>
-    using the <code>@base</code> keyword.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, if a JSON-LD document was retrieved from <code>http://example.com/document.jsonld</code>,
-    relative IRIs would resolve against that IRI:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Use a relative IRI as node identifier">
-    <!--
-    {
-      "@context": {
-        "label": "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label"
-      },
-      ****"@id": ""****,
-      "label": "Just a simple document"
-    }
-    -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>This document uses an empty <code>@id</code>, which resolves to the document base.
-    However, if the document is moved to a different location, the <tref>IRI</tref> would change.
-    To prevent this without having to use an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>context</tref>
-    may define a <code>@base</code> mapping, to overwrite the base IRI for the document.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Setting the document base in a document">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      ****"@base": "http://example.com/document.jsonld"****
-    },
-    "@id": "",
-    "label": "Just a simple document"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Default Vocabulary</h2>
-
-  <p>At times, all properties and types may come from the same vocabulary. JSON-LD's
-    <code>@vocab</code> keyword allows an author to set a common prefix to be used
-    for all properties and types that do not match a <tref>term</tref> or are neither
-    a <tref>compact IRI</tref> nor an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> (i.e., they do
-    not contain a colon).</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Using a common vocabulary prefix">
-  <!--
-    {
-      "@context": {
-        ****"@vocab": "http://schema.org/"****
-      }
-      "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
-      "@type": ****"Restaurant"****,
-      ****"name"****: "Brew Eats"
-      ...
-    }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>If <code>@vocab</code> is used but certain keys in an
-    <tref title="JSON object">object</tref> should not be expanded using
-    the vocabulary <tref>IRI</tref>, a <tref>term</tref> can be explicitly set
-    to <tref>null</tref> in the <tref>context</tref>. For instance, in the
-    example below the <code>databaseId</code> member would not expand to an
-    <tref>IRI</tref>.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Using the null keyword to ignore data">
-  <!--
-    {
-      "@context":
-      {
-         "@vocab": "http://schema.org/",
-         ****"databaseId": null****
-      },
-        "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
-        "@type": "Restaurant",
-        "name": "Brew Eats",
-        ****"databaseId"****: "23987520"
-    }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Compact IRIs</h2>
-
-  <p>A <tdef>compact IRI</tdef> is a way of expressing an <tref>IRI</tref>
-    using a <em>prefix</em> and <em>suffix</em> separated by a colon (<code>:</code>).
-    The <tdef>prefix</tdef> is a <tref>term</tref> taken from the
-    <tref>active context</tref> and is a short string identifying a
-    particular <tref>IRI</tref> in a JSON-LD document. For example, the
-    prefix <code>foaf</code> may be used as a short hand for the
-    Friend-of-a-Friend vocabulary, which is identified using the <tref>IRI</tref>
-    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</code>. A developer may append
-    any of the FOAF vocabulary terms to the end of the prefix to specify a short-hand
-    version of the <tref>absolute IRI</tref> for the vocabulary term. For example,
-    <code>foaf:name</code> would be expanded to the IRI
-    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Prefix expansion">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "****@context****":
-    {
-      "****foaf****": "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/****"
-  ...
-    },
-    "@type": "****foaf:Person****"
-    "****foaf:name****": "Dave Longley",
-  ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, <code>foaf:name</code> expands to the <tref>IRI</tref>
-    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code> and <code>foaf:Person</code> expands
-    to <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</code>.</p>
-
-  <p><tref title="prefix">Prefixes</tref> are expanded when the form of the value
-    is a <tref>compact IRI</tref> represented as a <code>prefix:suffix</code>
-    combination, the <em>prefix</em> matches a <tref>term</tref> defined within the
-    <tref>active context</tref>, and the <em>suffix</em> does not begin with two
-    slashes&nbsp;(<code>//</code>). The <tref>compact IRI</tref> is expanded by
-    concatenating the <tref>IRI</tref> mapped to the <em>prefix</em> to the (possibly empty)
-    <em>suffix</em>. If the <em>prefix</em> is not defined in the <tref>active context</tref>,
-    or the suffix begins with two slashes (such as in <code>http://example.com</code>),
-    the value is interpreted as <tref>absolute IRI</tref> instead. If the prefix is an
-    underscore (<code>_</code>), the value is interpreted as <tref>blank node identifier</tref>
-    instead.</p>
-
-
-  <p>It's also possible to use compact IRIs within the context as shown in the
-    following example:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Using vocabularies">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context":
-    {
-      "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
-      ****"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****,
-      ****"foaf:homepage"****: { "@type": "@id" },
-      "picture": { "@id": ****"foaf:depiction"****, "@type": "@id" }
-    },
-    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "@type": "foaf:Person",
-    "foaf:name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "foaf:homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "picture": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-<h2>Typed Values</h2>
-
-<p>
-  A value with an associated type, also known as a
-  <tref>typed value</tref>, is indicated by associating a value with
-  an <tref>IRI</tref> which indicates the value's type. Typed values may be
-  expressed in JSON-LD in three ways:
-</p>
-
-<ol>
-  <li>By utilizing the <code>@type</code> <tref>keyword</tref> when defining
-    a <tref>term</tref> within a <code>@context</code> section.</li>
-  <li>By utilizing a <tref>value object</tref>.</li>
-  <li>By using a native JSON type such as <tref>number</tref>, <tref>true</tref>, or <tref>false</tref>.</li>
-</ol>
-
-<p>The first example uses the <code>@type</code> keyword to associate a
-type with a particular <tref>term</tref> in the <code>@context</code>:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Expanded term definition with type coercion">
-<!--
-{
-  ****"@context":
-  {
-    "modified":
-    {
-      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified",
-      "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
-    }
-  },****
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.com/docs/1",
-  "modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>The <em>modified</em> key's value above is automatically type coerced to a
-  <em>dateTime</em> value because of the information specified in the
-  <code>@context</code>. A JSON-LD processor will interpret the example above
-  as follows:</p>
-
-<table class="example">
-<thead>
-  <th>Subject</th>
-  <th>Property</th>
-  <th>Value</th>
-  <th>Value Type</th>
-</thead>
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.com/docs/1</td>
-  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified</td>
-  <td>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</td>
-  <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-
-<p>The second example uses the expanded form of setting the type information
-in the body of a JSON-LD document:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Expanded value with type">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    "modified":
-    {
-      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified"
-    }
-  },
-...
-  "modified":
-  ****{
-    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
-    "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
-  }****
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>Both examples above would generate the value
-  <code>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</code> with the type
-  <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>. Note that it is
-  also possible to use a <tref>term</tref> or a <tref>compact IRI</tref> to
-  express the value of a type.</p>
-
-<p>The <code>@type</code> <tref>keyword</tref> is also used to associate a type
-  with a <tref>node</tref>. The concept of a <tref>node type</tref> and
-  a <tref>value type</tref> are different.</p>
-
-<p>Generally speaking, a <tdef>node type</tdef> specifies the type of thing
-  that is being described, like a person, place, event, or web page. A
-  <tdef>value type</tdef> specifies the data type of a particular value, such
-  as an integer, a floating point number, or a date.</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Example demonstrating the context-sensitivity for @type">
-<!--
-{
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia",
-  ****"@type": "http://schema.org/BlogPosting"****,   <- This is a node type
-  "modified":
-  {
-    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
-    ****"@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"**** <- This is a value type
-  }
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>The first use of <code>@type</code> associates a <tref>node type</tref>
-  (<code>http://schema.org/BlogPosting</code>) with the <tref>node</tref>,
-  which is expressed using the <code>@id</code> <tref>keyword</tref>.
-  The second use of <code>@type</code> associates a <tref>value type</tref>
-  (<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>) with the
-  value expressed using the <code>@value</code> <tref>keyword</tref>. As a
-  general rule, when <code>@value</code> and <code>@type</code> are used in
-  the same <tref>JSON object</tref>, the <code>@type</code>
-  <tref>keyword</tref> is expressing a <tref>value type</tref>.
-  Otherwise, the <code>@type</code> <tref>keyword</tref> is expressing a
-  <tref>node type</tref>. The example above expresses the following data:</p>
-
-<table class="example">
-<thead>
-  <th>Subject</th>
-  <th>Property</th>
-  <th>Value</th>
-  <th>Value Type</th>
-</thead>
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia</td>
-  <td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</td>
-  <td>http://schema.org/BlogPosting</td>
-  <td style="text-align:center;">-</td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia</td>
-  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified</td>
-  <td>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</td>
-  <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-<h2>Type Coercion</h2>
-
-<p>JSON-LD supports the coercion of values to particular data types.
-Type <tdef>coercion</tdef> allows someone deploying JSON-LD to coerce the incoming or
-outgoing values to the proper data type based on a mapping of data type <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> to
-<tref title="term">terms</tref>. Using type coercion, value representation is preserved without requiring
-the data type to be specified with each piece of data.</p>
-
-<p>Type coercion is specified within an <tref>expanded term definition</tref>
-  using the <code>@type</code> key. The value of this key expands to an <tref>IRI</tref>.
-  Alternatively, the <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code> may be used
-  as value to indicate that within the body of a JSON-LD document, a <tref>string</tref> value of a
-  <tref>term</tref> coerced to <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code> is to be interpreted as an
-  <tref>IRI</tref>. The difference between <code>@id</code> and <code>@vocab</code> is how values are expanded
-  to <tref title="absolute IRI">absolute IRIs</tref>. <code>@vocab</code> first tries to expand the value
-  by interpreting it as <tref>term</tref>. If no matching <tref>term</tref> is found in the
-  <tref>active context</tref>, it tries to expand it as <tref>compact IRI</tref> or <tref>absolute IRI</tref>
-  if there's a colon in the value; otherwise, it will expand the value using the
-  <tref title="active context">active context's</tref> vocabulary mapping, if present, or by interpreting it
-  as <tref>relative IRI</tref>. Values coerced to <code>@id</code> in contrast are expanded as
-  <tref>compact IRI</tref> or <tref>absolute IRI</tref> if a colon is present; otherwise, they are interpreted
-  as <tref>relative IRI</tref>.</p>
-
-<p><tref title="term">Terms</tref> or <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref> used as the value of a
-  <code>@type</code> key may be defined within the same context. This means that one may specify a
-  <tref>term</tref> like <code>xsd</code> and then use <code>xsd:integer</code> within the same
-  context definition.</p>
-
-<p>The example below demonstrates how a JSON-LD author can coerce values to
-<tref title="typed value">typed values</tref> and <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Expanded term definition with types">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
-    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-    "age":
-    ****{
-      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
-      "@type": "xsd:integer"
-    }****,
-    "homepage":
-    ****{
-      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-      "@type": "@id"
-    }****
-  },
-  "@id": "http://example.com/people#john",
-  "name": "John Smith",
-  "age": ****"41"****,
-  "homepage":
-  ****[
-    "http://personal.example.org/",
-    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
-  ]****
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>The example shown above would generate the following data.</p>
-
-<table class="example">
-<thead>
-  <th>Subject</th>
-  <th>Property</th>
-  <th>Value</th>
-  <th>Value Type</th>
-</thead>
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.com/people#john</td>
-  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</td>
-  <td>John Smith</td>
-  <td>&nbsp;</td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.com/people#john</td>
-  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age</td>
-  <td>41</td>
-  <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer</td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td rowspan="2">http://example.com/people#john</td>
-  <td rowspan="2">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</td>
-  <td>http://personal.example.org/</td>
-  <td><tref>IRI</tref></td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://work.example.com/jsmith/</td>
-  <td><tref>IRI</tref></td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-
-<p>Terms may also be defined using <tref title="absolute iri">absolute IRIs</tref>
-  or <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref>. This allows coercion rules
-  to be applied to keys which are not represented as a simple <tref>term</tref>.
-  For example:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Term definitions using compact and absolute IRIs">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
-    "****foaf:age****":
-    {
-      ****"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age"****,
-      "@type": "xsd:integer"
-    },
-    "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****":
-    {
-      "@type": "@id"
-    }
-  },
-  "foaf:name": "John Smith",
-  "****foaf:age****": "41",
-  "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****":
-  [
-    "http://personal.example.org/",
-    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
-  ]
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>In this case the <code>@id</code> definition in the term definition is optional.
-  If it does exist, the <tref>compact IRI</tref> or <tref>IRI</tref> representing
-  the term will always be expanded to <tref>IRI</tref> defined by the <code>@id</code>
-  key&mdash;regardless of whether a prefix is defined or not.</p>
-
-<p>Type coercion is always performed using the unexpanded value of the key. In the
-  example above, that means that type coercion is done looking for <code>foaf:age</code>
-  in the <tref>active context</tref> and not for the corresponding, expanded
-  <tref>IRI</tref> <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age</code>.</p>
-
-<p class="note">Keys in the context are treated as <tref title="term">terms</tref> for the purpose of
-  expansion and value coercion. At times, this may result in multiple representations for the same expanded IRI.
-  For example, one could specify that <code>dog</code> and <code>cat</code> both expanded to <code>http://example.com/vocab#animal</code>.
-  Doing this could be useful for establishing different type coercion or language specification rules. It also allows a <tref>compact IRI</tref> (or even an
-  absolute <tref>IRI</tref>) to be defined as something else entirely. For example, one could specify that
-  the <tref>term</tref> <code>http://example.org/zoo</code> should expand to
-  <code>http://example.org/river</code>, but this usage is discouraged because it would lead to a
-  great deal of confusion among developers attempting to understand the JSON-LD document.</p>
-
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Embedding</h2>
-
-  <p><tdef>Embedding</tdef> is a JSON-LD feature that allows an author to
-    use <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> as
-    <tref>property</tref> values. This is a commonly used mechanism for
-    creating a parent-child relationship between two <tref title="node">nodes</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The example shows two nodes related by a property from the first node:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Embedding a node object as property value of another node object">
-  <!--
-  {
-  ...
-    "name": "Manu Sporny",
-    "****knows****":
-    {
-      "****@type****": "****Person****",
-      "****name****": "****Gregg Kellogg****",
-    }
-  ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>
-    A <tref>node object</tref>, like the one used above, may be used in
-    any value position in the body of a JSON-LD document.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Advanced Context Usage</h2>
-
-  <p>Section <a href="#the-context"></a> introduced the basics of what makes
-  JSON-LD work. This section expands on the basic principles of the
-  <tref>context</tref> and demonstrates how more advanced use cases can
-  be achieved using JSON-LD. </p>
-
-  <p>In general, contexts may be used at any time a
-    <tref>JSON object</tref> is defined. The only time that one cannot
-    express a context is inside a context definition itself. For example, a
-    <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> may use more than one context at different
-    points in a document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Using multiple contexts">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      ****"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/person.jsonld",****
-      "name": "Manu Sporny",
-      "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-      "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
-    },
-    {
-      ****"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/place.jsonld",****
-      "name": "The Empire State Building",
-      "description": "The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark in New York City.",
-      "geo": {
-        "latitude": "40.75",
-        "longitude": "73.98"
-      }
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Duplicate context <tref title="term">terms</tref> are overridden using a
-    most-recently-defined-wins mechanism.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Scoped contexts within node objects">
-  <!--
-  {
-    ****"@context":
-    {
-      "name": "http://example.com/person#name,
-      "details": "http://example.com/person#details"
-    }"****,
-    "****name****": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    ...
-    "details":
-    {
-      ****"@context":
-      {
-        "name": "http://example.com/organization#name"
-      }****,
-      "****name****": "Graz University of Technology"
-    }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, the <code>name</code> <tref>term</tref> is overridden
-    in the more deeply nested <code>details</code> structure. Note that this is
-    rarely a good authoring practice and is typically used when working with
-    legacy applications that depend on a specific structure of the
-    <tref>JSON object</tref>. If a <tref>term</tref> is redefined within a
-    context, all previous rules associated with the previous definition are
-    removed. If a <tref>term</tref> is redefined to <code>null</code>,
-    the <tref>term</tref> is effectively removed from the list of
-    <tref title="term">terms</tref> defined in the <tref>active context</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>Multiple contexts may be combined using an <tref>array</tref>, which is processed
-    in order. The set of contexts defined within a specific <tref>JSON object</tref> are
-    referred to as <tdef title="local context">local contexts</tdef>. The
-    <tdef>active context</tdef> refers to the accumulation of
-    <tref title="local context">local contexts</tref> that are in scope at a
-    specific point within the document. Setting a <tref>local context</tref>
-    to <code>null</code> effectively resets the <tref>active context</tref>
-    to an empty context. The following example specifies an external context
-    and then layers an embedded context on top of the external context:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Combining external and local contexts">
-  <!--
-  {
-    ****"@context": [
-      "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",
-      {
-        "pic": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction"
-      }
-    ],****
-    "name": "Manu Sporny",
-    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-    ****"pic": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"****
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p class="note">When possible, the <tref>context</tref> definition should be put
-    at the top of a JSON-LD document. This makes the document easier to read and
-    might make streaming parsers more efficient. Documents that do not have the
-    <tref>context</tref> at the top are still conformant JSON-LD.</p>
-
-  <p class="note">To avoid forward-compatibility issues, <tref title="term">terms</tref>
-    starting with an&nbsp;<code>@</code> character are to be avoided as they
-    might be used as <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> in future versions
-    of JSON-LD. Terms starting with an&nbsp;<code>@</code> character that are not
-    <tref title="keyword">JSON-LD 1.0 keywords</tref> are treated as any other term, i.e.,
-    they are ignored unless mapped to an <tref>IRI</tref>. Furthermore, the use of
-    empty <tref title="term">terms</tref> (<code>""</code>) is not allowed as
-    not all programming languages are able to handle empty property names.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="normative">
-  <h2>Interpreting JSON as JSON-LD</h2>
-
-  <p>Ordinary JSON documents can be interpreted as JSON-LD by referencing a JSON-LD
-    <tref>context</tref> document in an HTTP Link Header. Doing so allows JSON to
-    be unambiguously machine-readable without requiring developers to drastically
-    change their documents and provides an upgrade path for existing infrastructure
-    without breaking existing clients that rely on the <code>application/json</code>
-    media type.</p>
-
-  <p>In order to use an external context with an ordinary JSON document, an author
-    MUST specify an <tref>IRI</tref> to a valid <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> in
-    an HTTP Link Header [[!RFC5988]] using the <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context</code>
-    link relation. The referenced document MUST have a top-level <tref>JSON object</tref>.
-    The <code>@context</code> subtree within that object is added to the top-level
-    <tref>JSON object</tref> of the referencing document. If an <tref>array</tref>
-    is at the top-level of the referencing document and its items are
-    <tref title="JSON object">JSON objects</tref>, the <code>@context</code>
-    subtree is added to all <tref>array</tref> items. All extra information located outside
-    of the <code>@context</code> subtree in the referenced document MUST be
-    discarded. Effectively this means that the <tref>active context</tref> is
-    initialized with the referenced external <tref>context</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The following example demonstrates the use of an external context with an
-    ordinary JSON document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Referencing a JSON-LD context from a JSON document via an HTTP Link Header">
-  <!--
-  GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
-  Host: example.com
-  Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
-
-  ====================================
-
-  HTTP/1.0 200 OK
-  ...
-  Content-Type: ****application/json****
-  ****Link: <http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"****
-
-  {
-    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "image": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Please note that <tref title="JSON-LD document">JSON-LD documents</tref>
-    served with the <code>application/ld+json</code>
-    media type MUST have all context information, including references to external
-    contexts, within the body of the document. Contexts linked via a
-    <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context</code> HTTP Link Header MUST be
-    ignored for such documents.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>String Internationalization</h2>
-
-  <p>At times, it is important to annotate a <tref>string</tref>
-    with its language. In JSON-LD this is possible in a variety of ways.
-    First, it is possible to define a default language for a JSON-LD document
-    by setting the <code>@language</code> key in the <tref>context</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Setting the default language of a JSON-LD document">
-  <!--
-  {
-    ****"@context":
-    {
-      ...
-      "@language": "ja"
-    }****,
-    "name": ****"花澄"****,
-    "occupation": ****"科学者"****
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The example above would associate the <code>ja</code> language
-    code with the two <tref title="string">strings</tref> <em>花澄</em> and <em>科学者</em>.
-    Languages codes are defined in [[!BCP47]]. The default language applies to all
-    <tref>string</tref> values that are not <a href="#type-coercion">type coerced</a>.</p>
-
-  <p>To clear the default language for a subtree, <code>@language</code> can
-    be set to <code>null</code> in a <tref>local context</tref> as follows:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Clearing default language">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      ...
-      "@language": "ja"
-    },
-    "name": "花澄",
-    "details": {
-  ****    "@context": {
-        "@language": null
-      }****,
-      "occupation": "Ninja"
-    }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Second, it is possible to associate a language with a specific <tref>term</tref>
-    using an <tref>expanded term definition</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Expanded term definition with language">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      ...
-      "ex": "http://example.com/vocab/",
-      "@language": "ja",
-      "name": { "@id": "ex:name", ****"@language": null**** },
-      "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation" },
-      "occupation_en": { "@id": "ex:occupation", ****"@language": "en"**** },
-      "occupation_cs": { "@id": "ex:occupation", ****"@language": "cs"**** }
-    },
-    ****"name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
-    "occupation": "忍者",
-    "occupation_en": "Ninja",
-    "occupation_cs": "Nindža",****
-    ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The example above would associate <em>忍者</em> with the specified default
-    language code <code>ja</code>, <em>Ninja</em> with the language code
-    <code>en</code>, and <em>Nindža</em> with the language code <code>cs</code>.
-    The value of <code>name</code>, <em>Yagyū Muneyoshi</em> wouldn't be
-    associated with any language code since <code>@language</code> was reset to
-    <tref>null</tref> in the <tref>expanded term definition</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p class="note">Language associations are only applied to plain
-    <tref title="string">strings</tref>. <tref title="typed value">Typed values</tref>
-    or values that are subject to <a href="#type-coercion">type coercion</a>
-    are not language tagged.</p>
-
-  <p>Just as in the example above, systems often need to express the value of a
-    property in multiple languages. Typically, such systems also try to ensure that
-    developers have a programmatically easy way to navigate the data structures for
-    the language-specific data. In this case, <tref title="language map">language maps</tref>
-    may be utilized.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Language map expressing a property in three languages">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context":
-    {
-      ...
-      "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation", ****"@container": "@language"**** }
-    },
-    "name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
-    "occupation":
-    ****{
-      "ja": "忍者",
-      "en": "Ninja",
-      "cs": "Nindža"
-    }****
-    ...
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The example above expresses exactly the same information as the previous
-    example but consolidates all values in a single property. To access the
-    value in a specific language in a programming language supporting dot-notation
-    accessors for object properties, a developer may use the
-    <code>property.language</code> pattern. For example, to access the occupation
-    in English, a developer would use the following code snippet:
-    <code>obj.occupation.en</code>.</p>
-
-  <p>Third, it is possible to override the default language by using a
-    <tref>value object</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Overriding default language using an expanded value">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      ...
-      "@language": "ja"
-    },
-    "name": "花澄",
-    "occupation": ****{
-      "@value": "Scientist",
-      "@language": "en"
-    }****
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>This makes it possible to specify a plain string by omitting the
-    <code>@language</code> tag or setting it to <code>null</code> when expressing
-    it using a <tref>value object</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Removing language information using an expanded value">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      ...
-      "@language": "ja"
-    },
-    "name": ****{
-      "@value": "Frank"
-    }****,
-    "occupation": {
-      "@value": "Ninja",
-      "@language": "en"
-    },
-    "speciality": "手裏剣"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>IRI Expansion within a Context</h2>
-  <p>In general, normal IRI expansion rules apply
-    anywhere an IRI is expected (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#iris"></a>). Within
-    a <tref>context</tref> definition, this can mean that terms defined
-    within the context may also be used within that context as long as
-    there are no circular dependencies. For example, it is common to use
-    the <code>xsd</code> namespace when defining <tref>typed value</tref>s:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="IRI expansion within a context">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    ****"xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"****,
-    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-    "age":
-    {
-      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
-      "@type": ****"xsd:integer"****
-    },
-    "homepage":
-    {
-      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-      "@type": "@id"
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>In this example, the <code>xsd</code> <tref>term</tref> is defined
-  and used as a <tref>prefix</tref> for the <code>@type</code> coercion
-  of the <code>age</code> property.</p>
-
-<p><tref title="term">Terms</tref> may also be used when defining the IRI of another
-<tref>term</tref>:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Using a term to define the IRI of another term within a context">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    ****"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****,
-    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
-    "name": ****"foaf:name"****,
-    "age":
-    {
-      "@id": ****"foaf:age"****,
-      "@type": "xsd:integer"
-    },
-    "homepage":
-    {
-      "@id": ****"foaf:homepage"****,
-      "@type": "@id"
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p><tref title="compact iri">Compact IRIs</tref>
-  and <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> may be used on the left-hand side of a
-  <tref>term</tref> definition.</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Using a compact IRI as a term">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    ****"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****,
-    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
-    "name": "foaf:name",
-    "****foaf:age****":
-    {
-      "@type": "xsd:integer"
-    },
-    "****foaf:homepage****":
-    ****{
-      "@type": "@id"
-    }****
-  },
-  ...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-In this example, the <tref>compact IRI</tref> form is used in two different
-ways.
-In the first approach, <code>foaf:age</code> declares both the
-<tref>IRI</tref> for the <tref>term</tref> (using short-form) as well as the
-<code>@type</code> associated with the <tref>term</tref>. In the second
-approach, only the <code>@type</code> associated with the <tref>term</tref> is
-specified. The full <tref>IRI</tref> for
-<code>foaf:homepage</code> is determined by looking up the <code>foaf</code>
-<tref>prefix</tref> in the
-<tref>context</tref>.
-</p>
-
-<p>
-<tref title="absolute iri">Absolute IRIs</tref> may also be used in the key position in a <tref>context</tref>:
-</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Associating context definitions with absolute IRIs">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
-    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
-    "name": "foaf:name",
-    "foaf:age":
-    {
-      "@id": "foaf:age",
-      "@type": "xsd:integer"
-    },
-    "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****":
-    {
-      "@type": "@id"
-    }
-  },
-  ...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>In order for the <tref>absolute IRI</tref> to match above, the <tref>absolute IRI</tref>
-  needs to be used in the <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>. Also note that <code>foaf:homepage</code>
-  will not use the <code>{ "@type": "@id" }</code> declaration because
-  <code>foaf:homepage</code> is not the same as <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</code>.
-  That is, <tref title="term">terms</tref> are looked up in a <tref>context</tref> using
-  direct string comparison before the <tref>prefix</tref> lookup mechanism is applied.</p>
-
-<p class="note">While it is possible to define a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, or
-  an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> to expand to some other unrelated <tref>IRI</tref>
-  (for example, <code>foaf:name</code> expanding to
-  <code>http://example.org/unrelated#species</code>), such usage is strongly
-  discouraged.</p>
-
-<p>The only exception for using terms in the <tref>context</tref> is that
-  circular definitions are not allowed. That is,
-  a definition of <em>term1</em> cannot depend on the
-  definition of <em>term2</em> if <em>term2</em> also depends on
-  <em>term1</em>. For example, the following <tref>context</tref> definition
-  is illegal:</p>
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Illegal circular definition of terms within a context">
-<!--
-{
-  "@context":
-  {
-    ****"term1": "term2:foo",
-    "term2": "term1:bar"****
-  },
-  ...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-<h2>Sets and Lists</h2>
-
-<p>A JSON-LD author can express multiple values in a compact way by using
-  <tref title="array">arrays</tref>. Since graphs do not describe ordering for links
-  between nodes, arrays in JSON-LD do not provide an ordering of the
-  contained elements by default. This is exactly the opposite from regular JSON
-  arrays, which are ordered by default. For example, consider the following
-  simple document:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Multiple values with no inherent order">
-<!--
-{
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
-  "nick": ****[ "joe", "bob", "JB" ]****,
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>The example shown above would result in the following data being generated,
-  each relating the node to an individual value, with no inherent order:</p>
-
-<table class="example">
-<thead>
-  <th>Subject</th>
-  <th>Property</th>
-  <th>Value</th>
-</thead>
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/people#joebob</td>
-  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick</td>
-  <td>joe</td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/people#joebob</td>
-  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick</td>
-  <td>bob</td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/people#joebob</td>
-  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick</td>
-  <td>JB</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-
-<p>Multiple values may also be expressed using the expanded form:</p>
-
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Using an expanded form to set multiple values">
-<!--
-{
-  "@id": "http://example.org/articles/8",
-  "dc:title": ****
-  [
-    {
-      "@value": "Das Kapital",
-      "@language": "de"
-    },
-    {
-      "@value": "Capital",
-      "@language": "en"
-    }
-  ]****
-}-->
-</pre>
-
-<p>The example shown above would generate the following data, again with
-  no inherent order:</p>
-
-<table class="example">
-<thead>
-  <th>Subject</th>
-  <th>Property</th>
-  <th>Value</th>
-  <th>Language</th>
-</thead>
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/articles/8</td>
-  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/title</td>
-  <td>Das Kapital</td>
-  <td>de</td>
-</tr>
-<tr>
-  <td>http://example.org/articles/8</td>
-  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/title</td>
-  <td>Capital</td>
-  <td>en</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-
-<p>As the notion of ordered collections is rather important in data
-  modeling, it is useful to have specific language support. In JSON-LD,
-  a list may be represented using the <code>@list</code> <tref>keyword</tref> as follows:</p>
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="An ordered collection of values in JSON-LD">
-<!--
-{
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
-  "foaf:nick":
-  ****{
-    "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]
-  }****,
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p>This describes the use of this <tref>array</tref> as being ordered,
-  and order is maintained when processing a document. If every use of a given multi-valued
-  property is a list, this may be abbreviated by setting <code>@container</code>
-  to <code>@list</code> in the <tref>context</tref>:</p>
-<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-     title="Specifying that a collection is ordered in the context">
-<!--
-{
-  ****"@context":
-  {
-    ...
-    "nick":
-    {
-      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick",
-      "@container": "@list"
-    }
-  }****,
-...
-  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
-  "nick": ****[ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]****,
-...
-}
--->
-</pre>
-
-<p class="note">List of lists are not allowed in this version of JSON-LD.
-  This decision was made due to the extreme amount of added complexity when
-  processing lists of lists.</p>
-
-<p>While <code>@list</code> is used to describe <em>ordered lists</em>,
-  the <code>@set</code> keyword is used to describe <em>unordered sets</em>.
-  The use of <code>@set</code> in the body of a JSON-LD document
-  is optimized away when processing the document, as it is just syntactic
-  sugar. However, <code>@set</code> is helpful when used within the context
-  of a document.
-  Values of terms associated with a <code>@set</code> or <code>@list</code> container
-  are always represented in the form of an <tref>array</tref>,
-  even if there is just a single value that would otherwise be optimized to
-  a non-array form in compact form (see
-  <a class="sectionRef" href="#compact-document-form"></a>). This makes post-processing of
-  JSON-LD documents easier as the data is always in array form, even if the
-  array only contains a single value.</p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Reverse Properties</h2>
-
-  <p class="issue atrisk">This feature is at risk.</p>
-
-  <p>JSON-LD serializes directed <tref title="JSON-LD graph">graphs</tref>. That means that
-    every <tref>property</tref> points from a <tref>node</tref> to another <tref>node</tref>
-    or <tref title="JSON-LD value">value</tref>. However, in some cases, it is desirable
-    to serialize in the reverse direction. Consider for example the case where a person
-    and its children should be described in a document. If the used vocabulary does not
-    provide a <em>children</em> <tref>property</tref> but just a <em>parent</em>
-    <tref>property</tref>, every <tref>node</tref> representing a child would have to
-    be expressed with a <tref>property</tref> pointing to the parent as in the following
-    example.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="A document with children linking to their parent">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      ****"@id": "#homer"****,
-      "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Homer"
-    },
-    {
-      "@id": "#bart",
-      "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Bart",
-      ****"http://example.com/vocab#parent": { "@id": "#homer" }****
-    },
-    {
-      "@id": "#lisa",
-      "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Lisa",
-      ****"http://example.com/vocab#parent": { "@id": "#homer" }****
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Expressing such data is much simpler by using JSON-LD's <code>@reverse</code>
-    <tref>keyword</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="A person and its children using a reverse property">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@id": "#homer",
-    "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Homer",
-    ****"@reverse"****: {
-      ****"http://example.com/vocab#parent"****: [
-        {
-          "@id": "#bart",
-          "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Bart"
-        },
-        {
-          "@id": "#lisa",
-          "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Lisa"
-        }
-      ]
-    }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The <code>@reverse</code> <tref>keyword</tref> can also be used in
-    <tref title="expanded term definition">expanded term definitions</tref>
-    to create reverse properties as shown in the following example:</p>
-
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Using @reverse to define reverse properties">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://example.com/vocab#name",
-      ****"children": { "@reverse": "http://example.com/vocab#parent" }****
-    },
-    "@id": "#homer",
-    "name": "Homer",
-    ****"children"****: [
-      {
-        "@id": "#bart",
-        "name": "Bart"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "#lisa",
-        "name": "Lisa"
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Named Graphs</h2>
-
-  <p>At times, it is necessary to make statements about a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>
-    itself, rather than just a single <tref>node</tref>. This can be done by
-    grouping a set of <tref title="node">nodes</tref> using the <code>@graph</code>
-    <tref>keyword</tref>. A developer may also name data expressed using the
-    <code>@graph</code> <tref>keyword</tref> by pairing it with an
-    <code>@id</code> <tref>keyword</tref> as shown in the following example:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Identifying and making statements about a graph">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "generatedAt": {
-        "@id": "http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime",
-        "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date"
-      },
-      "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
-    },
-    ****"@id": "http://example.org/graphs/73",
-    "generatedAt": "2012-04-09",
-    "@graph":****
-    [
-      {
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
-        "@type": "Person",
-        "name": "Manu Sporny",
-        "knows": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
-        "@type": "Person",
-        "name": "Gregg Kellogg",
-        "knows": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public"
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The example above expresses a <tref>named graph</tref> that is identified
-    by the <tref>IRI</tref> <code>http://example.org/graphs/73</code>. That
-    graph is composed of the statements about Manu and Gregg. Metadata about
-    the graph itself is expressed via the <code>generatedAt</code> property,
-    which specifies when the graph was generated. An alternative view of the
-    information above is represented in table form below:</p>
-
-  <table class="example">
-  <thead>
-    <th>Graph</th>
-    <th>Subject</th>
-    <th>Property</th>
-    <th>Value</th>
-    <th>Value Type</th>
-  </thead>
-  <tbody>
-  <tr>
-    <td>&nbsp;</td>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime</td>
-    <td>2012-04-09</td>
-    <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date</td>
-  </tr>
-  <tr>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
-    <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#type</td>
-    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</td>
-    <td></td>
-  </tr>
-  <tr>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
-    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</td>
-    <td>Manu Sporny</td>
-    <td></td>
-  </tr>
-  <tr>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
-    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows</td>
-    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
-    <td></td>
-  </tr>
-  <tr>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
-    <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#type</td>
-    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</td>
-    <td></td>
-  </tr>
-  <tr>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
-    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</td>
-    <td>Gregg Kellogg</td>
-    <td></td>
-  </tr>
-  <tr>
-    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
-    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
-    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows</td>
-    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
-    <td></td>
-  </tr>
-  </tbody>
-  </table>
-
-  <p>When a JSON-LD document's top-level structure is an
-    <tref title="JSON object">object</tref> that contains no other
-    <tref title="property">properties</tref> than <code>@graph</code> and
-    optionally <code>@context</code> (properties that are not mapped to an
-    <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>keyword</tref> are ignored),
-    <code>@graph</code> is considered to express the otherwise implicit
-    <tref>default graph</tref>. This mechanism can be useful when a number
-    of <tref title="node">nodes</tref> exist at the document's top level that
-    share the same <tref>context</tref>, which is, e.g., the case when a
-    document is <a href="#flattened-document-form">flattened</a>. The
-    <code>@graph</code> keyword collects such nodes in an <tref>array</tref>
-    and allows the use of a shared context.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-    title="Using @graph to explicitly express the default graph">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": ...,
-    "****@graph****":
-    [
-      {
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
-        "@type": "foaf:Person",
-        "name": "Manu Sporny",
-        "knows": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
-        "@type": "foaf:Person",
-        "name": "Gregg Kellogg",
-        "knows": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public"
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In this case, embedding doesn't work as each <tref>node object</tref>
-    references the other. This is equivalent to using multiple
-    <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> in array and defining
-    the <code>@context</code> within each <tref>node object</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-    title="Context needs to be duplicated if @graph is not used">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      ****"@context": ...,****
-      "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
-      "@type": "foaf:Person",
-      "name": "Manu Sporny",
-      "knows": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
-    },
-    {
-      ****"@context": ...,****
-      "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
-      "@type": "foaf:Person",
-      "name": "Gregg Kellogg",
-      "knows": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public"
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Identifying Blank Nodes</h2>
-
-  <p>At times, it becomes necessary to be able to express information without
-    being able to uniquely identify the <tref>node</tref> with an <tref>IRI</tref>.
-    This type of node is called a <tref>blank node</tref>. JSON-LD does not require
-    all nodes to be identified using <code>@id</code>. However, some graph topologies
-    may require identifiers to be serializable. Graphs containing loops, e.g., cannot
-    be serialized using embedding alone, <code>@id</code> must be used to connect the nodes.
-    In these situations, one can use <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>,
-    which look like <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> using an underscore (<code>_</code>)
-    as scheme. This allows one to reference the node locally within the document, but
-    makes it impossible to reference the node from an external document. The
-    <tref>blank node identifier</tref> is scoped  to the document in which it is used.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Specifying a local blank node identifier">
-  <!--
-  {
-     ...
-     "@id": "****_:n1****",
-     "name": "Secret Agent 1",
-     "knows":
-       {
-         "name": "Secret Agent 2",
-         "knows": { "@id": "****_:n1****" }
-       }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The example above contains information about to secrete agents that cannot be identified
-    with an <tref>IRI</tref>. While expressing that <em>agent&nbsp;1</em> knows <em>agent&nbsp;2</em> is possible
-    without using <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>, it is
-    necessary assign <em>agent&nbsp;1</em> an identifier so that it can be referenced from
-    <em>agent&nbsp;2</em>.</p>
-  <p>It is worth nothing that blank node identifiers may be relabeled during processing.
-    If a developer finds that they refer to the <tref>blank node</tref> more than once,
-    they should consider naming the node using a dereferenceable <tref>IRI</tref> so that
-    it can also be referenced from other documents.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Aliasing Keywords</h2>
-
-  <p>Each of the JSON-LD <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>,
-    except for <code>@context</code>, may be aliased to application-specific
-    keywords. This feature allows legacy JSON content to be utilized
-    by JSON-LD by re-using JSON keys that already exist in legacy documents.
-    This feature also allows developers to design domain-specific implementations
-    using only the JSON-LD <tref>context</tref>.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Aliasing keywords">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context":
-    {
-       ****"url": "@id"****,
-       ****"a": "@type"****,
-       "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name"
-    },
-    "****url****": "http://example.com/about#gregg",
-    "****a****": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
-    "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, the <code>@id</code> and <code>@type</code>
-    <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> have been given the aliases
-    <strong>url</strong> and <strong>a</strong>, respectively.</p>
-
-  <p>Since keywords cannot be redefined, they can also not be aliased to
-    other keywords.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Data Indexing</h2>
-
-  <p>Databases are typically used to make access to
-    data more efficient. Developers often extend this sort of functionality into
-    their application data to deliver similar performance gains. Often this
-    data does not have any meaning from a Linked Data standpoint, but is
-    still useful for an application.</p>
-
-  <p>JSON-LD introduces the notion of <tref title="index map">index maps</tref>
-    that can be used to structure data into a form that is
-    more efficient to access. The data indexing feature allows an author to
-    structure data using a simple key-value map where the keys do not map
-    to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>. This enables direct access to data
-    instead of having to scan an array in search of a specific item.
-    In JSON-LD such data can be specified by associating the
-    <code>@index</code> <tref>keyword</tref> with a
-    <code>@container</code> declaration in the context:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Indexing data in JSON-LD">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context":
-    {
-       "schema": "http://schema.org/",
-       "name": "schema:name",
-       "body": "schema:articleBody",
-       "words": "schema:wordCount",
-       "post": {
-         "@id": "schema:blogPost",
-         ****"@container": "@index"****
-       }
-    },
-    "@id": "http://example.com/",
-    "@type": "schema:Blog",
-    "name": "World Financial News",
-    ****"post": {
-       "en": {
-         "@id": "http://example.com/posts/1/en",
-         "body": "World commodities were up today with heavy trading of crude oil...",
-         "words": 1539
-       },
-       "de": {
-         "@id": "http://example.com/posts/1/de",
-         "body": "Die Werte an Warenbörsen stiegen im Sog eines starken Handels von Rohöl...",
-         "words": 1204
-       }****
-    }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>In the example above, the <strong>blogPost</strong> <tref>term</tref> has
-    been marked as an <tref>index map</tref>. The <strong>en</strong>,
-    <strong>de</strong>, and <strong>ja</strong> keys will be ignored
-    semantically, but preserved syntactically, by the JSON-LD Processor.
-    This allows a developer to access the German version
-    of the <strong>blogPost</strong> using the following code snippet:
-    <code>obj.blogPost.de</code>.</p>
-
-  <p>The interpretation of the data above is expressed in
-    the table below. Note how the index keys do not appear in the Linked Data
-    below, but would continue to exist if the document were compacted or
-    expanded (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#compact-document-form"></a> and
-    <a class="sectionRef" href="#expanded-document-form"></a>) using a JSON-LD processor:</p>
-
-  <table class="example">
-    <thead>
-      <th>Subject</th>
-      <th>Property</th>
-      <th>Value</th>
-    </thead>
-    <tbody>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/</td>
-        <td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/Blog</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/name</td>
-        <td>World Financial News</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/blogPost</td>
-        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/en</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/blogPost</td>
-        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/de</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/en</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/articleBody</td>
-        <td>World commodities were up today with heavy trading of crude oil...</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/en</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/wordCount</td>
-        <td>1539</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/de</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/articleBody</td>
-        <td>Die Werte an Warenbörsen stiegen im Sog eines starken Handels von Rohöl...</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr>
-        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/de</td>
-        <td>http://schema.org/wordCount</td>
-        <td>1204</td>
-      </tr>
-    </tbody>
-  </table>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h3>Expanded Document Form</h3>
-
-  <p>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]]
-    defines a method for <em>expanding</em> a JSON-LD document.
-    Expansion is the process of taking a JSON-LD document and applying a
-    <code>@context</code> such that all IRIs, types, and values
-    are expanded so that the <code>@context</code> is no longer necessary.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Sample JSON-LD document">
-  <!--
-  {
-     "@context":
-     {
-        "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-        "homepage": {
-          "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-          "@type": "@id"
-        }
-     },
-     "name": "Manu Sporny",
-     "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Running the JSON-LD Expansion algorithm against the JSON-LD input document
-    provided above would result in the following output:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Expanded form for the previous example">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        { "@value": "Manu Sporny" }
-      ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
-        { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" }
-      ]
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h3>Compact Document Form</h3>
-
-  <p>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]] defines
-    a method for <em>compacting</em> a JSON-LD document. Compaction is the process
-    of applying a developer-supplied context to shorten <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
-    to <tref title="term">terms</tref> or <tref title="compact IRI">compact IRIs</tref>
-    and JSON-LD values expressed in expanded form to simple values such as
-    <tref title="string">strings</tref> or <tref title="number">numbers</tref>.
-    Often this makes it simpler to work with document as the data is expressed in
-    application-specific terms. Compacted documents are also typically easier to read
-    for humans.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Sample expanded JSON-LD document">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [ "Manu Sporny" ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
-        {
-         "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-        }
-      ]
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Additionally, assume the following developer-supplied JSON-LD context:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Sample context">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "homepage": {
-        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-    }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Running the JSON-LD Compaction algorithm given the context supplied above
-    against the JSON-LD input document provided above would result in the following
-    output:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Compact form of the sample document once sample context has been applied">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "homepage": {
-        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-    },
-    "name": "Manu Sporny",
-    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h3>Flattened Document Form</h3>
-
-  <p>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]] defines
-    a method for <em>flattening</em> a JSON-LD document. Flattening collects all
-    properties of a <tref>node</tref> in a single <tref>JSON object</tref> and labels
-    all <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref> with
-    <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>.
-    This ensures a shape of the data and consequently may drastically simplify the code
-    required to process JSON-LD in certain applications.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Sample JSON-LD document">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
-    },
-    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "knows": [
-      {
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-        "name": "Manu Sporny"
-      },
-      {
-        "name": "Dave Longley"
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Running the JSON-LD Flattening algorithm against the JSON-LD input document in
-    the example above and using the same context would result in the following
-    output:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Flattened and compacted form for the previous example">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
-    },
-    "@graph": [
-      {
-        "@id": "_:b0",
-        "name": "Dave Longley"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-        "name": "Manu Sporny"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-        "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-        "knows": [
-          { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" },
-          { "@id": "_:b0" }
-        ]
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Embedding JSON-LD in HTML Documents</h2>
-
-  <p>HTML script tags can be used to embed blocks of data in documents.
-    This way, JSON-LD content can be easily embedded in HTML by placing
-    it in a script element with the <code>type</code> attribute set to
-    <code>application/ld+json</code>.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-       title="Embedding JSON-LD in HTML">
-  <!--
-  ****<script type="application/ld+json">****
-  {
-    "@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",
-    "@id": "http://dbpedia.org/resource/John_Lennon",
-    "name": "John Lennon",
-    "born": "1940-10-09",
-    "spouse": "http://dbpedia.org/resource/Cynthia_Lennon"
-  }
-  ****</script>****
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Depending on how the HTML document is served, certain strings may need
-    to be escaped.</p>
-
-  <p>Defining how such data may be used is beyond the scope of this specification.
-    The embedded JSON-LD document might be extracted as is or, e.g., be converted
-    to RDF.</p>
-
-  <p>If JSON-LD content is extracted as RDF [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]], it should be expanded into an
-    <tref href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-dataset">RDF dataset</tref> using the
-    <cite><a href="../json-ld-api/#convert-to-rdf-algorithm">Convert to RDF Algorithm</a></cite>
-    [[JSON-LD-API]]. If multiple embedded JSON-LD documents are extracted as RDF,
-    the result is the RDF merge of the extracted datasets.</p>
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix normative">
-  <h1>Data Model</h1>
-
-  <p>JSON-LD is a serialization format for <tref>Linked Data</tref> based on JSON.
-    It is therefore important to distinguish between the syntax, which is defined
-    by JSON in [[RFC4627]], and <tdef title="JSON-LD data model">JSON-LD's data model</tdef>
-    which is defined as follows:</p>
-
-  <ul>
-    <li>A <tdef>JSON-LD document</tdef> serializes a collection of
-      <tref title="JSON-LD graph">JSON-LD graphs</tref> and comprises exactly one
-      <tdef>default graph</tdef> and zero or more <tdef title="named graph">named graphs</tdef>.</li>
-    <li>The <tref>default graph</tref> does not have a name and MAY be empty.</li>
-    <li>Each <tref>named graph</tref> is a pair consisting of an <tref>IRI</tref> or
-      <tref>blank node identifier</tref> (the <tdef>graph name</tdef>) and a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>.
-      Whenever possible, the <tref>graph name</tref> SHOULD be an <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>JSON-LD graph</tdef> is a labeled directed graph, i.e., a set of
-      <tref title="node">nodes</tref> connected by <tref title="edge">edges</tref>.</li>
-    <li>Every <tdef>edge</tdef> has a direction associated with it and is labeled with
-      an <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>. Within the JSON-LD syntax
-      these edge labels are called <tdef title="property">properties</tdef>. Whenever possible, an
-      <tref>edge</tref> SHOULD be labeled with an <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
-    <li>Every <tdef>node</tdef> is an <tref>IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node</tref>,
-      a <tref>JSON-LD value</tref>, or a <tref>list</tref>.</li>
-    <li>A <tref>node</tref> having an outgoing edge MUST be an <tref>IRI</tref> or a
-      <tref>blank node</tref>.</li>
-    <li>A <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> MUST NOT contain unconnected <tref title="node">nodes</tref>,
-      i.e., nodes which are not connected by an <tref>edge</tref> to any other <tref>node</tref>.</li>
-    <li>An <tdef><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></tdef>
-      (Internationalized Resource Identifier) is a string that conforms to the syntax
-      defined in [[RFC3987]]. <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> used within a
-      <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> SHOULD return a <tref>Linked Data</tref> document describing
-      the resource denoted by that <tref>IRI</tref> when being dereferenced.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>blank node</tdef> is a <tref>node</tref> which is neither an <tref>IRI</tref>,
-      nor a <tref>JSON-LD value</tref>, nor a <tref>list</tref>. A blank node MAY be identified
-      using a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>blank node identifier</tdef> is a string that can be used as an identifier
-      for a <tref>blank node</tref> within the scope of a <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>.
-      Blank node identifiers begin with <code>_:</code>.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>JSON-LD value</tdef> is a <tref>string</tref>, a <tref>number</tref>,
-      <tref>true</tref> or <tref>false</tref>, a <tref>typed value</tref>, or a
-      <tref>language-tagged string</tref>.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>typed value</tdef> consists of a value, which is a string, and a type, which is an
-      <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>language-tagged string</tdef> consists of a string and a non-empty language
-      tag as defined by [[BCP47]]. The language tag MUST be well-formed according to section
-      <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">2.2.9</a> of [[BCP47]], and MUST
-      be lowercase.</li>
-    <li>A <tdef>list</tdef> is an ordered sequence of zero or more
-      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,
-      <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>, and
-      <tref title="JSON-LD value">JSON-LD values</tref>.</li>
-  </ul>
-
-  <p class="issue atrisk" data-number="217">In contrast to the RDF data model as defined in
-    [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]], JSON-LD allows blank nodes as property labels and graph names. Thus,
-    some data that is valid JSON-LD cannot be converted to RDF. This feature may be removed
-    in the future.</p>
-
-  <p><tref title="JSON-LD document">JSON-LD documents</tref> MAY contain data that cannot be
-    represented by the <tref title="JSON-LD data model">data model</tref> defined above.
-    Unless otherwise specified, such data is ignored when a <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>
-    is being processed. This means, e.g., that properties which are not mapped to an
-    <tref>IRI</tref> or <tref>blank node</tref> will be ignored.</p>
-
-  <p style="text-align: center"><img src="linked-data-graph.png" title="An illustration of JSON-LD's data model"/></p>
-  <p style="text-align: center">Figure&nbsp;1: An illustration of JSON-LD's data model.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix normative">
-  <h1>JSON-LD Grammar</h1>
-
-  <p>This appendix restates the syntactic conventions described in the
-    previous sections more formally.</p>
-
-  <p>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> MUST be a valid JSON document as described
-    in [[!RFC4627]].</p>
-
-  <p>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> MUST be a single <tref>node object</tref>
-    or a JSON <tref>array</tref> containing a set of one or more
-    <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> at the top level.</p>
-
-  <p>In contrast to JSON, in JSON-LD the keys in <tref title="JSON object">objects</tref>
-    MUST be unique.</p>
-
-  <p class="note">JSON-LD allows <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> to be aliased
-    (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#aliasing-keywords"></a> for details). Whenever a <tref>keyword</tref> is
-    discussed in this grammar, the statements also apply to an alias for
-    that <tref>keyword</tref>. For example, if the <tref>active context</tref>
-    defines the <tref>term</tref> <code>id</code> as an alias for <code>@id</code>,
-    that alias may be legitimately used as a substitution for <code>@id</code>.
-    Note that <tref>keyword</tref> aliases are not expanded during context
-    processing.</p>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Terms</h2>
-
-    <p>A <tdef>term</tdef> is a short-hand <tref>string</tref> that expands
-      to an <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>A <tref>term</tref> MUST NOT equal any of the JSON-LD
-      <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>To avoid forward-compatibility issues, a <tref>term</tref> SHOULD NOT start
-      with an <code>@</code> character as future versions of JSON-LD may introduce
-      additional <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>. Furthermore, the term MUST NOT
-      be an empty <tref>string</tref> (<code>""</code>) as not all programming languages
-      are able to handle empty property names.</p>
-
-    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#the-context"></a> and
-      <a class="sectionRef" href="#iris"></a> for further discussion
-      on mapping <tref title="term">terms</tref> to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Node Objects</h2>
-
-    <p>A <tdef>node object</tdef> represents zero or more properties of a
-      <tref>node</tref> in the <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> serialized by the
-      <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>. A <tref>JSON object</tref> is a
-      <tref>node object</tref> if it exists outside of a JSON-LD
-      <tref>context</tref> and:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>it does not contain the <code>@value</code>, <code>@list</code>,
-        or <code>@set</code> keywords, and</li>
-      <li>it is not the top-most <tref>JSON object</tref> in the JSON-LD document
-        consisting of no other members than <code>@graph</code> and
-        <code>@context</code>.</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>The <tref title="property">properties</tref> of a <tref>node</tref> in
-      a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> may be spread among different
-      <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> within a document. When
-      that happens, the keys of the different
-      <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> are merged to create the
-      properties of the resulting <tref>node</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>A <tref>node object</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref>. All keys
-      which are not <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,
-      <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref>, <tref title="term">terms</tref>
-      valid in the <tref>active context</tref>, or one of the following
-      <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> MUST be ignored when processed:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li><code>@context</code>,</li>
-      <li><code>@id</code>,</li>
-      <li><code>@graph</code>,</li>
-      <li><code>@type</code>,</li>
-      <li><code>@reverse</code>, or</li>
-      <li><code>@index</code></li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@context</code>
-      key, its value MUST be <tref>null</tref>, an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
-      a <tref>relative IRI</tref>, a <tref>context definition</tref>, or
-      an <tref>array</tref> composed of any of these.</p>
-
-    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@id</code> key,
-      its value MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>relative IRI</tref>,
-      or a <tref>compact IRI</tref> (including
-      <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>).
-      See <a class="sectionRef" href="#node-identifiers"></a>,
-      <a class="sectionRef" href="#compact-iris"></a>, and
-      <a class="sectionRef" href="#identifying-blank-nodes"></a> for further discussion on
-      <code>@id</code> values.</p>
-
-    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@graph</code>
-      key, its value MUST be
-      a <tref>node object</tref> or
-      an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more <tref title="node object">node objects</tref>.
-      If the <tref>node object</tref> contains an <code>@id</code> keyword,
-      its value is used as the label of a named graph.
-      See <a class="sectionRef" href="#named-graphs"></a> for further discussion on
-      <code>@graph</code> values. As a special case, if a <tref>JSON object</tref>
-      contains no keys other than <code>@graph</code> and <code>@context</code>, and the
-      <tref>JSON object</tref> is the root of the JSON-LD document, the
-      <tref>JSON object</tref> is not treated as a <tref>node object</tref>; this
-      is used as a way of defining <tref title="node object">node
-      definitions</tref> that may not form a connected graph. This allows a
-      <tref>context</tref> to be defined which is shared by all of the constituent
-      <tref title="node object">node objects</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@type</code>
-      key, its value MUST be either an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a
-      <tref>relative IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>
-      (including <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>),
-      a <tref>term</tref> defined in the <tref>active context</tref> expanding into an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, or
-      an <tref>array</tref> of any of these.
-      See <a class="sectionRef" href="#specifying-the-type"></a> for further discussion on
-      <code>@type</code> values.</p>
-
-    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@reverse</code> key,
-      its value MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing members representing reverse
-      properties. Each value of such a reverse property MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
-      a <tref>relative IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>,
-      a <tref>node object</tref> or an <tref>array</tref> containing a combination of these.</p>
-
-    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@index</code> key,
-      its value MUST be a <tref>string</tref>. See
-      <a class="sectionRef" href="#data-indexing"></a> for further discussion
-      on <code>@index</code> values.</p>
-
-    <p>Keys in a <tref>node object</tref> that are not
-      <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> MAY expand to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>
-      using the <tref>active context</tref>. The values associated with keys that expand
-      to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> MUST be one of the following:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li><tref>string</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>number</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>true</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>false</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>node object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>value object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>list object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>set object</tref>,</li>
-      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the possibilities above,</li>
-      <li>a <tref>language map</tref>, or </li>
-      <li>an <tref>index map</tref></li>
-    </ul>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Value Objects</h2>
-
-    <p>A <tdef>value object</tdef> is used to explicitly associate a type or a
-      language with a value to create a <tref>typed value</tref> or a <tref>language-tagged
-      string</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>A <tref>value object</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing the
-      <code>@value</code> key. It MAY also contain a <code>@type</code>,
-      a <code>@language</code>, an <code>@index</code>, or an <code>@context</code> key but MUST NOT contain
-      both a <code>@type</code> and a <code>@language</code> key at the same time.
-      A <tref>value object</tref> MUST NOT contain any other keys that expand to an
-      <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>keyword</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>The value associated with the <code>@value</code> key MUST be either a
-      <tref>string</tref>, a <tref>number</tref>, <tref>true</tref>,
-      <tref>false</tref> or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>The value associated with the <code>@type</code> key MUST be a
-      <tref>term</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>,
-      an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>relative IRI</tref>, or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>The value associated with the <code>@language</code> key MUST have the
-      lexical form described in [[!BCP47]], or be <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>The value associated with the <code>@index</code> key MUST be a
-      <tref>string</tref>.</p>
-
-    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#typed-values"></a> and
-      <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a>
-      for more information on <tref title="value object">value objects</tref>.</p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Lists and Sets</h2>
-
-    <p>A <tref>list</tref> represents an <em>ordered</em> set of values. A set
-      represents an <em>unordered</em> set of values. Unless otherwise specified,
-      <tref title="array">arrays</tref> are unordered in JSON-LD. As such, the
-      <code>@set</code> keyword, when used in the body of a JSON-LD document,
-      represents just syntactic sugar which is optimized away when processing the document.
-      However, it is very helpful when used within the context of a document. Values
-      of terms associated with a <code>@set</code> or <code>@list</code> container
-      will always be represented in the form of an <tref>array</tref> when a document
-      is processed&mdash;even if there is just a single value that would otherwise be optimized to
-      a non-array form in <a href="#compact-document-form">compact document form</a>.
-      This simplifies post-processing of the data as the data is always in a
-      deterministic form.</p>
-
-    <p>A <tdef>list object</tdef> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> that contains no
-      keys that expand to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>keyword</tref> other
-      than <code>@list</code>, <code>@context</code>, and <code>@index</code>.</p>
-
-    <p>A <tdef>set object</tdef> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> that contains no
-      keys that expand to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>keyword</tref> other
-      than <code>@list</code>, <code>@context</code>, and <code>@index</code>.
-      Please note that the <code>@index</code> key will be ignored when being processed.</p>
-
-    <p>In both cases, the value associated with the keys <code>@list</code> and <code>@set</code>
-      MUST be one of the following types:</p>
-    <ul>
-      <li><tref>string</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>number</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>true</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>false</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>node object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>value object</tref>, or</li>
-      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the above possibilities</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a> for further discussion on sets and lists.</p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Language Maps</h2>
-
-    <p>A <tdef>language map</tdef> is used to associate a language with a value in a
-      way that allows easy programmatic access. A <tref>language map</tref> may be
-      used as a term value within a <tref>node object</tref> if the term is defined
-      with <code>@container</code> set to <code>@language</code>. The keys of a
-      <tref>language map</tref> MUST be <tref title="string">strings</tref> representing
-      [[BCP47]] language codes with and the values MUST be any of the following types:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>string</tref>, or</li>
-      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the above possibilities</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a> for further discussion
-      on language maps.</p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="normative">
-    <h2>Index Maps</h2>
-
-    <p>An <tdef>index map</tdef> allows keys that have no semantic meaning,
-      but should be preserved regardless, to be used in JSON-LD documents.
-      An <tref>index map</tref> may
-      be used as a <tref>term</tref> value within a <tref>node object</tref> if the
-      term is defined with <code>@container</code> set to <code>@index</code>.
-      The values of the members of an <tref>index map</tref> MUST be one
-      of the following types:</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li><tref>string</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>number</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>true</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>false</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>node object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>value object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>list object</tref>,</li>
-      <li><tref>set object</tref>,</li>
-      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the above possibilities</li>
-    </ul>
-
-    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#data-indexing"></a> for further information on this topic.</p>
-  </section>
-
-<section class="normative">
-  <h2>Context Definitions</h2>
-
-  <p>A <tdef>context definition</tdef> defines a <tref>local context</tref> in a
-    <tref>node object</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>A <tref>context definition</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> whose
-    keys MUST either be <tref title="term">terms</tref>,
-    <tref title="compact IRI">compact IRIs</tref>, <tref title="absolute IRI">absolute IRIs</tref>,
-    or the <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> <code>@language</code>, <code>@base</code>,
-    and <code>@vocab</code>.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>context definition</tref> has a <code>@language</code> key,
-    its value MUST have the lexical form described in [[!BCP47]] or be <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>context definition</tref> has a <code>@base</code> key,
-    its value MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p class="issue atrisk" data-number="223" title="Feature at risk">This feature is
-    at risk as the fact that a document may have multiple base IRIs is potentially
-    confusing for developers. It is also being discussed whether relative IRIs
-    are allowed as values of <code>@base</code> or whether the empty string
-    should be used to explicitly specify that there isn't a base IRI, which
-    could be used to ensure that relative IRIs remain relative when expanding.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>context definition</tref> has a <code>@vocab</code> key,
-    its value MUST be a <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>,
-    a <tref>term</tref>, or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The value of keys that are not <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> MUST be either an
-    <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, a <tref>term</tref>,
-    a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>, a <tref>keyword</tref>, <tref>null</tref>,
-    or an <tref>expanded term definition</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>An <tref>expanded term definition</tref> is used to describe the mapping
-    between a <tref>term</tref> and its expanded identifier, as well as other
-    properties of the value associated with the <tref>term</tref> when it is
-    used as key in a <tref>node object</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>An <tref>expanded term definition</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref>
-    composed of zero or more keys from <code>@id</code>, <code>@reverse</code>,
-    <code>@type</code>, <code>@language</code> or <code>@container</code>. An
-    <tref>expanded term definition</tref> SHOULD NOT contain any other keys.</p>
-
-  <p>If an <tref>expanded term definition</tref> has an <code>@reverse</code> member,
-    <code>@id</code>, <code>@type</code>, and <code>@language</code> are not allowed.
-    If an <code>@container</code> member exists, its value MUST be <tref>null</tref>
-    or <code>@index</code>.</p>
-
-  <p>If the term being defined is not a <tref>compact IRI</tref> or
-    <tref>absolute IRI</tref> and the <tref>active context</tref> does not have an
-    <code>@vocab</code> mapping, the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> MUST
-    include the <code>@id</code> key.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@id</code>
-    <tref>keyword</tref>, its value MUST be <tref>null</tref>, an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
-    a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, or a <tref>term</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@type</code>
-    <tref>keyword</tref>, its value MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a
-    <tref>compact IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>, a <tref>term</tref> or
-    the <tref>active context</tref>, <tref>null</tref>, or the one of the
-    <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code>.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@language</code> <tref>keyword</tref>,
-    its value MUST have the lexical form described in [[!BCP47]] or be <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@container</code>
-    <tref>keyword</tref>, its value MUST be either <code>@list</code>, <code>@set</code>,
-    <code>@language</code>, <code>@index</code>, or be <tref>null</tref>. If the value
-    is <code>@language</code>, when the <tref>term</tref> is used outside of the
-    <code>@context</code>, the associated value MUST be a <tref>language map</tref>.
-    If the value is <code>@index</code>, when the <tref>term</tref> is used outside of
-    the <code>@context</code>, the associated value MUST be an
-    <tref>index map</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p><tref title="term">Terms</tref> MUST NOT be used in a circular manner. That is,
-    the definition of a term cannot depend on the definition of another term if that other
-    term also depends on the first term.</p>
-
-  <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#the-context"></a> for further discussion on contexts.</p>
-</section>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix normative">
-  <h2>Relationship to RDF</h2>
-
-  <p>The RDF data model, as outlined in [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]], is an abstract syntax for
-    representing a directed graph of information. It is a subset of
-    <tref title="JSON-LD data model">JSON-LD's data model</tref> with a few
-    additional constraints. The differences between the two data models are:</p>
-
-  <ul>
-    <li>In JSON-LD <tref title="graph name">graph names</tref> can be
-      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> or <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>
-      whereas in RDF graph names have to be <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</li>
-    <li>In JSON-LD <tref title="property">properties</tref> can be
-      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> or <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>
-      whereas in RDF properties (predicates) have to be
-      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</li>
-    <li>In JSON-LD lists are part of the data model whereas in RDF they are part of
-      a vocabulary, namely [[RDF-SCHEMA]].</li>
-    <li>RDF values are either typed <em>literals</em>
-      (<tref title="typed value">typed values</tref>) or <em>language-tagged strings</em>
-      (<tref title="language-tagged string">language-tagged strings</tref>) whereas
-      JSON-LD also supports JSON's native data types, i.e., <tref title="number">number</tref>,
-      <tref title="string">strings</tref>, and the boolean values <tref>true</tref>
-      and <tref>false</tref>. The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]]
-      defines the conversion rules between JSON's native data types and RDF's counterparts to
-      allow full round-tripping.</li>
-
-  </ul>
-
-  <p>Summarized these differences mean that JSON-LD is capable of serializing any RDF
-    graph or dataset and most, but not all, JSON-LD documents can be transformed to RDF.
-    A complete description of the algorithms to convert from RDF to JSON-LD and from
-    JSON-LD to RDF is included in the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification
-    [[JSON-LD-API]].</p>
-
-  <p>Even though JSON-LD serializes RDF datasets, it can also be used as a RDF graph source.
-    In that case, a consumer MUST only use the default graph and ignore all named graphs.
-    This allows servers to expose data in, e.g., both Turtle and JSON-LD using content
-    negotiation.</p>
-
-  <p class="note">Publishers supporting both dataset and graph syntaxes have to ensure that
-    the primary data is stored in the default graph to enable consumers that do not support
-    datasets to process the information.</p>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h3>Transformation from JSON-LD to RDF</h3>
-
-    <p>The process of turning a JSON-LD document depends on executing the
-      algorithms defined in
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-api/#rdf-conversion-algorithms">RDF Conversion Algorithms</a></cite>
-      in the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]].
-      It is beyond the scope of this document to detail these algorithms any further,
-      but a summary of the necessary operations is provided to illustrate the process.</p>
-
-    <p>The procedure involves the following steps:</p>
-
-    <ol>
-      <li>Expand the JSON-LD document, removing any context; this ensures
-        that properties, types, and values are given their full representation
-        as <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> and expanded values. Expansion
-        is discussed further in <a class="sectionRef" href="#expanded-document-form"></a>.</li>
-      <li>Flatten the document, which turns the document into an array of
-        <tref title="node object">node objects</tref>. Flattening is discussed
-        further in <a class="sectionRef" href="#flattened-document-form"></a>.</li>
-      <li>Turn each <tref>node object</tref> into a series of
-        <tref href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple">RDF triples</tref>.</li>
-    </ol>
-
-    <p>For example, consider the following JSON-LD document in compact form:</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Sample JSON-LD document">
-    <!--
-    {
-      "@context": {
-        "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-        "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
-      },
-      "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-      "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-      "knows": [
-        {
-          "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-          "name": "Manu Sporny"
-        },
-        {
-          "name": "Dave Longley"
-        }
-      ]
-    }
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>Running the JSON-LD Expansion and Flattening algorithms against the
-      JSON-LD input document in the example above would result in the
-      following output:</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Flattened and expanded form for the previous example">
-    <!--
-    [
-      {
-        "@id": "_:b0",
-        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Dave Longley"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows": [
-          { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" },
-          { "@id": "_:b0" }
-        ]
-      }
-    ]
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>Transforming this to RDF now is a straightforward process of turning
-      each <tref>node object</tref> into one or more RDF triples. This can be
-      expressed in Turtle as follows:</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Turtle representation of expanded/flattend document">
-    <!--
-    _:b0 <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Dave Longley" .
-
-    <http://manu.sporny.org/> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Manu Sporny" .
-
-    <http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Markus Lanthaler" ;
-        <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows> <http://manu.sporny.org/>, _:b0 .
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>The process of turning RDF into JSON-LD can be thought of as the
-      inverse of this last step, creating an expanded JSON-LD document closely
-      matching the triples from RDF, using a single <tref>node object</tref>
-      for all triples having a common subject, and a single <tref>property</tref>
-      for those triples also having a common predicate.</p>
-  </section>
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix informative">
-  <h2>Relationship to Other Linked Data Formats</h2>
-
-  <p>The JSON-LD examples below demonstrate how JSON-LD can be used to
-    express semantic data marked up in other linked data formats such as Turtle,
-    RDFa, Microformats, and Microdata. These sections are merely provided as
-    evidence that JSON-LD is very flexible in what it can express across different
-    <tref>Linked Data</tref> approaches.</p>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h3>Turtle</h3>
-
-    <p>The following are examples of converting RDF expressed in Turtle [[TURTLE]]
-      into JSON-LD.</p>
-
-    <section>
-      <h4>Prefix definitions</h4>
-
-      <p>The JSON-LD context has direct equivalents for the Turtle
-        <code>@prefix</code> declaration:</p>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="A set of statements serialized in Turtle">
-      <!--
-      @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
-
-      <http://manu.sporny.org/i/public> a foaf:Person;
-        foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
-        foaf:homepage <http://manu.sporny.org/> .
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="The same set of statements serialized in JSON-LD">
-      <!--
-      {
-        "@context":
-        {
-          "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
-        },
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
-        "@type": "foaf:Person",
-        "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
-        "foaf:homepage": { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" }
-      }
-      -->
-      </pre>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h4>Embedding</h4>
-
-      <p>Both Turtle and JSON-LD allow embedding, although Turtle only allows embedding of
-        <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>.</p>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="Embedding in Turtle">
-      <!--
-      @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
-
-      <http://manu.sporny.org/i/public>
-        a foaf:Person;
-        foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
-        foaf:knows [ a foaf:Person; foaf:name "Gregg Kellogg" ] .
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="Same embedding example in JSON-LD">
-      <!--
-      {
-        "@context":
-        {
-          "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
-        },
-        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
-        "@type": "foaf:Person",
-        "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
-        "foaf:knows":
-        {
-          "@type": "foaf:Person",
-          "foaf:name": "Gregg Kellogg"
-        }
-      }
-      -->
-      </pre>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h4>Conversion of native data types</h4>
-
-      <p>In JSON-LD numbers and boolean values are native data types. While Turtle
-        has a shorthand syntax to express such values, RDF's abstract syntax requires
-        that numbers and boolean values are represented as typed literals. Thus,
-        to allow full round-tripping, the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]]
-        defines conversion rules between JSON-LD's native data types and RDF's
-        counterparts. <tref title="number">Numbers</tref> without fractions are
-        converted to <code>xsd:integer</code>-typed literals, numbers with fractions
-        to <code>xsd:double</code>-typed literals and the two boolean values
-        <tref>true</tref> and <tref>false</tref> to a <code>xsd:boolean</code>-typed
-        literal. All typed literals are in canonical lexical form.</p>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="JSON-LD using native data types for numbers and boolean values">
-      <!--
-      {
-        "@context":
-        {
-          "ex": "http://example.com/vocab#"
-        },
-        "@id": "http://example.com/",
-        "ex:numbers": [ 14, 2.78 ],
-        "ex:booleans": [ true, false ]
-      }
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="Same example in Turtle using typed literals">
-      <!--
-      @prefix ex: <http://example.com/vocab#> .
-      @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
-
-      <http://example.com/>
-        ex:numbers "14"^^xsd:integer, "2.78E0"^^xsd:double ;
-        ex:booleans "true"^^xsd:boolean, "false"^^xsd:boolean .
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h4>Lists</h4>
-      <p>Both JSON-LD and Turtle can represent sequential lists of values.</p>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="A list of values in Turtle">
-      <!--
-      @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
-
-      <http://example.org/people#joebob> a foaf:Person;
-        foaf:name "Joe Bob";
-        foaf:nick ( "joe" "bob" "jaybee" ) .
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-           title="Same example with a list of values in JSON-LD">
-      <!--
-      {
-        "@context":
-        {
-          "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
-        },
-        "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
-        "@type": "foaf:Person",
-        "foaf:name": "Joe Bob",
-        "foaf:nick":
-        {
-          "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]
-        }
-      }
-      -->
-      </pre>
-    </section>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h3>RDFa</h3>
-
-    <p>The following example describes three people with their respective names and
-      homepages in RDFa [[RDFA-CORE]].</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="RDFa fragment that describes three people">
-    <!--
-    <div ****prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****>
-       <ul>
-          <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
-            <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name"****>Bob</a>
-          </li>
-          <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
-            <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name"****>Eve</a>
-          </li>
-          <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
-            <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name"****>Manu</a>
-          </li>
-       </ul>
-    </div>
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>An example JSON-LD implementation using a single <tref>context</tref> is
-      described below.</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Same description in JSON-LD (context shared among node objects)">
-    <!--
-    {
-      "@context":
-      {
-        "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
-      },
-      "@graph":
-      [
-        {
-          "@type": "foaf:Person",
-          "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/bob/",
-          "foaf:name": "Bob"
-        },
-        {
-          "@type": "foaf:Person",
-          "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/eve/",
-          "foaf:name": "Eve"
-        },
-        {
-          "@type": "foaf:Person",
-          "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/manu/",
-          "foaf:name": "Manu"
-        }
-      ]
-    }
-    -->
-    </pre>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h3>Microformats</h3>
-
-    <p>The following example uses a simple Microformats hCard example to express
-      how Microformats [[MICROFORMATS]] are represented in JSON-LD.</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="HTML fragment with a simple Microformats hCard">
-    <!--
-    <div class="vcard">
-     <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
-    </div>
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>The representation of the hCard expresses the Microformat terms in the
-      <tref>context</tref> and uses them directly for the <code>url</code> and <code>fn</code>
-      properties. Also note that the Microformat to JSON-LD processor has
-      generated the proper URL type for <code>http://tantek.com/</code>.</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Same hCard representation in JSON-LD">
-    <!--
-    {
-      "@context":
-      {
-        "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard",
-        "url":
-        {
-          "@id": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url",
-          "@type": "@id"
-        },
-        "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
-      },
-      "@type": "vcard",
-      "url": "http://tantek.com/",
-      "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
-    }
-    -->
-    </pre>
-  </section>
-
-  <section class="informative">
-    <h3>Microdata</h3>
-
-    <p>The HTML Microdata [[MICRODATA]] example below expresses book information as
-      a Microdata Work item.</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="HTML fragments that describes a book using microdata">
-    <!--
-    <dl itemscope
-        itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
-        itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N">
-     <dt>Title</dt>
-     <dd><cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title">Just a Geek</cite></dd>
-     <dt>By</dt>
-     <dd><span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator">Wil Wheaton</span></dd>
-     <dt>Format</dt>
-     <dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
-         itemscope
-         itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
-         itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK">
-      <link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK">
-      Print
-     </dd>
-     <dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
-         itemscope
-         itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
-         itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK">
-      <link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK">
-      Ebook
-     </dd>
-    </dl>
-    -->
-    </pre>
-
-    <p>Note that the JSON-LD representation of the Microdata information stays
-      true to the desires of the Microdata community to avoid contexts and
-      instead refer to items by their full <tref>IRI</tref>.</p>
-
-    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
-         title="Same book description in JSON-LD (avoiding contexts)">
-    <!--
-    [
-      {
-        "@id": "http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N",
-        "@type": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
-        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
-        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
-        "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization":
-        [
-          "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK",
-          "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"
-        ]
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK",
-        "@type": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
-        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK",
-        "@type": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
-        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"
-      }
-    ]
-    -->
-    </pre>
-  </section>
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix normative">
-  <h2>IANA Considerations</h2>
-
-  <p>This section is included for community review and will be submitted to the
-    Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) as part of the Last Call announcement
-    for this specification.</p>
-
-  <h3>application/ld+json</h3>
-  <dl>
-    <dt>Type name:</dt>
-    <dd>application</dd>
-    <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
-    <dd>ld+json</dd>
-    <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
-    <dd>None</dd>
-    <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
-    <dd>
-      <dl>
-        <dt><code>profile</code></dt>
-        <dd>
-          <p>A whitespace-separated list of IRIs identifying specific constraints
-            or conventions that apply to a JSON-LD document. A profile MUST NOT change
-            the semantics of the resource representation when processed without profile
-            knowledge, so that clients both with and without knowledge of a profiled
-            resource can safely use the same representation. The <code>profile</code>
-            parameter MAY also be used by clients to express their preferences in the
-            content negotiation process. It is RECOMMENDED that profile IRIs are
-            dereferenceable and provide useful documentation at that IRI. For more
-            information and background please refer to [[RFC6906]].</p>
-          <p>This specification defines four values for the <code>profile</code> parameter.
-            To request or specify Expanded JSON-LD document form, the IRI
-            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#expanded</code> SHOULD be used.
-            To request or specify Expanded, Flattened JSON-LD document form, the IRI
-            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#expanded-flattened</code> SHOULD
-            be used. To request or specify Compacted JSON-LD document form, the IRI
-            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#compacted</code> SHOULD be used.
-            To request or specify Compacted, Flattened JSON-LD document form, the IRI
-            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#compacted-flattened</code> SHOULD be used.
-            Please note that, according [[HTTP11]], the value of the <code>profile</code>
-            parameter has to be enclosed in quotes (<code>"</code>) because it contains
-            special characters and, in some cases, whitespace.</p>
-        </dd>
-      </dl>
-    </dd>
-    <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
-    <dd>See RFC&nbsp;6839, section 3.1.</dd>
-    <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
-    <dd>Since JSON-LD is intended to be a pure data exchange format for
-      directed graphs, the serialization SHOULD NOT be passed through a
-      code execution mechanism such as JavaScript's <code>eval()</code>
-      function to be parsed.<br/>
-      JSON-LD contexts that are loaded from the Web over non-secure connections,
-      such as HTTP, run the risk of modifying the JSON-LD
-      <tref>active context</tref> in a way that could compromise security. It
-      is advised that any application that depends on a remote context for mission
-      critical purposes vet and cache the remote context before allowing the
-      system to use it.<br />
-      Given that JSON-LD allows the substitution of long IRIs with short terms,
-      JSON-LD documents may expand considerably when processed and, in the worst case,
-      the resulting data might consume all of the recipient's resources. Applications
-      should treat any data with due skepticism.
-    </dd>
-    <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
-    <dd>Not Applicable</dd>
-    <dt>Published specification:</dt>
-    <dd>http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld</dd>
-    <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
-    <dd>Any programming environment that requires the exchange of
-      directed graphs. Implementations of JSON-LD have been created for
-      JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, and C++.
-    </dd>
-    <dt>Additional information:</dt>
-    <dd>
-      <dl>
-        <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
-        <dd>Not Applicable</dd>
-        <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
-        <dd>.jsonld</dd>
-        <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
-        <dd>TEXT</dd>
-      </dl>
-    </dd>
-    <dt>Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</dt>
-    <dd>Manu Sporny &lt;[email protected]&gt;</dd>
-    <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
-    <dd>Common</dd>
-    <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
-    <dd>None</dd>
-    <dt>Author(s):</dt>
-    <dd>Manu Sporny, Dave Longley, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler, Niklas Lindström</dd>
-    <dt>Change controller:</dt>
-    <dd>W3C</dd>
-  </dl>
-
-  <p>Fragment identifiers used with <a href="#application-ld-json">application/ld+json</a>
-    are treated as in RDF syntaxes, as per
-    <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-fragID">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</a></cite>
-    [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]].</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix informative">
-  <h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
-
-  <p>The authors would like to extend a deep appreciation and the most sincere
-    thanks to Mark Birbeck, who contributed foundational concepts
-    to JSON-LD via his work on RDFj. JSON-LD uses a number of core concepts
-    introduced in RDFj, such as the context as a mechanism to provide an
-    environment for interpreting JSON data. Mark had also been very involved in
-    the work on RDFa as well. RDFj built upon that work. JSON-LD exists
-    because of the work and ideas he started nearly a decade ago in 2004.</p>
-
-  <p>A large amount of thanks goes out to the JSON-LD Community Group
-    participants who worked through many of the technical issues on the mailing
-    list and the weekly telecons - of special mention are François Daoust,
-    Stéphane Corlosquet, Lin Clark, and Zdenko 'Denny' Vrandečić.</p>
-
-  <p>The work of David I. Lehn and Mike Johnson are appreciated for
-    reviewing, and performing several early implementations
-    of the specification. Thanks also to Ian Davis for this work on RDF/JSON.</p>
-
-  <p>Thanks to the following individuals, in order of their first name, for
-    their input on the specification: Adrian Walker, Alexandre Passant,
-    Andy Seaborne, Ben Adida, Blaine Cook, Bradley Allen, Brian Peterson,
-    Bryan Thompson, Conal Tuohy, Dan Brickley, Danny Ayers, Daniel Leja,
-    Dave Reynolds, David I. Lehn, David Wood, Dean Landolt, Ed Summers, elf Pavlik,
-    Eric Prud'hommeaux, Erik Wilde, Fabian Christ, Jon A. Frost, Gavin Carothers,
-    Glenn McDonald, Guus Schreiber, Henri Bergius, Jose María Alvarez Rodríguez,
-    Ivan Herman, Jack Moffitt, Josh Mandel, KANZAKI Masahide, Kingsley Idehen,
-    Kuno Woudt, Larry Garfield, Mark Baker, Mark MacGillivray, Marko Rodriguez,
-    Melvin Carvalho, Nathan Rixham, Olivier Grisel, Paolo Ciccarese, Pat Hayes,
-    Patrick Logan, Paul Kuykendall, Pelle Braendgaard, Peter Williams, Pierre-Antoine Champin,
-    Richard Cyganiak, Roy T. Fielding, Sandro Hawke, Srecko Joksimovic,
-    Stephane Fellah, Steve Harris, Ted Thibodeau Jr., Thomas Steiner, Tim Bray,
-    Tom Morris, Tristan King, Sergio Fernández, Werner Wilms, and William Waites.</p>
-</section>
-
-</body>
-</html>
Binary file spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/linked-data-graph.dia has changed
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--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/latest/json-ld/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,3712 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD 1.0</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="../respec-w3c-common.js" class="remove"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="../respec-w3c-extensions.js" class="remove"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" class="remove">
+//<![CDATA[
+  var respecConfig = {
+      // extend the bibliography entries
+      "localBiblio": localBibliography,
+
+      doRDFa: "1.1",
+      // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
+      specStatus:           "ED",
+      // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
+      //publishDate:          "2012-12-25",
+      copyrightStart:       "2010",
+
+      // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
+      shortName:            "json-ld",
+      subtitle:             "A JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data",
+
+      // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
+      // and its maturity status
+      previousPublishDate:  "2013-02-02",
+      previousMaturity:     "CG-FINAL",
+      previousDiffURI:      "http://json-ld.org/spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20130222/",
+
+      // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
+      edDraftURI:           "http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld/index.html",
+
+      // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
+      // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
+
+      issueBase: "https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/",
+
+      // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
+      // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
+      // extraCSS:             [],
+
+      // editors, add as many as you like
+      // only "name" is required
+      editors:  [
+          { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
+          { name: "Gregg Kellogg", url: "http://greggkellogg.net/",
+            company: "Kellogg Associates", companyURL: "http://kellogg-assoc.com/" },
+          { name: "Markus Lanthaler", url: "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+            company: "Graz University of Technology", companyURL: "http://www.tugraz.at/" }
+      ],
+
+      // authors, add as many as you like.
+      // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
+      // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
+      authors:  [
+          { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
+            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
+          { name: "Dave Longley", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
+            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/"},
+          { name: "Gregg Kellogg", url: "http://greggkellogg.net/",
+            company: "Kellogg Associates", companyURL: "http://kellogg-assoc.com/" },
+          { name: "Markus Lanthaler", url: "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+            company: "Graz University of Technology", companyURL: "http://www.tugraz.at/" },
+          { name: "Niklas Lindström", url: "http://neverspace.net/" }
+      ],
+
+      // name of the WG
+      wg:           "RDF Working Group",
+
+      // URI of the public WG page
+      wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/",
+
+      // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
+      wgPublicList: "public-rdf-comments",
+
+      // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
+      // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
+      // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
+      // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
+      // Team Contact.
+      wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status",
+      maxTocLevel: 2,
+      preProcess: [ preProc ]
+      // alternateFormats: [ {uri: "diff-20130202.html", label: "diff to previous version"} ]
+  };
+//]]>
+</script>
+<style type="text/css">
+  .diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
+  table, thead, tr, td { padding: 5px; border-width: 1px; border-spacing: 0px; border-style: solid; border-collapse: collapse;}
+</style>
+</head>
+
+<body>
+<section id="abstract">
+  <p>JSON has proven to be a highly useful object serialization and messaging
+    format. This specification defines JSON-LD, a JSON-based format to serialize
+    Linked Data. The syntax is designed to not disturb already deployed systems
+    running on JSON, but provide a smooth upgrade path from JSON to JSON-LD.
+    It is primarily intended to be a way to use Linked Data in Web-based
+    programming environments, to build interoperable Web services, and to
+    store Linked Data in JSON-based storage engines.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section id="sotd">
+  <p>This document has been under development for over 25 months in the
+    JSON for Linking Data Community Group. The document has recently been
+    transferred to the RDF Working Group for review, improvement, and publication.
+    The specification has undergone significant development, review, and changes
+    during the course of the last 25 months.</p>
+
+  <p>There are several independent
+    <a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">interoperable implementations</a> of
+    this specification. There is a
+    <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">fairly complete test suite</a>
+    and a <a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">live JSON-LD editor</a>
+    that is capable of demonstrating the features described in
+    this document. While development on implementations, the test suite
+    and the live editor will continue, they are believed to be mature enough
+    to be integrated into a non-production system at this point in time with
+    the expectation that they could be used in a production system within the
+    next six months.</p>
+
+  <p>There are a number of ways that one may participate in the development of
+    this specification:</p>
+
+  <ul>
+    <li>If you want to make sure that your feedback is formally addressed by
+      the RDF Working Group, you should send it to public-rdf-comments:
+      <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">[email protected]</a></li>
+
+    <li>Ad-hoc technical discussion primarily occurs on the public community mailing list:
+      <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">[email protected]</a></li>
+
+    <li><a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">Public JSON-LD Community Group teleconferences</a>
+    are held on Tuesdays at 1500UTC every week.</li>
+
+    <li>RDF Working Group teleconferences are held on Wednesdays at 1500UTC
+    every week. Participation is limited to RDF Working Group members.</li>
+
+    <li>Specification bugs and issues should be reported in the
+      <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">issue tracker</a>
+      if you do not want to send an e-mail to the public-rdf-comments mailing
+      list.</li>
+
+    <li><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">Source code</a>
+      for the specification can be found on Github.</li>
+
+    <li>The <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">#json-ld</a>
+      IRC channel is available for real-time discussion on irc.freenode.net.</li>
+  </ul>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h1>Introduction</h1>
+
+  <p><tdef>Linked Data</tdef> is a technique for creating a network
+    of inter-connected data across different documents and Web sites. In general,
+    Linked Data has four properties: 1)&nbsp;it uses <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
+    to name things; 2)&nbsp;it uses HTTP <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
+    for those names; 3)&nbsp;the name <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>, when dereferenced,
+    provide more information about the thing; and 4)&nbsp;the data expresses links
+    to data on other Web sites. These properties allow data published on the Web
+    to work much like Web pages do today. One can start at one piece of Linked Data,
+    and follow the links to other pieces of data that are hosted on different
+    sites across the Web.</p>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD is a lightweight syntax to serialize <tref>Linked Data</tref> in
+    JSON [[!RFC4627]]. Its design allows existing JSON to be transformed to
+    Linked Data with minimal changes. JSON-LD is primarily intended to be a
+    way to use Linked Data in Web-based programming environments, to build
+    interoperable Web services, and to store Linked Data in JSON-based storage engines. Since
+    JSON-LD is 100% compatible with JSON, the large number of JSON parsers and libraries
+    available today can be reused. In addition to all the features JSON provides,
+    JSON-LD introduces:</p>
+
+  <ul>
+    <li>a universal identifier mechanism for <tref title="JSON object">JSON objects</tref>
+      via the use of <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,</li>
+    <li>a way to disambiguate keys shared among different JSON documents by mapping
+      them to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> via a <tref>context</tref>,</li>
+    <li>a mechanism in which a value in a <tref>JSON object</tref> may refer
+      to a <tref>JSON object</tref> on a different site on the Web,</li>
+    <li>the ability to annotate <tref title="string">strings</tref> with their language,</li>
+    <li>a way to associate datatypes with values such as dates and times,</li>
+    <li>and a facility to express one or more directed graphs, such as a social
+      network, in a single document.</li>
+  </ul>
+
+  <p>Developers that require any of the facilities listed above or need to serialize
+    an RDF graph or dataset [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]] in a JSON-based syntax will find
+    JSON-LD of interest. The syntax is designed to not disturb already deployed
+    systems running on JSON, but provide a smooth upgrade path from JSON to
+    JSON-LD. Since the shape of such data varies wildly, JSON-LD features mechanisms
+    to reshape documents into a deterministic structure which simplifies their
+    processing.</p>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h2>How to Read this Document</h2>
+
+    <p>This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of Linked
+      Data in JSON. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>Software developers who want to encode Linked Data in a variety of
+        programming languages that can use JSON.</li>
+      <li>Software developers who want to convert existing JSON to JSON-LD.</li>
+      <li>Software developers who want to understand the design decisions and
+        language syntax for JSON-LD.</li>
+      <li>Software developers who want to implement processors and APIs for
+        JSON-LD.</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>A companion document, the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification
+      [[JSON-LD-API]], specifies how to work with JSON-LD at a higher level by
+      providing a standard library interface for common JSON-LD operations. Although that
+      document is not required for understanding and working with JSON-LD, for some
+      readers it will be a better starting point.</p>
+
+    <p>To understand the basics in this specification you must first be familiar with
+      JSON, which is detailed in [[!RFC4627]].</p>
+  </section>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h1>Design Goals and Rationale</h1>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD satisfies the following design goals:</p>
+
+  <dl>
+   <dt>Simplicity</dt>
+   <dd>No extra processors or software libraries should be necessary to use JSON-LD
+     in its most basic form. The language will provide developers with a very easy
+     learning curve. Developers only need to know JSON and two
+     <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> (<code>@context</code>
+     and <code>@id</code>) to use the basic functionality in JSON-LD.</dd>
+   <dt>Compatibility</dt>
+   <dd>A JSON-LD document must be 100% compatible with JSON. This ensures that
+    all of the standard JSON libraries work seamlessly with JSON-LD documents.</dd>
+   <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
+   <dd>The syntax must be able to serialize directed graphs. This ensures that almost
+    every real world data model can be expressed.</dd>
+   <dt>Terseness</dt>
+   <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable, requiring as
+    little effort as possible from the developer.</dd>
+   <dt>Zero Edits, most of the time</dt>
+   <dd>JSON-LD must make the transition to JSON-LD as simple as possible. In many cases,
+     zero edits to the JSON document and the addition of one line to the HTTP response
+     should suffice (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"></a>).
+     This allows organizations that have
+     already deployed large JSON-based infrastructure to use JSON-LD's features
+     in a way that is not disruptive to their day-to-day operations and is
+     transparent to their current customers. However, there are times where
+     mapping JSON to a graph representation is more complex than a simple one-line
+     change. In these instances, rather than extending JSON-LD to support an
+     esoteric use case, we chose not to support the use case. While Zero Edits is
+     a design goal, it is not always possible without adding great complexity
+     to the language. We should focus on simplicity when possible.</dd>
+  </dl>
+</section>
+
+<section class="normative">
+  <h1>Terminology</h1>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>General Terminology</h2>
+
+    <p>This document uses the following terms as defined in JSON [[!RFC4627]]. Refer
+      to the <em>JSON Grammar</em> section in [[!RFC4627]] for formal definitions.</p>
+
+    <dl>
+      <dt><tdef>JSON object</tdef></dt><dd>
+        An object structure is represented as a pair of curly brackets surrounding
+        zero or more key-value pairs. A key is a <tref>string</tref>.
+        A single colon comes after each key, separating the key from the value.
+        A single comma separates a value from a following key. In contrast to JSON,
+        in JSON-LD the keys in an object must be unique.</dd>
+      <dt><tdef>array</tdef></dt>
+      <dd>An array structure is represented as square brackets surrounding zero
+        or more values. Values are separated by commas.
+        In JSON, an array is an <em>ordered</em> sequence of zero or more values.
+        While JSON-LD uses the same array representation as JSON,
+        the collection is <em>unordered</em> by default. While order is
+        preserved in regular JSON arrays, it is not in regular JSON-LD arrays
+        specifically defined (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>).</dd>
+      <dt><tdef>string</tdef></dt><dd>
+        A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters,
+        wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes (if necessary).</dd>
+      <dt><tdef>number</tdef></dt>
+      <dd>A number is similar to that used in most programming languages, except
+        that the octal and hexadecimal formats are not used and leading zeros
+        are not allowed.</dd>
+      <dt><tdef>true</tdef> and <tdef>false</tdef></dt><dd>
+        Values that are used to express one of two possible boolean states.</dd>
+      <dt><tdef>null</tdef></dt>
+      <dd>The <tref>null</tref> value, which is typically used to clear or forget
+        data. For example, A key-value pair in the
+        <code>@context</code> where the value is <tref>null</tref> explicitly
+        decouples a <tref>term</tref>'s association with an <tref>IRI</tref>.
+        A key-value pair in the body of a JSON-LD document whose
+        value is <tref>null</tref> has the same meaning as if the key-value pair
+        was not defined. If <code>@value</code>, <code>@list</code>, or
+        <code>@set</code> is set to <tref>null</tref> in expanded form, then
+        the entire <tref>JSON object</tref> is ignored.</dd>
+    </dl>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Syntax Tokens and Keywords</h2>
+
+    <p>JSON-LD specifies a number of syntax tokens and <tdef title="keyword">keywords</tdef>
+    that are a core part of the language:</p>
+
+    <dl>
+      <dt><code>@context</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to define the short-hand names that are used throughout a JSON-LD
+        document. These short-hand names are called <tref title="term">terms</tref> and help
+        developers to express specific identifiers in a compact manner. The
+        <code>@context</code> keyword is described in detail in
+        <a class="sectionRef" href="#the-context"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@id</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to uniquely identify <em>things</em> that are being described in the document.
+        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#node-identifiers"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@value</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to specify the data that is associated with a particular
+        <tref>property</tref> in the graph. This keyword is described in
+        <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a> and
+        <a class="sectionRef" href="#typed-values"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@language</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to specify the natural (human) language for a particular value or the default
+        language of a JSON-LD document. This keyword is described in
+        <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@type</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to set the data type of a <tref>node</tref> or
+        <tref>typed value</tref>. This keyword is described in
+        <a class="sectionRef" href="#typed-values"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@container</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to set the default container type for a <tref>term</tref>.
+        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@list</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to express an ordered set of data.
+        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@set</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to express an unordered set of data and to ensure that values are always
+         represented as arrays. This keyword is described in
+         <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@reverse</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to express reverse properties. This keyword is described in
+        <a class="sectionRef" href="#reverse-properties"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@index</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to specify that a container is used to index information and
+        that processing should continue deeper into a JSON data structure.
+        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#data-indexing"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@base</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to set the base IRI against which <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref>
+        are resolved. This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#base-iri"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@vocab</code></dt>
+      <dd>Used to expand properties and values in <code>@type</code> with a common prefix
+        <tref>IRI</tref>. This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#default-vocabulary"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>@graph</code></dt><dd>Used to explicitly label a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>.
+        This keyword is described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#named-graphs"></a>.</dd>
+      <dt><code>:</code></dt>
+      <dd>The separator for JSON keys and values that use
+        <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref>.</dd>
+    </dl>
+
+    <p>All keys, <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>, and values in JSON-LD are case-sensitive.</p>
+  </section>
+</section>
+
+<section class="normative">
+  <h1>Conformance</h1>
+
+  <p>This specification describes the conformance criteria for JSON-LD documents.
+    This criteria is relevant to authors and authoring tool implementers. As well
+    as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples,
+    and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this
+    specification is normative.</p>
+
+  <p>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> complies with this specification if it follows
+    the normative statements in appendix <a href="#json-ld-grammar"></a>. JSON documents
+    can be interpreted as JSON-LD by following the normative statements in
+    <a class="sectionRef" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"></a>. For convenience, normative
+    statements for documents are often phrased as statements on the properties of the document.</p>
+
+  <p>The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT,
+    RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this specification have the
+    meaning defined in [[!RFC2119]].</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h1>Basic Concepts</h1>
+
+  <p>JSON [[RFC4627]] is a lightweight, language-independent data-interchange format.
+    It is easy to parse and easy to generate. However, it is difficult to integrate JSON
+    from different sources as the data has just local meaning. Furthermore, JSON has no
+    built-in support for hyperlinks - a fundamental building block on the Web. Let's look
+    at an example that we will be using for the rest of this section:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Sample JSON document">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "name": "Manu Sporny",
+    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+    "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>It's obvious to humans that the data is about a person whose name is "Manu Sporny"
+    and that the <code>homepage</code> property contains the URL of that person's homepage.
+    A machine doesn't have such an intuitive understanding and sometimes,
+    even for humans, it is difficult to resolve ambiguities in such representations. This problem
+    can be solved by using unambiguous identifiers to denote the different concepts instead of
+    tokens such as "name", "homepage", etc.</p>
+
+  <p><tref>Linked Data</tref>, and the Web in general, uses <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
+    (Internationalized Resource Identifiers as described in [[!RFC3987]]) for unambiguous
+    identification. The idea is to assign <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> to something that may
+    be of use to other developers and that it is useful to give them an unambiguous identifier.
+    That is, it is useful for <tref title="term">terms</tref> to expand to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
+    so that developers don't accidentally step on each other's terms. Furthermore, developers and
+    machines are able to use this <tref>IRI</tref> (by using a web browser, for instance) to go to
+    the term and get a definition of what the term means.</p>
+
+  <p>Leveraging the well-known <a href="http://schema.org/">schema.org vocabulary</a>,
+    the example above could be unambiguously expressed as follows:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Sample JSON-LD document using full IRIs instead of terms">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "****http://schema.org/name****": "Manu Sporny",
+    "****http://schema.org/url****": ****{ "@id": ****"http://manu.sporny.org/" ****}****,
+    "****http://schema.org/image****": ****{ "@id": ****"http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png" ****}****
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, every property is unambiguously identified by an <tref>IRI</tref> and all values
+    representing <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> are explicitly marked as such by the
+    <code>@id</code> <tref>keyword</tref>. While this is a valid JSON-LD
+    document that is very specific about its data, the document is also overly verbose and difficult
+    to work with for human developers. To address this issue, JSON-LD introduces the notion
+    of a <tref>context</tref> as described in the next section.</p>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h2>The Context</h2>
+
+    <p>Simply speaking, a <tdef>context</tdef> is used to map <tref title="term">terms</tref>, to
+      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>. <tref title="term">Terms</tref> are case sensitive
+      and any valid <tref>string</tref> that is not a reserved JSON-LD <tref>keyword</tref>
+      can be used as a <tref>term</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>For the sample document in the previous section, a <tref>context</tref> would
+      look something like this:</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Context for the sample document in the previous section">
+    <!--
+    {
+      ****"@context":
+      {
+        "name": "http://schema.org/name",
+        "image": {
+          "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
+          "@type": "@id"
+        },
+        "homepage": {
+          "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
+          "@type": "@id"
+        }
+      }****
+    }
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>As the <tref>context</tref> above shows, the value of a <tdef>term definition</tdef> can
+      either be a simple string, mapping the <tref>term</tref> to an <tref>IRI</tref>,
+      or a <tref>JSON object</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>When a <tref>JSON object</tref> is
+      associated with a term, it is called an <tdef>expanded term definition</tdef>.
+      The example above specifies that the values of <code>image</code> and
+      <code>homepage</code> terms are <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.
+      They also allow terms to be used for <a href="#data-indexing">index maps</a>
+      and to specify whether <tref title="array">array</tref> values are to be
+      interpreted as <a href="#sets-and-lists">sets or lists</a>.
+      <tref title="expanded term definition">Expanded term definitions</tref> may
+      be defined using <tref title="absolute iri">absolute</tref> or
+      <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref> as keys, which is
+      mainly used to associate type or language information with an
+      <tref title="absolute iri">absolute</tref> or <tref>compact IRI</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p><tref title="context">Contexts</tref> can either be directly embedded
+      into the document or be referenced. Assuming the context document in the previous
+      example can be retrieved at <code>http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld</code>,
+      it can be referenced by adding a single line and allows a JSON-LD document to
+      be expressed much more concisely as shown in the example below:</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Referencing a JSON-LD context">
+    <!--
+    {
+      ****"@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",****
+      "name": "Manu Sporny",
+      "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+      "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+    }
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>The referenced context not only specifies how the terms map to
+      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> in the Schema.org vocabulary but also specifies that
+      the values of the <code>homepage</code> and <code>image</code> property
+      can be interpreted as an <tref>IRI</tref> (<code>"@type": "@id"</code>,
+      see <a class="sectionRef" href="#iris"></a> for more details). This information allows developers
+      to re-use each other's data without having to agree to how their data will interoperate
+      on a site-by-site basis. External JSON-LD context documents may contain extra
+      information located outside of the <code>@context</code> key, such as
+      documentation about the <tref title="term">terms</tref> declared in the
+      document. Information contained outside of the <code>@context</code> value
+      is ignored when the document is used as an external JSON-LD context document.</p>
+
+    <p>JSON documents can be transformed to JSON-LD without having to be modified by
+      referencing a <tref>context</tref> via an HTTP Link Header
+      as described in <a class="sectionRef" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld"></a>. It is also
+      possible to apply a custom context using the JSON-LD API [[JSON-LD-API]].</p>
+
+    <p>In <tref title="JSON-LD document">JSON-LD documents</tref>
+      <tref title="context">contexts</tref> may also be specified in-line.
+      This has the advantage that documents can be processed even in the
+      absence of a connection to the Web.</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="In-line context definition">
+    <!--
+    {
+      ****"@context":
+      {
+        "name": "http://schema.org/name",
+        "image": {
+          "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
+          "@type": "@id"
+        },
+        "homepage": {
+          "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
+          "@type": "@id"
+        }
+      },****
+      "name": "Manu Sporny",
+      "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+      "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+    }
+    -->
+    </pre>
+  </section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>IRIs</h2>
+
+  <p><tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> (Internationalized Resource Identifiers
+    [[!RFC3987]]) are fundamental to <tref>Linked Data</tref> as that is how most
+    <tref title="node">nodes</tref> and <tref title="property">properties</tref>
+    are identified. In JSON-LD, IRIs may be represented as an
+    <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or a <tref>relative IRI</tref>. An
+    <tdef>absolute IRI</tdef> is defined in [[!RFC3987]] as containing a
+    <em>scheme</em> along with <em>path</em> and optional <em>query</em> and
+    <em>fragment</em> segments. A <tdef>relative IRI</tdef> is an IRI
+    that is relative to some other <tref>absolute IRI</tref>.
+    In JSON-LD all <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref> are resolved
+    relative to the <tdef>base IRI</tdef> associated with the document.</p>
+
+  <p>A <tref>string</tref> is interpreted as an <tref>IRI</tref> when it is the
+    value of an <code>@id</code> member:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Values of @id are interpreted as IRI">
+  <!--
+  {
+  ...
+    "homepage": { "****@id****": "http://example.com/" }
+  ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Values that are interpreted as <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>, can also be
+    expressed as <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref>. For example,
+    assuming that the following document is located at
+    <code>http://example.com/about/</code>, the <tref>relative IRI</tref>
+    <code>../</code> would expand to <code>http://example.com/</code> (for more
+    information on where  <tref title="relative IRI">relative IRIs</tref> can be
+    used, please refer to appendix <a href="#json-ld-grammar"></a>).</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="IRIs can be relative">
+  <!--
+  {
+  ...
+    "homepage": { "****@id****": "../" }
+  ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p><tref title="absolute iri">Absolute IRIs</tref> can be expressed directly
+    in the key position like so:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="IRI as a key">
+  <!--
+  {
+  ...
+    "****http://schema.org/name****": "Manu Sporny",
+  ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, the key <code>http://schema.org/name</code>
+    is interpreted as an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> because it contains a colon
+    (<code>:</code>) and it is neither a <tref>compact IRI</tref> nor a
+    <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>Term-to-IRI expansion occurs if the key matches a <tref>term</tref> defined
+    within the <tref>active context</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Term expansion from context definition">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "****@context****":
+    {
+      "****name****": "****http://schema.org/name****"
+    },
+    "****name****": "Manu Sporny",
+    "status": "trollin'"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>JSON keys that do not expand to an <tref>IRI</tref>, such as <code>status</code>
+    in the example above, are not Linked Data and thus ignored when processed.</p>
+
+  <p>If type <tref>coercion</tref> rules are specified in the <code>@context</code> for
+    a particular <tref>term</tref> or property IRI, an IRI is generated:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Type coercion">
+  <!--
+  {****
+    "@context":
+    {
+      ...
+      "homepage":
+      {
+        "@id": "http://schema.org/homepage",
+        "@type": "@id"
+      }
+      ...
+    }****
+  ...
+    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, even though the value <code>http://manu.sporny.org/</code>
+    is expressed as a JSON <tref>string</tref>, the type <tref>coercion</tref>
+    rules will transform the value into an IRI when generating the
+    <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>. See <a class="sectionRef" href="#type-coercion"></a> for more
+    details about this feature.</p>
+
+  <p>In summary, <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> can be expressed in a variety of
+    different ways in JSON-LD:</p>
+
+  <ol>
+    <li><tref>JSON object</tref> keys that have a <tref>term</tref> mapping in
+      the <tref>active context</tref> expand to an <tref>IRI</tref>
+      (only applies outside of the <tref>context definition</tref>).</li>
+    <li>An <tref>IRI</tref> is generated for the <tref>string</tref> value specified using
+      <code>@id</code> or <code>@type</code>.</li>
+    <li>An <tref>IRI</tref> is generated for the <tref>string</tref> value of any key for which there
+      are <tref>coercion</tref> rules that contain a <code>@type</code> key that is
+      set to a value of <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code>.</li>
+  </ol>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Node Identifiers</h2>
+
+  <p>To be able to externally reference <tref title="node">nodes</tref>
+    in a <tref title="json-ld graph">graph</tref>, it is important that
+    <tref title="node">nodes</tref> have an identifier. <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
+    are a fundamental concept of <tref>Linked Data</tref>, for
+    <tref title="node">nodes</tref> to be truly linked, dereferencing the
+    identifier should result in a representation of that <tref>node</tref>.
+    This may allow an application to retrieve further information about a
+    <tref>node</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>In JSON-LD, a <tref>node</tref> is identified using the <code>@id</code>
+    <tref>keyword</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Identifying a node">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context":
+    {
+      ...
+      "name": "http://schema.org/name"
+    },
+    ****"@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/"****,
+    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+    ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The example above contains a <tref>node object</tref> identified by the IRI
+    <code>http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/</code>.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+<h2>Specifying the Type</h2>
+
+<p>The type of a particular node can be specified using the <code>@type</code>
+  <tref>keyword</tref>. In <tref>Linked Data</tref>, types are uniquely
+  identified with an <tref>IRI</tref>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Specifying the type for a node">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+  "****@type****": "****http://schema.org/Restaurant****",
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>A node can be assigned more than one type by using an <tref>array</tref>:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Specifying multiple types for a node">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+  "****@type****": ****[ "http://schema.org/Restaurant", "http://schema.org/Brewery" ],****
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The value of a <code>@type</code> key may also be a <tref>term</tref> defined in the <tref>active context</tref>:</p>
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Using a term to specify the type">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context": {
+    ...
+    ****"Restaurant": "http://schema.org/Restaurant", ****
+    ****"Brewery": "http://schema.org/Brewery"****
+  }
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+  ****"@type": [ "Restaurant", "Brewery" ]****,
+  ...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+</section>
+</section>
+
+<section class="normative">
+<h1>Advanced Concepts</h1>
+
+<p>JSON-LD has a number of features that provide functionality above and beyond
+  the core functionality described above. The following section describes this
+  advanced functionality in more detail.</p>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Base IRI</h2>
+
+  <p class="issue atrisk" data-number="223" title="Feature at risk">This feature is
+    at risk as the fact that a document may have multiple base IRIs is potentially
+    confusing for developers. It is also being discussed whether relative IRIs
+    are allowed as values of <code>@base</code> or whether the empty string
+    should be used to explicitly specify that there isn't a base IRI, which
+    could be used to ensure that relative IRIs remain relative when expanding.</p>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD allows <tref>IRI</tref>s to be specified in a relative form which is
+    resolved against the document base according
+    <cite><a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1">section 5.1 Establishing a Base URI</a></cite>
+    of [[RFC3986]]. The base IRI may be explicitly set with a <tref>context</tref>
+    using the <code>@base</code> keyword.</p>
+
+  <p>For example, if a JSON-LD document was retrieved from <code>http://example.com/document.jsonld</code>,
+    relative IRIs would resolve against that IRI:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Use a relative IRI as node identifier">
+    <!--
+    {
+      "@context": {
+        "label": "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label"
+      },
+      ****"@id": ""****,
+      "label": "Just a simple document"
+    }
+    -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>This document uses an empty <code>@id</code>, which resolves to the document base.
+    However, if the document is moved to a different location, the <tref>IRI</tref> would change.
+    To prevent this without having to use an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>context</tref>
+    may define a <code>@base</code> mapping, to overwrite the base IRI for the document.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Setting the document base in a document">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      ****"@base": "http://example.com/document.jsonld"****
+    },
+    "@id": "",
+    "label": "Just a simple document"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Default Vocabulary</h2>
+
+  <p>At times, all properties and types may come from the same vocabulary. JSON-LD's
+    <code>@vocab</code> keyword allows an author to set a common prefix to be used
+    for all properties and types that do not match a <tref>term</tref> or are neither
+    a <tref>compact IRI</tref> nor an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> (i.e., they do
+    not contain a colon).</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Using a common vocabulary prefix">
+  <!--
+    {
+      "@context": {
+        ****"@vocab": "http://schema.org/"****
+      }
+      "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+      "@type": ****"Restaurant"****,
+      ****"name"****: "Brew Eats"
+      ...
+    }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>If <code>@vocab</code> is used but certain keys in an
+    <tref title="JSON object">object</tref> should not be expanded using
+    the vocabulary <tref>IRI</tref>, a <tref>term</tref> can be explicitly set
+    to <tref>null</tref> in the <tref>context</tref>. For instance, in the
+    example below the <code>databaseId</code> member would not expand to an
+    <tref>IRI</tref>.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Using the null keyword to ignore data">
+  <!--
+    {
+      "@context":
+      {
+         "@vocab": "http://schema.org/",
+         ****"databaseId": null****
+      },
+        "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+        "@type": "Restaurant",
+        "name": "Brew Eats",
+        ****"databaseId"****: "23987520"
+    }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Compact IRIs</h2>
+
+  <p>A <tdef>compact IRI</tdef> is a way of expressing an <tref>IRI</tref>
+    using a <em>prefix</em> and <em>suffix</em> separated by a colon (<code>:</code>).
+    The <tdef>prefix</tdef> is a <tref>term</tref> taken from the
+    <tref>active context</tref> and is a short string identifying a
+    particular <tref>IRI</tref> in a JSON-LD document. For example, the
+    prefix <code>foaf</code> may be used as a short hand for the
+    Friend-of-a-Friend vocabulary, which is identified using the <tref>IRI</tref>
+    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</code>. A developer may append
+    any of the FOAF vocabulary terms to the end of the prefix to specify a short-hand
+    version of the <tref>absolute IRI</tref> for the vocabulary term. For example,
+    <code>foaf:name</code> would be expanded to the IRI
+    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Prefix expansion">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "****@context****":
+    {
+      "****foaf****": "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/****"
+  ...
+    },
+    "@type": "****foaf:Person****"
+    "****foaf:name****": "Dave Longley",
+  ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, <code>foaf:name</code> expands to the <tref>IRI</tref>
+    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code> and <code>foaf:Person</code> expands
+    to <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</code>.</p>
+
+  <p><tref title="prefix">Prefixes</tref> are expanded when the form of the value
+    is a <tref>compact IRI</tref> represented as a <code>prefix:suffix</code>
+    combination, the <em>prefix</em> matches a <tref>term</tref> defined within the
+    <tref>active context</tref>, and the <em>suffix</em> does not begin with two
+    slashes&nbsp;(<code>//</code>). The <tref>compact IRI</tref> is expanded by
+    concatenating the <tref>IRI</tref> mapped to the <em>prefix</em> to the (possibly empty)
+    <em>suffix</em>. If the <em>prefix</em> is not defined in the <tref>active context</tref>,
+    or the suffix begins with two slashes (such as in <code>http://example.com</code>),
+    the value is interpreted as <tref>absolute IRI</tref> instead. If the prefix is an
+    underscore (<code>_</code>), the value is interpreted as <tref>blank node identifier</tref>
+    instead.</p>
+
+
+  <p>It's also possible to use compact IRIs within the context as shown in the
+    following example:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Using vocabularies">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context":
+    {
+      "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+      ****"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****,
+      ****"foaf:homepage"****: { "@type": "@id" },
+      "picture": { "@id": ****"foaf:depiction"****, "@type": "@id" }
+    },
+    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+    "@type": "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+    "foaf:homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+    "picture": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+<h2>Typed Values</h2>
+
+<p>
+  A value with an associated type, also known as a
+  <tref>typed value</tref>, is indicated by associating a value with
+  an <tref>IRI</tref> which indicates the value's type. Typed values may be
+  expressed in JSON-LD in three ways:
+</p>
+
+<ol>
+  <li>By utilizing the <code>@type</code> <tref>keyword</tref> when defining
+    a <tref>term</tref> within a <code>@context</code> section.</li>
+  <li>By utilizing a <tref>value object</tref>.</li>
+  <li>By using a native JSON type such as <tref>number</tref>, <tref>true</tref>, or <tref>false</tref>.</li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>The first example uses the <code>@type</code> keyword to associate a
+type with a particular <tref>term</tref> in the <code>@context</code>:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Expanded term definition with type coercion">
+<!--
+{
+  ****"@context":
+  {
+    "modified":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified",
+      "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+    }
+  },****
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.com/docs/1",
+  "modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The <em>modified</em> key's value above is automatically type coerced to a
+  <em>dateTime</em> value because of the information specified in the
+  <code>@context</code>. A JSON-LD processor will interpret the example above
+  as follows:</p>
+
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+  <th>Subject</th>
+  <th>Property</th>
+  <th>Value</th>
+  <th>Value Type</th>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.com/docs/1</td>
+  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified</td>
+  <td>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</td>
+  <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>The second example uses the expanded form of setting the type information
+in the body of a JSON-LD document:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Expanded value with type">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "modified":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified"
+    }
+  },
+...
+  "modified":
+  ****{
+    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+    "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+  }****
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>Both examples above would generate the value
+  <code>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</code> with the type
+  <code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>. Note that it is
+  also possible to use a <tref>term</tref> or a <tref>compact IRI</tref> to
+  express the value of a type.</p>
+
+<p>The <code>@type</code> <tref>keyword</tref> is also used to associate a type
+  with a <tref>node</tref>. The concept of a <tref>node type</tref> and
+  a <tref>value type</tref> are different.</p>
+
+<p>Generally speaking, a <tdef>node type</tdef> specifies the type of thing
+  that is being described, like a person, place, event, or web page. A
+  <tdef>value type</tdef> specifies the data type of a particular value, such
+  as an integer, a floating point number, or a date.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Example demonstrating the context-sensitivity for @type">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia",
+  ****"@type": "http://schema.org/BlogPosting"****,   <- This is a node type
+  "modified":
+  {
+    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+    ****"@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"**** <- This is a value type
+  }
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The first use of <code>@type</code> associates a <tref>node type</tref>
+  (<code>http://schema.org/BlogPosting</code>) with the <tref>node</tref>,
+  which is expressed using the <code>@id</code> <tref>keyword</tref>.
+  The second use of <code>@type</code> associates a <tref>value type</tref>
+  (<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>) with the
+  value expressed using the <code>@value</code> <tref>keyword</tref>. As a
+  general rule, when <code>@value</code> and <code>@type</code> are used in
+  the same <tref>JSON object</tref>, the <code>@type</code>
+  <tref>keyword</tref> is expressing a <tref>value type</tref>.
+  Otherwise, the <code>@type</code> <tref>keyword</tref> is expressing a
+  <tref>node type</tref>. The example above expresses the following data:</p>
+
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+  <th>Subject</th>
+  <th>Property</th>
+  <th>Value</th>
+  <th>Value Type</th>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia</td>
+  <td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</td>
+  <td>http://schema.org/BlogPosting</td>
+  <td style="text-align:center;">-</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia</td>
+  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified</td>
+  <td>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</td>
+  <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+<h2>Type Coercion</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD supports the coercion of values to particular data types.
+Type <tdef>coercion</tdef> allows someone deploying JSON-LD to coerce the incoming or
+outgoing values to the proper data type based on a mapping of data type <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> to
+<tref title="term">terms</tref>. Using type coercion, value representation is preserved without requiring
+the data type to be specified with each piece of data.</p>
+
+<p>Type coercion is specified within an <tref>expanded term definition</tref>
+  using the <code>@type</code> key. The value of this key expands to an <tref>IRI</tref>.
+  Alternatively, the <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code> may be used
+  as value to indicate that within the body of a JSON-LD document, a <tref>string</tref> value of a
+  <tref>term</tref> coerced to <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code> is to be interpreted as an
+  <tref>IRI</tref>. The difference between <code>@id</code> and <code>@vocab</code> is how values are expanded
+  to <tref title="absolute IRI">absolute IRIs</tref>. <code>@vocab</code> first tries to expand the value
+  by interpreting it as <tref>term</tref>. If no matching <tref>term</tref> is found in the
+  <tref>active context</tref>, it tries to expand it as <tref>compact IRI</tref> or <tref>absolute IRI</tref>
+  if there's a colon in the value; otherwise, it will expand the value using the
+  <tref title="active context">active context's</tref> vocabulary mapping, if present, or by interpreting it
+  as <tref>relative IRI</tref>. Values coerced to <code>@id</code> in contrast are expanded as
+  <tref>compact IRI</tref> or <tref>absolute IRI</tref> if a colon is present; otherwise, they are interpreted
+  as <tref>relative IRI</tref>.</p>
+
+<p><tref title="term">Terms</tref> or <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref> used as the value of a
+  <code>@type</code> key may be defined within the same context. This means that one may specify a
+  <tref>term</tref> like <code>xsd</code> and then use <code>xsd:integer</code> within the same
+  context definition.</p>
+
+<p>The example below demonstrates how a JSON-LD author can coerce values to
+<tref title="typed value">typed values</tref> and <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Expanded term definition with types">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+    ****{
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    }****,
+    "homepage":
+    ****{
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }****
+  },
+  "@id": "http://example.com/people#john",
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": ****"41"****,
+  "homepage":
+  ****[
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]****
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example shown above would generate the following data.</p>
+
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+  <th>Subject</th>
+  <th>Property</th>
+  <th>Value</th>
+  <th>Value Type</th>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.com/people#john</td>
+  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</td>
+  <td>John Smith</td>
+  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.com/people#john</td>
+  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age</td>
+  <td>41</td>
+  <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td rowspan="2">http://example.com/people#john</td>
+  <td rowspan="2">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</td>
+  <td>http://personal.example.org/</td>
+  <td><tref>IRI</tref></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://work.example.com/jsmith/</td>
+  <td><tref>IRI</tref></td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>Terms may also be defined using <tref title="absolute iri">absolute IRIs</tref>
+  or <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref>. This allows coercion rules
+  to be applied to keys which are not represented as a simple <tref>term</tref>.
+  For example:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Term definitions using compact and absolute IRIs">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "****foaf:age****":
+    {
+      ****"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age"****,
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****":
+    {
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  "foaf:name": "John Smith",
+  "****foaf:age****": "41",
+  "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****":
+  [
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>In this case the <code>@id</code> definition in the term definition is optional.
+  If it does exist, the <tref>compact IRI</tref> or <tref>IRI</tref> representing
+  the term will always be expanded to <tref>IRI</tref> defined by the <code>@id</code>
+  key&mdash;regardless of whether a prefix is defined or not.</p>
+
+<p>Type coercion is always performed using the unexpanded value of the key. In the
+  example above, that means that type coercion is done looking for <code>foaf:age</code>
+  in the <tref>active context</tref> and not for the corresponding, expanded
+  <tref>IRI</tref> <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age</code>.</p>
+
+<p class="note">Keys in the context are treated as <tref title="term">terms</tref> for the purpose of
+  expansion and value coercion. At times, this may result in multiple representations for the same expanded IRI.
+  For example, one could specify that <code>dog</code> and <code>cat</code> both expanded to <code>http://example.com/vocab#animal</code>.
+  Doing this could be useful for establishing different type coercion or language specification rules. It also allows a <tref>compact IRI</tref> (or even an
+  absolute <tref>IRI</tref>) to be defined as something else entirely. For example, one could specify that
+  the <tref>term</tref> <code>http://example.org/zoo</code> should expand to
+  <code>http://example.org/river</code>, but this usage is discouraged because it would lead to a
+  great deal of confusion among developers attempting to understand the JSON-LD document.</p>
+
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Embedding</h2>
+
+  <p><tdef>Embedding</tdef> is a JSON-LD feature that allows an author to
+    use <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> as
+    <tref>property</tref> values. This is a commonly used mechanism for
+    creating a parent-child relationship between two <tref title="node">nodes</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>The example shows two nodes related by a property from the first node:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Embedding a node object as property value of another node object">
+  <!--
+  {
+  ...
+    "name": "Manu Sporny",
+    "****knows****":
+    {
+      "****@type****": "****Person****",
+      "****name****": "****Gregg Kellogg****",
+    }
+  ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>
+    A <tref>node object</tref>, like the one used above, may be used in
+    any value position in the body of a JSON-LD document.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Advanced Context Usage</h2>
+
+  <p>Section <a href="#the-context"></a> introduced the basics of what makes
+  JSON-LD work. This section expands on the basic principles of the
+  <tref>context</tref> and demonstrates how more advanced use cases can
+  be achieved using JSON-LD. </p>
+
+  <p>In general, contexts may be used at any time a
+    <tref>JSON object</tref> is defined. The only time that one cannot
+    express a context is inside a context definition itself. For example, a
+    <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> may use more than one context at different
+    points in a document:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Using multiple contexts">
+  <!--
+  [
+    {
+      ****"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/person.jsonld",****
+      "name": "Manu Sporny",
+      "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+      "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+    },
+    {
+      ****"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/place.jsonld",****
+      "name": "The Empire State Building",
+      "description": "The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark in New York City.",
+      "geo": {
+        "latitude": "40.75",
+        "longitude": "73.98"
+      }
+    }
+  ]
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Duplicate context <tref title="term">terms</tref> are overridden using a
+    most-recently-defined-wins mechanism.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Scoped contexts within node objects">
+  <!--
+  {
+    ****"@context":
+    {
+      "name": "http://example.com/person#name,
+      "details": "http://example.com/person#details"
+    }"****,
+    "****name****": "Markus Lanthaler",
+    ...
+    "details":
+    {
+      ****"@context":
+      {
+        "name": "http://example.com/organization#name"
+      }****,
+      "****name****": "Graz University of Technology"
+    }
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, the <code>name</code> <tref>term</tref> is overridden
+    in the more deeply nested <code>details</code> structure. Note that this is
+    rarely a good authoring practice and is typically used when working with
+    legacy applications that depend on a specific structure of the
+    <tref>JSON object</tref>. If a <tref>term</tref> is redefined within a
+    context, all previous rules associated with the previous definition are
+    removed. If a <tref>term</tref> is redefined to <code>null</code>,
+    the <tref>term</tref> is effectively removed from the list of
+    <tref title="term">terms</tref> defined in the <tref>active context</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>Multiple contexts may be combined using an <tref>array</tref>, which is processed
+    in order. The set of contexts defined within a specific <tref>JSON object</tref> are
+    referred to as <tdef title="local context">local contexts</tdef>. The
+    <tdef>active context</tdef> refers to the accumulation of
+    <tref title="local context">local contexts</tref> that are in scope at a
+    specific point within the document. Setting a <tref>local context</tref>
+    to <code>null</code> effectively resets the <tref>active context</tref>
+    to an empty context. The following example specifies an external context
+    and then layers an embedded context on top of the external context:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Combining external and local contexts">
+  <!--
+  {
+    ****"@context": [
+      "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",
+      {
+        "pic": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction"
+      }
+    ],****
+    "name": "Manu Sporny",
+    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+    ****"pic": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"****
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p class="note">When possible, the <tref>context</tref> definition should be put
+    at the top of a JSON-LD document. This makes the document easier to read and
+    might make streaming parsers more efficient. Documents that do not have the
+    <tref>context</tref> at the top are still conformant JSON-LD.</p>
+
+  <p class="note">To avoid forward-compatibility issues, <tref title="term">terms</tref>
+    starting with an&nbsp;<code>@</code> character are to be avoided as they
+    might be used as <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> in future versions
+    of JSON-LD. Terms starting with an&nbsp;<code>@</code> character that are not
+    <tref title="keyword">JSON-LD 1.0 keywords</tref> are treated as any other term, i.e.,
+    they are ignored unless mapped to an <tref>IRI</tref>. Furthermore, the use of
+    empty <tref title="term">terms</tref> (<code>""</code>) is not allowed as
+    not all programming languages are able to handle empty property names.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="normative">
+  <h2>Interpreting JSON as JSON-LD</h2>
+
+  <p>Ordinary JSON documents can be interpreted as JSON-LD by referencing a JSON-LD
+    <tref>context</tref> document in an HTTP Link Header. Doing so allows JSON to
+    be unambiguously machine-readable without requiring developers to drastically
+    change their documents and provides an upgrade path for existing infrastructure
+    without breaking existing clients that rely on the <code>application/json</code>
+    media type.</p>
+
+  <p>In order to use an external context with an ordinary JSON document, an author
+    MUST specify an <tref>IRI</tref> to a valid <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> in
+    an HTTP Link Header [[!RFC5988]] using the <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context</code>
+    link relation. The referenced document MUST have a top-level <tref>JSON object</tref>.
+    The <code>@context</code> subtree within that object is added to the top-level
+    <tref>JSON object</tref> of the referencing document. If an <tref>array</tref>
+    is at the top-level of the referencing document and its items are
+    <tref title="JSON object">JSON objects</tref>, the <code>@context</code>
+    subtree is added to all <tref>array</tref> items. All extra information located outside
+    of the <code>@context</code> subtree in the referenced document MUST be
+    discarded. Effectively this means that the <tref>active context</tref> is
+    initialized with the referenced external <tref>context</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>The following example demonstrates the use of an external context with an
+    ordinary JSON document:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Referencing a JSON-LD context from a JSON document via an HTTP Link Header">
+  <!--
+  GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+  Host: example.com
+  Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+
+  ====================================
+
+  HTTP/1.0 200 OK
+  ...
+  Content-Type: ****application/json****
+  ****Link: <http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"****
+
+  {
+    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+    "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+    "image": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Please note that <tref title="JSON-LD document">JSON-LD documents</tref>
+    served with the <code>application/ld+json</code>
+    media type MUST have all context information, including references to external
+    contexts, within the body of the document. Contexts linked via a
+    <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context</code> HTTP Link Header MUST be
+    ignored for such documents.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>String Internationalization</h2>
+
+  <p>At times, it is important to annotate a <tref>string</tref>
+    with its language. In JSON-LD this is possible in a variety of ways.
+    First, it is possible to define a default language for a JSON-LD document
+    by setting the <code>@language</code> key in the <tref>context</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Setting the default language of a JSON-LD document">
+  <!--
+  {
+    ****"@context":
+    {
+      ...
+      "@language": "ja"
+    }****,
+    "name": ****"花澄"****,
+    "occupation": ****"科学者"****
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The example above would associate the <code>ja</code> language
+    code with the two <tref title="string">strings</tref> <em>花澄</em> and <em>科学者</em>.
+    Languages codes are defined in [[!BCP47]]. The default language applies to all
+    <tref>string</tref> values that are not <a href="#type-coercion">type coerced</a>.</p>
+
+  <p>To clear the default language for a subtree, <code>@language</code> can
+    be set to <code>null</code> in a <tref>local context</tref> as follows:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Clearing default language">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      ...
+      "@language": "ja"
+    },
+    "name": "花澄",
+    "details": {
+  ****    "@context": {
+        "@language": null
+      }****,
+      "occupation": "Ninja"
+    }
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Second, it is possible to associate a language with a specific <tref>term</tref>
+    using an <tref>expanded term definition</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Expanded term definition with language">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      ...
+      "ex": "http://example.com/vocab/",
+      "@language": "ja",
+      "name": { "@id": "ex:name", ****"@language": null**** },
+      "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation" },
+      "occupation_en": { "@id": "ex:occupation", ****"@language": "en"**** },
+      "occupation_cs": { "@id": "ex:occupation", ****"@language": "cs"**** }
+    },
+    ****"name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+    "occupation": "忍者",
+    "occupation_en": "Ninja",
+    "occupation_cs": "Nindža",****
+    ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The example above would associate <em>忍者</em> with the specified default
+    language code <code>ja</code>, <em>Ninja</em> with the language code
+    <code>en</code>, and <em>Nindža</em> with the language code <code>cs</code>.
+    The value of <code>name</code>, <em>Yagyū Muneyoshi</em> wouldn't be
+    associated with any language code since <code>@language</code> was reset to
+    <tref>null</tref> in the <tref>expanded term definition</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p class="note">Language associations are only applied to plain
+    <tref title="string">strings</tref>. <tref title="typed value">Typed values</tref>
+    or values that are subject to <a href="#type-coercion">type coercion</a>
+    are not language tagged.</p>
+
+  <p>Just as in the example above, systems often need to express the value of a
+    property in multiple languages. Typically, such systems also try to ensure that
+    developers have a programmatically easy way to navigate the data structures for
+    the language-specific data. In this case, <tref title="language map">language maps</tref>
+    may be utilized.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Language map expressing a property in three languages">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context":
+    {
+      ...
+      "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation", ****"@container": "@language"**** }
+    },
+    "name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+    "occupation":
+    ****{
+      "ja": "忍者",
+      "en": "Ninja",
+      "cs": "Nindža"
+    }****
+    ...
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The example above expresses exactly the same information as the previous
+    example but consolidates all values in a single property. To access the
+    value in a specific language in a programming language supporting dot-notation
+    accessors for object properties, a developer may use the
+    <code>property.language</code> pattern. For example, to access the occupation
+    in English, a developer would use the following code snippet:
+    <code>obj.occupation.en</code>.</p>
+
+  <p>Third, it is possible to override the default language by using a
+    <tref>value object</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Overriding default language using an expanded value">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      ...
+      "@language": "ja"
+    },
+    "name": "花澄",
+    "occupation": ****{
+      "@value": "Scientist",
+      "@language": "en"
+    }****
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>This makes it possible to specify a plain string by omitting the
+    <code>@language</code> tag or setting it to <code>null</code> when expressing
+    it using a <tref>value object</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Removing language information using an expanded value">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      ...
+      "@language": "ja"
+    },
+    "name": ****{
+      "@value": "Frank"
+    }****,
+    "occupation": {
+      "@value": "Ninja",
+      "@language": "en"
+    },
+    "speciality": "手裏剣"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>IRI Expansion within a Context</h2>
+  <p>In general, normal IRI expansion rules apply
+    anywhere an IRI is expected (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#iris"></a>). Within
+    a <tref>context</tref> definition, this can mean that terms defined
+    within the context may also be used within that context as long as
+    there are no circular dependencies. For example, it is common to use
+    the <code>xsd</code> namespace when defining <tref>typed value</tref>s:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="IRI expansion within a context">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ****"xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"****,
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+      "@type": ****"xsd:integer"****
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>In this example, the <code>xsd</code> <tref>term</tref> is defined
+  and used as a <tref>prefix</tref> for the <code>@type</code> coercion
+  of the <code>age</code> property.</p>
+
+<p><tref title="term">Terms</tref> may also be used when defining the IRI of another
+<tref>term</tref>:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Using a term to define the IRI of another term within a context">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ****"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****,
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": ****"foaf:name"****,
+    "age":
+    {
+      "@id": ****"foaf:age"****,
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": ****"foaf:homepage"****,
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p><tref title="compact iri">Compact IRIs</tref>
+  and <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> may be used on the left-hand side of a
+  <tref>term</tref> definition.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Using a compact IRI as a term">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ****"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****,
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "foaf:name",
+    "****foaf:age****":
+    {
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "****foaf:homepage****":
+    ****{
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }****
+  },
+  ...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+In this example, the <tref>compact IRI</tref> form is used in two different
+ways.
+In the first approach, <code>foaf:age</code> declares both the
+<tref>IRI</tref> for the <tref>term</tref> (using short-form) as well as the
+<code>@type</code> associated with the <tref>term</tref>. In the second
+approach, only the <code>@type</code> associated with the <tref>term</tref> is
+specified. The full <tref>IRI</tref> for
+<code>foaf:homepage</code> is determined by looking up the <code>foaf</code>
+<tref>prefix</tref> in the
+<tref>context</tref>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<tref title="absolute iri">Absolute IRIs</tref> may also be used in the key position in a <tref>context</tref>:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Associating context definitions with absolute IRIs">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "foaf:name",
+    "foaf:age":
+    {
+      "@id": "foaf:age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****":
+    {
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>In order for the <tref>absolute IRI</tref> to match above, the <tref>absolute IRI</tref>
+  needs to be used in the <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>. Also note that <code>foaf:homepage</code>
+  will not use the <code>{ "@type": "@id" }</code> declaration because
+  <code>foaf:homepage</code> is not the same as <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</code>.
+  That is, <tref title="term">terms</tref> are looked up in a <tref>context</tref> using
+  direct string comparison before the <tref>prefix</tref> lookup mechanism is applied.</p>
+
+<p class="note">While it is possible to define a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, or
+  an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> to expand to some other unrelated <tref>IRI</tref>
+  (for example, <code>foaf:name</code> expanding to
+  <code>http://example.org/unrelated#species</code>), such usage is strongly
+  discouraged.</p>
+
+<p>The only exception for using terms in the <tref>context</tref> is that
+  circular definitions are not allowed. That is,
+  a definition of <em>term1</em> cannot depend on the
+  definition of <em>term2</em> if <em>term2</em> also depends on
+  <em>term1</em>. For example, the following <tref>context</tref> definition
+  is illegal:</p>
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Illegal circular definition of terms within a context">
+<!--
+{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ****"term1": "term2:foo",
+    "term2": "term1:bar"****
+  },
+  ...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+<h2>Sets and Lists</h2>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD author can express multiple values in a compact way by using
+  <tref title="array">arrays</tref>. Since graphs do not describe ordering for links
+  between nodes, arrays in JSON-LD do not provide an ordering of the
+  contained elements by default. This is exactly the opposite from regular JSON
+  arrays, which are ordered by default. For example, consider the following
+  simple document:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Multiple values with no inherent order">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "nick": ****[ "joe", "bob", "JB" ]****,
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example shown above would result in the following data being generated,
+  each relating the node to an individual value, with no inherent order:</p>
+
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+  <th>Subject</th>
+  <th>Property</th>
+  <th>Value</th>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/people#joebob</td>
+  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick</td>
+  <td>joe</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/people#joebob</td>
+  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick</td>
+  <td>bob</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/people#joebob</td>
+  <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick</td>
+  <td>JB</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>Multiple values may also be expressed using the expanded form:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Using an expanded form to set multiple values">
+<!--
+{
+  "@id": "http://example.org/articles/8",
+  "dc:title": ****
+  [
+    {
+      "@value": "Das Kapital",
+      "@language": "de"
+    },
+    {
+      "@value": "Capital",
+      "@language": "en"
+    }
+  ]****
+}-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example shown above would generate the following data, again with
+  no inherent order:</p>
+
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+  <th>Subject</th>
+  <th>Property</th>
+  <th>Value</th>
+  <th>Language</th>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/articles/8</td>
+  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/title</td>
+  <td>Das Kapital</td>
+  <td>de</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+  <td>http://example.org/articles/8</td>
+  <td>http://purl.org/dc/terms/title</td>
+  <td>Capital</td>
+  <td>en</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>As the notion of ordered collections is rather important in data
+  modeling, it is useful to have specific language support. In JSON-LD,
+  a list may be represented using the <code>@list</code> <tref>keyword</tref> as follows:</p>
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="An ordered collection of values in JSON-LD">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "foaf:nick":
+  ****{
+    "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]
+  }****,
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>This describes the use of this <tref>array</tref> as being ordered,
+  and order is maintained when processing a document. If every use of a given multi-valued
+  property is a list, this may be abbreviated by setting <code>@container</code>
+  to <code>@list</code> in the <tref>context</tref>:</p>
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+     title="Specifying that a collection is ordered in the context">
+<!--
+{
+  ****"@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "nick":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick",
+      "@container": "@list"
+    }
+  }****,
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "nick": ****[ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]****,
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p class="note">List of lists are not allowed in this version of JSON-LD.
+  This decision was made due to the extreme amount of added complexity when
+  processing lists of lists.</p>
+
+<p>While <code>@list</code> is used to describe <em>ordered lists</em>,
+  the <code>@set</code> keyword is used to describe <em>unordered sets</em>.
+  The use of <code>@set</code> in the body of a JSON-LD document
+  is optimized away when processing the document, as it is just syntactic
+  sugar. However, <code>@set</code> is helpful when used within the context
+  of a document.
+  Values of terms associated with a <code>@set</code> or <code>@list</code> container
+  are always represented in the form of an <tref>array</tref>,
+  even if there is just a single value that would otherwise be optimized to
+  a non-array form in compact form (see
+  <a class="sectionRef" href="#compact-document-form"></a>). This makes post-processing of
+  JSON-LD documents easier as the data is always in array form, even if the
+  array only contains a single value.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Reverse Properties</h2>
+
+  <p class="issue atrisk">This feature is at risk.</p>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD serializes directed <tref title="JSON-LD graph">graphs</tref>. That means that
+    every <tref>property</tref> points from a <tref>node</tref> to another <tref>node</tref>
+    or <tref title="JSON-LD value">value</tref>. However, in some cases, it is desirable
+    to serialize in the reverse direction. Consider for example the case where a person
+    and its children should be described in a document. If the used vocabulary does not
+    provide a <em>children</em> <tref>property</tref> but just a <em>parent</em>
+    <tref>property</tref>, every <tref>node</tref> representing a child would have to
+    be expressed with a <tref>property</tref> pointing to the parent as in the following
+    example.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="A document with children linking to their parent">
+  <!--
+  [
+    {
+      ****"@id": "#homer"****,
+      "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Homer"
+    },
+    {
+      "@id": "#bart",
+      "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Bart",
+      ****"http://example.com/vocab#parent": { "@id": "#homer" }****
+    },
+    {
+      "@id": "#lisa",
+      "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Lisa",
+      ****"http://example.com/vocab#parent": { "@id": "#homer" }****
+    }
+  ]
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Expressing such data is much simpler by using JSON-LD's <code>@reverse</code>
+    <tref>keyword</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="A person and its children using a reverse property">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@id": "#homer",
+    "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Homer",
+    ****"@reverse"****: {
+      ****"http://example.com/vocab#parent"****: [
+        {
+          "@id": "#bart",
+          "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Bart"
+        },
+        {
+          "@id": "#lisa",
+          "http://example.com/vocab#name": "Lisa"
+        }
+      ]
+    }
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The <code>@reverse</code> <tref>keyword</tref> can also be used in
+    <tref title="expanded term definition">expanded term definitions</tref>
+    to create reverse properties as shown in the following example:</p>
+
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Using @reverse to define reverse properties">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      "name": "http://example.com/vocab#name",
+      ****"children": { "@reverse": "http://example.com/vocab#parent" }****
+    },
+    "@id": "#homer",
+    "name": "Homer",
+    ****"children"****: [
+      {
+        "@id": "#bart",
+        "name": "Bart"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "#lisa",
+        "name": "Lisa"
+      }
+    ]
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Named Graphs</h2>
+
+  <p>At times, it is necessary to make statements about a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>
+    itself, rather than just a single <tref>node</tref>. This can be done by
+    grouping a set of <tref title="node">nodes</tref> using the <code>@graph</code>
+    <tref>keyword</tref>. A developer may also name data expressed using the
+    <code>@graph</code> <tref>keyword</tref> by pairing it with an
+    <code>@id</code> <tref>keyword</tref> as shown in the following example:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Identifying and making statements about a graph">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      "generatedAt": {
+        "@id": "http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime",
+        "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date"
+      },
+      "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
+    },
+    ****"@id": "http://example.org/graphs/73",
+    "generatedAt": "2012-04-09",
+    "@graph":****
+    [
+      {
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+        "@type": "Person",
+        "name": "Manu Sporny",
+        "knows": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
+        "@type": "Person",
+        "name": "Gregg Kellogg",
+        "knows": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public"
+      }
+    ]
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The example above expresses a <tref>named graph</tref> that is identified
+    by the <tref>IRI</tref> <code>http://example.org/graphs/73</code>. That
+    graph is composed of the statements about Manu and Gregg. Metadata about
+    the graph itself is expressed via the <code>generatedAt</code> property,
+    which specifies when the graph was generated. An alternative view of the
+    information above is represented in table form below:</p>
+
+  <table class="example">
+  <thead>
+    <th>Graph</th>
+    <th>Subject</th>
+    <th>Property</th>
+    <th>Value</th>
+    <th>Value Type</th>
+  </thead>
+  <tbody>
+  <tr>
+    <td>&nbsp;</td>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime</td>
+    <td>2012-04-09</td>
+    <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date</td>
+  </tr>
+  <tr>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
+    <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#type</td>
+    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</td>
+    <td></td>
+  </tr>
+  <tr>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
+    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</td>
+    <td>Manu Sporny</td>
+    <td></td>
+  </tr>
+  <tr>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
+    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows</td>
+    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
+    <td></td>
+  </tr>
+  <tr>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
+    <td>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#type</td>
+    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</td>
+    <td></td>
+  </tr>
+  <tr>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
+    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</td>
+    <td>Gregg Kellogg</td>
+    <td></td>
+  </tr>
+  <tr>
+    <td>http://example.org/graphs/73</td>
+    <td>http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me</td>
+    <td>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows</td>
+    <td>http://manu.sporny.org/i/public</td>
+    <td></td>
+  </tr>
+  </tbody>
+  </table>
+
+  <p>When a JSON-LD document's top-level structure is an
+    <tref title="JSON object">object</tref> that contains no other
+    <tref title="property">properties</tref> than <code>@graph</code> and
+    optionally <code>@context</code> (properties that are not mapped to an
+    <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>keyword</tref> are ignored),
+    <code>@graph</code> is considered to express the otherwise implicit
+    <tref>default graph</tref>. This mechanism can be useful when a number
+    of <tref title="node">nodes</tref> exist at the document's top level that
+    share the same <tref>context</tref>, which is, e.g., the case when a
+    document is <a href="#flattened-document-form">flattened</a>. The
+    <code>@graph</code> keyword collects such nodes in an <tref>array</tref>
+    and allows the use of a shared context.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+    title="Using @graph to explicitly express the default graph">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": ...,
+    "****@graph****":
+    [
+      {
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+        "@type": "foaf:Person",
+        "name": "Manu Sporny",
+        "knows": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
+        "@type": "foaf:Person",
+        "name": "Gregg Kellogg",
+        "knows": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public"
+      }
+    ]
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In this case, embedding doesn't work as each <tref>node object</tref>
+    references the other. This is equivalent to using multiple
+    <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> in array and defining
+    the <code>@context</code> within each <tref>node object</tref>:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+    title="Context needs to be duplicated if @graph is not used">
+  <!--
+  [
+    {
+      ****"@context": ...,****
+      "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+      "@type": "foaf:Person",
+      "name": "Manu Sporny",
+      "knows": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
+    },
+    {
+      ****"@context": ...,****
+      "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
+      "@type": "foaf:Person",
+      "name": "Gregg Kellogg",
+      "knows": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public"
+    }
+  ]
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Identifying Blank Nodes</h2>
+
+  <p>At times, it becomes necessary to be able to express information without
+    being able to uniquely identify the <tref>node</tref> with an <tref>IRI</tref>.
+    This type of node is called a <tref>blank node</tref>. JSON-LD does not require
+    all nodes to be identified using <code>@id</code>. However, some graph topologies
+    may require identifiers to be serializable. Graphs containing loops, e.g., cannot
+    be serialized using embedding alone, <code>@id</code> must be used to connect the nodes.
+    In these situations, one can use <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>,
+    which look like <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> using an underscore (<code>_</code>)
+    as scheme. This allows one to reference the node locally within the document, but
+    makes it impossible to reference the node from an external document. The
+    <tref>blank node identifier</tref> is scoped  to the document in which it is used.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Specifying a local blank node identifier">
+  <!--
+  {
+     ...
+     "@id": "****_:n1****",
+     "name": "Secret Agent 1",
+     "knows":
+       {
+         "name": "Secret Agent 2",
+         "knows": { "@id": "****_:n1****" }
+       }
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>The example above contains information about to secrete agents that cannot be identified
+    with an <tref>IRI</tref>. While expressing that <em>agent&nbsp;1</em> knows <em>agent&nbsp;2</em> is possible
+    without using <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>, it is
+    necessary assign <em>agent&nbsp;1</em> an identifier so that it can be referenced from
+    <em>agent&nbsp;2</em>.</p>
+  <p>It is worth nothing that blank node identifiers may be relabeled during processing.
+    If a developer finds that they refer to the <tref>blank node</tref> more than once,
+    they should consider naming the node using a dereferenceable <tref>IRI</tref> so that
+    it can also be referenced from other documents.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Aliasing Keywords</h2>
+
+  <p>Each of the JSON-LD <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>,
+    except for <code>@context</code>, may be aliased to application-specific
+    keywords. This feature allows legacy JSON content to be utilized
+    by JSON-LD by re-using JSON keys that already exist in legacy documents.
+    This feature also allows developers to design domain-specific implementations
+    using only the JSON-LD <tref>context</tref>.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Aliasing keywords">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context":
+    {
+       ****"url": "@id"****,
+       ****"a": "@type"****,
+       "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name"
+    },
+    "****url****": "http://example.com/about#gregg",
+    "****a****": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+    "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, the <code>@id</code> and <code>@type</code>
+    <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> have been given the aliases
+    <strong>url</strong> and <strong>a</strong>, respectively.</p>
+
+  <p>Since keywords cannot be redefined, they can also not be aliased to
+    other keywords.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Data Indexing</h2>
+
+  <p>Databases are typically used to make access to
+    data more efficient. Developers often extend this sort of functionality into
+    their application data to deliver similar performance gains. Often this
+    data does not have any meaning from a Linked Data standpoint, but is
+    still useful for an application.</p>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD introduces the notion of <tref title="index map">index maps</tref>
+    that can be used to structure data into a form that is
+    more efficient to access. The data indexing feature allows an author to
+    structure data using a simple key-value map where the keys do not map
+    to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>. This enables direct access to data
+    instead of having to scan an array in search of a specific item.
+    In JSON-LD such data can be specified by associating the
+    <code>@index</code> <tref>keyword</tref> with a
+    <code>@container</code> declaration in the context:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Indexing data in JSON-LD">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context":
+    {
+       "schema": "http://schema.org/",
+       "name": "schema:name",
+       "body": "schema:articleBody",
+       "words": "schema:wordCount",
+       "post": {
+         "@id": "schema:blogPost",
+         ****"@container": "@index"****
+       }
+    },
+    "@id": "http://example.com/",
+    "@type": "schema:Blog",
+    "name": "World Financial News",
+    ****"post": {
+       "en": {
+         "@id": "http://example.com/posts/1/en",
+         "body": "World commodities were up today with heavy trading of crude oil...",
+         "words": 1539
+       },
+       "de": {
+         "@id": "http://example.com/posts/1/de",
+         "body": "Die Werte an Warenbörsen stiegen im Sog eines starken Handels von Rohöl...",
+         "words": 1204
+       }****
+    }
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>In the example above, the <strong>blogPost</strong> <tref>term</tref> has
+    been marked as an <tref>index map</tref>. The <strong>en</strong>,
+    <strong>de</strong>, and <strong>ja</strong> keys will be ignored
+    semantically, but preserved syntactically, by the JSON-LD Processor.
+    This allows a developer to access the German version
+    of the <strong>blogPost</strong> using the following code snippet:
+    <code>obj.blogPost.de</code>.</p>
+
+  <p>The interpretation of the data above is expressed in
+    the table below. Note how the index keys do not appear in the Linked Data
+    below, but would continue to exist if the document were compacted or
+    expanded (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#compact-document-form"></a> and
+    <a class="sectionRef" href="#expanded-document-form"></a>) using a JSON-LD processor:</p>
+
+  <table class="example">
+    <thead>
+      <th>Subject</th>
+      <th>Property</th>
+      <th>Value</th>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/</td>
+        <td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/Blog</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/name</td>
+        <td>World Financial News</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/blogPost</td>
+        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/en</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/blogPost</td>
+        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/de</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/en</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/articleBody</td>
+        <td>World commodities were up today with heavy trading of crude oil...</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/en</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/wordCount</td>
+        <td>1539</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/de</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/articleBody</td>
+        <td>Die Werte an Warenbörsen stiegen im Sog eines starken Handels von Rohöl...</td>
+      </tr>
+      <tr>
+        <td>http://example.com/posts/1/de</td>
+        <td>http://schema.org/wordCount</td>
+        <td>1204</td>
+      </tr>
+    </tbody>
+  </table>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h3>Expanded Document Form</h3>
+
+  <p>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]]
+    defines a method for <em>expanding</em> a JSON-LD document.
+    Expansion is the process of taking a JSON-LD document and applying a
+    <code>@context</code> such that all IRIs, types, and values
+    are expanded so that the <code>@context</code> is no longer necessary.</p>
+
+  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Sample JSON-LD document">
+  <!--
+  {
+     "@context":
+     {
+        "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+        "homepage": {
+          "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+          "@type": "@id"
+        }
+     },
+     "name": "Manu Sporny",
+     "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Running the JSON-LD Expansion algorithm against the JSON-LD input document
+    provided above would result in the following output:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Expanded form for the previous example">
+  <!--
+  [
+    {
+      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
+        { "@value": "Manu Sporny" }
+      ],
+      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
+        { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" }
+      ]
+    }
+  ]
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h3>Compact Document Form</h3>
+
+  <p>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]] defines
+    a method for <em>compacting</em> a JSON-LD document. Compaction is the process
+    of applying a developer-supplied context to shorten <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>
+    to <tref title="term">terms</tref> or <tref title="compact IRI">compact IRIs</tref>
+    and JSON-LD values expressed in expanded form to simple values such as
+    <tref title="string">strings</tref> or <tref title="number">numbers</tref>.
+    Often this makes it simpler to work with document as the data is expressed in
+    application-specific terms. Compacted documents are also typically easier to read
+    for humans.</p>
+
+  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Sample expanded JSON-LD document">
+  <!--
+  [
+    {
+      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [ "Manu Sporny" ],
+      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
+        {
+         "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+        }
+      ]
+    }
+  ]
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Additionally, assume the following developer-supplied JSON-LD context:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Sample context">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": {
+        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+        "@type": "@id"
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Running the JSON-LD Compaction algorithm given the context supplied above
+    against the JSON-LD input document provided above would result in the following
+    output:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Compact form of the sample document once sample context has been applied">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": {
+        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+        "@type": "@id"
+      }
+    },
+    "name": "Manu Sporny",
+    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h3>Flattened Document Form</h3>
+
+  <p>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]] defines
+    a method for <em>flattening</em> a JSON-LD document. Flattening collects all
+    properties of a <tref>node</tref> in a single <tref>JSON object</tref> and labels
+    all <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref> with
+    <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>.
+    This ensures a shape of the data and consequently may drastically simplify the code
+    required to process JSON-LD in certain applications.</p>
+
+  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Sample JSON-LD document">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
+    },
+    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+    "knows": [
+      {
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+        "name": "Manu Sporny"
+      },
+      {
+        "name": "Dave Longley"
+      }
+    ]
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Running the JSON-LD Flattening algorithm against the JSON-LD input document in
+    the example above and using the same context would result in the following
+    output:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Flattened and compacted form for the previous example">
+  <!--
+  {
+    "@context": {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
+    },
+    "@graph": [
+      {
+        "@id": "_:b0",
+        "name": "Dave Longley"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+        "name": "Manu Sporny"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+        "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+        "knows": [
+          { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" },
+          { "@id": "_:b0" }
+        ]
+      }
+    ]
+  }
+  -->
+  </pre>
+</section>
+
+<section class="informative">
+  <h2>Embedding JSON-LD in HTML Documents</h2>
+
+  <p>HTML script tags can be used to embed blocks of data in documents.
+    This way, JSON-LD content can be easily embedded in HTML by placing
+    it in a script element with the <code>type</code> attribute set to
+    <code>application/ld+json</code>.</p>
+
+  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+       title="Embedding JSON-LD in HTML">
+  <!--
+  ****<script type="application/ld+json">****
+  {
+    "@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",
+    "@id": "http://dbpedia.org/resource/John_Lennon",
+    "name": "John Lennon",
+    "born": "1940-10-09",
+    "spouse": "http://dbpedia.org/resource/Cynthia_Lennon"
+  }
+  ****</script>****
+  -->
+  </pre>
+
+  <p>Depending on how the HTML document is served, certain strings may need
+    to be escaped.</p>
+
+  <p>Defining how such data may be used is beyond the scope of this specification.
+    The embedded JSON-LD document might be extracted as is or, e.g., be converted
+    to RDF.</p>
+
+  <p>If JSON-LD content is extracted as RDF [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]], it should be expanded into an
+    <tref href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-dataset">RDF dataset</tref> using the
+    <cite><a href="../json-ld-api/#convert-to-rdf-algorithm">Convert to RDF Algorithm</a></cite>
+    [[JSON-LD-API]]. If multiple embedded JSON-LD documents are extracted as RDF,
+    the result is the RDF merge of the extracted datasets.</p>
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix normative">
+  <h1>Data Model</h1>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD is a serialization format for <tref>Linked Data</tref> based on JSON.
+    It is therefore important to distinguish between the syntax, which is defined
+    by JSON in [[RFC4627]], and <tdef title="JSON-LD data model">JSON-LD's data model</tdef>
+    which is defined as follows:</p>
+
+  <ul>
+    <li>A <tdef>JSON-LD document</tdef> serializes a collection of
+      <tref title="JSON-LD graph">JSON-LD graphs</tref> and comprises exactly one
+      <tdef>default graph</tdef> and zero or more <tdef title="named graph">named graphs</tdef>.</li>
+    <li>The <tref>default graph</tref> does not have a name and MAY be empty.</li>
+    <li>Each <tref>named graph</tref> is a pair consisting of an <tref>IRI</tref> or
+      <tref>blank node identifier</tref> (the <tdef>graph name</tdef>) and a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>.
+      Whenever possible, the <tref>graph name</tref> SHOULD be an <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>JSON-LD graph</tdef> is a labeled directed graph, i.e., a set of
+      <tref title="node">nodes</tref> connected by <tref title="edge">edges</tref>.</li>
+    <li>Every <tdef>edge</tdef> has a direction associated with it and is labeled with
+      an <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>. Within the JSON-LD syntax
+      these edge labels are called <tdef title="property">properties</tdef>. Whenever possible, an
+      <tref>edge</tref> SHOULD be labeled with an <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
+    <li>Every <tdef>node</tdef> is an <tref>IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node</tref>,
+      a <tref>JSON-LD value</tref>, or a <tref>list</tref>.</li>
+    <li>A <tref>node</tref> having an outgoing edge MUST be an <tref>IRI</tref> or a
+      <tref>blank node</tref>.</li>
+    <li>A <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> MUST NOT contain unconnected <tref title="node">nodes</tref>,
+      i.e., nodes which are not connected by an <tref>edge</tref> to any other <tref>node</tref>.</li>
+    <li>An <tdef><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></tdef>
+      (Internationalized Resource Identifier) is a string that conforms to the syntax
+      defined in [[RFC3987]]. <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> used within a
+      <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> SHOULD return a <tref>Linked Data</tref> document describing
+      the resource denoted by that <tref>IRI</tref> when being dereferenced.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>blank node</tdef> is a <tref>node</tref> which is neither an <tref>IRI</tref>,
+      nor a <tref>JSON-LD value</tref>, nor a <tref>list</tref>. A blank node MAY be identified
+      using a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>blank node identifier</tdef> is a string that can be used as an identifier
+      for a <tref>blank node</tref> within the scope of a <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>.
+      Blank node identifiers begin with <code>_:</code>.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>JSON-LD value</tdef> is a <tref>string</tref>, a <tref>number</tref>,
+      <tref>true</tref> or <tref>false</tref>, a <tref>typed value</tref>, or a
+      <tref>language-tagged string</tref>.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>typed value</tdef> consists of a value, which is a string, and a type, which is an
+      <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>language-tagged string</tdef> consists of a string and a non-empty language
+      tag as defined by [[BCP47]]. The language tag MUST be well-formed according to section
+      <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">2.2.9</a> of [[BCP47]], and MUST
+      be lowercase.</li>
+    <li>A <tdef>list</tdef> is an ordered sequence of zero or more
+      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,
+      <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>, and
+      <tref title="JSON-LD value">JSON-LD values</tref>.</li>
+  </ul>
+
+  <p class="issue atrisk" data-number="217">In contrast to the RDF data model as defined in
+    [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]], JSON-LD allows blank nodes as property labels and graph names. Thus,
+    some data that is valid JSON-LD cannot be converted to RDF. This feature may be removed
+    in the future.</p>
+
+  <p><tref title="JSON-LD document">JSON-LD documents</tref> MAY contain data that cannot be
+    represented by the <tref title="JSON-LD data model">data model</tref> defined above.
+    Unless otherwise specified, such data is ignored when a <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>
+    is being processed. This means, e.g., that properties which are not mapped to an
+    <tref>IRI</tref> or <tref>blank node</tref> will be ignored.</p>
+
+  <p style="text-align: center"><img src="linked-data-graph.png" title="An illustration of JSON-LD's data model"/></p>
+  <p style="text-align: center">Figure&nbsp;1: An illustration of JSON-LD's data model.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix normative">
+  <h1>JSON-LD Grammar</h1>
+
+  <p>This appendix restates the syntactic conventions described in the
+    previous sections more formally.</p>
+
+  <p>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> MUST be a valid JSON document as described
+    in [[!RFC4627]].</p>
+
+  <p>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> MUST be a single <tref>node object</tref>
+    or a JSON <tref>array</tref> containing a set of one or more
+    <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> at the top level.</p>
+
+  <p>In contrast to JSON, in JSON-LD the keys in <tref title="JSON object">objects</tref>
+    MUST be unique.</p>
+
+  <p class="note">JSON-LD allows <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> to be aliased
+    (see <a class="sectionRef" href="#aliasing-keywords"></a> for details). Whenever a <tref>keyword</tref> is
+    discussed in this grammar, the statements also apply to an alias for
+    that <tref>keyword</tref>. For example, if the <tref>active context</tref>
+    defines the <tref>term</tref> <code>id</code> as an alias for <code>@id</code>,
+    that alias may be legitimately used as a substitution for <code>@id</code>.
+    Note that <tref>keyword</tref> aliases are not expanded during context
+    processing.</p>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Terms</h2>
+
+    <p>A <tdef>term</tdef> is a short-hand <tref>string</tref> that expands
+      to an <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>A <tref>term</tref> MUST NOT equal any of the JSON-LD
+      <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>To avoid forward-compatibility issues, a <tref>term</tref> SHOULD NOT start
+      with an <code>@</code> character as future versions of JSON-LD may introduce
+      additional <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref>. Furthermore, the term MUST NOT
+      be an empty <tref>string</tref> (<code>""</code>) as not all programming languages
+      are able to handle empty property names.</p>
+
+    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#the-context"></a> and
+      <a class="sectionRef" href="#iris"></a> for further discussion
+      on mapping <tref title="term">terms</tref> to <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Node Objects</h2>
+
+    <p>A <tdef>node object</tdef> represents zero or more properties of a
+      <tref>node</tref> in the <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> serialized by the
+      <tref>JSON-LD document</tref>. A <tref>JSON object</tref> is a
+      <tref>node object</tref> if it exists outside of a JSON-LD
+      <tref>context</tref> and:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>it does not contain the <code>@value</code>, <code>@list</code>,
+        or <code>@set</code> keywords, and</li>
+      <li>it is not the top-most <tref>JSON object</tref> in the JSON-LD document
+        consisting of no other members than <code>@graph</code> and
+        <code>@context</code>.</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>The <tref title="property">properties</tref> of a <tref>node</tref> in
+      a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> may be spread among different
+      <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> within a document. When
+      that happens, the keys of the different
+      <tref title="node object">node objects</tref> are merged to create the
+      properties of the resulting <tref>node</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>A <tref>node object</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref>. All keys
+      which are not <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,
+      <tref title="compact iri">compact IRIs</tref>, <tref title="term">terms</tref>
+      valid in the <tref>active context</tref>, or one of the following
+      <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> MUST be ignored when processed:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li><code>@context</code>,</li>
+      <li><code>@id</code>,</li>
+      <li><code>@graph</code>,</li>
+      <li><code>@type</code>,</li>
+      <li><code>@reverse</code>, or</li>
+      <li><code>@index</code></li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@context</code>
+      key, its value MUST be <tref>null</tref>, an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
+      a <tref>relative IRI</tref>, a <tref>context definition</tref>, or
+      an <tref>array</tref> composed of any of these.</p>
+
+    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@id</code> key,
+      its value MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>relative IRI</tref>,
+      or a <tref>compact IRI</tref> (including
+      <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>).
+      See <a class="sectionRef" href="#node-identifiers"></a>,
+      <a class="sectionRef" href="#compact-iris"></a>, and
+      <a class="sectionRef" href="#identifying-blank-nodes"></a> for further discussion on
+      <code>@id</code> values.</p>
+
+    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@graph</code>
+      key, its value MUST be
+      a <tref>node object</tref> or
+      an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more <tref title="node object">node objects</tref>.
+      If the <tref>node object</tref> contains an <code>@id</code> keyword,
+      its value is used as the label of a named graph.
+      See <a class="sectionRef" href="#named-graphs"></a> for further discussion on
+      <code>@graph</code> values. As a special case, if a <tref>JSON object</tref>
+      contains no keys other than <code>@graph</code> and <code>@context</code>, and the
+      <tref>JSON object</tref> is the root of the JSON-LD document, the
+      <tref>JSON object</tref> is not treated as a <tref>node object</tref>; this
+      is used as a way of defining <tref title="node object">node
+      definitions</tref> that may not form a connected graph. This allows a
+      <tref>context</tref> to be defined which is shared by all of the constituent
+      <tref title="node object">node objects</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@type</code>
+      key, its value MUST be either an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a
+      <tref>relative IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>
+      (including <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>),
+      a <tref>term</tref> defined in the <tref>active context</tref> expanding into an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, or
+      an <tref>array</tref> of any of these.
+      See <a class="sectionRef" href="#specifying-the-type"></a> for further discussion on
+      <code>@type</code> values.</p>
+
+    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@reverse</code> key,
+      its value MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing members representing reverse
+      properties. Each value of such a reverse property MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
+      a <tref>relative IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>,
+      a <tref>node object</tref> or an <tref>array</tref> containing a combination of these.</p>
+
+    <p>If the <tref>node object</tref> contains the <code>@index</code> key,
+      its value MUST be a <tref>string</tref>. See
+      <a class="sectionRef" href="#data-indexing"></a> for further discussion
+      on <code>@index</code> values.</p>
+
+    <p>Keys in a <tref>node object</tref> that are not
+      <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> MAY expand to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>
+      using the <tref>active context</tref>. The values associated with keys that expand
+      to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> MUST be one of the following:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li><tref>string</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>number</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>true</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>false</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>node object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>value object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>list object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>set object</tref>,</li>
+      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the possibilities above,</li>
+      <li>a <tref>language map</tref>, or </li>
+      <li>an <tref>index map</tref></li>
+    </ul>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Value Objects</h2>
+
+    <p>A <tdef>value object</tdef> is used to explicitly associate a type or a
+      language with a value to create a <tref>typed value</tref> or a <tref>language-tagged
+      string</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>A <tref>value object</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing the
+      <code>@value</code> key. It MAY also contain a <code>@type</code>,
+      a <code>@language</code>, an <code>@index</code>, or an <code>@context</code> key but MUST NOT contain
+      both a <code>@type</code> and a <code>@language</code> key at the same time.
+      A <tref>value object</tref> MUST NOT contain any other keys that expand to an
+      <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>keyword</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>The value associated with the <code>@value</code> key MUST be either a
+      <tref>string</tref>, a <tref>number</tref>, <tref>true</tref>,
+      <tref>false</tref> or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>The value associated with the <code>@type</code> key MUST be a
+      <tref>term</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>,
+      an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>relative IRI</tref>, or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>The value associated with the <code>@language</code> key MUST have the
+      lexical form described in [[!BCP47]], or be <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>The value associated with the <code>@index</code> key MUST be a
+      <tref>string</tref>.</p>
+
+    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#typed-values"></a> and
+      <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a>
+      for more information on <tref title="value object">value objects</tref>.</p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Lists and Sets</h2>
+
+    <p>A <tref>list</tref> represents an <em>ordered</em> set of values. A set
+      represents an <em>unordered</em> set of values. Unless otherwise specified,
+      <tref title="array">arrays</tref> are unordered in JSON-LD. As such, the
+      <code>@set</code> keyword, when used in the body of a JSON-LD document,
+      represents just syntactic sugar which is optimized away when processing the document.
+      However, it is very helpful when used within the context of a document. Values
+      of terms associated with a <code>@set</code> or <code>@list</code> container
+      will always be represented in the form of an <tref>array</tref> when a document
+      is processed&mdash;even if there is just a single value that would otherwise be optimized to
+      a non-array form in <a href="#compact-document-form">compact document form</a>.
+      This simplifies post-processing of the data as the data is always in a
+      deterministic form.</p>
+
+    <p>A <tdef>list object</tdef> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> that contains no
+      keys that expand to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>keyword</tref> other
+      than <code>@list</code>, <code>@context</code>, and <code>@index</code>.</p>
+
+    <p>A <tdef>set object</tdef> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> that contains no
+      keys that expand to an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>keyword</tref> other
+      than <code>@list</code>, <code>@context</code>, and <code>@index</code>.
+      Please note that the <code>@index</code> key will be ignored when being processed.</p>
+
+    <p>In both cases, the value associated with the keys <code>@list</code> and <code>@set</code>
+      MUST be one of the following types:</p>
+    <ul>
+      <li><tref>string</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>number</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>true</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>false</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>node object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>value object</tref>, or</li>
+      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the above possibilities</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#sets-and-lists"></a> for further discussion on sets and lists.</p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Language Maps</h2>
+
+    <p>A <tdef>language map</tdef> is used to associate a language with a value in a
+      way that allows easy programmatic access. A <tref>language map</tref> may be
+      used as a term value within a <tref>node object</tref> if the term is defined
+      with <code>@container</code> set to <code>@language</code>. The keys of a
+      <tref>language map</tref> MUST be <tref title="string">strings</tref> representing
+      [[BCP47]] language codes with and the values MUST be any of the following types:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>string</tref>, or</li>
+      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the above possibilities</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#string-internationalization"></a> for further discussion
+      on language maps.</p>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="normative">
+    <h2>Index Maps</h2>
+
+    <p>An <tdef>index map</tdef> allows keys that have no semantic meaning,
+      but should be preserved regardless, to be used in JSON-LD documents.
+      An <tref>index map</tref> may
+      be used as a <tref>term</tref> value within a <tref>node object</tref> if the
+      term is defined with <code>@container</code> set to <code>@index</code>.
+      The values of the members of an <tref>index map</tref> MUST be one
+      of the following types:</p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li><tref>string</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>number</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>true</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>false</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>null</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>node object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>value object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>list object</tref>,</li>
+      <li><tref>set object</tref>,</li>
+      <li>an <tref>array</tref> of zero or more of the above possibilities</li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#data-indexing"></a> for further information on this topic.</p>
+  </section>
+
+<section class="normative">
+  <h2>Context Definitions</h2>
+
+  <p>A <tdef>context definition</tdef> defines a <tref>local context</tref> in a
+    <tref>node object</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>A <tref>context definition</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref> whose
+    keys MUST either be <tref title="term">terms</tref>,
+    <tref title="compact IRI">compact IRIs</tref>, <tref title="absolute IRI">absolute IRIs</tref>,
+    or the <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> <code>@language</code>, <code>@base</code>,
+    and <code>@vocab</code>.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>context definition</tref> has a <code>@language</code> key,
+    its value MUST have the lexical form described in [[!BCP47]] or be <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>context definition</tref> has a <code>@base</code> key,
+    its value MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref> or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p class="issue atrisk" data-number="223" title="Feature at risk">This feature is
+    at risk as the fact that a document may have multiple base IRIs is potentially
+    confusing for developers. It is also being discussed whether relative IRIs
+    are allowed as values of <code>@base</code> or whether the empty string
+    should be used to explicitly specify that there isn't a base IRI, which
+    could be used to ensure that relative IRIs remain relative when expanding.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>context definition</tref> has a <code>@vocab</code> key,
+    its value MUST be a <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>,
+    a <tref>term</tref>, or <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>The value of keys that are not <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> MUST be either an
+    <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, a <tref>term</tref>,
+    a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>, a <tref>keyword</tref>, <tref>null</tref>,
+    or an <tref>expanded term definition</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>An <tref>expanded term definition</tref> is used to describe the mapping
+    between a <tref>term</tref> and its expanded identifier, as well as other
+    properties of the value associated with the <tref>term</tref> when it is
+    used as key in a <tref>node object</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>An <tref>expanded term definition</tref> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref>
+    composed of zero or more keys from <code>@id</code>, <code>@reverse</code>,
+    <code>@type</code>, <code>@language</code> or <code>@container</code>. An
+    <tref>expanded term definition</tref> SHOULD NOT contain any other keys.</p>
+
+  <p>If an <tref>expanded term definition</tref> has an <code>@reverse</code> member,
+    <code>@id</code>, <code>@type</code>, and <code>@language</code> are not allowed.
+    If an <code>@container</code> member exists, its value MUST be <tref>null</tref>
+    or <code>@index</code>.</p>
+
+  <p>If the term being defined is not a <tref>compact IRI</tref> or
+    <tref>absolute IRI</tref> and the <tref>active context</tref> does not have an
+    <code>@vocab</code> mapping, the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> MUST
+    include the <code>@id</code> key.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@id</code>
+    <tref>keyword</tref>, its value MUST be <tref>null</tref>, an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
+    a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>, a <tref>compact IRI</tref>, or a <tref>term</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@type</code>
+    <tref>keyword</tref>, its value MUST be an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>, a
+    <tref>compact IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>, a <tref>term</tref> or
+    the <tref>active context</tref>, <tref>null</tref>, or the one of the
+    <tref title="keyword">keywords</tref> <code>@id</code> or <code>@vocab</code>.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@language</code> <tref>keyword</tref>,
+    its value MUST have the lexical form described in [[!BCP47]] or be <tref>null</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p>If the <tref>expanded term definition</tref> contains the <code>@container</code>
+    <tref>keyword</tref>, its value MUST be either <code>@list</code>, <code>@set</code>,
+    <code>@language</code>, <code>@index</code>, or be <tref>null</tref>. If the value
+    is <code>@language</code>, when the <tref>term</tref> is used outside of the
+    <code>@context</code>, the associated value MUST be a <tref>language map</tref>.
+    If the value is <code>@index</code>, when the <tref>term</tref> is used outside of
+    the <code>@context</code>, the associated value MUST be an
+    <tref>index map</tref>.</p>
+
+  <p><tref title="term">Terms</tref> MUST NOT be used in a circular manner. That is,
+    the definition of a term cannot depend on the definition of another term if that other
+    term also depends on the first term.</p>
+
+  <p>See <a class="sectionRef" href="#the-context"></a> for further discussion on contexts.</p>
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix normative">
+  <h2>Relationship to RDF</h2>
+
+  <p>The RDF data model, as outlined in [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]], is an abstract syntax for
+    representing a directed graph of information. It is a subset of
+    <tref title="JSON-LD data model">JSON-LD's data model</tref> with a few
+    additional constraints. The differences between the two data models are:</p>
+
+  <ul>
+    <li>In JSON-LD <tref title="graph name">graph names</tref> can be
+      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> or <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>
+      whereas in RDF graph names have to be <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</li>
+    <li>In JSON-LD <tref title="property">properties</tref> can be
+      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> or <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>
+      whereas in RDF properties (predicates) have to be
+      <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</li>
+    <li>In JSON-LD lists are part of the data model whereas in RDF they are part of
+      a vocabulary, namely [[RDF-SCHEMA]].</li>
+    <li>RDF values are either typed <em>literals</em>
+      (<tref title="typed value">typed values</tref>) or <em>language-tagged strings</em>
+      (<tref title="language-tagged string">language-tagged strings</tref>) whereas
+      JSON-LD also supports JSON's native data types, i.e., <tref title="number">number</tref>,
+      <tref title="string">strings</tref>, and the boolean values <tref>true</tref>
+      and <tref>false</tref>. The JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]]
+      defines the conversion rules between JSON's native data types and RDF's counterparts to
+      allow full round-tripping.</li>
+
+  </ul>
+
+  <p>Summarized these differences mean that JSON-LD is capable of serializing any RDF
+    graph or dataset and most, but not all, JSON-LD documents can be transformed to RDF.
+    A complete description of the algorithms to convert from RDF to JSON-LD and from
+    JSON-LD to RDF is included in the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification
+    [[JSON-LD-API]].</p>
+
+  <p>Even though JSON-LD serializes RDF datasets, it can also be used as a RDF graph source.
+    In that case, a consumer MUST only use the default graph and ignore all named graphs.
+    This allows servers to expose data in, e.g., both Turtle and JSON-LD using content
+    negotiation.</p>
+
+  <p class="note">Publishers supporting both dataset and graph syntaxes have to ensure that
+    the primary data is stored in the default graph to enable consumers that do not support
+    datasets to process the information.</p>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h3>Transformation from JSON-LD to RDF</h3>
+
+    <p>The process of turning a JSON-LD document depends on executing the
+      algorithms defined in
+      <cite><a href="../json-ld-api/#rdf-conversion-algorithms">RDF Conversion Algorithms</a></cite>
+      in the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]].
+      It is beyond the scope of this document to detail these algorithms any further,
+      but a summary of the necessary operations is provided to illustrate the process.</p>
+
+    <p>The procedure involves the following steps:</p>
+
+    <ol>
+      <li>Expand the JSON-LD document, removing any context; this ensures
+        that properties, types, and values are given their full representation
+        as <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> and expanded values. Expansion
+        is discussed further in <a class="sectionRef" href="#expanded-document-form"></a>.</li>
+      <li>Flatten the document, which turns the document into an array of
+        <tref title="node object">node objects</tref>. Flattening is discussed
+        further in <a class="sectionRef" href="#flattened-document-form"></a>.</li>
+      <li>Turn each <tref>node object</tref> into a series of
+        <tref href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#dfn-rdf-triple">RDF triples</tref>.</li>
+    </ol>
+
+    <p>For example, consider the following JSON-LD document in compact form:</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Sample JSON-LD document">
+    <!--
+    {
+      "@context": {
+        "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+        "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
+      },
+      "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+      "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+      "knows": [
+        {
+          "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+          "name": "Manu Sporny"
+        },
+        {
+          "name": "Dave Longley"
+        }
+      ]
+    }
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>Running the JSON-LD Expansion and Flattening algorithms against the
+      JSON-LD input document in the example above would result in the
+      following output:</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Flattened and expanded form for the previous example">
+    <!--
+    [
+      {
+        "@id": "_:b0",
+        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Dave Longley"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+        "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows": [
+          { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" },
+          { "@id": "_:b0" }
+        ]
+      }
+    ]
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>Transforming this to RDF now is a straightforward process of turning
+      each <tref>node object</tref> into one or more RDF triples. This can be
+      expressed in Turtle as follows:</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Turtle representation of expanded/flattend document">
+    <!--
+    _:b0 <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Dave Longley" .
+
+    <http://manu.sporny.org/> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Manu Sporny" .
+
+    <http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Markus Lanthaler" ;
+        <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows> <http://manu.sporny.org/>, _:b0 .
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>The process of turning RDF into JSON-LD can be thought of as the
+      inverse of this last step, creating an expanded JSON-LD document closely
+      matching the triples from RDF, using a single <tref>node object</tref>
+      for all triples having a common subject, and a single <tref>property</tref>
+      for those triples also having a common predicate.</p>
+  </section>
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix informative">
+  <h2>Relationship to Other Linked Data Formats</h2>
+
+  <p>The JSON-LD examples below demonstrate how JSON-LD can be used to
+    express semantic data marked up in other linked data formats such as Turtle,
+    RDFa, Microformats, and Microdata. These sections are merely provided as
+    evidence that JSON-LD is very flexible in what it can express across different
+    <tref>Linked Data</tref> approaches.</p>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h3>Turtle</h3>
+
+    <p>The following are examples of converting RDF expressed in Turtle [[TURTLE]]
+      into JSON-LD.</p>
+
+    <section>
+      <h4>Prefix definitions</h4>
+
+      <p>The JSON-LD context has direct equivalents for the Turtle
+        <code>@prefix</code> declaration:</p>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="A set of statements serialized in Turtle">
+      <!--
+      @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
+
+      <http://manu.sporny.org/i/public> a foaf:Person;
+        foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
+        foaf:homepage <http://manu.sporny.org/> .
+      -->
+      </pre>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="The same set of statements serialized in JSON-LD">
+      <!--
+      {
+        "@context":
+        {
+          "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+        },
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+        "@type": "foaf:Person",
+        "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+        "foaf:homepage": { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" }
+      }
+      -->
+      </pre>
+    </section>
+
+    <section>
+      <h4>Embedding</h4>
+
+      <p>Both Turtle and JSON-LD allow embedding, although Turtle only allows embedding of
+        <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>.</p>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="Embedding in Turtle">
+      <!--
+      @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
+
+      <http://manu.sporny.org/i/public>
+        a foaf:Person;
+        foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
+        foaf:knows [ a foaf:Person; foaf:name "Gregg Kellogg" ] .
+      -->
+      </pre>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="Same embedding example in JSON-LD">
+      <!--
+      {
+        "@context":
+        {
+          "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+        },
+        "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+        "@type": "foaf:Person",
+        "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+        "foaf:knows":
+        {
+          "@type": "foaf:Person",
+          "foaf:name": "Gregg Kellogg"
+        }
+      }
+      -->
+      </pre>
+    </section>
+
+    <section>
+      <h4>Conversion of native data types</h4>
+
+      <p>In JSON-LD numbers and boolean values are native data types. While Turtle
+        has a shorthand syntax to express such values, RDF's abstract syntax requires
+        that numbers and boolean values are represented as typed literals. Thus,
+        to allow full round-tripping, the JSON-LD Processing Algorithms and API specification [[JSON-LD-API]]
+        defines conversion rules between JSON-LD's native data types and RDF's
+        counterparts. <tref title="number">Numbers</tref> without fractions are
+        converted to <code>xsd:integer</code>-typed literals, numbers with fractions
+        to <code>xsd:double</code>-typed literals and the two boolean values
+        <tref>true</tref> and <tref>false</tref> to a <code>xsd:boolean</code>-typed
+        literal. All typed literals are in canonical lexical form.</p>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="JSON-LD using native data types for numbers and boolean values">
+      <!--
+      {
+        "@context":
+        {
+          "ex": "http://example.com/vocab#"
+        },
+        "@id": "http://example.com/",
+        "ex:numbers": [ 14, 2.78 ],
+        "ex:booleans": [ true, false ]
+      }
+      -->
+      </pre>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="Same example in Turtle using typed literals">
+      <!--
+      @prefix ex: <http://example.com/vocab#> .
+      @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
+
+      <http://example.com/>
+        ex:numbers "14"^^xsd:integer, "2.78E0"^^xsd:double ;
+        ex:booleans "true"^^xsd:boolean, "false"^^xsd:boolean .
+      -->
+      </pre>
+
+    </section>
+
+    <section>
+      <h4>Lists</h4>
+      <p>Both JSON-LD and Turtle can represent sequential lists of values.</p>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="A list of values in Turtle">
+      <!--
+      @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
+
+      <http://example.org/people#joebob> a foaf:Person;
+        foaf:name "Joe Bob";
+        foaf:nick ( "joe" "bob" "jaybee" ) .
+      -->
+      </pre>
+
+      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+           title="Same example with a list of values in JSON-LD">
+      <!--
+      {
+        "@context":
+        {
+          "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+        },
+        "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+        "@type": "foaf:Person",
+        "foaf:name": "Joe Bob",
+        "foaf:nick":
+        {
+          "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]
+        }
+      }
+      -->
+      </pre>
+    </section>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h3>RDFa</h3>
+
+    <p>The following example describes three people with their respective names and
+      homepages in RDFa [[RDFA-CORE]].</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="RDFa fragment that describes three people">
+    <!--
+    <div ****prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****>
+       <ul>
+          <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
+            <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name"****>Bob</a>
+          </li>
+          <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
+            <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name"****>Eve</a>
+          </li>
+          <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
+            <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name"****>Manu</a>
+          </li>
+       </ul>
+    </div>
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>An example JSON-LD implementation using a single <tref>context</tref> is
+      described below.</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Same description in JSON-LD (context shared among node objects)">
+    <!--
+    {
+      "@context":
+      {
+        "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+      },
+      "@graph":
+      [
+        {
+          "@type": "foaf:Person",
+          "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/bob/",
+          "foaf:name": "Bob"
+        },
+        {
+          "@type": "foaf:Person",
+          "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/eve/",
+          "foaf:name": "Eve"
+        },
+        {
+          "@type": "foaf:Person",
+          "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/manu/",
+          "foaf:name": "Manu"
+        }
+      ]
+    }
+    -->
+    </pre>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h3>Microformats</h3>
+
+    <p>The following example uses a simple Microformats hCard example to express
+      how Microformats [[MICROFORMATS]] are represented in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="HTML fragment with a simple Microformats hCard">
+    <!--
+    <div class="vcard">
+     <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
+    </div>
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>The representation of the hCard expresses the Microformat terms in the
+      <tref>context</tref> and uses them directly for the <code>url</code> and <code>fn</code>
+      properties. Also note that the Microformat to JSON-LD processor has
+      generated the proper URL type for <code>http://tantek.com/</code>.</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Same hCard representation in JSON-LD">
+    <!--
+    {
+      "@context":
+      {
+        "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard",
+        "url":
+        {
+          "@id": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url",
+          "@type": "@id"
+        },
+        "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+      },
+      "@type": "vcard",
+      "url": "http://tantek.com/",
+      "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
+    }
+    -->
+    </pre>
+  </section>
+
+  <section class="informative">
+    <h3>Microdata</h3>
+
+    <p>The HTML Microdata [[MICRODATA]] example below expresses book information as
+      a Microdata Work item.</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="HTML fragments that describes a book using microdata">
+    <!--
+    <dl itemscope
+        itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+        itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N">
+     <dt>Title</dt>
+     <dd><cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title">Just a Geek</cite></dd>
+     <dt>By</dt>
+     <dd><span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator">Wil Wheaton</span></dd>
+     <dt>Format</dt>
+     <dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+         itemscope
+         itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+         itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK">
+      <link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK">
+      Print
+     </dd>
+     <dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+         itemscope
+         itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+         itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK">
+      <link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK">
+      Ebook
+     </dd>
+    </dl>
+    -->
+    </pre>
+
+    <p>Note that the JSON-LD representation of the Microdata information stays
+      true to the desires of the Microdata community to avoid contexts and
+      instead refer to items by their full <tref>IRI</tref>.</p>
+
+    <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample"
+         title="Same book description in JSON-LD (avoiding contexts)">
+    <!--
+    [
+      {
+        "@id": "http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N",
+        "@type": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
+        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
+        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
+        "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization":
+        [
+          "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK",
+          "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"
+        ]
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK",
+        "@type": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"
+      },
+      {
+        "@id": "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK",
+        "@type": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"
+      }
+    ]
+    -->
+    </pre>
+  </section>
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix normative">
+  <h2>IANA Considerations</h2>
+
+  <p>This section is included for community review and will be submitted to the
+    Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) as part of the Last Call announcement
+    for this specification.</p>
+
+  <h3>application/ld+json</h3>
+  <dl>
+    <dt>Type name:</dt>
+    <dd>application</dd>
+    <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
+    <dd>ld+json</dd>
+    <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
+    <dd>None</dd>
+    <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
+    <dd>
+      <dl>
+        <dt><code>profile</code></dt>
+        <dd>
+          <p>A whitespace-separated list of IRIs identifying specific constraints
+            or conventions that apply to a JSON-LD document. A profile MUST NOT change
+            the semantics of the resource representation when processed without profile
+            knowledge, so that clients both with and without knowledge of a profiled
+            resource can safely use the same representation. The <code>profile</code>
+            parameter MAY also be used by clients to express their preferences in the
+            content negotiation process. It is RECOMMENDED that profile IRIs are
+            dereferenceable and provide useful documentation at that IRI. For more
+            information and background please refer to [[RFC6906]].</p>
+          <p>This specification defines four values for the <code>profile</code> parameter.
+            To request or specify Expanded JSON-LD document form, the IRI
+            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#expanded</code> SHOULD be used.
+            To request or specify Expanded, Flattened JSON-LD document form, the IRI
+            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#expanded-flattened</code> SHOULD
+            be used. To request or specify Compacted JSON-LD document form, the IRI
+            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#compacted</code> SHOULD be used.
+            To request or specify Compacted, Flattened JSON-LD document form, the IRI
+            <code>http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#compacted-flattened</code> SHOULD be used.
+            Please note that, according [[HTTP11]], the value of the <code>profile</code>
+            parameter has to be enclosed in quotes (<code>"</code>) because it contains
+            special characters and, in some cases, whitespace.</p>
+        </dd>
+      </dl>
+    </dd>
+    <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
+    <dd>See RFC&nbsp;6839, section 3.1.</dd>
+    <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
+    <dd>Since JSON-LD is intended to be a pure data exchange format for
+      directed graphs, the serialization SHOULD NOT be passed through a
+      code execution mechanism such as JavaScript's <code>eval()</code>
+      function to be parsed.<br/>
+      JSON-LD contexts that are loaded from the Web over non-secure connections,
+      such as HTTP, run the risk of modifying the JSON-LD
+      <tref>active context</tref> in a way that could compromise security. It
+      is advised that any application that depends on a remote context for mission
+      critical purposes vet and cache the remote context before allowing the
+      system to use it.<br />
+      Given that JSON-LD allows the substitution of long IRIs with short terms,
+      JSON-LD documents may expand considerably when processed and, in the worst case,
+      the resulting data might consume all of the recipient's resources. Applications
+      should treat any data with due skepticism.
+    </dd>
+    <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
+    <dd>Not Applicable</dd>
+    <dt>Published specification:</dt>
+    <dd>http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld</dd>
+    <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
+    <dd>Any programming environment that requires the exchange of
+      directed graphs. Implementations of JSON-LD have been created for
+      JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, and C++.
+    </dd>
+    <dt>Additional information:</dt>
+    <dd>
+      <dl>
+        <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
+        <dd>Not Applicable</dd>
+        <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
+        <dd>.jsonld</dd>
+        <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
+        <dd>TEXT</dd>
+      </dl>
+    </dd>
+    <dt>Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</dt>
+    <dd>Manu Sporny &lt;[email protected]&gt;</dd>
+    <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
+    <dd>Common</dd>
+    <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
+    <dd>None</dd>
+    <dt>Author(s):</dt>
+    <dd>Manu Sporny, Dave Longley, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler, Niklas Lindström</dd>
+    <dt>Change controller:</dt>
+    <dd>W3C</dd>
+  </dl>
+
+  <p>Fragment identifiers used with <a href="#application-ld-json">application/ld+json</a>
+    are treated as in RDF syntaxes, as per
+    <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#section-fragID">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax</a></cite>
+    [[RDF11-CONCEPTS]].</p>
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix informative">
+  <h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
+
+  <p>The authors would like to extend a deep appreciation and the most sincere
+    thanks to Mark Birbeck, who contributed foundational concepts
+    to JSON-LD via his work on RDFj. JSON-LD uses a number of core concepts
+    introduced in RDFj, such as the context as a mechanism to provide an
+    environment for interpreting JSON data. Mark had also been very involved in
+    the work on RDFa as well. RDFj built upon that work. JSON-LD exists
+    because of the work and ideas he started nearly a decade ago in 2004.</p>
+
+  <p>A large amount of thanks goes out to the JSON-LD Community Group
+    participants who worked through many of the technical issues on the mailing
+    list and the weekly telecons - of special mention are François Daoust,
+    Stéphane Corlosquet, Lin Clark, and Zdenko 'Denny' Vrandečić.</p>
+
+  <p>The work of David I. Lehn and Mike Johnson are appreciated for
+    reviewing, and performing several early implementations
+    of the specification. Thanks also to Ian Davis for this work on RDF/JSON.</p>
+
+  <p>Thanks to the following individuals, in order of their first name, for
+    their input on the specification: Adrian Walker, Alexandre Passant,
+    Andy Seaborne, Ben Adida, Blaine Cook, Bradley Allen, Brian Peterson,
+    Bryan Thompson, Conal Tuohy, Dan Brickley, Danny Ayers, Daniel Leja,
+    Dave Reynolds, David I. Lehn, David Wood, Dean Landolt, Ed Summers, elf Pavlik,
+    Eric Prud'hommeaux, Erik Wilde, Fabian Christ, Jon A. Frost, Gavin Carothers,
+    Glenn McDonald, Guus Schreiber, Henri Bergius, Jose María Alvarez Rodríguez,
+    Ivan Herman, Jack Moffitt, Josh Mandel, KANZAKI Masahide, Kingsley Idehen,
+    Kuno Woudt, Larry Garfield, Mark Baker, Mark MacGillivray, Marko Rodriguez,
+    Melvin Carvalho, Nathan Rixham, Olivier Grisel, Paolo Ciccarese, Pat Hayes,
+    Patrick Logan, Paul Kuykendall, Pelle Braendgaard, Peter Williams, Pierre-Antoine Champin,
+    Richard Cyganiak, Roy T. Fielding, Sandro Hawke, Srecko Joksimovic,
+    Stephane Fellah, Steve Harris, Ted Thibodeau Jr., Thomas Steiner, Tim Bray,
+    Tom Morris, Tristan King, Sergio Fernández, Werner Wilms, and William Waites.</p>
+</section>
+
+</body>
+</html>
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--- a/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/index.html	Thu Mar 28 14:29:18 2013 +0100
+++ b/spec/latest/rdf-graph-normalization/index.html	Thu Mar 28 15:14:23 2013 +0100
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                     berjon.biblio["MICRODATA"] = "Ian Hickson; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> ";
                     berjon.biblio["HTML-RDFA"] = "Manu Sporny; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/\"><cite>HTML+RDFa</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/</a> ";
                     berjon.biblio["BCP47"] = "A. Phillips, M. Davis. <a href=\"http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt\"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a> September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href=\"http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt\">http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt</a>";
-                    berjon.biblio["JSON-LD"] = "Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler. <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/\"><cite>The JSON-LD Syntax</cite></a> Latest. W3C Editor's Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/\">http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/</a>";
+                    berjon.biblio["JSON-LD"] = "Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler. <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld/\"><cite>The JSON-LD Syntax</cite></a> Latest. W3C Editor's Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld/\">http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld/</a>";
                     berjon.biblio["RDF-API"] = "Manu Sporny, Benjamin Adrian, Nathan Rixham; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-api/\"><cite>RDF API</cite></a> Latest. W3C Editor's Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-api/\">http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-api/</a>";
                     berjon.biblio["RDF-INTERFACES"] = "Nathan Rixham, Manu Sporny, Benjamin Adrian; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-interfaces/\"><cite>RDF Interfaces</cite></a> Latest. W3C Editor's Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-interfaces/\">http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-interfaces/</a>";