Initial checkin of json-ld.org.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Thu, 14 Oct 2010 15:10:10 -0400
changeset 0 5750de3fd46d
child 1 585a52eef241
Initial checkin of json-ld.org.
README
index.html
site.css
spec/ED/20100529/index.html
spec/ED/20100823/index.html
spec/index.php
spec/latest/index.html
spec/latest/spec.css
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+This is the main source code repository for the JSON-LD website.
+
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> 
+<html version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
+   xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#"
+   xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+   xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
+   xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+   xmlns:vcard="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#"
+   xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"
+   > 
+   <head> 
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> 
+      <title>JSON-LD - Expressing Linked Data in JSON</title> 
+      <link href="site.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> 
+      <link rel="shortcut icon" href="favicon.ico" /> 
+      <script type="text/javascript" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.4.2/jquery.min.js"></script> 
+   </head> 
+ 
+   <body> 
+      <div id="container"> 
+         <div id="header"> 
+            <div class="col"> 
+               <h1>JSON-LD - Expressing Linked Data in JSON</h1>
+            </div> 
+         </div> 
+ 
+         <div id="content"> 
+            <div id="info"> 
+               <h1>About JSON-LD</h1> 
+               <p>JSON-LD (<strong>J</strong>ava<strong>S</strong>cript 
+               <strong>O</strong>bject <strong>N</strong>otation for 
+               <strong>L</strong>inked <strong>D</strong>ata) is a 
+               lightweight 
+               <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_data">Linked Data</a>
+               format. It is easy for humans to read 
+               and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is 
+               based on the already successful 
+               <a href="http://json.org/">JSON format</a> and provides a way
+               to help JSON data interoperate at Web-scale. If you are already 
+               familiar with JSON, writing JSON-LD is very easy. There is a
+               smooth migration path from the JSON you use today, to the JSON-LD
+               you will use in the future. These properties make JSON-LD an 
+               ideal Linked Data interchange language for JavaScript 
+               environments, Web services, and unstructured databases such as 
+               CouchDB and MongoDB.</p>
+            </div>
+
+            <div id="info">
+               <h1>A Simple Example</h1>
+               <p>A simple example of a JSON object with added semantics:</p>
+               <pre>
+{
+  "#": {"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"},
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#john&gt;",
+  "a": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name" : "John Lennon"
+}
+               </pre>
+
+               <p>The example above describes a person whose name is 
+               <em>John Lennon</em>. The difference between regular JSON and
+               JSON-LD is that the JSON-LD object above uniquely identifies 
+               itself on the Web and can be used, without introducing ambiguity,
+               across every Web site, Web services and databases in 
+               operation today.</p>
+            </div>
+
+            <div id="info">
+               <h1>The Specification</h1>
+               <p>If you are a developer, you may be interested in the 
+               <a href="spec/latest/">latest WebID specification</a>. A list of 
+               all <a href="spec/">previous specification drafts</a> is 
+               also available.</p>
+            </div>
+
+            <div id="info">
+               <h1>Implementations</h1>
+               <p>There are currently two implementations of a JSON-LD parser
+               in the works.</p>
+            </div>
+
+         </div>
+ 
+         <div id="footer"> 
+            <p id="copyright"> 
+               Website content released under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license</a> except where an alternate is specified.
+            </p> 
+            <p id="legal"> 
+               Part of the <a href="http://payswarm.com/">payswarm.com</a> initiative.
+            </p>
+         </div> 
+      </div> 
+   </body> 
+</html>
+
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+/* JSON-LD CSS */
+
+* {
+margin: 0;
+padding: 0;
+}
+
+html {
+}
+
+body {
+color: #333;
+background-color: #fff;
+font-family: "lucida grande",tahoma,verdana,arial,sans-serif;
+font-size: 16px;
+}
+
+a {
+color: #3b5998;
+text-decoration: none;
+outline-style: none;
+}
+
+a:hover, a:active {
+text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+h1 {
+font-size: 2.0em;
+}
+
+p {
+margin: 10px 0;
+/*font-family: "Georgia", Times, serif;*/
+}
+
+.hidden {
+display: none;
+}
+
+#header {
+position: relative;
+height: 80px;
+color: #fff;
+background-color: #593b98;
+}
+
+#header>div {
+width: 960px;
+margin: 0 auto;
+}
+
+#header h1 {
+position: absolute;
+margin-top: 25px;
+font-size: 32px;
+}
+
+#header a {
+color: #fff;
+}
+
+#content {
+width: 960px;
+margin: 0 auto;
+padding: 40px 0;
+}
+
+#footer {
+width: 960px;
+margin: 20px auto 0;
+color: #bbb;
+border-top: 1px solid #ccc;
+}
+
+#footer p {
+margin: 10px;
+font-size: 1.0em;
+}
+
+#copyright {
+float: left;
+}
+
+#copyright a {
+color: #aaa;
+}
+
+#legal {
+float: right;
+}
+
+.box {
+margin-bottom: 20px;
+padding: 20px;
+border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd'>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+<!-- 
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+  out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+  -->
+
+
+<style>
+.diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
+</style>
+<link href="http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/w3c-unofficial" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head><body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p></p><h1 class="title" id="title">JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</h1><h2 id="subtitle">A Context-based JSON Serialization for Linked Data</h2><h2 id="unofficial-draft-30-may-2010">Unofficial Draft 30 May 2010</h2><dl><dt>Editor:</dt><dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar, Inc.</a></dd><dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Mark Birbeck</a>, <a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Backplane Ltd.</a></dd><dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar, Inc.</a></dd></dl><p class="copyright">This document is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>.</p><hr></div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Developers that embed structured data in their Web pages can choose among
+a number of languages such as RDFa [<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">RDFA-CORE</a>], Microformats [<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">MICROFORMATS</a>] 
+and Microdata [<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">MICRODATA</a>]. Each of these structured data languages, while
+incompatible at the syntax level, can be easily mapped to RDF. JSON has 
+proven to be a highly useful object serialization and messaging replacement 
+for SOAP. In an attempt to harmonize the representation of Link Data in JSON, 
+this specification outlines a common JSON representation format for 
+Linked Data that can be used to represent objects specified via RDFa, 
+Microformats and Microdata.
+</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p>This document is merely a public working draft of a potential specification. It has no official standing of any kind and does not represent the support or consensus of any standards organisation.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>How to Read this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#design-goals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Design Goals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#design-rationale" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Design Rationale</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#map-terms-to-iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Map Terms to IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-default-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>The Default Context</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#an-example-of-a-default-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>An Example of a Default Context</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Markup Examples</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5.1 </span>RDFa</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microformats" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5.2 </span>Microformats</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microdata" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5.3 </span>Microdata</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Markup of RDF Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Specifying the Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plain-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Plain Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Language Specification in Plain Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#typed-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Typed Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#blank-nodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.9 </span>Blank Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#escape-character" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.10 </span>Escape Character</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.11 </span>Automatic Typing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>How to Read this Document</h2>
+
+<p>
+This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of JSON for Linked
+data. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>Developers that want to encode Microformats, RDFa, or Microdata in a
+  way that is cross-language compatible via JSON.</li>
+  <li>Developers that want to understand the encoding possibilities.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+To understand this specification you must first be familiar with JSON, 
+which is detailed in [<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a>].</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="sotd" class="section">
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+<!-- <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p> -->
+</div>
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">Need to write introduction...</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="design-goals" class="section">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Design Goals</h2>
+
+<p>
+A number of design considerations were explored during the creation of this 
+markup language:
+</p>
+
+<dl>
+ <dt>Simplicity</dt>
+ <dd>Developers don't need to know RDF in order to use the basic functionality
+ provided by JSON-LD.</dd>
+ <dt>Compatibility</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD markup should be 100% compatible with JSON.</dd>
+ <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
+ <dd>All major RDF concepts must be expressible via the JSON-LD syntax.</dd>
+ <dt>Terseness</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="design-rationale" class="section">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Design Rationale</h2>
+
+<p>The following section outlines the rationale behind the JSON-LD markup
+language.
+</p>
+
+<div id="map-terms-to-iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Map Terms to IRIs</h3>
+
+<p>Establishing a mechanism to map JSON values to IRIs will
+help in the mapping of JSON objects to RDF. This does not mean that JSON-LD must
+be restrictive in declaring a set of terms, rather, experimentation and 
+innovation should be supported as part of the core design of JSON-LD. There are, 
+however, a number of very small design criterial that can ensure that developers 
+will generate good RDF data that will create value for the greater 
+semantic web community and JSON/REST-based Web Services community.
+</p>
+
+<p>We will be using the following JSON object as the example for this section:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{"a" : "Person",
+ "name" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "homepage" : "http://manu.sporny.org/"}</pre>
+</div><div id="the-default-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>The Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>A default context is used in RDFa to allow developers to use keywords
+as aliases for IRIs. So, for instance, the keyword <strong>name</strong>
+above could refer to the IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</em>.
+The semantic web, just like the document-based web, uses IRIs for
+unambiguous identification. The idea is that these terms mean something, 
+which you will eventually want to query. The semantic web specifies this via 
+<em>Vocabulary Documents</em>. The IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</em> specifies
+a Vocabulary Document, and <strong>name</strong> is a term in that 
+vocabulary. Paste the two items together and you have an unambiguous identifier
+for a term.
+</p>
+
+<p>Developers, and machines, would be able to use this IRI (plugging it
+directly into a web browser, for instance) to go to the term and get a 
+definition of what the term means. Much
+like we can use WordNet today to see the 
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">definition</a>
+of words in the English language. Machines need the same sort of 
+dictionary of terms, and URIs provide a way to ensure that these terms
+are unambiguous.
+</p>
+
+<p>Non-prefixed terms should have term mappings declared in the default
+context so that they may be expanded later.</p>
+            
+<p>If a set of terms, like <strong>Person</strong>, 
+<strong>name</strong>, and <strong>homepage</strong>,
+are pre-defined in the default context, and that context is used to resolve the
+names in JSON objects, machines could automatically expand the terms to 
+something meaningful and unambiguous, like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{"<span class="diff">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</span>" : "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+ "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>" : "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>"}</pre>
+
+<p class="note">In order to differentiate between plain text and IRIs, the
+<strong>&lt;</strong> and <strong>&gt;</strong> are used around IRIs.</p>
+
+<p>Doing this would mean that JSON would start to become unambiguously
+machine-readable, play well with the semantic web, and basic markup wouldn't 
+be that much more complex than basic JSON markup. A win, all around.</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="mashing-up-vocabularies" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</h3>
+
+<p>Developers would also benefit by allowing other vocabularies to be used
+automatically with their JSON API. There are over 200 
+Vocabulary Documents that are available for use on the Web today. Some
+of these vocabularies are:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+   <li>XSD - for specifying basic types like strings, integers, dates and times.</li>
+   <li>Dublin Core - for describing creative works.</li>
+   <li>FOAF - for describing social networks.</li>
+   <li>Calendar - for specifying events.</li>
+   <li>SIOC - for describing discussions on blogs and websites.</li>
+   <li>CCrel - for describing Creative Commons and other types of licenses.</li>
+   <li>GEO - for describing geographic location.</li>
+   <li>VCard - for describing organizations and people.</li>
+   <li>DOAP - for describing projects.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD Web Service could define these as <em>prefix</em>es in their 
+default context beside the <em>terms</em> that are already defined. Using
+this feature, developers could also do markup like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{"<span class="diff">rdf:type</span>" : "<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>",
+ "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>" : "http://manu.sporny.org/"<span class="diff">,
+ "sioc:avatar" : "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"</span>}</pre>
+
+<p>Developers could also be allowed to specify their own Vocabulary documents 
+by modifying the default context, like so:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">[<span class="diff">{"a" : "Context",
+   "myvocab" : "http://example.org/myvocab#"}
+ },</span>
+ {"a" : "foaf:Person",
+ "foaf:name" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;",
+ "sioc:avatar" : "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+ "myvocab:credits" : 500</span>}
+]</pre>
+
+<p>This mechanism is a short-hand for RDF, and if defined, will give
+developers an unambiguous way to map any JSON value to RDF. </p><p>
+</p></div>
+
+<div id="an-example-of-a-default-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.4 </span>An Example of a Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>To be clear, the JSON-LD aware Web Service could define a default
+context like the following:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{"a" : "Context",
+ "__vocab__" : "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+ "xsd" : "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+ "dc" : "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+ "foaf" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+ "sioc" : "http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#",
+ "cc" : "http://creativecommons.org/ns#",
+ "geo" : "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#",
+ "vcard" : "http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#",
+ "cal" : "http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#",
+ "doap" : "http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#",
+ "Person" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+ "name" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+ "homepage" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The <strong>__vocab__</strong> prefix is a special prefix that states 
+that any term that doesn't resolve to a term or a prefix should be 
+appended to the <strong>__vocab__</strong> IRI. This is done to ensure that 
+terms can be transformed to an IRI at all times.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="markup-examples" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Markup Examples</h3>
+
+<p class="issue">Write some introductory stuff about the Markup Examples.</p>
+
+<div id="rdfa" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">4.5.1 </span>RDFa</h4>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;div <span class="diff">prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>&gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Representation:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{{ 
+   "a" : "Context",
+   "foaf" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode1",
+    "a" : "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://example.com/bob/&gt;",
+    "foaf:name" : "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode2",
+    "a" : "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://example.com/eve/&gt;",
+    "foaf:name" : "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode2",
+    "a" : "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://example.com/manu/&gt;",
+    "foaf:name" : "Manu"
+ }
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microformats" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">4.5.2 </span>Microformats</h4>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;div class="vcard"&gt;
+ &lt;a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/"&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Representation:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{{ 
+   "a" : "Context",
+   "vcard" : "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard"
+   "url" : "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url"
+   "fn" : "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode1",
+    "a" : "vcard",
+    "url" : "&lt;http://tantek.com/&gt;",
+    "fn" : "Tantek Çelik"
+ }
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microdata" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">4.5.3 </span>Microdata</h4>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N"&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Representation:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{{ 
+   "a" : "Context",
+   "__vocab__" : "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/microdata#",
+   "frbr" : "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#",
+   "dc" : "http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+ },
+ {
+    "a" : "frbr:Work",
+    "@" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt;",
+    "dc:title" : "Just a Geek",
+    "dc:creator" : "Whil Wheaton",
+    "frbr:realization" : ["&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;", "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;"]
+ },
+ {
+    "a" : "frbr:Expression",
+    "@" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;",
+    "dc:type" : "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"
+ },
+ {
+    "a" : "frbr:Expression",
+    "@" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;",
+    "dc:type" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt;"
+ }
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div id="markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="section">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Markup of RDF Concepts</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">Need to write introduction to RDF Concepts section</p>
+
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>IRIs</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "foaf:homepage" : "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "<span class="diff">@</span>" : "<span class="diff">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Specifying the Type</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "<span class="diff">a</span>" : "<span class="diff">&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Plain Literals</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "foaf:name" : "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Language Specification in Plain Literals</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "foaf:name" : "<span class="diff">花澄@ja</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="typed-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Typed Literals</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "dc:modified" : "<span class="diff">2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "foaf:nick" : <span class="diff">["stu", "groknar", "radface"]</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "dc:modified" : <span class="diff">["2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime", "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00^^xsd:dateTime"</span>],
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="blank-nodes" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.9 </span>Blank Nodes</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "@" : "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="escape-character" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.10 </span>Escape Character</h3>
+
+<p>Special characters in property values <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be escaped in order to not be 
+interpreted as IRIs, language tags, or TypedLiterals.</p>
+
+<p>The special characters in JSON-LD are: <code>&lt;</code>, <code>&gt;</code>,
+<code>@</code> and <code>^</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ "example:code" : <span class="diff">"\\&lt;foobar\\^\\^2\\&gt;"</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.11 </span>Automatic Typing</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+ // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:decimal
+ "measure:cups" : <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+ // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+ "chem:protons" : <span class="diff">12</span>,
+ // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+ "sensor:active" : <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+
+<p>The editor would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of the
+rationale and reasoning behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj, and
+Ian Davis, who created RDF/JSON.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div id="references" class="appendix section"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd>D. Crockford <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</a> July 2006. Internet RFC 4627. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-MICRODATA">[MICRODATA]</dt><dd>Ian Hickson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICROFORMATS">[MICROFORMATS]</dt><dd><a href="http://microformats.org"><cite>Microformats</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://microformats.org">http://microformats.org</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-CORE">[RDFA-CORE]</dt><dd>Shane McCarron; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100422"><cite>RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</cite></a>22 April 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100422">http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100422</a> 
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/20100823/index.html	Thu Oct 14 15:10:10 2010 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,1042 @@
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+<html dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
+
+<!--  
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
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+
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+</style>
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+/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec CSS
+ * Robin Berjon (robin at berjon dot com)
+ * v0.05 - 2009-07-31
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[email protected] screen {
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+  font-weight: normal;
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+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/w3c-unofficial" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8" /></head>
+
+<body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p></p><h1 class="title" id="title">JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</h1><h2 id="subtitle">A Context-based JSON Serialization for Linked Data</h2><h2 id="unofficial-draft-23-september-2010">Unofficial Draft 23 September 2010</h2><dl><dt>Editor:</dt><dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar, Inc.</a></dd>
+<dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Mark Birbeck</a>, <a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Backplane Ltd.</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar, Inc.</a></dd>
+</dl><p class="copyright">This document is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>.</p><hr /></div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Developers that embed structured data in their Web pages can choose among
+a number of languages such as RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">RDFA-CORE</a></cite>], Microformats [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">MICROFORMATS</a></cite>] 
+and Microdata [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">MICRODATA</a></cite>]. Each of these structured data languages, while
+incompatible at the syntax level, can be easily mapped to RDF. JSON has 
+proven to be a highly useful object serialization and messaging replacement 
+for SOAP. In an attempt to harmonize the representation of Linked Data in JSON, 
+this specification outlines a common JSON representation format for 
+Linked Data that can be used to represent objects specified via RDFa, 
+Microformats and Microdata.
+</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p>This document is merely a public working draft of a potential specification. It has no official standing of any kind and does not represent the support or consensus of any standards organisation.</p>
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+
+<!--  <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p>  -->
+
+</div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>How to Read this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Introduction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#design-goals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Design Goals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#design-rationale" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Design Rationale</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#map-terms-to-iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Map Terms to IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-default-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>The Default Context</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#an-example-of-a-default-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>An Example of a Default Context</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Markup Examples</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5.1 </span>RDFa</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microformats" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5.2 </span>Microformats</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microdata" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5.3 </span>Microdata</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Markup of RDF Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Specifying the Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plain-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Plain Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Language Specification in Plain Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#typed-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Typed Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#blank-nodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.9 </span>Blank Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#escape-character" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.10 </span>Escape Character</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.11 </span>Automatic Typing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">1. </span>How to Read this Document</h2>
+
+<p>
+This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of JSON for Linked
+data. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>Developers that want to encode Microformats, RDFa, or Microdata in a
+  way that is cross-language compatible via JSON.</li>
+  <li>Developers that want to understand the encoding possibilities.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+To understand this specification you must first be familiar with JSON, 
+which is detailed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>].</p>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">Need to write introduction...</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="design-goals" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Design Goals</h2>
+
+<p>
+A number of design considerations were explored during the creation of this 
+markup language:
+</p>
+
+<dl>
+ <dt>Simplicity</dt>
+ <dd>Developers don't need to know RDF in order to use the basic functionality
+ provided by JSON-LD.</dd>
+ <dt>Compatibility</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD markup should be 100% compatible with JSON.</dd>
+ <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
+ <dd>All major RDF concepts must be expressible via the JSON-LD syntax.</dd>
+ <dt>Terseness</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="design-rationale" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Design Rationale</h2>
+
+<p>The following section outlines the rationale behind the JSON-LD markup
+language.
+</p>
+
+<div id="map-terms-to-iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Map Terms to IRIs</h3>
+
+<p>Establishing a mechanism to map JSON values to IRIs will
+help in the mapping of JSON objects to RDF. This does not mean that JSON-LD must
+be restrictive in declaring a set of terms, rather, experimentation and 
+innovation should be supported as part of the core design of JSON-LD. There are, 
+however, a number of very small design criterial that can ensure that developers 
+will generate good RDF data that will create value for the greater 
+semantic web community and JSON/REST-based Web Services community.
+</p>
+
+<p>We will be using the following JSON object as the example for this section:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{"a" : "Person",
+ "name" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "homepage" : "http://manu.sporny.org/"}</pre>
+</div><div id="the-default-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>The Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>A default context is used in RDFa to allow developers to use keywords
+as aliases for IRIs. So, for instance, the keyword <strong>name</strong>
+above could refer to the IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</em>.
+The semantic web, just like the document-based web, uses IRIs for
+unambiguous identification. The idea is that these terms mean something, 
+which you will eventually want to query. The semantic web specifies this via 
+<em>Vocabulary Documents</em>. The IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</em> specifies
+a Vocabulary Document, and <strong>name</strong> is a term in that 
+vocabulary. Paste the two items together and you have an unambiguous identifier
+for a term.
+</p>
+
+<p>Developers, and machines, would be able to use this IRI (plugging it
+directly into a web browser, for instance) to go to the term and get a 
+definition of what the term means. Much
+like we can use WordNet today to see the 
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">definition</a>
+of words in the English language. Machines need the same sort of 
+dictionary of terms, and URIs provide a way to ensure that these terms
+are unambiguous.
+</p>
+
+<p>Non-prefixed terms should have term mappings declared in the default
+context so that they may be expanded later.</p>
+            
+<p>If a set of terms, like <strong>Person</strong>, 
+<strong>name</strong>, and <strong>homepage</strong>,
+are pre-defined in the default context, and that context is used to resolve the
+names in JSON objects, machines could automatically expand the terms to 
+something meaningful and unambiguous, like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{"<span class="diff">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</span>" : "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+ "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>" : "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>"}</pre>
+
+<p class="note">In order to differentiate between plain text and IRIs, the
+<strong><</strong> and <strong>></strong> are used around IRIs.</p>
+
+<p>Doing this would mean that JSON would start to become unambiguously
+machine-readable, play well with the semantic web, and basic markup wouldn't 
+be that much more complex than basic JSON markup. A win, all around.</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="mashing-up-vocabularies" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</h3>
+
+<p>Developers would also benefit by allowing other vocabularies to be used
+automatically with their JSON API. There are over 200 
+Vocabulary Documents that are available for use on the Web today. Some
+of these vocabularies are:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+   <li>XSD - for specifying basic types like strings, integers, dates and times.</li>
+   <li>Dublin Core - for describing creative works.</li>
+   <li>FOAF - for describing social networks.</li>
+   <li>Calendar - for specifying events.</li>
+   <li>SIOC - for describing discussions on blogs and websites.</li>
+   <li>CCrel - for describing Creative Commons and other types of licenses.</li>
+   <li>GEO - for describing geographic location.</li>
+   <li>VCard - for describing organizations and people.</li>
+   <li>DOAP - for describing projects.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD Web Service could define these as <em>prefix</em>es in their 
+default context beside the <em>terms</em> that are already defined. Using
+this feature, developers could also do markup like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{"<span class="diff">rdf:type</span>" : "<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>",
+ "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>" : "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+ "sioc:avatar" : "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"</span>}</pre>
+
+<p>Developers could also be allowed to specify their own Vocabulary documents 
+by modifying the default context, like so:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+[<span class="diff">{"a" : "Context",
+   "myvocab" : "http://example.org/myvocab#"}
+ },</span>
+ {"a" : "foaf:Person",
+ "foaf:name" : "Manu Sporny",
+ "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;",
+ "sioc:avatar" : "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+ "myvocab:credits" : 500</span>}
+]</pre>
+
+<p>This mechanism is a short-hand for RDF, and if defined, will give
+developers an unambiguous way to map any JSON value to RDF. </p><p>
+</p></div>
+
+<div id="an-example-of-a-default-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.4 </span>An Example of a Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>To be clear, the JSON-LD aware Web Service could define a default
+context like the following:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{"a" : "Context",
+ "__vocab__" : "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+ "xsd" : "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+ "dc" : "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+ "foaf" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+ "sioc" : "http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#",
+ "cc" : "http://creativecommons.org/ns#",
+ "geo" : "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#",
+ "vcard" : "http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#",
+ "cal" : "http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#",
+ "doap" : "http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#",
+ "Person" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+ "name" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+ "homepage" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The <strong>__vocab__</strong> prefix is a special prefix that states 
+that any term that doesn't resolve to a term or a prefix should be 
+appended to the <strong>__vocab__</strong> IRI. This is done to ensure that 
+terms can be transformed to an IRI at all times.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="markup-examples" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Markup Examples</h3>
+
+<p class="issue">Write some introductory stuff about the Markup Examples.</p>
+
+<div id="rdfa" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">4.5.1 </span>RDFa</h4>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;div <span class="diff">prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>&gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Representation:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+[{ 
+   "a" : "Context",
+   "foaf" : "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode1",
+    "a" : "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://example.com/bob/&gt;",
+    "foaf:name" : "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode2",
+    "a" : "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://example.com/eve/&gt;",
+    "foaf:name" : "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode2",
+    "a" : "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:homepage" : "&lt;http://example.com/manu/&gt;",
+    "foaf:name" : "Manu"
+ }
+]</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microformats" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">4.5.2 </span>Microformats</h4>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;div class="vcard"&gt;
+ &lt;a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/"&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Representation:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+[{ 
+   "a" : "Context",
+   "vcard" : "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard"
+   "url" : "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url"
+   "fn" : "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+ },
+ {
+    "@" : "_:bnode1",
+    "a" : "vcard",
+    "url" : "&lt;http://tantek.com/&gt;",
+    "fn" : "Tantek Çelik"
+ }
+]</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microdata" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">4.5.3 </span>Microdata</h4>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N"&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Representation:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+[{ 
+   "a" : "Context",
+   "__vocab__" : "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/microdata#",
+   "frbr" : "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#",
+   "dc" : "http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+ },
+ {
+    "a" : "frbr:Work",
+    "@" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt;",
+    "dc:title" : "Just a Geek",
+    "dc:creator" : "Whil Wheaton",
+    "frbr:realization" : ["&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;", "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;"]
+ },
+ {
+    "a" : "frbr:Expression",
+    "@" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;",
+    "dc:type" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK&gt;"
+ },
+ {
+    "a" : "frbr:Expression",
+    "@" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;",
+    "dc:type" : "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt;"
+ }
+]</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div id="markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Markup of RDF Concepts</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">Need to write introduction to RDF Concepts section</p>
+
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>IRIs</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "foaf:homepage" : "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "<span class="diff">@</span>" : "<span class="diff">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Specifying the Type</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "<span class="diff">a</span>" : "<span class="diff">&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Plain Literals</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "foaf:name" : "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Language Specification in Plain Literals</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "foaf:name" : "<span class="diff">花澄@ja</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="typed-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Typed Literals</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "dc:modified" : "<span class="diff">2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "foaf:nick" : <span class="diff">["stu", "groknar", "radface"]</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "dc:modified" : <span class="diff">["2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime", "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00^^xsd:dateTime"</span>],
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="blank-nodes" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.9 </span>Blank Nodes</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "@" : "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="escape-character" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.10 </span>Escape Character</h3>
+
+<p>Special characters in property values <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be escaped in order to not be 
+interpreted as IRIs, language tags, or TypedLiterals.</p>
+
+<p>The special characters in JSON-LD are: <code><</code>, <code>></code>,
+<code>@</code> and <code>^</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ "example:code" : <span class="diff">"\\&lt;foobar\\^\\^2\\&gt;"</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.11 </span>Automatic Typing</h3>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+ // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:decimal
+ "measure:cups" : <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+ // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+ "chem:protons" : <span class="diff">12</span>,
+ // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+ "sensor:active" : <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+
+<p>The editor would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of the
+rationale and reasoning behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj, and
+Ian Davis, who created RDF/JSON.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div id="references" class="appendix section">
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd>D. Crockford <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</a> July 2006. Internet RFC 4627. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-MICRODATA">[MICRODATA]</dt><dd>Ian Hickson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICROFORMATS">[MICROFORMATS]</dt><dd><a href="http://microformats.org"><cite>Microformats</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://microformats.org">http://microformats.org</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-CORE">[RDFA-CORE]</dt><dd>Shane McCarron; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803"><cite>RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</cite></a>3 August 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803">http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803</a> 
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/index.php	Thu Oct 14 15:10:10 2010 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+<?php
+print """"
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> 
+<html version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
+   xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#"
+   xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+   xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
+   xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+   xmlns:vcard="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#"
+   xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"
+   > 
+   <head> 
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> 
+      <title>JSON-LD - Specifications</title> 
+      <link href="site.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> 
+      <link rel="shortcut icon" href="favicon.ico" /> 
+      <script type="text/javascript" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.4.2/jquery.min.js"></script> 
+   </head> 
+ 
+   <body> 
+      <div id="container"> 
+         <div id="header"> 
+            <div class="col"> 
+               <h1>JSON-LD - Specifications</h1>
+            </div> 
+         </div> 
+
+         <div id="content"> 
+            <div id="info"> 
+               <h1>Latest Specification</h1> 
+               <p></p>
+            </div>
+"""";
+
+
+print """"
+         </div>
+ 
+         <div id="footer"> 
+            <p id="copyright"> 
+               Website content released under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license</a> except where an alternate is specified.
+            </p> 
+            <p id="legal"> 
+               Part of the <a href="http://payswarm.com/">payswarm.com</a> initiative.
+            </p>
+         </div> 
+      </div> 
+   </body> 
+</html>
+"""";
+?>
+
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/latest/index.html	Thu Oct 14 15:10:10 2010 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,1268 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+<!-- 
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+  out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+  -->
+<script type="text/javascript"
+  src="http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/js/respec.js" class="remove">
+ </script>
+<script type="text/javascript" class="remove">
+
+    var preProc = {
+          apply:  function(c) {
+                    // extend the bibliography entries
+                    berjon.biblio["MICRODATA"] = "Ian Hickson; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> ";
+                    berjon.biblio["HTML-RDFA"] = "Manu Sporny; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/\"><cite>HTML+RDFa</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/</a> ";
+                    berjon.biblio["BCP47"] = "A. Phillips, M. Davis. <a href=\"http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt\"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a> September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href=\"http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt\">http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt</a>";
+                    
+                    // process the document before anything else is done
+                    var refs = document.querySelectorAll('adef') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'dfn' ) ;
+                        var tit = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!tit) {
+                            tit = con;
+                        }
+                        sp.className = 'adef' ;
+                        sp.title=tit ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('aref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        sp.className = 'aref' ;
+                        sp.setAttribute('title', con);
+                        sp.innerHTML = '@'+con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // local datatype references
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('ldtref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        sp.className = 'datatype';
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // external datatype references
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('dtref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        sp.className = 'externalDFN';
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // now do terms
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('tdef') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'dfn' ) ;
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // now term references
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('tref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        var id = item.textContent ;
+                        sp.className = 'tref' ;
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                }
+        } ;
+
+
+      var respecConfig = {
+          // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
+          specStatus:           "unofficial",
+          //publishDate:          "2010-04-29",
+          // copyrightStart:       "2010",
+          
+          // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
+          shortName:            "json-ld",
+          subtitle:             "A Context-based JSON Serialization for Linked Data",
+          // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
+          // publishDate:  "2009-08-06",
+
+          // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
+          // and its maturity status
+          // previousPublishDate:  "1977-03-15",
+          // previousMaturity:  "WD",
+
+          // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
+          edDraftURI:           "http://rdfa.digitalbazaar.com/specs/source/json-ld/",
+
+          // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
+          // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
+
+          // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
+          // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
+          extraCSS:             [
+              "http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css",
+              "spec.css"
+          ],
+
+          // editors, add as many as you like
+          // only "name" is required
+          editors:  [
+              { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
+                company: "Digital Bazaar, Inc.", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
+          ],
+
+          // authors, add as many as you like. 
+          // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
+          // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
+
+          authors:  [
+              { name: "Mark Birbeck", url: "http://webbackplane.com/",
+                company: "Backplane Ltd.", companyURL: "http://webbackplane.com/" },
+              { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
+                company: "Digital Bazaar, Inc.", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
+          ],
+          
+          // name of the WG
+          wg:           "RDFa Working Group",
+          
+          // URI of the public WG page
+          wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/",
+          
+          // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
+          wgPublicList: "public-rdfa-wg",
+          
+          // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
+          // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
+          // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
+          // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
+          // Team Contact.
+          wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/",
+          maxTocLevel: 3,
+          preProcess: [ preProc ] 
+      };
+
+      function updateExample(doc, content) {
+        // perform transformations to make it render and prettier
+        content = content.replace(/<!--/, '');
+        content = content.replace(/-->/, '');
+        content = doc._esc(content);
+        content = content.replace(/\*\*\*\*([^*]*)\*\*\*\*/g, '<span class="diff">$1</span>') ;
+        return content ;
+      }
+
+      function updateDTD(doc, content) {
+        // perform transformations to
+        // make it render and prettier
+        content = '<pre class="dtd">' + doc._esc(content) + '</pre>';
+        content = content.replace(/!ENTITY % ([^ \t\r\n]*)/g, '!ENTITY <span class="entity">% $1</span>');
+        content = content.replace(/!ELEMENT ([^ \t$]*)/mg, '!ELEMENT <span class="element">$1</span>');
+        return content;
+      }
+
+      function updateSchema(doc, content) {
+        // perform transformations to
+        // make it render and prettier
+        content = '<pre class="dtd">' + doc._esc(content) + '</pre>';
+        content = content.replace(/&lt;xs:element\s+name=&quot;([^&]*)&quot;/g, '&lt;xs:element name="<span class="element" id="schema_element_$1">$1</span>"') ;
+        return content;
+      }
+
+      function updateTTL(doc, content) {
+        // perform transformations to
+        // make it render and prettier
+        content = '<pre class="sh_sourceCode">' + doc._esc(content) + '</pre>';
+        content = content.replace(/@prefix/g, '<span class="sh_keyword">@prefix</span>');
+        return content;
+      }
+  </script>
+<style>
+.diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
+</style>
+</head>
+
+<body>
+<section id="abstract">
+<p>
+Developers that embed structured data in their Web pages can choose among
+a number of languages such as RDFa [[RDFA-CORE]], Microformats [[MICROFORMATS]] 
+and Microdata [[MICRODATA]]. Each of these structured data languages, while
+incompatible at the syntax level, can be easily mapped to RDF. JSON has 
+proven to be a highly useful object serialization and messaging replacement 
+for SOAP. In an attempt to harmonize the representation of Linked Data in JSON, 
+this specification outlines a common JSON representation format for 
+Linked Data that can be used to represent objects specified via RDFa, 
+Microformats and Microdata.
+</p>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h3>How to Read this Document</h3>
+
+<p>
+This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of JSON for Linked
+data. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>Developers that want to encode Microformats, RDFa, or Microdata in a
+  way that is cross-language compatible via JSON.</li>
+  <li>Developers that want to understand the encoding possibilities.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+To understand this specification you must first be familiar with JSON, 
+which is detailed in [[!RFC4627]].</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id='sotd'>
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+<!-- <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p> -->
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Introduction</h1>
+
+<p class="issue">Write the introduction once all of the technical details
+are hammered out. Explain why JSON-LD is designed as a light-weight mechanism
+to express RDFa, Microformats and Microdata. It is primarily intended as
+a way to express Linked Data in Javascript environments as well as a way to pass
+Linked Data to and from Web services. It is designed to be as simple as 
+possible, utilizing the large number of JSON parsers (and understanding) that
+is out there already. It is designed to be able to express key-value pairs,
+RDF data, Microformats data, and Microdata (that is, every data model
+currently in use) using one unified format. It does not require anyone to change
+their JSON, but easily add meaning by adding context in a way that is 
+out-of-band - it is designed to not disturb already deployed systems running
+on JSON, but provide a smooth migration path from JSON to JSON with added
+semantics. Finally, the format is intended to be fast to parse, fast to 
+generate, stream-based and document-based processing compatible, and require
+a tiny memory footprint in order to operate.
+</p>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Design Goals</h1>
+
+<p>
+A number of design considerations were explored during the creation of this 
+markup language:
+</p>
+
+<dl>
+ <dt>Simplicity</dt>
+ <dd>Developers don't need to know RDF in order to use the basic functionality
+ provided by JSON-LD.</dd>
+ <dt>Compatibility</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD markup should be 100% compatible with JSON.</dd>
+ <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
+ <dd>All major RDF concepts must be expressible via the JSON-LD syntax.</dd>
+ <dt>Terseness</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable.</dd>
+ <dt>Zero Edits</dt>
+ <dd>JSON-LD provides a mechanism that allows developers to specify 
+ context in a way that is out-of-band. This allows organizations that have
+ already deployed large JSON-based infrastructure to add meaning to their
+ JSON in a way that is not disruptive to their day-to-day operations and is
+ transparent to their current customers.</dd>
+ <dt>Streaming</dt>
+ <dd>The format supports both document-based and stream-based processing.</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Design Rationale</h1>
+
+<p>The following section outlines the rationale behind the JSON-LD markup
+language.
+</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Map Terms to IRIs</h2>
+
+<p>Establishing a mechanism to map JSON values to IRIs will
+help in the mapping of JSON objects to RDF. This does not mean that JSON-LD must
+be restrictive in declaring a set of terms, rather, experimentation and 
+innovation should be supported as part of the core design of JSON-LD. There are, 
+however, a number of very small design criterial that can ensure that developers 
+will generate good RDF data that will create value for the greater 
+semantic web community and JSON/REST-based Web Services community.
+</p>
+
+<p>We will be using the following JSON object as the example for this section:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "a": "Person",
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+</section
+
+<section>
+<h3>The Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>A default context is used in RDFa to allow developers to use keywords
+as aliases for IRIs. So, for instance, the keyword <strong>name</strong>
+above could refer to the IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</em>.
+The semantic web, just like the document-based web, uses IRIs for
+unambiguous identification. The idea is that these terms mean something, 
+which you will eventually want to query. The semantic web specifies this via 
+<em>Vocabulary Documents</em>. The IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</em> specifies
+a Vocabulary Document, and <strong>name</strong> is a term in that 
+vocabulary. Paste the two items together and you have an unambiguous identifier
+for a term.
+</p>
+
+<p>Developers, and machines, would be able to use this IRI (plugging it
+directly into a web browser, for instance) to go to the term and get a 
+definition of what the term means. Much
+like we can use WordNet today to see the 
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">definition</a>
+of words in the English language. Machines need the same sort of 
+dictionary of terms, and URIs provide a way to ensure that these terms
+are unambiguous.
+</p>
+
+<p>Non-prefixed terms should have term mappings declared in the default
+context so that they may be expanded later.</p>
+            
+<p>If a set of terms, like <strong>Person</strong>, 
+<strong>name</strong>, and <strong>homepage</strong>,
+are pre-defined in the default context, and that context is used to resolve the
+names in JSON objects, machines could automatically expand the terms to 
+something meaningful and unambiguous, like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "****http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type****": "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person****",
+  "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name****": "Manu Sporny",
+  "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage****": "****<****http://manu.sporny.org****>****"
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+<p class="note">In order to differentiate between plain text and IRIs, the
+<strong>&lt;</strong> and <strong>&gt;</strong> are used around IRIs.</p>
+
+<p>Doing this would mean that JSON would start to become unambiguously
+machine-readable, play well with the semantic web, and basic markup wouldn't 
+be that much more complex than basic JSON markup. A win, all around.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h3>Mashing Up Vocabularies</h3>
+
+<p>Developers would also benefit by allowing other vocabularies to be used
+automatically with their JSON API. There are over 200 
+Vocabulary Documents that are available for use on the Web today. Some
+of these vocabularies are:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+   <li>XSD - for specifying basic types like strings, integers, dates and times.</li>
+   <li>Dublin Core - for describing creative works.</li>
+   <li>FOAF - for describing social networks.</li>
+   <li>Calendar - for specifying events.</li>
+   <li>SIOC - for describing discussions on blogs and websites.</li>
+   <li>CCrel - for describing Creative Commons and other types of licenses.</li>
+   <li>GEO - for describing geographic location.</li>
+   <li>VCard - for describing organizations and people.</li>
+   <li>DOAP - for describing projects.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD Web Service could define these as <em>prefix</em>es in their 
+default context beside the <em>terms</em> that are already defined. Using
+this feature, developers could also express markup like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "****rdf:type****": "****foaf:Person****",
+  "****foaf:name****": "Manu Sporny",
+  "****foaf:homepage****": "<http://manu.sporny.org/>"****,
+  "sioc:avatar": "<http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny>"****
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>Developers can also specify their own Vocabulary documents by modifying the 
+default context in-line using the <code>#</code> character, like so:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  ****"#": { "myvocab": "http://example.org/myvocab#" }****,
+  "a": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:homepage": "<http://manu.sporny.org/>",
+  "sioc:avatar": "<http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny>"****,
+  "myvocab:credits": 500****
+}
+
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>Think of the <code>#</code> character as a "hashtable", which maps one
+string to another string. In the example above, the <code>myvocab</code>
+string is replaced with "<code>http://example.org/myvocab#</code>" when it
+is detected above. In the example above, "<code>myvocab:credits</code>" would
+expand to "<code>http://example.org/myvocab#credits</code>".</p>
+
+<p>This mechanism is a short-hand for RDF, and if defined, will give
+developers an unambiguous way to map any JSON value to RDF.<p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h3>An Example of a Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD strives to ensure that developers don't have to change the JSON
+that is going into and being returned from their Web applications. A JSON-LD 
+aware Web Service MAY define a default context. For example, the
+following default context could apply to all incoming Web Service calls
+previously accepting only JSON data:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+    "__vocab__": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "sioc": "http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#",
+    "cc": "http://creativecommons.org/ns#",
+    "geo": "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#",
+    "vcard": "http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#",
+    "cal": "http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#",
+    "doap": "http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#",
+    "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"
+  }
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The <code>__vocab__</code> prefix is a special prefix that states 
+that any term that doesn't resolve to a term or a prefix should be 
+appended to the <code>__vocab__</code> IRI. This is done to ensure that 
+terms can be transformed to an IRI at all times.
+</p>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h3>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithm</h3>
+
+<p>
+The processing algorithm described in this section is provided in
+order to demonstrate how one might implement a JSON-LD processor. 
+Conformant implementations are only required to produce the same type and
+number of triples during the output process and are not required to 
+implement the algorithm exactly as described.
+</p>
+
+<p class="issue">The Processing Algorithm is a work in progress, there are
+still major bugs in the algorithm and it's difficult to follow. It's provided
+only to very early implementers to give them an idea of how to implement a
+processor.</p>
+
+<h4>Processing Algorithm Terms</h4>
+<ul>
+<li><tdef>default context</tdef> - a context that is specified to the
+JSON-LD processing algorithm before processing begins.</li>
+<li><tdef>default graph</tdef> - the destination graph for all triples
+generated by JSON-LD markup.</li>
+<li><tdef>active subject</tdef> - the currently active subject that the
+processor should use when generating triples.</li>
+<li><tdef>inherited subject</tdef> - a subject that was detected at a
+higher level of processing to be used to generate a triple once a 
+<tref>current subject</tref> is discovered or generated.</li>
+<li><tdef>active property</tdef> - the currently active property that the
+processor should use when generating triples.</li>
+<li><tdef>inherited property</tdef> - a property that was detected at a
+higher level of processing to be used to generate a triple once a 
+<tref>current subject</tref> is discovered or generated.</li>
+<li><tdef>active object</tdef> - the currently active object that the
+processor should use when generating triples.</li>
+<li><tdef>active context</tdef> - a context that is used to resolve
+CURIEs while the processing algorithm is running. The 
+<tref>active context</tref> is the top-most item on the 
+<tref>active context</tref> stack.</li>
+<li><tdef>local context</tdef> - a context that is specified at the JSON
+associative-array level, specified via the <code>#</code> key.</li>
+<li><tdef>list of incomplete triples</tdef> - A list of triples that have
+yet to have their subject set.</li>
+<li><tdef>list of unprocessed items</tdef> - A list of objects that cannot be
+processed until a <tref>local context</tref> is detected or the end of the
+current associative-array is detected.</li>
+<li><tdef>processor state</tdef> - the processor state, which includes
+the <tref>active context</tref> stack, <tref>current subject</tref>, 
+<tref>current property</tref>,
+<tref>list of incomplete triples</tref>, and the 
+<tref>list of unprocessed items</tref>.
+</ul>
+
+<p>The algorithm below is designed for streaming (SAX-based) implementations.
+Implementers will find that non-streaming (document-based) implementations will
+be much easier to implement as full access to the JSON object model eliminates 
+some of the steps that are necessary for streaming implementations. A conforming
+JSON-LD processor MUST implement a processing algorithm that results in the 
+same <tref>default graph</tref> that the following algorithm generates:</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="processing-step-default-context">If a <tref>default context</tref> is 
+supplied to the
+processing algorithm, push it onto the <tref>active context</tref> stack.</li>
+
+<li id="processing-step-associative">If an associative array is 
+detected, create a new
+<tref>processor state</tref>. Copy the <tref>current context</tref> stack to
+the newly created <tref>processor state</tref>. Push the 
+<tref>active context</tref> onto the newly created 
+<tref>processor state</tref>'s <tref>active context</tref> stack. For each 
+key-value pair in the associative array, using the newly created
+<tref>processor state</tref> do the following:
+
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+
+    <li>If a <code>#</code> key is found, the processor
+    merges each key-value pair in the <tref>local context</tref> into the
+    <tref>active context</tref>, overwriting
+    any duplicate values in the <tref>active context</tref>. 
+    Process each object in the <tref>list of unprocessed items</tref>, 
+    starting at <a href="#processing-subject">Step 2.2</a>.</li>
+
+    <li id="processing-associative">If the <tref>local context</tref> has not been detected, the current
+    key-value pair is placed into the <tref>list of unprocessed items</tref>
+    and processing proceeds to the next key-value pair. Otherwise, if the
+    <tref>local context</tref> is known perform the following steps:</li>
+
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+
+      <li id="processing-subject">If a <code>@</code> key is found, the 
+      processor sets the <tref>active subject</tref> to the value after 
+      <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Object Processing</a> has been performed.
+
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>If the <tref>inherited subject</tref> and 
+        <tref>inherited property</tref> values are specified, generate a triple
+        using the <tref>inherited subject</tref> for the subject, the
+        <tref>inherited property</tref> for the property, and the 
+        <tref>active subject</tref> for the object.
+        </li>
+ 
+        <li>If there are any triples in the 
+        <tref>list of incomplete triples</tref>, complete each triple using the 
+        <tref>active subject</tref> as the subject for each triple.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+
+      </li>
+
+      <li>If an <code>a</code> key is found, set the <tref>active property</tref> 
+      to <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</code>.
+      </li>
+
+      <li>If a key that is not <code>#</code>, 
+      <code>@</code>, or <code>a</code> is found, set the 
+      <tref>active property</tref> by performing 
+      <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Property Processing</a> on the key.
+      </li>
+
+      <li>If the value is not an array, set the 
+      <tref>active object</tref> by performing 
+      <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Object Processing</a> on the value. 
+      Generate a triple representing the <tref>active subject</tref>, the
+      <tref>active property</tref> and the <tref>active object</tref>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is an associative array, then
+      process the value starting at 
+      <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is a regular array, then process the value 
+      starting at 
+      <a href="#processing-step-array">Step 3</a> ensuring that
+      the <tref>active subject</tref> and the <tref>active property</tref>
+      are copied to a newly created <tref>processor state</tref>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the end of the associative array is detected, and a
+      <tref>active subject</tref> was not discovered, then:
+      
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>Generate a <tref>blank node identifier</tref> and set it as the 
+        <tref>active subject</tref>.</li>
+
+        <li>Complete any previously incomplete triples by running all substeps 
+        of <a href="#processing-subject">Step 2.2.1</a>.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+
+      <li>If the end of the associative array is detected, and a
+      <tref>local context</tref> was not discovered, then assume that the
+      <tref>active context</tref> is unmodified and run all substeps of
+      <a href="#processing-associative">Step 2.2</a>
+      on the <tref>list of unprocessed items</tref>.
+     </ol>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+
+  <li id="processing-step-array">If a regular array is detected, 
+  process each value in the array by doing the following:
+
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the value is an associative array, processes per 
+      <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a>, ensuring to set
+      the <tref>inherited subject</tref> to the <tref>active subject</tref>
+      and the <tref>inherited property</tref> to the <tref>active property</tref>
+      in the newly created <tref>processor state</tref>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is not an array, set the <tref>active object</tref> 
+      by performing <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Object Processing</a> on 
+      the value. Generate a triple representing the <tref>active subject</tref>, 
+      the <tref>active property</tref> and the <tref>active object</tref> and 
+      place it into the <tref>default graph</tref>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is a regular array, should we support RDF 
+      List/Sequence Processing? 
+      <div class="issue">If the value is a regular array, should we support 
+      RDF List/Sequence generation of triples? For example, would implementing
+      this be worth the more complex processing rules: "ex:orderedItems" : 
+      [["one", "two", "three"]]</div></li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+</ol>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Markup Examples</h2>
+
+<p>The JSON-LD markup examples below demonstrate how JSON-LD can be used to
+express semantic data marked up in other languages such as RDFa, Microformats,
+and Microdata. These sections are merely provided as proof that JSON-LD is
+very flexible in what it can express across different Linked Data approaches.
+</p>
+
+<section>
+<h3>RDFa</h3>
+
+<p>The following example describes three people with their respective names and
+homepages.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<div ****prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"****>
+   <ul>
+      <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
+        <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name" ****>Bob</a>
+      </li>
+      <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
+        <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name" ****>Eve</a>
+      </li>
+      <li ****typeof="foaf:Person"****>
+        <a ****rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name" ****>Manu</a>
+      </li>
+   </ul>
+</div>
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>An example JSON-LD implementation is described below, however, there are
+other ways to mark-up this information such that the context is not
+repeated.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+[
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode1",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "<http://example.com/bob/>",
+   "foaf:name": "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode2",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "<http://example.com/eve/>",
+   "foaf:name": "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode3",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "<http://example.com/manu/>",
+   "foaf:name": "Manu"
+ }
+]
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h3>Microformats</h3>
+
+<p>The following example uses a simple Microformats hCard example to express
+how the Microformat is represented in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<div class="vcard">
+ <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
+</div>
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The representation of the hCard expresses the Microformat terms in the
+context and uses them directly for the <code>url</code> and <code>fn</code>
+properties. Also note that the Microformat to JSON-LD processor has 
+generated the proper URL type for <code>http://tantek.com</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+    "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard"
+    "url": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url"
+    "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+  },
+  "@": "_:bnode1",
+  "a": "vcard",
+  "url": "<http://tantek.com/>",
+  "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h3>Microdata</h3>
+
+<p>The Microdata example below expresses book information as a Microdata Work
+item.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N">
+ <dt>Title</dt>
+ <dd><cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title">Just a Geek</cite></dd>
+ <dt>By</dt>
+ <dd><span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator">Wil Wheaton</span></dd>
+ <dt>Format</dt>
+ <dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK">
+  <link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK">
+  Print
+ </dd>
+ <dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK">
+  <link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK">
+  Ebook
+ </dd>
+</dl>
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>Note that the JSON-LD representation of the Microdata information stays
+true to the desires of the Microdata community to avoid contexts and
+instead refer to items by their full IRI.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+[
+  {
+    "@": "<http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N>",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
+    "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization": 
+      ["<http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK>", "<http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK>"]
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "<http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK>",
+    "a": "<http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression>",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "<http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK>"
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "<http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK>",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "<http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK>"
+  }
+]
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+
+<section>
+<h1>Markup of RDF Concepts</h1>
+
+<p>JSON-LD is designed to ensure that most Linked Data concepts can be marked up
+in a way that is simple to understand and author by Web developers. In many
+cases, Javascript objects can become Linked Data with the simple addition
+of a context. Since RDF is also an important sub-community of the Linked
+Data movement, it is important that all RDF concepts are well-represented
+in this specification. This section details how each RDF concept can be
+expressed in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>IRIs</h2>
+
+<p>Expressing IRIs are fundamental to Linked Data as that is how most subjects
+and many objects are identified. IRIs can be expressed by wrapping a
+text string with the <code>&lt;</code> and <code>&gt;</code> characters.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "foaf:homepage": "****<****http://manu.sporny.org****>****",
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the object to an IRI with the value of
+<code>http://manu.sporny.org</code>.
+</p>
+
+<p>Wrapping IRIs with the  <code>&lt;</code> and <code>&gt;</code> 
+characters are only necessary when IRIs are specified as objects. At no other
+point do you need to wrap an IRI. You do not need to wrap IRIs when declaring 
+a property, declaring a CURIE, or describing key-value pairs in a context.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Identifying the Subject</h2>
+
+<p>A subject is declared using the <code>@</code> key. The subject is the
+first piece of information needed by the JSON-LD processor in order to
+create the (subject, predicate, object) tuple, also known as a triple.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "****@****": "****<http://example.org/people#joebob>****",
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the subject to 
+<code>&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;</code>.
+</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Specifying the Type</h2>
+
+<p>The type of a particular subject can be specified using the <code>a</code>
+key. Specifying the type in this way will generate a triple of the form 
+(subject, type, type-url).</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@": "<http://example.org/people#joebob>",
+  "****a****": "****<http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person>****",
+...
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triple 
+(in N-Triples notation):</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<http://example.org/people#joebob> 
+   <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type>
+      <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person> .
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Plain Literals</h2>
+
+<p>Regular text strings are called "plain literals" in RDF and are easily
+expressed using regular JSON strings.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "****Mark Birbeck****",
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Language Specification in Plain Literals</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD attempts to make sure that it is easy to express triples in other
+languages while simultaneously ensuring that hefty data structures 
+aren't required to accomplish simple language markup. When the 
+<code>@</code> symbol is used in a literal, the JSON-LD processor tags
+the literal text with the language tag that follows the <code>@</code>
+symbol.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "****花澄@ja****",
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate a plain literal for <em>花澄</em> and
+associate the <code>ja</code> language tag with the triple that is
+generated. Languages MUST be expressed in [[!BCP47]] format.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Typed Literals</h2>
+
+<p>Literals may also be typed in JSON-LD by using the <code>^^</code>
+sequence at the end of the text string.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "dc:modified": "****2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime****",
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate an object with the value of
+<code>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</code> and the datatype of
+<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</h2>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD author can express multiple triples in a compact way by using
+arrays. If a subject has multiple values for the same property, the author
+MAY express each property as an array.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@": "<http://example.org/people#joebob>",
+  "foaf:nick": ****["stu", "groknar", "radface"]****,
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The markup shown above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<http://example.org/people#joebob> 
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
+      "stu" .
+<http://example.org/people#joebob> 
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
+      "groknar" .
+<http://example.org/people#joebob> 
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
+      "radface" .
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</h2>
+
+<p>Multiple typed literals are expressed very much in the same way as 
+multiple properties:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@": "<http://example.org/articles/8>",
+  "dcterms:modified": ****["2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime", "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00^^xsd:dateTime"****],
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The markup shown above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<http://example.org/articles/8> 
+   <http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified>
+      "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+<http://example.org/articles/8> 
+   <http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified>
+      "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Blank Nodes</h2>
+
+<p>At times, it becomes necessary to be able to express information without
+being able to specify the subject. Typically, this is where blank nodes come
+into play. In JSON-LD, blank node identifiers are automatically created if a 
+subject is not specified using the <code>@</code> key. However, authors may
+name blank nodes by using the special <code>_</code> CURIE prefix.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "@": "****_:foo****",
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the subject to <code>_:foo</code>, which can
+then be used later on in the JSON-LD markup to refer back to the 
+named blank node.
+</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Escape Character</h2>
+
+<p>Special characters in property values MUST be escaped in order to not be 
+interpreted as CURIEs, IRIs, language tags, or TypedLiterals.</p>
+
+<p>The special characters in JSON-LD are: <code>&lt;</code>, <code>&gt;</code>,
+<code>@</code>, <code>#</code>, <code>:</code> and <code>^</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  "example:code": ****"\\<foobar\\^\\^2\\>"****,
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Automatic Typing</h2>
+
+<p>Since JSON is capable of expressing typed information such as decimals, 
+integers and boolean values, JSON-LD utilizes that information to create 
+<a href="#typed-literals">Typed Literals</a>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+...
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:decimal
+  "measure:cups": ****5.3****,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  "chem:protons": ****12****,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  "sensor:active": ****true****,
+...
+}
+ -->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Advanced Concepts</h1>
+
+<p class="issue">There are a few advanced concepts where it is not clear whether
+or not the JSON-LD specification is going to support the complexity necessary
+to support each concept. The entire section on Advanced Concepts should be
+taken with a grain of salt; it is merely a list of possibilities where all
+of the benefits and drawbacks have not been explored.
+</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Disjoint Graphs</h2>
+
+<p>When serializing an RDF graph that contains two or more sections of the
+graph which are entirely disjoint, one must use an array to express the graph
+as two graphs. This may not be acceptable to some authors, who would rather
+express the information as one graph. Since, by definition, disjoint graphs
+require there to be two top-level objects, JSON-LD utilizes a mechanism that
+allows disjoint graphs to be expressed using a single graph.</p>
+
+<p>Assume the following RDF graph:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+<http://example.org/people#john> 
+   <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type>
+      <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person> .
+<http://example.org/people#jane> 
+   <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type>
+      <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person> .
+</section>
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>Since the two subjects are entirely disjoint with one another, it is
+impossible to express the RDF graph above using a single JSON-LD associative
+array.</p>
+
+<p>In JSON-LD, one can use the subject to express disjoint graphs as a 
+single graph:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+  "@": 
+  [
+    {
+      "@": "<http://example.org/people#john>",
+      "a": "foaf:Person"
+    },
+    {
+      "@": "<http://example.org/people#jane>",
+      "a": "foaf:Person"
+    }
+  ]
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section class="appendix">
+<h1>Acknowledgements</h1>
+
+<p>The editor would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of the
+rationale and reasoning behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj, 
+Dave Longley who reviewed and provided feedback on the overall 
+specification and contexts, and Ian Davis, who created RDF/JSON.</p>
+</section>
+
+</body>
+</html>
+
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