Added diff-marked version of PR-ready document for JSON-LD.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Tue, 22 Oct 2013 11:09:02 -0400
changeset 2047 497a5904c236
parent 2046 c75ff5d685bc
child 2048 f898fc0dbe1b
Added diff-marked version of PR-ready document for JSON-LD.
spec/PR/json-ld/20131105/diff-20130910.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/PR/json-ld/20131105/diff-20130910.html	Tue Oct 22 11:09:02 2013 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,22361 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr" typeof="bibo:Document w3p:PR" about="" property="dcterms:language" content="en">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD 1.0</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+
+
+
+<style type="text/css">
+  .highlight { font-weight: bold; color: #0a3; }
+  .comment { color: #999; }
+  table, thead, tr, td { padding: 5px; border-width: 1px; border-spacing: 0px; border-style: solid; border-collapse: collapse; }
+</style>
+<style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+cite .bibref {
+    font-style: normal;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
+
+ul.tof, ol.tof {
+    list-style: none outside none;
+}
+
+.caption {
+    margin-top: 0.5em;
+    font-style:   italic;
+}
+
+/* --- TABLE --- */
+table.simple {
+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
+.simple th {
+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
+    padding:    3px 5px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.simple th[scope="row"] {
+    background: inherit;
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple td {
+    padding:    3px 10px;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
+    background: #f0f6ff;
+}
+
+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd > p:last-child {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- EXAMPLES --- */
+div.example-title {
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.example-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;   
+}
+aside.example, div.example, div.illegal-example {
+    padding: 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+div.illegal-example { color: red }
+div.illegal-example p { color: black }
+aside.example, div.example {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+    border-color: #e0cb52;
+    background: #fcfaee;    
+}
+
+aside.example div.example {
+    border-left-width: .1em;
+    border-color: #999;
+    background: #fff;
+}
+aside.example div.example div.example-title {
+    color: #999;
+}
+</style><style>/* --- ISSUES/NOTES --- */
+div.issue-title, div.note-title {
+    padding-right:  1em;
+    min-width: 7.5em;
+    color: #b9ab2d;
+}
+div.issue-title { color: #e05252; }
+div.note-title { color: #2b2; }
+div.issue-title span, div.note-title span {
+    text-transform: uppercase;
+}
+div.note, div.issue {
+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+.note > p:first-child, .issue > p:first-child { margin-top: 0 }
+.issue, .note {
+    padding: .5em;
+    border-left-width: .5em;
+    border-left-style: solid;
+}
+div.issue, div.note {
+    padding: 1em 1.2em 0.5em;
+    margin: 1em 0;
+    position: relative;
+    clear: both;
+}
+span.note, span.issue { padding: .1em .5em .15em; }
+
+.issue {
+    border-color: #e05252;
+    background: #fbe9e9;
+}
+.note {
+    border-color: #52e052;
+    background: #e9fbe9;
+}
+
+
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-PR"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='https://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--><style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
+.diff-new { background-color: yellow; }
+.diff-chg { background-color: lime; }
+.diff-new:before,
+.diff-new:after
+    { content: "\2191" }
+.diff-chg:before, .diff-chg:after
+    { content: "\2195" }
+.diff-old { text-decoration: line-through; background-color: #FBB; }
+.diff-old:before,
+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body class="h-entry" role="document" id="respecDocument">
+<div class="head" role="contentinfo" id="respecHeader">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C">
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 property="bibo:subtitle" id="subtitle">
+A
+JSON-based
+Serialization
+for
+Linked
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2013-11-05T05:00:00.000Z" id="w3c-proposed-recommendation-05-november-2013">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation
+<del class="diff-old">10
+September
+</del>
+<time class="dt-published" datetime="2013-11-05">
+<ins class="diff-chg">05
+November
+</ins>
+2013
+</time>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+This
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-json-ld-20130910/
+</del>
+<a class="u-url" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-json-ld-20131105/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-json-ld-20131105/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+published
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld/index.html">
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Previous
+version:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-json-ld-20130411/
+</del>
+<a rel="dcterms:replaces" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-json-ld-20130910/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-json-ld-20130910/
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Niklas Lindström" href="http://neverspace.net/">
+Niklas
+Lindström
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a rel="alternate" href="diff-20130910.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+2010-2013
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<sup>

+</sup>
+(
+<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/">
+<abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">
+MIT
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.ercim.eu/">
+<abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">
+ERCIM
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">
+Keio
+</a>,
+<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">
+Beihang
+</a>
+),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">
+liability
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">
+trademark
+</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">
+document
+use
+</a>
+rules
+apply.
+</p>
+<hr>
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#abstract" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+is
+a
+useful
+data
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+This
+specification
+defines
+JSON-LD,
+a
+JSON-based
+format
+to
+serialize
+Linked
+Data.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+easily
+integrate
+into
+deployed
+systems
+that
+already
+use
+JSON,
+and
+provides
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Web-based
+programming
+environments,
+to
+build
+interoperable
+Web
+services,
+and
+to
+store
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+storage
+engines.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sotd" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+the
+time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+publications
+and
+the
+latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+technical
+reports
+index
+</a>
+at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+has
+been
+under
+development
+for
+over
+30
+months
+in
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group.
+The
+document
+has
+been
+transferred
+to
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+for
+review,
+improvement,
+and
+publication.
+The
+specification
+has
+undergone
+significant
+development,
+review,
+and
+changes
+during
+the
+course
+of
+the
+last
+30
+months.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+several
+independent
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/test-suite/reports/">
+interoperable
+implementations
+</a>
+of
+this
+specification.
+There
+is
+a
+fairly
+complete
+test
+suite
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-TESTS">
+JSON-LD-TESTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+a
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">
+live
+JSON-LD
+editor
+</a>
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+demonstrating
+the
+features
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+While
+development
+on
+implementations,
+the
+test
+suite
+and
+the
+live
+editor
+will
+continue,
+they
+are
+believed
+to
+be
+mature
+enough
+to
+be
+integrated
+into
+a
+non-production
+system
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time
+with
+the
+expectation
+that
+they
+could
+be
+used
+in
+a
+production
+system
+within
+the
+next
+three
+months.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+following
+features
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">There
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">at
+risk
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+</ins>
+may
+<del class="diff-old">be
+removed:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Support
+for
[email protected]:
+null
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
+</ins><a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/"><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Confusion
+related
+to
+context-sensitivity
+of
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
+</ins><a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/"><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Lists
+of
+lists
+and
+partial
+list
+conversion
+from
+RDF
+</del>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">Allow
+blank
+nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used
+as
+properties
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">reported
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues"><ins class="diff-chg">
+issue
+tracker
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+</ins></li><li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+<ins class="diff-new">Source
+code
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld"><ins class="diff-new">
+#json-ld
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</ins>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Changes
+since
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-json-ld-20130411/">
+11&nbsp;April&nbsp;2013
+Last
+Call
+Working
+Draft
+</a>:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Allow
+keyword
+aliases
+to
+be
+defined
+using
+expanded
+term
+definitions
+</li>
+<li>
+Mention
+profile
+URIs
+also
+in
+the
+sections
+describing
+the
+various
+document
+forms
+</li>
+<li>
+Support
+relative
+IRIs
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+Clarify
+how
+the
+<code>
+profile
+</code>
+media
+type
+parameter
+is
+used
+in
+the
+content
+negotiation
+process
+</li>
+<li>
+Update
+grammar
+to
+disallow
+blank
+nodes
+as
+data
+types
+</li>
+<li>
+Update
+grammar
+to
+allow
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+as
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</li>
+<li>
+Align
+the
+JSON-LD
+Data
+Model
+with
+the
+RDF
+Data
+Model
+</li>
+<li>
+Support
+processing
+of
+documents
+with
+a
+<code>
++json
+</code>
+media
+type
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC6839">
+RFC6839
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+</li>
+<li>
+Added
+a
+brief
+description
+of
+the
+data
+model
+to
+the
+introduction.
+</li>
+<li>
+Fixed
+a
+number
+of
+document
+readability
+and
+flow
+issues
+related
+to
+all
+of
+the
+updates
+made
+over
+the
+last
+several
+<del class="diff-old">moths.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">months
+</ins></li></ul><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Changes
+since
+the
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-json-ld-20130910/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+10&nbsp;September&nbsp;2013
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+</ins></a>:</p><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Mention
+context-sensitivity
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#specifying-the-type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+5.4
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</ins></a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</a>
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation.
+This
+document
+is
+intended
+to
+become
+a
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Recommendation.
+<del class="diff-old">If
+you
+wish
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+Membership
+and
+other
+interested
+parties
+are
+invited
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">review
+the
+document
+and
+</ins>
+send
+<del class="diff-old">them
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">comments
+</ins>
+to
+<a rel="discussion" href="mailto:[email protected]">
[email protected]
+</a>
+(
+<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">
+subscribe
+</a>,
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
+archives
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+W3C
+publishes
+a
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+to
+indicate
+that
+the
+document
+is
+believed
+to
+be
+stable
+and
+to
+encourage
+implementation
+by
+the
+developer
+community.
+This
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+is
+expected
+to
+advance
+to
+Proposed
+Recommendation
+no
+earlier
+than
+01
+October
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">)
+through
+05
+December
+</ins>
+2013.
+<del class="diff-old">All
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Advisory
+Committee
+Representatives
+should
+consult
+their
+</ins><a href="https://www.w3.org/2002/09/wbs/myQuestionnaires"><ins class="diff-chg">
+WBS
+questionnaires
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+that
+substantive
+technical
+</ins>
+comments
+<del class="diff-old">are
+welcome.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">were
+expected
+during
+the
+Last
+Call
+review
+period
+that
+ended
+05
+August
+2009.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Publication
+as
+a
+<del class="diff-old">Candidate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Proposed
+</ins>
+Recommendation
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Before
+this
+specification
+may
+exit
+the
+Candidate
+Recommendation
+phase,
+at
+least
+two
+independent
+implementations
+must
+pass
+each
+test,
+although
+no
+single
+implementation
+must
+pass
+every
+test.
+The
+working
+group
+will
+decide
+when
+the
+test
+suite
+is
+of
+sufficient
+quality
+to
+test
+interoperability
+and
+will
+produce
+an
+implementation
+report
+hosted
+together
+with
+the
+test
+suite.
+</del>
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+<a id="sotd_patent" about="" rel="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">
+5
+February
+2004
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+maintains
+a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+</a>
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+</a>
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">
+section
+6
+of
+the
+<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">
+W3C
+</abbr>
+Patent
+Policy
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Terminology
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#general-terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-model-overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Data
+Model
+Overview
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformance" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-identifiers" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+Node
+Identifiers
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#base-iri" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+Base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#default-vocabulary" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Default
+Vocabulary
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#typed-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.6
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-context-usage" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.7
+</span>
+Advanced
+Context
+Usage
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.8
+</span>
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.10
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+within
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.11
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#reverse-properties" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.12
+</span>
+Reverse
+Properties
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.13
+</span>
+Named
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-blank-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.14
+</span>
+Identifying
+Blank
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.15
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-indexing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.16
+</span>
+Data
+Indexing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.17
+</span>
+Expanded
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compacted-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.18
+</span>
+Compacted
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#flattened-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.19
+</span>
+Flattened
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding-json-ld-in-html-documents" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.20
+</span>
+Embedding
+JSON-LD
+in
+HTML
+Documents
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-model" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.
+</span>
+Data
+Model
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.
+</span>
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.1
+</span>
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-objects" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.2
+</span>
+Node
+Objects
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-objects" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.3
+</span>
+Value
+Objects
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists-and-sets" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.4
+</span>
+Lists
+and
+Sets
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#language-maps" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.5
+</span>
+Language
+Maps
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#index-maps" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.6
+</span>
+Index
+Maps
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-definitions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.7
+</span>
+Context
+Definitions
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#relationship-to-rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+9.
+</span>
+Relationship
+to
+RDF
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#serializing-deserializing-rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+9.1
+</span>
+Serializing/Deserializing
+RDF
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#relationship-to-other-linked-data-formats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Relationship
+to
+Other
+Linked
+Data
+Formats
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#turtle" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+Turtle
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.3
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.4
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="introduction">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_introduction">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+Linked
+Data
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-LINKED-DATA">
+LINKED-DATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+is
+a
+way
+to
+create
+a
+network
+of
+standards-based
+machine
+interpretable
+data
+across
+different
+documents
+and
+Web
+sites.
+It
+allows
+an
+application
+to
+start
+at
+one
+piece
+of
+Linked
+Data,
+and
+follow
+embedded
+links
+to
+other
+pieces
+of
+Linked
+Data
+that
+are
+hosted
+on
+different
+sites
+across
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+lightweight
+syntax
+to
+serialize
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Its
+design
+allows
+existing
+JSON
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+Linked
+Data
+with
+minimal
+changes.
+JSON-LD
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Web-based
+programming
+environments,
+to
+build
+interoperable
+Web
+services,
+and
+to
+store
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+storage
+engines.
+Since
+JSON-LD
+is
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON,
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today
+can
+be
+reused.
+In
+addition
+to
+all
+the
+features
+JSON
+provides,
+JSON-LD
+introduces:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+universal
+identifier
+mechanism
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+objects
+</a>
+via
+the
+use
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+way
+to
+disambiguate
+keys
+shared
+among
+different
+JSON
+documents
+by
+mapping
+them
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+via
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+mechanism
+in
+which
+a
+value
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+may
+refer
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+on
+a
+different
+site
+on
+the
+Web,
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+ability
+to
+annotate
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+strings
+</a>
+with
+their
+language,
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+way
+to
+associate
+datatypes
+with
+values
+such
+as
+dates
+and
+times,
+</li>
+<li>
+and
+a
+facility
+to
+express
+one
+or
+more
+directed
+graphs,
+such
+as
+a
+social
+network,
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+usable
+directly
+as
+JSON,
+with
+no
+knowledge
+of
+RDF
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+It
+is
+also
+designed
+to
+be
+usable
+as
+RDF,
+if
+desired,
+for
+use
+with
+other
+Linked
+Data
+technologies
+like
+SPARQL.
+Developers
+who
+require
+any
+of
+the
+facilities
+listed
+above
+or
+need
+to
+serialize
+an
+RDF
+Graph
+or
+RDF
+Dataset
+in
+a
+JSON-based
+syntax
+will
+find
+JSON-LD
+of
+interest.
+People
+intending
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+with
+RDF
+tools
+will
+find
+it
+can
+be
+used
+as
+another
+RDF
+syntax,
+like
+Turtle
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">
+TURTLE
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Complete
+details
+of
+how
+JSON-LD
+relates
+to
+RDF
+are
+in
+section
+<a href="#relationship-to-rdf" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+9.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Relationship
+to
+RDF
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD.
+Since
+the
+shape
+of
+such
+data
+varies
+wildly,
+JSON-LD
+features
+mechanisms
+to
+reshape
+documents
+into
+a
+deterministic
+structure
+which
+simplifies
+their
+processing.
+</p>
+<section class="informative" id="how-to-read-this-document">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_how-to-read-this-document">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+who
+want
+to
+encode
+Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+programming
+languages
+that
+can
+use
+JSON
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+who
+want
+to
+convert
+existing
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+who
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+who
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+who
+want
+to
+generate
+or
+consume
+Linked
+Data,
+an
+RDF
+graph,
+or
+an
+RDF
+Dataset
+in
+a
+JSON
+syntax
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+A
+companion
+document,
+the
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+Algorithms
+and
+API
+specification
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+specifies
+how
+to
+work
+with
+JSON-LD
+at
+a
+higher
+level
+by
+providing
+a
+standard
+library
+interface
+for
+common
+JSON-LD
+operations.
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+almost
+exclusively
+uses
+the
+term
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/#internationalized-resource-identifier">
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Indicator
+</a>
+)
+when
+discussing
+hyperlinks.
+Many
+Web
+developers
+are
+more
+familiar
+with
+the
+URL
+(
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/#uniform-resource-locator">
+Uniform
+Resource
+Locator
+</a>
+)
+terminology.
+The
+document
+also
+uses,
+albeit
+rarely,
+the
+URI
+(
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/#uniform-resource-identifier">
+Uniform
+Resource
+Indicator
+</a>
+)
+terminology.
+While
+these
+terms
+are
+often
+used
+interchangeably
+among
+technical
+communities,
+they
+do
+have
+important
+distinctions
+from
+one
+another
+and
+the
+specification
+goes
+to
+great
+lengths
+to
+try
+and
+use
+the
+proper
+terminology
+at
+all
+times.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="design-goals-and-rationale">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_design-goals-and-rationale">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+satisfies
+the
+following
+design
+goals:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+are
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+provides
+developers
+with
+a
+very
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+Developers
+only
+need
+to
+know
+JSON
+and
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+(
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+)
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+always
+a
+valid
+JSON
+document.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+serializes
+directed
+graphs.
+This
+ensures
+that
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model
+can
+be
+expressed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+is
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+effort
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+ensures
+a
+smooth
+and
+simple
+transition
+from
+existing
+JSON-based
+systems.
+In
+many
+cases,
+zero
+edits
+to
+the
+JSON
+document
+and
+the
+addition
+of
+one
+line
+to
+the
+HTTP
+response
+should
+suffice
+(see
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+section
+6.8
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+).
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+use
+JSON-LD's
+features
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+However,
+there
+are
+times
+where
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+is
+a
+complex
+undertaking.
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+extending
+JSON-LD
+to
+support
+esoteric
+use
+cases,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+case.
+While
+Zero
+Edits
+is
+a
+design
+goal,
+it
+is
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+JSON-LD
+focuses
+on
+simplicity
+when
+possible.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Usable
+as
+RDF
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+is
+usable
+by
+developers
+as
+idiomatic
+JSON,
+with
+no
+need
+to
+understand
+RDF
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">
+RDF11-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+JSON-LD
+is
+also
+usable
+as
+RDF,
+so
+people
+intending
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+with
+RDF
+tools
+will
+find
+it
+can
+be
+used
+like
+any
+other
+RDF
+syntax.
+Complete
+details
+of
+how
+JSON-LD
+relates
+to
+RDF
+are
+in
+section
+<a href="#relationship-to-rdf" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+9.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Relationship
+to
+RDF
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="terminology">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_terminology">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Terminology
+</h2>
+<section class="normative" id="general-terminology">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_general-terminology">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+uses
+the
+following
+terms
+as
+defined
+in
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Refer
+to
+the
+<em>
+JSON
+Grammar
+</em>
+section
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+for
+formal
+definitions.
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json-object" id="dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+key-value
+pairs.
+A
+key
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+key,
+separating
+the
+key
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+key.
+In
+contrast
+to
+JSON,
+in
+JSON-LD
+the
+keys
+in
+an
+object
+must
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+Values
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+In
+JSON,
+an
+array
+is
+an
+<em>
+ordered
+</em>
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+the
+same
+array
+representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+<em>
+unordered
+</em>
+by
+default.
+While
+order
+is
+preserved
+in
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+unless
+specifically
+defined
+(see
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+6.11
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+).
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+value,
+which
+is
+typically
+used
+to
+clear
+or
+forget
+data.
+For
+example,
+a
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+where
+the
+value
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+explicitly
+decouples
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+'s
+association
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+A
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+whose
+value
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+has
+the
+same
+meaning
+as
+if
+the
+key-value
+pair
+was
+not
+defined.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+ignored.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="data-model-overview">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_data-model-overview">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Data
+Model
+Overview
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+Generally
+speaking,
+the
+data
+model
+used
+for
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+labeled,
+directed
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="graph" href="#dfn-graph">
+graph
+</a>.
+The
+graph
+contains
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>,
+which
+are
+connected
+by
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="edge" href="#dfn-edge">
+edges
+</a>.
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+is
+typically
+data
+such
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+values
+</a>
+(like
+dates
+and
+times)
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+There
+is
+also
+a
+special
+class
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+called
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node" href="#dfn-blank-node">
+blank
+node
+</a>,
+which
+is
+typically
+used
+to
+express
+data
+that
+does
+not
+have
+a
+global
+identifier
+like
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node" href="#dfn-blank-node">
+Blank
+nodes
+</a>
+are
+identified
+using
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node-identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</a>.
+This
+simple
+data
+model
+is
+incredibly
+flexible
+and
+powerful,
+capable
+of
+modeling
+almost
+any
+kind
+of
+data.
+For
+a
+deeper
+explanation
+of
+the
+data
+model,
+see
+section
+<a href="#data-model" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+7.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Data
+Model
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Developers
+who
+are
+familiar
+with
+Linked
+Data
+technologies
+will
+recognize
+the
+data
+model
+as
+the
+RDF
+Data
+Model.
+To
+dive
+deeper
+into
+how
+JSON-LD
+and
+RDF
+are
+related,
+see
+section
+<a href="#relationship-to-rdf" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+9.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Relationship
+to
+RDF
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</dfn>
+that
+are
+a
+core
+part
+of
+the
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+define
+the
+short-hand
+names
+that
+are
+used
+throughout
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+These
+short-hand
+names
+are
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+and
+help
+developers
+to
+express
+specific
+identifiers
+in
+a
+compact
+manner.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+detail
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#the-context">
+section
+5.1
+The
+Context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+that
+are
+being
+described
+in
+the
+document
+with
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node-identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#node-identifiers">
+section
+5.3
+Node
+Identifiers
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+data
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#string-internationalization">
+section
+6.9
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+and
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#typed-values">
+section
+6.4
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+language
+for
+a
+particular
+string
+value
+or
+the
+default
+language
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#string-internationalization">
+section
+6.9
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#typed-values">
+section
+6.4
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+default
+container
+type
+for
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+6.11
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+6.11
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+unordered
+set
+of
+data
+and
+to
+ensure
+that
+values
+are
+always
+represented
+as
+arrays.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#sets-and-lists">
+section
+6.11
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+reverse
+properties.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#reverse-properties">
+section
+6.12
+Reverse
+Properties
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+that
+a
+container
+is
+used
+to
+index
+information
+and
+that
+processing
+should
+continue
+deeper
+into
+a
+JSON
+data
+structure.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#data-indexing">
+section
+6.16
+Data
+Indexing
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+against
+which
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+resolved.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#base-iri">
+section
+6.1
+Base
+IRI
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+expand
+properties
+and
+values
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+a
+common
+prefix
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#default-vocabulary">
+section
+6.2
+Default
+Vocabulary
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="graph" href="#dfn-graph">
+graph
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#named-graphs">
+section
+6.13
+Named
+Graphs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+All
+keys,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>,
+and
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="conformance">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_conformance">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+describes
+the
+conformance
+criteria
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+This
+criteria
+is
+relevant
+to
+authors
+and
+authoring
+tool
+implementers.
+As
+well
+as
+sections
+marked
+as
+non-normative,
+all
+authoring
+guidelines,
+diagrams,
+examples,
+and
+notes
+in
+this
+specification
+are
+non-normative.
+Everything
+else
+in
+this
+specification
+is
+normative.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</a>
+complies
+with
+this
+specification
+if
+it
+follows
+the
+normative
+statements
+in
+appendix
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</span>
+</a>.
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+JSON-LD
+by
+following
+the
+normative
+statements
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+section
+6.8
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</a>.
+For
+convenience,
+normative
+statements
+for
+documents
+are
+often
+phrased
+as
+statements
+on
+the
+properties
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+key
+words
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+MUST
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="REQUIRED">
+REQUIRED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHALL">
+SHALL
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHALL NOT">
+SHALL
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">
+SHOULD
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD NOT">
+SHOULD
+NOT
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">
+RECOMMENDED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="NOT RECOMMENDED">
+NOT
+RECOMMENDED
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">
+MAY
+</em>,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="OPTIONAL">
+OPTIONAL
+</em>
+in
+this
+specification
+have
+the
+meaning
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">
+RFC2119
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="basic-concepts">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_basic-concepts">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+is
+a
+lightweight,
+language-independent
+data
+interchange
+format.
+It
+is
+easy
+to
+parse
+and
+easy
+to
+generate.
+However,
+it
+is
+difficult
+to
+integrate
+JSON
+from
+different
+sources
+as
+the
+data
+may
+contain
+keys
+that
+conflict
+with
+other
+data
+sources.
+Furthermore,
+JSON
+has
+no
+built-in
+support
+for
+hyperlinks,
+which
+are
+a
+fundamental
+building
+block
+on
+the
+Web.
+Let's
+start
+by
+looking
+at
+an
+example
+that
+we
+will
+be
+using
+for
+the
+rest
+of
+this
+section:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span>: Sample JSON document</div><pre class="example">{
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+It's
+obvious
+to
+humans
+that
+the
+data
+is
+about
+a
+person
+whose
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+is
+"Manu
+Sporny"
+and
+that
+the
+<code>
+homepage
+</code>
+property
+contains
+the
+URL
+of
+that
+person's
+homepage.
+A
+machine
+doesn't
+have
+such
+an
+intuitive
+understanding
+and
+sometimes,
+even
+for
+humans,
+it
+is
+difficult
+to
+resolve
+ambiguities
+in
+such
+representations.
+This
+problem
+can
+be
+solved
+by
+using
+unambiguous
+identifiers
+to
+denote
+the
+different
+concepts
+instead
+of
+tokens
+such
+as
+"name",
+"homepage",
+etc.
+</p>
+<p>
+Linked
+Data,
+and
+the
+Web
+in
+general,
+uses
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+])
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+to
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+to
+assign
+unambiguous
+identifiers
+to
+data
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers.
+It
+is
+useful
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>,
+like
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+homepage
+</code>,
+to
+expand
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+so
+that
+developers
+don't
+accidentally
+step
+on
+each
+other's
+terms.
+Furthermore,
+developers
+and
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(by
+using
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+This
+process
+is
+known
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+dereferencing.
+</p>
+<p>
+Leveraging
+the
+popular
+<a href="http://schema.org/">
+schema.org
+vocabulary
+</a>,
+the
+example
+above
+could
+be
+unambiguously
+expressed
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span>: Sample JSON-LD document using full IRIs instead of terms</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "": "Manu Sporny",
+  ", ← The '@id' keyword means 'This value is an identifier that is an IRI'
+  "
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">http://schema.org/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="highlight">http://schema.org/url</span>": <span class="highlight">{ "@id": </span>"http://manu.sporny.org/" <span class="highlight">}</span>,  <span class="comment">← The '@id' keyword means 'This value is an identifier that is an IRI'</span>
+  "<span class="highlight">http://schema.org/image</span>": <span class="highlight">{ "@id": </span>"http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png" <span class="highlight">}</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+every
+property
+is
+unambiguously
+identified
+by
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+and
+all
+values
+representing
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+explicitly
+marked
+as
+such
+by
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+While
+this
+is
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document
+that
+is
+very
+specific
+about
+its
+data,
+the
+document
+is
+also
+overly
+verbose
+and
+difficult
+to
+work
+with
+for
+human
+developers.
+To
+address
+this
+issue,
+JSON-LD
+introduces
+the
+notion
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+as
+described
+in
+the
+next
+section.
+</p>
+<section class="informative" id="the-context">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_the-context">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+When
+two
+people
+communicate
+with
+one
+another,
+the
+conversation
+takes
+place
+in
+a
+shared
+environment,
+typically
+called
+"the
+context
+of
+the
+conversation".
+This
+shared
+context
+allows
+the
+individuals
+to
+use
+shortcut
+terms,
+like
+the
+first
+name
+of
+a
+mutual
+friend,
+to
+communicate
+more
+quickly
+but
+without
+losing
+accuracy.
+A
+context
+in
+JSON-LD
+works
+in
+the
+same
+way.
+It
+allows
+two
+applications
+to
+use
+shortcut
+terms
+to
+communicate
+with
+one
+another
+more
+efficiently,
+but
+without
+losing
+accuracy.
+</p>
+<p>
+Simply
+speaking,
+a
+<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
+context
+</dfn>
+is
+used
+to
+map
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Terms
+</a>
+are
+case
+sensitive
+and
+any
+valid
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+that
+is
+not
+a
+reserved
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+can
+be
+used
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+the
+sample
+document
+in
+the
+previous
+section,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</p>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span>: Context for the sample document in the previous section</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context":
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    "name": "http://schema.org/name", 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": "http://schema.org/name",</span>  <span class="comment">← This means that 'name' is shorthand for 'http://schema.org/name'</span> <span class="highlight">
+</ins>
+    "image": {
+<del class="diff-old">      "@id": "http://schema.org/image", 
+      "@type": "@id" 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://schema.org/image",</span>  <span class="comment">← This means that 'image' is shorthand for 'http://schema.org/image'</span> <span class="highlight">
+      "@type": "@id"</span>  <span class="comment">← This means that a string value associated with 'image' should be interpreted as an identifier that is an IRI</span> <span class="highlight">
+</ins>
+    },
+    "homepage": {
+<del class="diff-old">      "@id": "http://schema.org/url", 
+      "@type": "@id" 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://schema.org/url",</span>  <span class="comment">← This means that 'homepage' is shorthand for 'http://schema.org/url'</span> <span class="highlight">
+      "@type": "@id"</span>  <span class="comment">← This means that a string value associated with 'homepage' should be interpreted as an identifier that is an IRI</span> <span class="highlight">
+</ins>
+    }
+  }</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+As
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+above
+shows,
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<dfn title="term-definition" id="dfn-term-definition">
+term
+definition
+</dfn>
+can
+either
+be
+a
+simple
+string,
+mapping
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+When
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+term,
+it
+is
+called
+an
+<dfn title="expanded-term-definition" id="dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</dfn>.
+The
+example
+above
+specifies
+that
+the
+values
+of
+<code>
+image
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+homepage
+</code>,
+if
+they
+are
+strings,
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+Expanded
+term
+definitions
+</a>
+also
+allow
+terms
+to
+be
+used
+for
+<a href="#data-indexing">
+index
+maps
+</a>
+and
+to
+specify
+whether
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+values
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+<a href="#sets-and-lists">
+sets
+or
+lists
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+Expanded
+term
+definitions
+</a>
+may
+be
+defined
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+as
+keys,
+which
+is
+mainly
+used
+to
+associate
+type
+or
+language
+information
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+Contexts
+</a>
+can
+either
+be
+directly
+embedded
+into
+the
+document
+or
+be
+referenced.
+Assuming
+the
+context
+document
+in
+the
+previous
+example
+can
+be
+retrieved
+at
+<code>
+http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld
+</code>,
+it
+can
+be
+referenced
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+line
+and
+allows
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+be
+expressed
+much
+more
+concisely
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+example
+below:
+</p>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span>: Referencing a JSON-LD context</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+referenced
+context
+not
+only
+specifies
+how
+the
+terms
+map
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+in
+the
+Schema.org
+vocabulary
+but
+also
+specifies
+that
+string
+values
+associated
+with
+the
+<code>
+homepage
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+image
+</code>
+property
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+"@type":
+"@id"
+</code>,
+see
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#iris">
+section
+5.2
+IRIs
+</a>
+for
+more
+details).
+This
+information
+allows
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+other's
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+interoperate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+may
+contain
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+declared
+in
+the
+document.
+Information
+contained
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+is
+ignored
+when
+the
+document
+is
+used
+as
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+context
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+JSON-LD
+without
+having
+to
+be
+modified
+by
+referencing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+via
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+as
+described
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+section
+6.8
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</a>.
+It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+apply
+a
+custom
+context
+using
+the
+JSON-LD
+API
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+contexts
+</a>
+may
+also
+be
+specified
+inline.
+This
+has
+the
+advantage
+that
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+even
+in
+the
+absence
+of
+a
+connection
+to
+the
+Web.
+Ultimately,
+this
+is
+a
+modeling
+decision
+and
+different
+use
+cases
+may
+require
+different
+handling.
+</p>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span>: In-line context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context":
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context":
+  {
+    "name": "http://schema.org/name",
+    "image": {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+    "homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+This
+section
+only
+covers
+the
+most
+basic
+features
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+Context.
+More
+advanced
+features
+related
+to
+the
+JSON-LD
+Context
+are
+covered
+in
+section
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="iris">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_iris">
+<span class="secno">
+5.2
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+])
+are
+fundamental
+to
+Linked
+Data
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+properties
+</a>
+are
+identified.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+An
+<dfn title="absolute-iri" id="dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+as
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+fragment
+</em>
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative-iri" id="dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+to
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+In
+JSON-LD
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+resolved
+relative
+to
+the
+<dfn title="base-iri" id="dfn-base-iri">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+when
+it
+is
+the
+value
+of
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+member:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span>: Values of @id are interpreted as IRI</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "homepage": { "": "http://example.com/" }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": { "<span class="highlight">@id</span>": "http://example.com/" }
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Values
+that
+are
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+can
+also
+be
+expressed
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>.
+For
+example,
+assuming
+that
+the
+following
+document
+is
+located
+at
+<code>
+http://example.com/about/
+</code>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>../
+</code>
+would
+expand
+to
+<code>
+http://example.com/
+</code>
+(for
+more
+information
+on
+where
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>
+can
+be
+used,
+please
+refer
+to
+section
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+8.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</span>
+</a>
+).
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span>: IRIs can be relative</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "homepage": { "": "../" }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": { "<span class="highlight">@id</span>": "../" }
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+Absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span>: IRI as a key</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "": "Manu Sporny",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">http://schema.org/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+http://schema.org/name
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Term-to-
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion
+occurs
+if
+the
+key
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span>: Term expansion from context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">@context</span>":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    ""
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">name</span>": "<span class="highlight">http://schema.org/name</span>"
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  "": "Manu Sporny",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+</ins>
+  "status": "trollin'"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+such
+as
+<code>
+status
+</code>
+in
+the
+example
+above,
+are
+not
+Linked
+Data
+and
+thus
+ignored
+when
+processed.
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+property
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span>: Type coercion</div><pre class="example">{<span class="highlight">
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+    ...
+  }</span>
+...
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+since
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+expressed
+as
+a
+JSON
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+the
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+when
+processing
+the
+data.
+See
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#type-coercion">
+section
+6.5
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+for
+more
+details
+about
+this
+feature.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+summary,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+keys
+that
+have
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+mapping
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+expand
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(only
+applies
+outside
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context-definition" href="#dfn-context-definition">
+context
+definition
+</a>
+).
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+that
+contain
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+that
+is
+set
+to
+a
+value
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+This
+section
+only
+covers
+the
+most
+basic
+features
+associated
+with
+IRIs
+in
+JSON-LD.
+More
+advanced
+features
+related
+to
+IRIs
+are
+covered
+in
+section
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="node-identifiers">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_node-identifiers">
+<span class="secno">
+5.3
+</span>
+Node
+Identifiers
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+be
+able
+to
+externally
+reference
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="graph" href="#dfn-graph">
+graph
+</a>,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+have
+an
+identifier.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+Linked
+Data,
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+to
+be
+truly
+linked,
+dereferencing
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+This
+may
+allow
+an
+application
+to
+retrieve
+further
+information
+about
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span>: Identifying a node</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "name": "http://schema.org/name"
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  ,
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/"</span>,
+  "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-object" href="#dfn-node-object">
+node
+object
+</a>
+identified
+by
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+section
+only
+covers
+the
+most
+basic
+features
+associated
+with
+node
+identifiers
+in
+JSON-LD.
+More
+advanced
+features
+related
+to
+node
+identifiers
+are
+covered
+in
+section
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="specifying-the-type">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_specifying-the-type">
+<span class="secno">
+5.4
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+node
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+In
+Linked
+Data,
+types
+are
+uniquely
+identified
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span>: Specifying the type for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+<del class="diff-old">  "",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">@type</span>": "<span class="highlight">http://schema.org/Restaurant</span>",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+node
+can
+be
+assigned
+more
+than
+one
+type
+by
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 13</span>: Specifying multiple types for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+<del class="diff-old">  "
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">@type</span>": <span class="highlight">[ "http://schema.org/Restaurant", "http://schema.org/Brewery" ],</span>
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+value
+of
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+may
+also
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 14</span>: Using a term to specify the type</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    
+    
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"Restaurant": "http://schema.org/Restaurant", </span>
+    <span class="highlight">"Brewery": "http://schema.org/Brewery"</span>
+  }
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+<del class="diff-old">  ,
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@type": [ "Restaurant", "Brewery" ]</span>,
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_1">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Note
+</ins></span></div><p class="">
+This
+section
+only
+covers
+the
+most
+basic
+features
+associated
+with
+types
+in
+JSON-LD.
+<del class="diff-old">More
+advanced
+features
+related
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">It
+is
+worth
+noting
+that
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+not
+only
+used
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">types
+are
+covered
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specify
+the
+type
+of
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+but
+also
+to
+express
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value"><ins class="diff-chg">
+typed
+values
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(as
+described
+</ins>
+in
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#typed-values">
+section
+<del class="diff-old">6.
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4
+Typed
+Values
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+and
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+type
+coerce
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+values
+(as
+described
+in
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#type-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+6.5
+Type
+Coercion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+).
+Specifically,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+cannot
+be
+used
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+define
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node's
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+type.
+For
+a
+detailed
+description
+of
+the
+differences,
+please
+refer
+to
+</ins><a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#typed-values"><ins class="diff-chg">
+section
+6.4
+Typed
+Values
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="advanced-concepts">
+<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_advanced-concepts">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+section
+describes
+this
+advanced
+functionality
+in
+more
+detail.
+</p>
+<section class="informative" id="base-iri">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_base-iri">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+Base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+allows
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+be
+specified
+in
+a
+relative
+form
+which
+is
+resolved
+against
+the
+document
+base
+according
+<cite>
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.1">
+section
+5.1
+Establishing
+a
+Base
+URI
+</a>
+</cite>
+of
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+RFC3986
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+may
+be
+explicitly
+set
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+if
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+was
+retrieved
+from
+<code>
+http://example.com/document.jsonld
+</code>,
+relative
+IRIs
+would
+resolve
+against
+that
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 15</span>: Use a relative IRI as node identifier</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+    "label": "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label"
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  ,
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@id": ""</span>,
+  "label": "Just a simple document"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+This
+document
+uses
+an
+empty
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+which
+resolves
+to
+the
+document
+base.
+However,
+if
+the
+document
+is
+moved
+to
+a
+different
+location,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+would
+change.
+To
+prevent
+this
+without
+having
+to
+use
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+may
+define
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+to
+overwrite
+the
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+for
+the
+document.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 16</span>: Setting the document base in a document</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+<del class="diff-old">    
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"@base": "http://example.com/document.jsonld"</span>
+  },
+  "@id": "",
+  "label": "Just a simple document"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Setting
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+will
+prevent
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>
+to
+be
+expanded
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Feature
+at
+Risk
+10
+:
+Support
+for
[email protected]:
+null
+Note:
+This
+feature
+is
+"at
+risk"
+and
+may
+be
+removed
+from
+this
+specification
+based
+on
+feedback.
+Please
+send
+feedback
+to
[email protected]
+.
+For
+the
+current
+status
+see
+features
+"at
+risk"
+in
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+Unlike
+many
+other
+serialization
+formats,
+JSON-LD
+allows
+to
+specify
+that
+there
+is
+no
+base
+IRI
+from
+within
+the
+document
+(by
+setting
[email protected]
+to
+null
+).
+The
+result
+is
+that
+the
+algorithm
+for
+establishing
+a
+base
+IRI
+as
+specified
+in
+RFC3986
+section
+5.1
+is
+overridden
+so
+relative
+IRIs
+remain
+relative
+IRIs
+even
+in
+the
+case
+that
+an
+IRI
+would
+be
+available
+in
+one
+of
+the
+outer
+layers
+(e.g.,
+the
+IRI
+used
+to
+retrieve
+the
+document
+or
+an
+application
+supplied
+base
+IRI
+).
+Based
+on
+implementer
+feedback,
+the
+Working
+Group
+may
+decide
+to
+remove
+this
+feature
+from
+JSON-LD
+1.0.
+</del>
+<p>
+Please
+note
+that
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+will
+be
+ignored
+if
+used
+in
+external
+contexts.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="default-vocabulary">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_default-vocabulary">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Default
+Vocabulary
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+all
+properties
+and
+types
+may
+come
+from
+the
+same
+vocabulary.
+JSON-LD's
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+allows
+an
+author
+to
+set
+a
+common
+prefix
+to
+be
+used
+for
+all
+properties
+and
+types
+that
+do
+not
+match
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+and
+are
+neither
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+nor
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(i.e.,
+they
+do
+not
+contain
+a
+colon).
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 17</span>: Using a common vocabulary prefix</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+<del class="diff-old">    
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"@vocab": "http://schema.org/"</span>
+  }
+  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+<del class="diff-old">  "@type": ,
+  : "Brew Eats"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@type": <span class="highlight">"Restaurant"</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="highlight">"name"</span>: "Brew Eats"
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+used
+but
+certain
+keys
+in
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+object
+</a>
+should
+not
+be
+expanded
+using
+the
+vocabulary
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+can
+be
+explicitly
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>.
+For
+instance,
+in
+the
+example
+below
+the
+<code>
+databaseId
+</code>
+member
+would
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 18</span>: Using the null keyword to ignore data</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+     "@vocab": "http://schema.org/",
+<del class="diff-old">     
+</del>
+     <span class="highlight">"databaseId": null</span>
+  },
+    "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+    "@type": "Restaurant",
+    "name": "Brew Eats",
+<del class="diff-old">    : "23987520"
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"databaseId"</span>: "23987520"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="compact-iris">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_compact-iris">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn title="compact-iri" id="dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+).
+The
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+taken
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+is
+a
+short
+string
+identifying
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+For
+example,
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+a
+short
+hand
+for
+the
+Friend-of-a-Friend
+vocabulary,
+which
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+A
+developer
+may
+append
+any
+of
+the
+FOAF
+vocabulary
+terms
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+prefix
+to
+specify
+a
+short-hand
+version
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+vocabulary
+term.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+would
+be
+expanded
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 19</span>: Prefix expansion</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">@context</span>":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    ""
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">foaf</span>": "<span class="highlight">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>"
+</ins>
+...
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  "@type": ""
+  "": "Dave Longley",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@type": "<span class="highlight">foaf:Person</span>"
+  "<span class="highlight">foaf:name</span>": "Dave Longley",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+expands
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+foaf:Person
+</code>
+expands
+to
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+Prefixes
+</a>
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+represented
+as
+a
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+combination,
+the
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+and
+the
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+does
+not
+begin
+with
+two
+slashes&nbsp;(
+<code>
+//
+</code>
+).
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+expanded
+by
+concatenating
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+mapped
+to
+the
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>.
+If
+the
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+is
+not
+defined
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+or
+the
+suffix
+begins
+with
+two
+slashes
+(such
+as
+in
+<code>
+http://example.com
+</code>
+),
+the
+value
+is
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+instead.
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+an
+underscore
+(
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+),
+the
+value
+is
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank-node-identifier" href="#dfn-blank-node-identifier">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</a>
+instead.
+</p>
+<p>
+It's
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+within
+the
+context
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 20</span>: Using vocabularies</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+<del class="diff-old">    ,
+    : { "@type": "@id" },
+    "picture": { "@id": , "@type": "@id" }
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,
+    <span class="highlight">"foaf:homepage"</span>: { "@type": "@id" },
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "picture": { "@id": <span class="highlight">"foaf:depiction"</span>, "@type": "@id" }
+</ins>
+  },
+  "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  "foaf:homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "picture": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="typed-values">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_typed-values">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+type,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+value
+</a>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+value
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+value's
+type.
+Typed
+values
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-object" href="#dfn-value-object">
+value
+object
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+type
+such
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true">
+true
+</a>,
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="false" href="#dfn-false">
+false
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 21</span>: Expanded term definition with type coercion</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context":
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context":
+  {
+    "modified":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified",
+      "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+    }
+  },</span>
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.com/docs/1",
+  "modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+modified
+</em>
+key's
+value
+above
+is
+automatically
+type
+coerced
+to
+a
+<em>
+dateTime
+</em>
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+A
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+interpret
+the
+example
+above
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Subject
+</th>
+<th>
+Property
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+Type
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.com/docs/1
+</td>
+<td>
+http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
+</td>
+<td>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</td>
+<td>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+setting
+the
+type
+information
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 22</span>: Expanded value with type</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "modified":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified"
+    }
+  },
+...
+  "modified":
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">{
+    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+    "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+value
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+with
+the
+type
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+Note
+that
+it
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+express
+the
+value
+of
+a
+type.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_2">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Note
+</ins></span></div><p class="">
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+also
+used
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+The
+concept
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-type" href="#dfn-node-type">
+node
+type
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-type" href="#dfn-value-type">
+value
+type
+</a>
+are
+different.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+Generally
+speaking,
+a
+<dfn title="node-type" id="dfn-node-type">
+node
+type
+</dfn>
+specifies
+the
+type
+of
+thing
+that
+is
+being
+described,
+like
+a
+person,
+place,
+event,
+or
+web
+page.
+A
+<dfn title="value-type" id="dfn-value-type">
+value
+type
+</dfn>
+specifies
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+value,
+such
+as
+an
+integer,
+a
+floating
+point
+number,
+or
+a
+date.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 23</span>: Example demonstrating the context-sensitivity for @type</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia",
+<del class="diff-old">  ,   &lt;- This is a node type
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@type": "http://schema.org/BlogPosting"</span>,  <span class="comment">← This is a node type</span>
+  "modified":
+  {
+    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+<del class="diff-old">     &lt;- This is a value type
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"</span>  <span class="comment">← This is a value type</span>
+  }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+first
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associates
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-type" href="#dfn-node-type">
+node
+type
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</code>
+)
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>,
+which
+is
+expressed
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+The
+second
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associates
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-type" href="#dfn-value-type">
+value
+type
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>
+)
+with
+the
+value
+expressed
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+As
+a
+general
+rule,
+when
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+used
+in
+the
+same
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-type" href="#dfn-value-type">
+value
+type
+</a>.
+Otherwise,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-type" href="#dfn-node-type">
+node
+type
+</a>.
+The
+example
+above
+expresses
+the
+following
+data:
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Subject
+</th>
+<th>
+Property
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+Type
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia
+</td>
+<td>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
+</td>
+<td>
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</td>
+<td style="text-align:center;">
+-
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia
+</td>
+<td>
+http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
+</td>
+<td>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</td>
+<td>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="type-coercion">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_type-coercion">
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+<dfn title="coercion" id="dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</dfn>
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+values
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+data
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>.
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+the
+data
+type
+to
+be
+specified
+with
+each
+piece
+of
+data.
+</p>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</a>
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+this
+key
+expands
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Alternatively,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+value
+to
+indicate
+that
+within
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+value
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+coerced
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+The
+difference
+between
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+how
+values
+are
+expanded
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</a>.
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+first
+tries
+to
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+interpreting
+it
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+If
+no
+matching
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+found
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+it
+tries
+to
+expand
+it
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+if
+there's
+a
+colon
+in
+the
+value;
+otherwise,
+it
+will
+expand
+the
+value
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context's
+</a>
+vocabulary
+mapping,
+if
+present,
+or
+by
+interpreting
+it
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Values
+coerced
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+in
+contrast
+are
+expanded
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+if
+a
+colon
+is
+present;
+otherwise,
+they
+are
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative-iri" href="#dfn-relative-iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Terms
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+used
+as
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+may
+be
+defined
+within
+the
+same
+context.
+This
+means
+that
+one
+may
+specify
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+like
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+and
+then
+use
+<code>
+xsd:integer
+</code>
+within
+the
+same
+context
+definition.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+values
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 24</span>: Expanded term definition with types</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+<del class="diff-old">    {
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">{
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    }</span>,
+    "homepage":
+<del class="diff-old">    {
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">{
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }</span>
+  },
+  "@id": "http://example.com/people#john",
+  "name": "John Smith",
+<del class="diff-old">  "age": ,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "age": <span class="highlight">"41"</span>,
+</ins>
+  "homepage":
+<del class="diff-old">  [
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">[
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+data.
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Subject
+</th>
+<th>
+Property
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+Type
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.com/people#john
+</td>
+<td>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</td>
+<td>
+John
+Smith
+</td>
+<td>
+&nbsp;
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.com/people#john
+</td>
+<td>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age
+</td>
+<td>
+41
+</td>
+<td>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td rowspan="2">
+http://example.com/people#john
+</td>
+<td rowspan="2">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
+</td>
+<td>
+http://personal.example.org/
+</td>
+<td>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://work.example.com/jsmith/
+</td>
+<td>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+Terms
+may
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+This
+allows
+coercion
+rules
+to
+be
+applied
+to
+keys
+which
+are
+not
+represented
+as
+a
+simple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+For
+example:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 25</span>: Term definitions using compact and absolute IRIs</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+<del class="diff-old">    "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">foaf:age</span>":
+</ins>
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      ,
+</del>
+      <span class="highlight">"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age"</span>,
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+<del class="diff-old">    "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>":
+</ins>
+    {
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  "foaf:name": "John Smith",
+<del class="diff-old">  "": "41",
+  "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">foaf:age</span>": "41",
+  "<span class="highlight">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>":
+</ins>
+  [
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+this
+case
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+definition
+in
+the
+term
+definition
+is
+optional.
+If
+it
+does
+exist,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+representing
+the
+term
+will
+always
+be
+expanded
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+defined
+by
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key—regardless
+of
+whether
+a
+prefix
+is
+defined
+or
+not.
+</p>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+always
+performed
+using
+the
+unexpanded
+value
+of
+the
+key.
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+that
+means
+that
+type
+coercion
+is
+done
+looking
+for
+<code>
+foaf:age
+</code>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+not
+for
+the
+corresponding,
+expanded
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age
+</code>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Feature
+at
+Risk
+9
+:
+Confusion
+related
+to
+context-sensitivity
+of
[email protected]
+Note:
+This
+feature
+is
+"at
+risk"
+and
+may
+be
+removed
+from
+this
+specification
+based
+on
+feedback.
+Please
+send
+feedback
+to
[email protected]
+.
+For
+the
+current
+status
+see
+features
+"at
+risk"
+in
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+A
+number
+of
+JSON-LD
+document
+authors
+have
+been
+confused
+with
+the
+context
+sensitivity
+of
[email protected]
+When
+used
+in
+the
+context,
+it
+means
+"coerce
+the
+string
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+term
+to
+the
+following
+datatype."
+When
+used
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+document
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+object
+that
+represents
+a
+node
+in
+the
+graph,
+it
+means
+"the
+rdf:type
+of
+the
+subject
+identified
+by
[email protected]
+is
+the
+one
+that
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
[email protected]
+keyword".
+When
+used
+in
+expanded
+literal
+form,
+it
+means
+"the
+datatype
+of
+the
+value
+associated
+with
[email protected]
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
[email protected]
+keyword".
+This
+shifting
+of
+usage
+has
+led
+to
+confusion
+that
+may
+be
+easily
+remedied
+by
+reading
+a
+tutorial
+or
+the
+specification.
+It
+may
+also
+be
+that
+further
+modifications
+for
+declaring
+a
+datatype
+may
+be
+required,
+such
+as
+introducing
+a
+"@coerce"
+or
+"@literalType"
+keyword.
+Implementors
+are
+asked
+to
+pay
+particular
+attention
+to
+the
+feature
+and
+provide
+feedback
+on
+alternative
+ways
+to
+express
+the
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+feature
+may
+remain
+in
+the
+specification
+as-is,
+or
+it
+may
+be
+modified
+heavily
+after
+further
+implementation
+experience
+has
+been
+gathered.
+</del>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_3">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Keys
+in
+the
+context
+are
+treated
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+for
+the
+purpose
+of
+expansion
+and
+value
+coercion.
+At
+times,
+this
+may
+result
+in
+multiple
+representations
+for
+the
+same
+expanded
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>.
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+<code>
+dog
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+cat
+</code>
+both
+expanded
+to
+<code>
+http://example.com/vocab#animal
+</code>.
+Doing
+this
+could
+be
+useful
+for
+establishing
+different
+type
+coercion
+or
+language
+specification
+rules.
+It
+also
+allows
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(or
+even
+an
+absolute
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+)
+to
+be
+defined
+as
+something
+else
+entirely.
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<code>
+http://example.org/zoo
+</code>
+should
+expand
+to
+<code>
+http://example.org/river
+</code>,
+but
+this
+usage
+is
+discouraged
+because
+it
+would
+lead
+to
+a
+great
+deal
+of
+confusion
+among
+developers
+attempting
+to
+understand
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="embedding">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_embedding">
+<span class="secno">
+6.6
+</span>
+Embedding
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<dfn title="embedding" id="dfn-embedding">
+Embedding
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+feature
+that
+allows
+an
+author
+to
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-object" href="#dfn-node-object">
+node
+objects
+</a>
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+values.
+This
+is
+a
+commonly
+used
+mechanism
+for
+creating
+a
+parent-child
+relationship
+between
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shows
+two
+nodes
+related
+by
+a
+property
+from
+the
+first
+node:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 26</span>: Embedding a node object as property value of another node object</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+<del class="diff-old">  "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">knows</span>":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    "",
+    "",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">@type</span>": "<span class="highlight">Person</span>",
+    "<span class="highlight">name</span>": "<span class="highlight">Gregg Kellogg</span>",
+</ins>
+  }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node-object" href="#dfn-node-object">
+node
+object
+</a>,
+like
+the
+one
+used
+above,
+may
+be
+used
+in
+any
+value
+position
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="advanced-context-usage">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_advanced-context-usage">
+<span class="secno">
+6.7
+</span>
+Advanced
+Context
+Usage
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+Section
+<a href="#the-context" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+The
+Context
+</span>
+</a>
+introduced
+the
+basics
+of
+what
+makes
+JSON-LD
+work.
+This
+section
+expands
+on
+the
+basic
+principles
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+and
+demonstrates
+how
+more
+advanced
+use
+cases
+can
+be
+achieved
+using
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+general,
+contexts
+may
+be
+used
+at
+any
+time
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+defined.
+The
+only
+time
+that
+one
+cannot
+express
+a
+context
+is
+inside
+a
+context
+definition
+itself.
+For
+example,
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</a>
+may
+use
+more
+than
+one
+context
+at
+different
+points
+in
+a
+document:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 27</span>: Using multiple contexts</div><pre class="example">[
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/person.jsonld",</span>
+    "name": "Manu Sporny",
+    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+    "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+  },
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/place.jsonld",</span>
+    "name": "The Empire State Building",
+    "description": "The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark in New York City.",
+    "geo": {
+      "latitude": "40.75",
+      "longitude": "73.98"
+    }
+  }
+]
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Duplicate
+context
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+are
+overridden
+using
+a
+most-recently-defined-wins
+mechanism.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 28</span>: Scoped contexts within node objects</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context":
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context":
+  {
+    "name": "http://example.com/person#name,
+    "details": "http://example.com/person#details"
+  }"</span>,
+<del class="diff-old">  "": "Markus Lanthaler",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="highlight">name</span>": "Markus Lanthaler",
+</ins>
+  ...
+  "details":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    "@context":
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"@context":
+    {
+      "name": "http://example.com/organization#name"
+    }</span>,
+<del class="diff-old">    "": "Graz University of Technology"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">name</span>": "Graz University of Technology"
+</ins>
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+overridden
+in
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+<code>
+details
+</code>
+structure.
+Note
+that
+this
+is
+rarely
+a
+good
+authoring
+practice
+and
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+working
+with
+legacy
+applications
+that
+depend
+on
+a
+specific
+structure
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+redefined
+within
+a
+context,
+all
+previous
+rules
+associated
+with
+the
+previous
+definition
+are
+removed.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+redefined
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+effectively
+removed
+from
+the
+list
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+defined
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Multiple
+contexts
+may
+be
+combined
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>,
+which
+is
+processed
+in
+order.
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+a
+specific
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+as
+<dfn title="local-context" id="dfn-local-context">
+local
+contexts
+</dfn>.
+The
+<dfn title="active-context" id="dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local-context" href="#dfn-local-context">
+local
+contexts
+</a>
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+a
+specific
+point
+within
+the
+document.
+Setting
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local-context" href="#dfn-local-context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+effectively
+resets
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+to
+an
+empty
+context.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+an
+embedded
+context
+on
+top
+of
+the
+external
+context:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 29</span>: Combining external and local contexts</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context": [
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context": [
+    "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",
+    {
+      "pic": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction"
+    }
+  ],</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+<del class="diff-old">  
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"pic": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_4">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+When
+possible,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+should
+be
+put
+at
+the
+top
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+makes
+the
+document
+easier
+to
+read
+and
+might
+make
+streaming
+parsers
+more
+efficient.
+Documents
+that
+do
+not
+have
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+at
+the
+top
+are
+still
+conformant
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_5">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+To
+avoid
+forward-compatibility
+issues,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+starting
+with
+an&nbsp;
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+character
+are
+to
+be
+avoided
+as
+they
+might
+be
+used
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+in
+future
+versions
+of
+JSON-LD.
+Terms
+starting
+with
+an&nbsp;
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+character
+that
+are
+not
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+keywords
+</a>
+are
+treated
+as
+any
+other
+term,
+i.e.,
+they
+are
+ignored
+unless
+mapped
+to
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Furthermore,
+the
+use
+of
+empty
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+""
+</code>
+)
+is
+not
+allowed
+as
+not
+all
+programming
+languages
+are
+able
+to
+handle
+empty
+JSON
+keys.
+</p>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+<span class="secno">
+6.8
+</span>
+Interpreting
+JSON
+as
+JSON-LD
+</h3>
+<p>
+Ordinary
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+JSON-LD
+by
+referencing
+a
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+document
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header.
+Doing
+so
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+documents
+and
+provides
+an
+upgrade
+path
+for
+existing
+infrastructure
+without
+breaking
+existing
+clients
+that
+rely
+on
+the
+<code>
+application/json
+</code>
+media
+type
+or
+a
+media
+type
+with
+a
+<code>
++json
+</code>
+suffix
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC6839">
+RFC6839
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document,
+an
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+specify
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+a
+valid
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</a>
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5988">
+RFC5988
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+using
+the
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context
+</code>
+link
+relation.
+The
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+have
+a
+top-level
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+within
+that
+object
+is
+added
+to
+the
+top-level
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+of
+the
+referencing
+document.
+If
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+is
+at
+the
+top-level
+of
+the
+referencing
+document
+and
+its
+items
+are
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-object" href="#dfn-json-object">
+JSON
+objects
+</a>,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+is
+added
+to
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+items.
+All
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+in
+the
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+Effectively
+this
+means
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active-context" href="#dfn-active-context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+initialized
+with
+the
+referenced
+external
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>.
+A
+response
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST NOT">
+MUST
+NOT
+</em>
+contain
+more
+than
+one
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5988">
+RFC5988
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+using
+the
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context
+</code>
+link
+relation.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 30</span>: Referencing a JSON-LD context from a JSON document via an HTTP Link Header</div><pre class="example">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+Host: example.com
+Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+====================================
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+...
+<del class="diff-old">Content-Type: 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Content-Type: <span class="highlight">application/json</span>
+</ins><span class="highlight">Link: &lt;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&gt;; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"</span>
+{
+  "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "image": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Please
+note
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</a>
+served
+with
+the
+<code>
+application/ld+json
+</code>
+media
+type
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+have
+all
+context
+information,
+including
+references
+to
+external
+contexts,
+within
+the
+body
+of
+the
+document.
+Contexts
+linked
+via
+a
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context
+</code>
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+<em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">
+MUST
+</em>
+be
+ignored
+for
+such
+documents.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="string-internationalization">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_string-internationalization">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+annotate
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+with
+its
+language.
+In
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+possible
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+ways.
+First,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+default
+language
+for
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+setting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 31</span>: Setting the default language of a JSON-LD document</div><pre class="example">{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context":
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  }</span>,
+<del class="diff-old">  "name": ,
+  "occupation": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": <span class="highlight">"花澄"</span>,
+  "occupation": <span class="highlight">"科学者"</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+code
+with
+the
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+strings
+</a>
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+科学者
+</em>.
+Languages
+codes
+are
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+default
+language
+applies
+to
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+values
+that
+are
+not
+<a href="#type-coercion">
+type
+coerced
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+clear
+the
+default
+language
+for
+a
+subtree,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+can
+be
+set
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local-context" href="#dfn-local-context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 32</span>: Clearing default language</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },
+  "name": "花澄",
+  "details": {
+<del class="diff-old">    "@context": {
+</del>
+<span class="highlight">    "@context": {
+      "@language": null
+    }</span>,
+    "occupation": "Ninja"
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Second,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+associate
+a
+language
+with
+a
+specific
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</a>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 33</span>: Expanded term definition with language</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+    ...
+    "ex": "http://example.com/vocab/",
+    "@language": "ja",
+<del class="diff-old">    "name": { "@id": "ex:name",  },
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": { "@id": "ex:name", <span class="highlight">"@language": null</span> },
+</ins>
+    "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation" },
+<del class="diff-old">    "occupation_en": { "@id": "ex:occupation",  },
+    "occupation_cs": { "@id": "ex:occupation",  }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "occupation_en": { "@id": "ex:occupation", <span class="highlight">"@language": "en"</span> },
+    "occupation_cs": { "@id": "ex:occupation", <span class="highlight">"@language": "cs"</span> }
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  "name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">"name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+  "occupation": "忍者",
+  "occupation_en": "Ninja",
+  "occupation_cs": "Nindža",</span>
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+<em>
+忍者
+</em>
+with
+the
+specified
+default
+language
+code
+<code>
+ja
+</code>,
+<em>
+Ninja
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+en
+</code>,
+and
+<em>
+Nindža
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+cs
+</code>.
+The
+value
+of
+<code>
+name
+</code>,
+<em>
+Yagyū
+Muneyoshi
+</em>
+wouldn't
+be
+associated
+with
+any
+language
+code
+since
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+was
+reset
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded-term-definition" href="#dfn-expanded-term-definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</a>.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_6">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+Language
+associations
+are
+only
+applied
+to
+plain
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+strings
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+Typed
+values
+</a>
+or
+values
+that
+are
+subject
+to
+<a href="#type-coercion">
+type
+coercion
+</a>
+are
+not
+language
+tagged.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+Just
+as
+in
+the
+example
+above,
+systems
+often
+need
+to
+express
+the
+value
+of
+a
+property
+in
+multiple
+languages.
+Typically,
+such
+systems
+also
+try
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+a
+programmatically
+easy
+way
+to
+navigate
+the
+data
+structures
+for
+the
+language-specific
+data.
+In
+this
+case,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="language-map" href="#dfn-language-map">
+language
+maps
+</a>
+may
+be
+utilized.
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 34</span>: Language map expressing a property in three languages</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation",  }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation", <span class="highlight">"@container": "@language"</span> }
+</ins>
+  },
+  "name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+  "occupation":
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+</del>
+  <span class="highlight">{
+    "ja": "忍者",
+    "en": "Ninja",
+    "cs": "Nindža"
+  }</span>
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+expresses
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+as
+the
+previous
+example
+but
+consolidates
+all
+values
+in
+a
+single
+property.
+To
+access
+the
+value
+in
+a
+specific
+language
+in
+a
+programming
+language
+supporting
+dot-notation
+accessors
+for
+object
+properties,
+a
+developer
+may
+use
+the
+<code>
+property.language
+</code>
+pattern.
+For
+example,
+to
+access
+the
+occupation
+in
+English,
+a
+developer
+would
+use
+the
+following
+code
+snippet:
+<code>
+obj.occupation.en
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Third,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+by
+using
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-object" href="#dfn-value-object">
+value
+object
+</a>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 35</span>: Overriding default language using an expanded value</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },
+  "name": "花澄",
+<del class="diff-old">  "occupation": {
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "occupation": <span class="highlight">{
+</ins>
+    "@value": "Scientist",
+    "@language": "en"
+  }</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+This
+makes
+it
+possible
+to
+specify
+a
+plain
+string
+by
+omitting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+tag
+or
+setting
+it
+to
+<code>
+null
+</code>
+when
+expressing
+it
+using
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value-object" href="#dfn-value-object">
+value
+object
+</a>:
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 36</span>: Removing language information using an expanded value</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context": {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  "name": {
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": <span class="highlight">{
+</ins>
+    "@value": "Frank"
+  }</span>,
+  "occupation": {
+    "@value": "Ninja",
+    "@language": "en"
+  },
+  "speciality": "手裏剣"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="iri-expansion-within-a-context">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_iri-expansion-within-a-context">
+<span class="secno">
+6.10
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+within
+a
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+general,
+normal
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion
+rules
+apply
+anywhere
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+expected
+(see
+<a class="sectionRef sec-ref" href="#iris">
+section
+5.2
+IRIs
+</a>
+).
+Within
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+this
+can
+mean
+that
+terms
+defined
+within
+the
+context
+may
+also
+be
+used
+within
+that
+context
+as
+long
+as
+there
+are
+no
+circular
+dependencies.
+For
+example,
+it
+is
+common
+to
+use
+the
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+namespace
+when
+defining
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed-value" href="#dfn-typed-value">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 37</span>: IRI expansion within a context</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    ,
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"</span>,
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+<del class="diff-old">      "@type": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@type": <span class="highlight">"xsd:integer"</span>
+</ins>
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+the
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+defined
+and
+used
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+for
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+of
+the
+<code>
+age
+</code>
+property.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Terms
+</a>
+may
+also
+be
+used
+when
+defining
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+of
+another
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 38</span>: Using a term to define the IRI of another term within a context</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    ,
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+<del class="diff-old">    "name": ,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": <span class="highlight">"foaf:name"</span>,
+</ins>
+    "age":
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      "@id": ,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": <span class="highlight">"foaf:age"</span>,
+</ins>
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      "@id": ,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": <span class="highlight">"foaf:homepage"</span>,
+</ins>
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+may
+be
+used
+on
+the
+left-hand
+side
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+definition.
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 39</span>: Using a compact IRI as a term</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    ,
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "foaf:name",
+<del class="diff-old">    "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">foaf:age</span>":
+</ins>
+    {
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+<del class="diff-old">    "":
+    {
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">foaf:homepage</span>":
+</ins>    <span class="highlight">{
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }</span>
+  },
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+form
+is
+used
+in
+two
+different
+ways.
+In
+the
+first
+approach,
+<code>
+foaf:age
+</code>
+declares
+both
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+(using
+short-form)
+as
+well
+as
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>.
+In
+the
+second
+approach,
+only
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+is
+specified.
+The
+full
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+is
+determined
+by
+looking
+up
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+Absolute
+IRIs
+</a>
+may
+also
+be
+used
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 40</span>: Associating context definitions with absolute IRIs</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "foaf:name",
+    "foaf:age":
+    {
+      "@id": "foaf:age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+<del class="diff-old">    "":
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="highlight">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>":
+</ins>
+    {
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+order
+for
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+match
+above,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+needs
+to
+be
+used
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld-document" href="#dfn-json-ld-document">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</a>.
+Also
+note
+that
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+will
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
+{
+"@type":
+"@id"
+}
+</code>
+declaration
+because
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+is
+not
+the
+same
+as
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
+</code>.
+That
+is,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+are
+looked
+up
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+using
+direct
+string
+comparison
+before
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+lookup
+mechanism
+is
+applied.
+</p>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title" aria-level="3" role="heading" id="h_note_7">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+While
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact-iri" href="#dfn-compact-iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+or
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute-iri" href="#dfn-absolute-iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+expand
+to
+some
+other
+unrelated
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(for
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+expanding
+to
+<code>
+http://example.org/unrelated#species
+</code>
+),
+such
+usage
+is
+strongly
+discouraged.
+</p>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+only
+exception
+for
+using
+terms
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+is
+that
+circular
+definitions
+are
+not
+allowed.
+That
+is,
+a
+definition
+of
+<em>
+term1
+</em>
+cannot
+depend
+on
+the
+definition
+of
+<em>
+term2
+</em>
+if
+<em>
+term2
+</em>
+also
+depends
+on
+<em>
+term1
+</em>.
+For
+example,
+the
+following
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+is
+illegal:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 41</span>: Illegal circular definition of terms within a context</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    "term1": "term2:foo",
+</del>
+    <span class="highlight">"term1": "term2:foo",
+    "term2": "term1:bar"</span>
+  },
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="sets-and-lists">
+<h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sets-and-lists">
+<span class="secno">
+6.11
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+express
+multiple
+values
+in
+a
+compact
+way
+by
+using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+arrays
+</a>.
+Since
+graphs
+do
+not
+describe
+ordering
+for
+links
+between
+nodes,
+arrays
+in
+JSON-LD
+do
+not
+provide
+an
+ordering
+of
+the
+contained
+elements
+by
+default.
+This
+is
+exactly
+the
+opposite
+from
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+which
+are
+ordered
+by
+default.
+For
+example,
+consider
+the
+following
+simple
+document:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 42</span>: Multiple values with no inherent order</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+<del class="diff-old">  "nick": ,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "nick": <span class="highlight">[ "joe", "bob", "JB" ]</span>,
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shown
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+data
+being
+generated,
+each
+relating
+the
+node
+to
+an
+individual
+value,
+with
+no
+inherent
+order:
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+Subject
+</th>
+<th>
+Property
+</th>
+<th>
+Value
+</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</td>
+<td>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick
+</td>
+<td>
+joe
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</td>
+<td>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick
+</td>
+<td>
+bob
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</td>
+<td>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick
+</td>
+<td>
+JB
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>
+Multiple
+values
+may
+also
+be
+expressed
+using
+the
+expanded
+form:
+</p>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 43</span>: Using an expanded form to set multiple values</div><pre class="example">{
+  "@id": "http://example.org/articles/8",
+<del class="diff-old">  "dc:title": 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "dc:title": <span class="highlight">
+</ins>
+  [
+    {
+      "@value": "Das Kapital",
+      "@language": "de"
+    },
+    {
+      "@value": "Capital",
+      "@language": "en"
+    }
+  ]</span>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shown
+above