Added diff-marked copy of 2013 JSON-LD 1.0 Final Community Group Spec.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Sat, 02 Feb 2013 14:43:29 -0500
changeset 1176 441c1e89135f
parent 1175 bb4532295331
child 1177 220e6fea9cc2
Added diff-marked copy of 2013 JSON-LD 1.0 Final Community Group Spec.
spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20130202/diff-20121225.html
spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20130202/index.html
spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20130202/linked-data-graph.png
spec/FCGS/json-ld/20130202/index.html
spec/FCGS/json-ld/20130202/linked-data-graph.png
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20130202/diff-20121225.html	Sat Feb 02 14:43:29 2013 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,22752 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr" prefix="bibo: http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" typeof="bibo:Document">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD 1.0</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+<!--
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+  out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+  -->
+
+
+
+<style type="text/css">
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+</style>
+<style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
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+/* --- DL --- */
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+
+
+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/community/src/css/spec/cg-final.css"><!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='http://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]--><style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
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+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body>
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/">
+<img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C">
+</a>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">Syntax
+</del>
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-based
+</ins>
+Serialization
+for
+<del class="diff-old">Linking
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+</ins>
+Data
+</h2>
+<del class="diff-old">W3C
+Editor's
+Draft
+25
+December
+2012
+</del>
+<h2 id="final-community-group-specification-02-february-2013">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Final
+Community
+Group
+Specification
+02
+February
+2013
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+version:
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20121225/index.html
+Latest
+published
+version:
+http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/
+</del>
+Latest
+editor's
+draft:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html">
+http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/json-ld/raw-file/default/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/index.html
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="bibo:editor" inlist="">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Manu Sporny" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Dave Longley" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+<dd rel="dcterms:contributor">
+<span typeof="foaf:Person">
+<del class="diff-old">Mark
+Birbeck
+,
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</del>
+<a rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Niklas Lindström" href="http://neverspace.net/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Niklas
+Lindström
+</ins>
+</a>
+</span>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20121225.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">
+Copyright
+</a>

+<del class="diff-old">2010-2012
+W3C

+(
+MIT
+,
+ERCIM
+,
+Keio
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2010-2013
+the
+Contributors
+to
+the
+JSON-LD
+1.0
+Specification,
+published
+by
+the
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">),
+All
+Rights
+Reserved.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">under
+the
+</ins><a href="https://www.w3.org/community/about/agreements/fsa/">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">liability
+,
+trademark
+and
+document
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Community
+Final
+Specification
+Agreement
+(FSA)
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+human-readable
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/community/about/agreements/fsa-deed/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+summary
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">rules
+apply.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+available.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<hr>
+</div>
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#abstract" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</p>
+</section>
+<section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#sotd" rel="bibo:chapter">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+<del class="diff-old">section
+describes
+the
+status
+of
+this
+document
+at
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specification
+was
+published
+by
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">time
+of
+its
+publication.
+Other
+documents
+may
+supersede
+this
+document.
+A
+list
+of
+current
+</del>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF
+Working
+Group
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+It
+is
+not
+a
+</ins>
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">publications
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Standard
+nor
+is
+it
+on
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">latest
+revision
+of
+this
+technical
+report
+can
+be
+found
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">W3C
+Standards
+Track.
+Please
+note
+that
+under
+</ins>
+the
+<a href="https://www.w3.org/community/about/agreements/final/">
+W3C
+<del class="diff-old">technical
+reports
+index
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Community
+Final
+Specification
+Agreement
+(FSA)
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">at
+http://www.w3.org/TR/.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">other
+conditions
+apply.
+Learn
+more
+about
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/community/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+W3C
+Community
+and
+Business
+Groups
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+has
+been
+under
+development
+for
+over
+<del class="diff-old">20
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">25
+</ins>
+months
+in
+the
+JSON
+for
+Linking
+Data
+Community
+Group.
+The
+document
+has
+recently
+been
+transferred
+to
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+for
+review,
+improvement,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">publication
+along
+the
+Recommendation
+track.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">publication.
+</ins>
+The
+specification
+has
+undergone
+significant
+development,
+review,
+and
+changes
+during
+the
+course
+of
+the
+last
+<del class="diff-old">20
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">25
+</ins>
+months.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+several
+independent
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">
+interoperable
+implementations
+</a>
+of
+this
+specification.
+There
+is
+a
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">
+fairly
+complete
+test
+suite
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">
+live
+JSON-LD
+editor
+</a>
+that
+is
+capable
+of
+demonstrating
+the
+features
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+While
+development
+on
+implementations,
+the
+test
+suite
+and
+the
+live
+editor
+will
+continue,
+they
+are
+believed
+to
+be
+mature
+enough
+to
+be
+integrated
+into
+a
+non-production
+system
+at
+this
+point
+in
+time
+with
+the
+expectation
+that
+they
+could
+be
+used
+in
+a
+production
+system
+within
+the
+next
+year.
+</p>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+If
+you
+want
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+your
+feedback
+is
+formally
+addressed
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group,
+you
+should
+send
+it
+to
+public-rdf-comments:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+Ad-hoc
+technical
+discussion
+primarily
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+community
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+JSON-LD
+Community
+Group
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+</li>
+<li>
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+teleconferences
+are
+held
+on
+Wednesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+every
+week.
+Participation
+is
+limited
+to
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+members.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>
+if
+you
+do
+not
+want
+to
+send
+an
+e-mail
+to
+the
+public-rdf-comments
+mailing
+list.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+document
+was
+published
+by
+the
+RDF
+Working
+Group
+as
+an
+Editor's
+Draft.
+If
+you
+wish
+to
+make
+comments
+regarding
+this
+document,
+please
+send
+them
+to
[email protected]
+(
+subscribe
+,
+archives
+).
+All
+feedback
+is
+welcome.
+Publication
+as
+an
+Editor's
+Draft
+does
+not
+imply
+endorsement
+by
+the
+W3C
+Membership.
+This
+is
+a
+draft
+document
+and
+may
+be
+updated,
+replaced
+or
+obsoleted
+by
+other
+documents
+at
+any
+time.
+It
+is
+inappropriate
+to
+cite
+this
+document
+as
+other
+than
+work
+in
+progress.
+This
+document
+was
+produced
+by
+a
+group
+operating
+under
+the
+5
+February
+2004
+W3C
+Patent
+Policy
+.
+W3C
+maintains
+a
+public
+list
+of
+any
+patent
+disclosures
+made
+in
+connection
+with
+the
+deliverables
+of
+the
+group;
+that
+page
+also
+includes
+instructions
+for
+disclosing
+a
+patent.
+An
+individual
+who
+has
+actual
+knowledge
+of
+a
+patent
+which
+the
+individual
+believes
+contains
+Essential
+Claim(s)
+must
+disclose
+the
+information
+in
+accordance
+with
+section
+6
+of
+the
+W3C
+Patent
+Policy
+.
+</del>
+</section>
+<section id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Terminology
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#general-terminology" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#conformance" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<del class="diff-old">5.2
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</del>
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-identifiers" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Identifiers
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">5.6
+String
+Internationalization
+5.7
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</del>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#typed-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Language-tagged
+Strings
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+Coercion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-context-usage" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.4
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Advanced
+Context
+Usage
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#interpreting-json-as-json-ld" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+6.4.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Interpreting
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">Documents
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">as
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">String
+Internationalization
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overriding-vocab" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.6
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Type
+Coercion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Overriding
[email protected]
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#property-generators" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.7
+</span>
+Property
+Generators
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.8
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+Within
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.10
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.11
+</span>
+Named
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-blank-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.12
+</span>
+Identifying
+Blank
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.13
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expanded-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.14
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Data
+Annotations
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expanded
+Document
+Form
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compact-document-form" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.15
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Explicitly
+Ignoring
+Data
+6.16
+Expanded
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
+</ins>
+Document
+Form
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-indexing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.17
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.16
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Compact
+Document
+Form
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Data
+Indexing
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-model" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Data
+Model
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-node-object" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.1
+</span>
+Node
+Object
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-term-reference" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.2
+</span>
+Term
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-language-map" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.3
+</span>
+Language
+Map
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-index-map" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.4
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Annotation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Index
+</ins>
+Map
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-expanded-values" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.5
+</span>
+Expanded
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-set-list" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.6
+</span>
+List
+and
+Set
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#grammar-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.7
+</span>
+Context
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#relationship-to-rdf" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+Relationship
+to
+RDF
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#relationship-to-other-linked-data-formats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.
+</span>
+Relationship
+to
+Other
+Linked
+Data
+Formats
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#turtle" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.1
+</span>
+Turtle
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#prefix-definitions" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.1.1
+</span>
+Prefix
+definitions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#embedding-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.1.2
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.1.3
+</span>
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.2
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.3
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+D.4
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+E.
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+F.
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+G.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+G.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+G.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="introduction">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+<dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+network
+of
+inter-connected
+data
+across
+different
+documents
+and
+Web
+sites.
+In
+general,
+Linked
+Data
+has
+four
+properties:
+<del class="diff-old">1)
+it
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1)&nbsp;it
+</ins>
+uses
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+to
+name
+things;
+<del class="diff-old">2)
+it
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2)&nbsp;it
+</ins>
+uses
+HTTP
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+for
+those
+names;
+<del class="diff-old">3)
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3)&nbsp;the
+</ins>
+name
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+when
+dereferenced,
+provide
+more
+information
+about
+the
+name;
+and
+<del class="diff-old">4)
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4)&nbsp;the
+</ins>
+data
+expresses
+links
+to
+data
+on
+other
+Web
+sites.
+These
+properties
+allow
+data
+published
+on
+the
+Web
+to
+work
+much
+like
+Web
+pages
+do
+today.
+One
+can
+start
+at
+one
+piece
+of
+Linked
+Data,
+and
+follow
+the
+links
+to
+other
+pieces
+of
+data
+that
+are
+hosted
+on
+different
+sites
+across
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+lightweight
+syntax
+to
+express
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+interoperable
+Web
+services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+storage
+engines.
+Since
+JSON-LD
+is
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today
+can
+be
+reused.
+Additionally
+to
+all
+the
+features
+JSON
+provides,
+JSON-LD
+introduces:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+a
+universal
+identifier
+mechanism
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+objects
+</a>
+via
+the
+use
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>,
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+way
+to
+disambiguate
+the
+keys
+used
+between
+multiple
+JSON
+documents
+by
+mapping
+them
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+via
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>,
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+mechanism
+in
+which
+a
+value
+in
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+may
+refer
+to
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+on
+a
+different
+site
+on
+the
+Web,
+</li>
+<li>
+the
+ability
+to
+express
+the
+language
+associated
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+a
+way
+to
+associate
+datatypes
+with
+values
+such
+as
+dates,
+times,
+weights,
+and
+distances,
+</li>
+<li>
+and
+a
+facility
+to
+express
+one
+or
+more
+directed
+graphs,
+such
+as
+a
+social
+network,
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Developers
+that
+require
+any
+of
+the
+facilities
+listed
+above
+or
+need
+to
+serialize
+an
+RDF
+graph
+or
+dataset
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+in
+a
+JSON-based
+syntax
+will
+find
+JSON-LD
+of
+interest.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<section id="how-to-read-this-document">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+<del class="diff-old">programing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">programming
+</ins>
+languages
+that
+can
+use
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+describe
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax.
+The
+specification
+that
+describes
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents
+is
+the
+JSON-LD
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="informative" id="design-goals-and-rationale">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+goals
+were
+established
+before
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+should
+be
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+will
+provide
+developers
+with
+a
+very
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+Developers
+only
+need
+to
+know
+JSON
+and
+two
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>
+(
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+)
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+must
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+must
+be
+able
+to
+express
+directed
+graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+effort
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+must
+<del class="diff-old">provide
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+developers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">make
+the
+transition
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">reference
+contexts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+as
+simple
+as
+possible.
+In
+many
+cases,
+zero
+edits
+to
+the
+JSON
+document
+and
+the
+addition
+of
+one
+line
+to
+the
+HTTP
+response
+should
+suffice
+(see
+</ins><a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">in
+responses
+using
+plain
+old
+JSON.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">).
+</ins>
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+use
+JSON-LD's
+features
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+<del class="diff-old">At
+times,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">However,
+there
+are
+times
+where
+</ins>
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+<del class="diff-old">can
+become
+difficult.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+more
+complex
+than
+a
+simple
+one-line
+change.
+</ins>
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+<del class="diff-old">having
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">extending
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<ins class="diff-new">to
+</ins>
+support
+an
+esoteric
+use
+case,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+<del class="diff-old">case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">case.
+While
+</ins>
+Zero
+Edits
+is
+a
+design
+goal,
+it
+is
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+<del class="diff-old">One-pass
+Processing
+JSON-LD
+supports
+one-pass
+processing,
+which
+results
+in
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">We
+should
+focus
+on
+simplicity
+</ins>
+when
+<del class="diff-old">processing
+documents.
+For
+example,
+to
+expand
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+from
+a
+compacted
+form,
+only
+one
+pass
+is
+required
+over
+the
+data.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">possible.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="terminology">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Terminology
+</h2>
+<section id="general-terminology">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+General
+Terminology
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+uses
+the
+following
+terms
+as
+defined
+in
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Refer
+to
+the
+<em>
+JSON
+Grammar
+</em>
+section
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+for
+formal
+definitions.
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+key-value
+pairs.
+A
+key
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+key,
+separating
+the
+key
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+key.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+<del class="diff-old">values
+(or
+elements).
+Elements
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values.
+Values
+</ins>
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+In
+JSON,
+an
+array
+is
+an
+<em>
+ordered
+</em>
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+values.
+While
+JSON-LD
+uses
+the
+same
+array
+representation
+as
+JSON,
+the
+collection
+is
+<em>
+unordered
+</em>
+by
+default.
+While
+order
+is
+preserved
+in
+regular
+JSON
+arrays,
+it
+is
+not
+in
+regular
+JSON-LD
+arrays
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>
+).
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes
+(if
+necessary).
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">value.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value,
+which
+is
+typically
+used
+to
+clear
+or
+forget
+data.
+For
+example,
+</ins>
+A
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+where
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value,
+or
+the
[email protected]
+of
+the
+value,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+</ins>
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+explicitly
+decouples
+a
+<del class="diff-old">term's
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+'s
+</ins>
+association
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+A
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+whose
+value
+is
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+has
+the
+same
+meaning
+as
+if
+the
+key-value
+pair
+was
+not
+defined.
+If
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+set
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+in
+expanded
+form,
+then
+the
+entire
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+ignored.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</section>
+<section id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+<dfn title="keyword" id="dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</dfn>
+that
+are
+a
+core
+part
+of
+the
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+define
+the
+short-hand
+names
+that
+are
+used
+throughout
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+These
+short-hand
+names
+are
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+and
+help
+developers
+to
+express
+specific
+identifiers
+in
+a
+compact
+manner.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+detail
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#the-context" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+5.1
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+The
+Context
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+<em>
+things
+</em>
+that
+are
+being
+described
+in
+the
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#node-identifiers" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Node
+Identifiers
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+data
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+String
+Internationalization
+</span>
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#typed-values" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Typed
+Values
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+native
+language
+for
+a
+particular
+value
+or
+the
+default
+language
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#string-internationalization" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+String
+Internationalization
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#typed-values" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Typed
+Values
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">default
+</ins>
+container
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">type
+for
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">particular
+value.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+unordered
+set
+of
+data
+and
+to
+ensure
+that
+values
+are
+always
+represented
+as
+arrays.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#sets-and-lists" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.9
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@annotation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@index
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+that
+a
+container
+is
+used
+to
+index
+information
+and
+that
+processing
+should
+continue
+deeper
+into
+a
+JSON
+data
+structure.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#data-indexing" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.14
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.16
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Data
+<del class="diff-old">Annotations
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Indexing
+</ins>
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+expand
+properties
+and
+values
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+a
+common
+prefix
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+section
+<a href="#iris" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+IRIs
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+explicitly
+label
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_graph" href="#dfn-json-ld_graph">
+JSON-LD
+graph
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+<a href="#named-graphs" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.11
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Named
+Graphs
+</span>
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+For
+the
+avoidance
+of
+doubt,
+all
+keys,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keywords
+</a>,
+and
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="conformance">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Conformance
+</h2>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">This
+</ins>
+specification
+describes
+the
+conformance
+criteria
+for
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">documents
+(relevant
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">documents.
+This
+criteria
+is
+relevant
+</ins>
+to
+authors
+and
+authoring
+tool
+<del class="diff-old">implementors).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">implementers.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_document" href="#dfn-json-ld_document">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</a>
+complies
+with
+this
+specification
+if
+it
+follows
+the
+normative
+statements
+<del class="diff-old">for
+documents
+defined
+</del>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">sections
+6.4
+Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">section
+</ins>
+<a href="#json-ld-grammar" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+</span>
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+JSON-LD
+by
+following
+the
+normative
+statements
+in
+section
+</ins><a href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents"></a>.
+For
+convenience,
+normative
+statements
+for
+documents
+are
+often
+phrased
+as
+statements
+on
+the
+properties
+of
+the
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+key
+words
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="required">
+required
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">
+shall
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="shall not">
+shall
+not
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should">
+should
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">
+should
+not
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">
+recommended
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="not recommended">
+not
+recommended
+</em>,
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>,
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">
+optional
+</em>
+in
+this
+<del class="diff-old">Recommendation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specification
+</ins>
+have
+the
+meaning
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2119">
+RFC2119
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+</section>
+<section class="normative" id="basic-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+5.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+[
+</ins><cite>
+<del class="diff-old">5.1
+The
+Context
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC4627
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+is
+a
+lightweight,
+language-independent
+data-interchange
+format.
+It
+is
+easy
+to
+parse
+and
+easy
+to
+generate.
+However,
+it
+is
+difficult
+to
+integrate
+JSON
+from
+different
+sources
+as
+the
+data
+has
+just
+local
+meaning.
+Furthermore,
+JSON
+has
+no
+built-in
+support
+for
+hyperlinks
+-
+a
+fundamental
+building
+block
+on
+the
+Web.
+Let's
+look
+at
+an
+example
+that
+we
+will
+be
+using
+for
+the
+rest
+of
+this
+section:
+</ins></p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span>: Sample JSON document</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+}
+</ins></pre></div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">In
+JSON-LD,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">It's
+obvious
+for
+humans
+that
+the
+data
+is
+about
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">person
+whose
+name
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Manu
+Sporny"
+and
+that
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+homepage
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+contains
+the
+URL
+of
+that
+person's
+homepage.
+A
+machine
+doesn't
+have
+such
+an
+intuitive
+understanding
+and
+sometimes,
+even
+for
+humans,
+it
+is
+difficult
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">map
+terms
+,
+i.e.,
+properties
+with
+associated
+values
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">resolve
+ambiguities
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">an
+JSON
+document,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">such
+representations.
+This
+problem
+can
+be
+solved
+by
+using
+unambiguous
+identifiers
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">denote
+the
+different
+concepts
+instead
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+such
+as
+"name",
+"homepage",
+etc.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+Data
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+the
+</ins>
+Web
+<ins class="diff-new">in
+general,
+</ins>
+uses
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">(Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifiers
+as
+described
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+])
+</ins>
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+<del class="diff-old">that
+these
+terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+assign
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">mean
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins>
+something
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers
+and
+that
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+give
+them
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+That
+is,
+it
+is
+useful
+for
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+to
+expand
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+so
+that
+developers
+don't
+accidentally
+step
+on
+each
+other's
+<del class="diff-old">vocabulary
+terms
+and
+other
+resources.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms.
+</ins>
+Furthermore,
+<del class="diff-old">developers,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developers
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">machines,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">machines
+</ins>
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(by
+<del class="diff-old">plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+</ins>
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+mechanism
+is
+analogous
+to
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Leveraging
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">way
+we
+can
+use
+WordNet
+today
+to
+see
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">well-known
+</ins><a href="http://schema.org/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+schema.org
+vocabulary
+</ins></a>,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">definition
+of
+words
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+above
+could
+be
+unambiguously
+expressed
+as
+follows:
+</ins></p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span>: Sample JSON-LD document using full IRIs instead of terms</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "<span class="diff">http://schema.org/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">http://schema.org/url</span>": <span class="diff">{ "@id": </span>"http://manu.sporny.org/" <span class="diff">}</span>,
+  "<span class="diff">http://schema.org/image</span>": <span class="diff">{ "@id": </span>"http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png" <span class="diff">}</span>
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+In
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">English
+language.
+Developers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+above,
+every
+property
+is
+unambiguously
+identified
+by
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+definition
+of
+terms.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">all
+values
+representing
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+</del>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">unambiguous.
+For
+example,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">explicitly
+marked
+as
+such
+by
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">name
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+IRI
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+.
+This
+allows
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+<ins class="diff-chg">keyword
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+While
+this
+is
+a
+valid
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">documents
+to
+be
+constructed
+using
+the
+common
+JSON
+practice
+of
+simple
+key-value
+pairs
+while
+ensuring
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">the
+data
+</del>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">useful
+outside
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">very
+specific
+about
+its
+data,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">page,
+API
+or
+database
+in
+which
+it
+resides.
+Note
+that,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+is
+also
+overly
+verbose
+and
+difficult
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">avoid
+forward-compatibility
+issues,
+terms
+starting
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">work
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">an
[email protected]
+character
+are
+to
+be
+avoided
+as
+they
+might
+be
+used
+as
+keywords
+in
+future
+versions
+of
+JSON-LD.
+Furthermore,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">for
+human
+developers.
+To
+address
+this
+issue,
+JSON-LD
+introduces
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">notion
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">empty
+terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">(
+&quot;&quot;
+)
+is
+discouraged
+</del>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">not
+all
+programming
+languages
+are
+able
+to
+handle
+empty
+property
+names.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">described
+in
+the
+next
+section.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<section id="the-context">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">5.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+Context
+</ins></h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">In
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Simply
+speaking,
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+document,
+the
+mapping
+between
+</del>
+<dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">context
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+used
+to
+map
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-new">i.e.,
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
+properties
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+associated
+values,
+to
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-new">Terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+case
+sensitive
+and
+any
+valid
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">that
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">typically
+collected
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">not
+a
+reserved
+JSON-LD
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+be
+used
+as
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+the
+sample
+document
+</ins>
+in
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+previous
+section,
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+<del class="diff-old">definition
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span>: Context for the sample document in the previous section</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": "http://schema.org/name",
+    "image": {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
+      "@type": "@id"
+</ins>
+    },
+<del class="diff-old">  }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Let's
+assume
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">As
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+above
+shows,
+the
+value
+of
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">developer
+starts
+with
+</del>
+<dfn title="term_definition" id="dfn-term_definition">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+definition
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+either
+be
+a
+simple
+string,
+mapping
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">following
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">document:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+developer
+can
+add
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">When
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">single
+line
+to
+the
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">document
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+term,
+it
+is
+called
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_term_definition" href="#dfn-expanded_term_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</ins></a>.<dfn title="expanded_term_definition" id="dfn-expanded_term_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expanded
+term
+definitions
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+be
+used
+to
+associate
+</ins><a href="#type-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+type
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a href="#string-internationalization"><ins class="diff-chg">
+language
+information
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+a
+term.
+The
+example
+</ins>
+above
+<ins class="diff-new">specifies
+that
+the
+values
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+image
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+homepage
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+terms
+are
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+They
+also
+allow
+terms
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">reference
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+used
+for
+</ins><a href="#data-indexing"><ins class="diff-chg">
+index
+maps
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+to
+specify
+whether
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
+array
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+values
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+</ins><a href="#sets-and-lists"><ins class="diff-chg">
+sets
+or
+lists
+</ins></a>.<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_term_definition" href="#dfn-expanded_term_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expanded
+term
+definitions
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+be
+defined
+using
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+as
+keys,
+which
+is
+mainly
+used
+to
+associate
+type
+or
+language
+information
+with
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.</p><p><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Contexts
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+either
+be
+directly
+embedded
+into
+the
+document
+or
+be
+referenced.
+Assuming
+</ins>
+the
+context
+<del class="diff-old">and
+transform
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+in
+the
+previous
+example
+can
+be
+retrieved
+at
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld
+</ins></code>,
+it
+<del class="diff-old">into
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+be
+referenced
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+line
+and
+allows
+</ins>
+a
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">document:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+to
+be
+expressed
+much
+more
+concisely
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+example
+below:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span>: Referencing a JSON-LD context</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">additions
+above
+transform
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
[email protected]
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">referenced
+context
+not
+only
+</ins>
+specifies
+how
+the
+<del class="diff-old">name
+,
+homepage
+,
+and
+depiction
+</del>
+terms
+map
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+<del class="diff-old">.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Schema.org
+vocabulary
+but
+also
+specifies
+that
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+of
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+homepage
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+image
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+can
+be
+interpreted
+as
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">(e.g.
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+"@type":
+"@id"
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+see
+section
+</ins><a href="#iris" class="sec-ref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.2
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins></span></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+for
+</ins>
+more
+<del class="diff-old">than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">details).
+</ins>
+This
+<ins class="diff-new">information
+gives
+the
+data
+global
+context
+and
+</ins>
+allows
+<del class="diff-old">both
+</del>
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+<del class="diff-old">others'
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">other's
+</ins>
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+interoperate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+<del class="diff-old">Contexts
+may
+also
+contain
+type,
+language
+or
+additional
+information
+for
+certain
+terms
+.
+</del>
+External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+may
+contain
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+declared
+in
+the
+document.
+Information
+contained
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+is
+<del class="diff-old">simply
+discarded
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ignored
+</ins>
+when
+the
+document
+is
+used
+as
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+context
+<del class="diff-old">document
+(see
+6.4
+Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+Contexts
+may
+also
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+This
+<del class="diff-old">ensures
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">has
+the
+advantage
+</ins>
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_document" href="#dfn-json-ld_document">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</a>
+can
+be
+<del class="diff-old">understood
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">processed
+</ins>
+even
+in
+the
+absence
+of
+a
+connection
+to
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 5</span>: In-line context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": "http://schema.org/name",
+    "image": {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/image",
+      "@type": "@id"
+</ins>
+    },
+<del class="diff-old">  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+Contexts
+may
+be
+used
+at
+any
+time
+a
+node
+object
+is
+defined.
+In
+particular,
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+may
+define
+more
+than
+one
+context,
+as
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+[
+  {
+    
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;The Empire State Building&quot;,
+    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark in New York City.&quot;,
+    &quot;geo&quot;: {
+      &quot;latitude&quot;: &quot;40.75&quot;,
+      &quot;longitude&quot;: &quot;73.98&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://schema.org/url",
+      "@type": "@id"
+</ins>
+    }
+<del class="diff-old">  }
+]
+This
+is
+useful
+when
+an
+author
+would
+like
+to
+use
+an
+existing
+context
+and
+add
+application-specific
+terms
+to
+the
+existing
+context.
+Duplicate
+context
+terms
+are
+overridden
+using
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+mechanism.
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
+    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
+</del>
+  },</span>
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  ...
+  &quot;details&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@context&quot;: {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/organization#name&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;&quot;: &quot;Graz University of Technology&quot;
+  }
+}
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+name
+prefix
+is
+overridden
+in
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+details
+structure.
+Note
+that
+this
+is
+rarely
+a
+good
+authoring
+practice
+and
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+there
+exist
+legacy
+applications
+that
+depend
+on
+the
+specific
+structure
+of
+the
+JSON
+object
+.
+If
+a
+term
+is
+re-defined
+within
+a
+context,
+all
+previous
+rules
+associated
+with
+the
+previous
+definition
+are
+removed.
+If
+that
+term
+is
+re-defined
+to
+null
+,
+the
+term
+is
+effectively
+removed
+from
+the
+list
+of
+terms
+defined
+in
+the
+active
+context
+.
+A
+node
+object
+may
+specify
+multiple
+contexts,
+using
+an
+array
+,
+processed
+in
+order.
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+a
+specific
+node
+object
+are
+referred
+to
+as
+local
+contexts
+.
+Setting
+the
+context
+to
+null
+effectively
+resets
+the
+active
+context
+to
+an
+empty
+context.
+The
+active
+context
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+local
+contexts
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+a
+specific
+point
+within
+the
+document.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+a
+local
+context
+on
+top
+of
+the
+external
+context:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
+    }
+  ],
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  
+}
+Note
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+context
+definition
+at
+the
+top
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+the
+context
+is
+processed.
+This
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+certain
+types
+of
+low-memory
+footprint
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+5.2
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+If
+a
+set
+of
+terms
+such
+as,
+name
+,
+homepage
+,
+and
+depiction
+,
+are
+defined
+in
+a
+context
+,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+JSON
+objects
+,
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+automatically
+expand
+the
+terms
+to
+something
+unambiguous
+like
+this:
+  {
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "image": "http://manu.sporny.org/images/manu.png"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow.
+A
+JSON
+object
+used
+to
+define
+property
+values
+of
+a
+node
+is
+called
+a
+node
+object
+.
+Note
+The
+example
+above
+does
+not
+use
+the
[email protected]
+keyword
+to
+identify
+the
+node
+being
+described
+above.
+This
+type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+a
+blank
+node
+.
+It
+is
+advised
+that
+all
+node
+objects
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+identified
+by
+IRIs
+via
+the
[email protected]
+keyword
+unless
+the
+data
+is
+not
+intended
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+other
+data
+sets.
+</del>
+</section>
+<section id="iris">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+(Internationalized
+Resource
+<del class="diff-old">Identifiers)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Identifiers
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+])
+</ins>
+are
+fundamental
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">
+properties
+</a>
+are
+identified.
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD:
+Except
+within
+a
+context
+definition,
+terms
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+a
+JSON
+object
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+in
+the
+active
+context
+expand
+to
+an
+IRI
+.
+If
+there's
+a
[email protected]
+mapping
+in
+the
+active
+context
+also
+terms
+without
+an
+explicit
+mapping
+in
+the
+active
+context
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+IRI
+.
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+string
+value
+specified
+using
[email protected]
+or
[email protected]
+.
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+string
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+coercion
+rules
+in
+effect
+that
+identify
+the
+value
+as
+an
[email protected]
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+JSON-LD,
+</ins>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+An
+<dfn title="absolute_iri" id="dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+<ins class="diff-new">as
+</ins>
+containing
+a
+<em>
+scheme
+</em>
+along
+with
+<em>
+path
+</em>
+and
+optional
+<em>
+query
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+fragment
+</em>
+segments.
+A
+<dfn title="relative_iri" id="dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+to
+some
+other
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+In
+JSON-LD
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="relative_iri" href="#dfn-relative_iri">
+relative
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+resolved
+relative
+to
+the
+<dfn title="base_iri" id="dfn-base_iri">
+base
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+associated
+with
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+(typically,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document,
+which
+is
+typically
+</ins>
+the
+directory
+<del class="diff-old">that
+contains
+the
+document
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">path
+containing
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+itself).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 6</span>: IRI as a key</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">http://schema.org/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://schema.org/name
+</ins>
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+because
+it
+contains
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+)
+and
+the
+<del class="diff-old">'http'
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"http"
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</a>
+does
+not
+exist
+in
+the
+context.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Term-to-
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+expansion
+occurs
+<del class="diff-old">for
+IRIs
+</del>
+if
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+</ins>
+matches
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot;:
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 7</span>: Term expansion from context definition</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">@context</span>":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">http://schema.org/name</span>"
+</ins>
+...
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;status&quot;: &quot;trollin'&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "status": "trollin'",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Terms
+are
+case
+sensitive.
+</del>
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+are
+ignored,
+or
+removed
+in
+some
+cases,
+by
+the
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+However,
+JSON
+keys
+that
+do
+not
+include
+a
+mapping
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+are
+still
+considered
+valid
+expressions
+in
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">documents
+-
+the
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">documents—the
+</ins>
+keys
+just
+don't
+expand
+to
+unambiguous
+identifiers.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Prefixes
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+is
+a
+compact
+IRI
+represented
+as
+a
+prefix:suffix
+combination,
+and
+the
+prefix
+matches
+a
+term
+defined
+within
+the
+active
+context
+:
+{
+  &quot;&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;&quot;
+...
+  },
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+}
+foaf:name
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+IRI
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+.
+See
+6.1
+Compact
+IRIs
+for
+more
+details.
+It
+is
+often
+common
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">At
+times,
+</ins>
+all
+<del class="diff-old">types
+and
+</del>
+properties
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+types
+may
+</ins>
+come
+from
+the
+same
+vocabulary.
+JSON-LD's
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+allows
+<ins class="diff-new">an
+author
+</ins>
+to
+set
+a
+common
+prefix
+to
+be
+used
+for
+all
+properties
+and
+types
+that
+<del class="diff-old">neither
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">do
+not
+</ins>
+match
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">nor
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">or
+are
+neither
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">nor
+</ins>
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(i.e.,
+<ins class="diff-new">they
+</ins>
+do
+not
+contain
+a
+colon).
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@vocab&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/1.0/&quot;
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 8</span>: Using a common vocabulary prefix</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context": {
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@vocab": "http://schema.org/"
+</ins>
+  },</span>
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+  : &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@type": <span class="diff">"Person"</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"name"</span>: "Manu Sporny",
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+An
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+used
+in
+the
+value
+position
+<del class="diff-old">that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+</ins>
+contains
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 9</span>: Expanded IRI definition</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": { "<span class="diff">@id</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org" }
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Specifying
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+is
+used
+to
+identify
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+using
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">When
+the
+object
+has
+only
+the
[email protected]
+,
+it
+is
+called
+a
+node
+object
+.
+</del>
+This
+facility
+may
+also
+be
+used
+to
+link
+to
+another
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_object" href="#dfn-node_object">
+node
+object
+</a>
+using
+a
+mechanism
+called
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="embedding" href="#dfn-embedding">
+embedding
+</a>,
+which
+is
+covered
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#embedding" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+6.10
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+Embedding
+</span>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+property
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 10</span>: Type coercion</div><pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "homepage":
+</ins>
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://schema.org/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+</ins>
+    }
+    ...
+  }</span>
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+even
+though
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+expressed
+as
+a
+JSON
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+string
+</a>,
+the
+type
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+when
+generating
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_graph" href="#dfn-json-ld_graph">
+JSON-LD
+graph
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-new">See
+</ins><a href="#type-coercion" class="sec-ref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.3
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+Coercion
+</ins></span></a><ins class="diff-new">
+for
+more
+details
+about
+this
+feature.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">In
+summary,
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD:
+</ins></p><ol><li><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+keys
+that
+have
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+mapping
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+expand
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+(only
+applies
+outside
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context_definition" href="#dfn-context_definition"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+definition
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+).
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+there
+is
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+mapping
+in
+the
+active
+context,
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+keys
+without
+an
+explicit
+mapping
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+specified
+using
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="coercion" href="#dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-new">
+coercion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+rules
+that
+contain
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+key
+that
+is
+set
+to
+a
+value
+of
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</li></ol>
+</section>
+<section id="node-identifiers">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Node
+Identifiers
+</h3>
+<p>
+To
+be
+able
+to
+externally
+reference
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+in
+a
+<del class="diff-old">graph,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_graph" href="#dfn-json-ld_graph">
+<ins class="diff-chg">graph
+</ins></a>,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+each
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">has
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">have
+</ins>
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRIs
+</a>
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+should
+have
+a
+<del class="diff-old">de-referencable
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">de-referenceable
+</ins>
+identifier
+used
+to
+name
+and
+locate
+them.
+For
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+nodes
+</a>
+to
+be
+truly
+linked,
+de-referencing
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">(for
+example,
+using
+a
+URL
+to
+retrieve
+a
+web
+page).
+</del>
+</a>.
+Associating
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>
+tells
+an
+application
+that
+<ins class="diff-new">it
+can
+fetch
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">returned
+document
+contains
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">resource
+associated
+with
+the
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+get
+back
+</ins>
+a
+description
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">requested.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_document" href="#dfn-json-ld_document">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</a>
+may
+also
+contain
+descriptions
+of
+other
+<del class="diff-old">nodes,
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+</ins></a>,
+so
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+each
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">which
+may
+be
+externally
+referenced.
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">so
+that
+the
+data
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+correct
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+an
+unambiguous
+way.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+<del class="diff-old">of
+a
+JSON
+object
+</del>
+</a>
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 11</span>: Identifying a node</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "homepage":
+</ins>
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://schema.org/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+</ins>
+    }
+<del class="diff-old">    ...
+</del>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">@id</span>": "<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>",
+  "homepage": "http://joebob.example.com/",
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+contains
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_object" href="#dfn-node_object">
+node
+object
+</a>
+identified
+by
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</code>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Once
+defined,
+the
+node
+'s
+unique
+identifier
+can
+be
+used
+to
+refer
+to
+it
+from
+other
+parts
+of
+the
+document
+or
+from
+external
+documents,
+using
+a
+node
+object
+that
+only
+contains
+an
[email protected]
+key:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: ...,
+  &quot;@graph&quot;: [
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;ex:Library&quot;,
+      
+    }, {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;ex:Book&quot;,
+      &quot;dc:creator&quot;: &quot;Plato&quot;,
+      &quot;dc:title&quot;: &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+      
+    }, {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;ex:Chapter&quot;,
+      &quot;dc:description&quot;: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      &quot;dc:title&quot;: &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+    }
+  ]
+}
+}
+</del>
+</section>
+<section id="specifying-the-type">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+node
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+In
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+types
+are
+uniquely
+identified
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 12</span>: Specifying the type for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+  "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">http://schema.org/Restaurant</span>",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+A
+node
+can
+be
+assigned
+more
+than
+one
+type
+by
+using
+<del class="diff-old">the
+following
+markup
+pattern:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
+array
+</ins></a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 13</span>: Specifying multiple types for a node</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/places#BrewEats&quot;,
+  &quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+  "<span class="diff">@type</span>": <span class="diff">[ "http://schema.org/Restaurant", "http://schema.org/Brewery" ],</span>
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+value
+of
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+may
+also
+be
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&quot;,
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+  ,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}
+5.6
+String
+Internationalization
+At
+times,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+annotate
+a
+string
+with
+its
+language.
+In
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+possible
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+ways.
+Firstly,
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+default
+language
+for
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+setting
+the
[email protected]
+key
+in
+the
[email protected]
+or
+in
+a
+term
+definition:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: ,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: 
+}
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+the
+ja
+language
+code
+with
+the
+two
+strings
+花澄
+and
+科学者
+.
+Languages
+codes
+are
+defined
+in
+[
+BCP47
+].
+It
+is
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+by
+using
+an
+expanded
+value
+:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }
+}
+It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+or
+specify
+a
+plain
+value
+by
+omitting
+the
[email protected]
+tag
+or
+setting
+it
+to
+null
+when
+expressing
+the
+expanded
+value
+:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Frank&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;occupation&quot;:  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;speciality&quot;: &quot;手裏剣&quot;
+}
+Please
+note
+that
+language
+associations
+can
+only
+be
+applied
+to
+plain
+literal
+strings
+.
+That
+is,
+typed
+values
+or
+values
+that
+are
+subject
+to
+6.6
+Type
+Coercion
+cannot
+be
+language
+tagged.
+To
+clear
+the
+default
+language
+for
+a
+subtree,
[email protected]
+can
+be
+set
+to
+null
+in
+a
+local
+context
+as
+follows:
+{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 14</span>: Using a term to specify the type</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+</ins>
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+  &quot;details&quot;: {
+    &quot;@context&quot;: {
+      &quot;@language&quot;: null
+    },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
+</del>
+    <span class="diff">"Restaurant": "http://schema.org/Restaurant", </span>
+    <span class="diff">"Brewery": "http://schema.org/Brewery"</span>
+  }
+<ins class="diff-new">  "@id": "http://example.org/places#BrewEats",
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"@type": ["Restaurant", "Brewery"]</span>,<ins class="diff-new">
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+JSON-LD
+allows
+one
+to
+associate
+language
+information
+with
+terms
+.
+See
+6.5
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+for
+more
+details.
+5.7
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+first,
+and
+foremost,
+a
+JSON
+document
+(as
+defined
+in
+[
+RFC4627
+]).
+However,
+JSON-LD
+describes
+a
+specific
+syntax
+to
+use
+for
+expressing
+Linked
+Data.
+This
+includes
+the
+use
+of
+specific
+keywords,
+as
+identified
+in
+3.2
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+for
+expressing
+node
+objects
+,
+values,
+and
+the
+context
+.
+See
+B.
+JSON-LD
+Grammar
+for
+authoring
+guidelines.
+</del>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="advanced-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+6.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+normative.
+</em>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+section
+describes
+this
+advanced
+functionality
+in
+more
+detail.
+</p>
+<section id="compact-iris">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+6.1
+</span>
+Compact
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">A
+document
+on
+the
+Web
+that
+defines
+one
+or
+more
+IRIs
+for
+use
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-new">
+properties
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+in
+Linked
+Data
+is
+called
+a
+</ins><dfn title="vocabulary" id="dfn-vocabulary"><ins class="diff-new">
+vocabulary
+</ins></dfn>.
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+Terms
+</a>
+in
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+documents
+may
+draw
+from
+a
+number
+of
+different
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="vocabulary" href="#dfn-vocabulary">
+vocabularies
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s.
+</ins>
+At
+times,
+declaring
+every
+single
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+that
+a
+document
+uses
+can
+require
+the
+developer
+to
+declare
+tens,
+if
+not
+hundreds
+of
+potential
+vocabulary
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>
+that
+are
+used
+across
+an
+application.
+This
+is
+a
+concern
+for
+at
+least
+two
+reasons:
+the
+first
+is
+the
+cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer
+of
+remembering
+all
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+terms
+</a>,
+and
+the
+second
+is
+the
+serialized
+size
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+if
+it
+is
+specified
+inline.
+In
+order
+to
+address
+these
+issues,
+the
+concept
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+introduced.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<dfn title="compact_iri" id="dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+way
+of
+expressing
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+using
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+)
+which
+is
+similar
+to
+the
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies">
+CURIE
+Syntax
+</a>
+</cite>
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+The
+<dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+taken
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+is
+a
+short
+string
+identifying
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+For
+example,
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+a
+short
+hand
+for
+the
+Friend-of-a-Friend
+vocabulary,
+which
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+A
+developer
+may
+append
+any
+of
+the
+FOAF
+vocabulary
+terms
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+prefix
+to
+specify
+a
+short-hand
+version
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+vocabulary
+term.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+would
+be
+expanded
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+Instead
+of
+having
+to
+remember
+and
+type
+out
+the
+entire
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+developer
+can
+instead
+use
+the
+prefix
+in
+their
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+<ins class="diff-new">Prefixes
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+is
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+represented
+as
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix:suffix
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+combination,
+and
+the
+prefix
+matches
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+defined
+within
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>:</p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 15</span>: Prefix expansion</div><pre class="example">{<ins class="diff-new">
+  "<span class="diff">@context</span>":
+  {
+    "<span class="diff">foaf</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>"
+...
+  },
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>": "Dave Longley",
+...
+}
+</ins></pre></div><p><code><ins class="diff-new">
+foaf:name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><code><ins class="diff-new">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></code>.</p><p>
+Terms
+are
+interpreted
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+IRIs
+</a>
+if
+they
+contain
+at
+least
+one
+colon
+and
+the
+first
+colon
+is
+not
+followed
+by
+two
+slashes
+(
+<code>
+//
+</code>,
+as
+in
+<code>
+http://example.com
+</code>
+).
+To
+generate
+the
+full
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+the
+value
+is
+first
+split
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+at
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+).
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+term
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+If
+no
+prefix
+mapping
+is
+defined,
+the
+value
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+an
+underscore
+(
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+),
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+remains
+unchanged.
+</p>
+<p>
+Consider
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 16</span>: Compact IRIs</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    
+    
+</del>
+    <span class="diff">"dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",</span>
+    <span class="diff">"ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"</span>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+  :
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://example.org/library",
+  "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Library"</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"ex:contains"</span>:
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+    : &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    : &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    :
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+    "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Book"</span>,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"dc:creator"</span>: "Plato",    <span class="diff">"dc:title"</span>: "The Republic",    <span class="diff">"ex:contains"</span>:
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+      : &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      : &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+      "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Chapter"</span>,
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"dc:description"</span>: "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",      <span class="diff">"dc:title"</span>: "The Introduction"
+    }
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+two
+different
+vocabularies
+are
+referred
+to
+using
+prefixes.
+Those
+prefixes
+are
+then
+used
+as
+type
+and
+property
+values
+using
+the
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+notation.
+</p>
+<p>
+It's
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+within
+the
+context
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 17</span>: Using vocabularies</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+    : { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; },
+    &quot;picture&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: , &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,    <span class="diff">"foaf:homepage"</span>: { "@type": "@id" },<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "picture": { "@id": <span class="diff">"foaf:depiction"</span>, "@type": "@id" }
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;picture&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  "foaf:homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "picture": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</section>
+<section id="typed-values">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+6.2
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+type,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</a>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+value
+with
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+value's
+type.
+Typed
+values
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+when
+defining
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_typed_value" href="#dfn-expanded_typed_value">
+expanded
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+type
+such
+as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">
+number
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="true" href="#dfn-true">
+true
+</a>,
+or
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="false" href="#dfn-false">
+false
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+particular
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 18</span>: Expanded term definition with type coercion</div><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;modified&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "modified":
+</ins>
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified",
+      "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+</ins>
+    }
+  },</span>
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://example.com/docs/1",
+  "modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<em>
+modified
+</em>
+key's
+value
+above
+is
+automatically
+type
+coerced
+to
+a
+<del class="diff-old">datetime
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">dateTime
+</ins>
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+<ins class="diff-new">A
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+interpret
+the
+markup
+above
+like
+so:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+<ins class="diff-new">Subject
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Property
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Value
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Value
+Type
+</ins></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://example.com/docs/1
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</ins></td></tr></tbody></table>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+setting
+the
+type
+information
+in
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 19</span>: Expanded value with type</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;modified&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "modified":
+</ins>
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified"
+</ins>
+    }
+  },
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;modified&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "modified":
+</ins>
+  <span class="diff">{
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+    "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"
+</ins>
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+value
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+with
+the
+type
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+Note
+that
+it
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+or
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+express
+the
+value
+of
+a
+type.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+also
+used
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>.
+The
+concept
+of
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_type" href="#dfn-node_type">
+node
+type
+</a>
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value_type" href="#dfn-value_type">
+value
+type
+</a>
+are
+different.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Generally
+speaking,
+a
+</ins><dfn title="node_type" id="dfn-node_type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+node
+type
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+specifies
+the
+type
+of
+thing
+that
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">similar
+to
+object-oriented
+programming
+languages
+where
+both
+scalar
+and
+structured
+types
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">being
+described,
+like
+a
+person,
+place,
+event,
+or
+web
+page.
+A
+</ins><dfn title="value_type" id="dfn-value_type"><ins class="diff-chg">
+value
+type
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+specifies
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+class
+inheritance
+mechanism,
+even
+though
+scalar
+types
+and
+structured
+types
+are
+inherently
+different.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">unit
+of
+measurement
+for
+a
+particular
+value,
+such
+as
+a
+date,
+meter,
+or
+light
+year.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 20</span>: Example demonstrating the context-sensitivity for @type</div><pre class="example">{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia&quot;,
+  ,
+  &quot;modified&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia",
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"@type": "http://schema.org/BlogPosting"</span>,   &lt;--- This is a node type<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "modified":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime"</span> &lt;--- This is a value type
+  }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+first
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associates
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_type" href="#dfn-node_type">
+node
+type
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</code>
+)
+with
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node" href="#dfn-node">
+node
+</a>,
+which
+is
+expressed
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+The
+second
+use
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associates
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value_type" href="#dfn-value_type">
+value
+type
+</a>
+(
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>
+)
+with
+the
+value
+expressed
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>.
+As
+a
+general
+rule,
+when
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+used
+in
+the
+same
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+JSON
+object
+</a>,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="value_type" href="#dfn-value_type">
+value
+type
+</a>.
+Otherwise,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+is
+expressing
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_type" href="#dfn-node_type">
+node
+type
+</a>.
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+markup
+above
+expresses
+the
+following
+data:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<table class="example">
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th>
+<ins class="diff-new">Subject
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Property
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Value
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-new">
+Value
+Type
+</ins></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://schema.org/BlogPosting
+</ins></td><td style="text-align:center;"><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://example.org/posts#TripToWestVirginia
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</ins></td></tr></tbody></table>
+</section>
+<section id="type-coercion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+6.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Language-tagged
+Strings
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+Coercion
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+string
+with
+an
+associated
+language,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+language-tagged
+string
+,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+string
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+</ins><dfn title="coercion" id="dfn-coercion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+coercion
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+values
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">language
+code
+as
+defined
+in
+[
+BCP47
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">mapping
+of
+data
+type
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">].
+Language-tagged
+strings
+may
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+the
+data
+type
+to
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+four
+ways:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specified
+with
+each
+piece
+of
+data.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">By
+defining
+a
+global
+language
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_term_definition" href="#dfn-expanded_term_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</ins></a>
+using
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">key.
+The
+value
+of
+this
+key
+expands
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+Alternatively,
+the
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword">
+keyword
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">within
+a
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">section.
+By
+utilizing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">may
+be
+used
+as
+value
+to
+indicate
+that
+within
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+keyword
+when
+defining
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+a
+string
+value
+of
+</ins>
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">within
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coerced
+to
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">section.
+By
+utilizing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">expanded
+language-tagged
+string
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>.
+<del class="diff-old">By
+utilizing
+a
+language
+map
+,
+provided
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+used
+as
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">underlying
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">value
+of
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+may
+be
+</ins>
+defined
+<del class="diff-old">with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">within
+the
+same
+context.
+This
+means
+that
+one
+may
+specify
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">@container
+keyword
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">whose
+value
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">like
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">xsd
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">within
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">and
+then
+use
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">xsd:integer
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">section.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">within
+the
+same
+context
+definition.
+</ins></p>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">first
+</del>
+example
+<del class="diff-old">uses
+the
[email protected]
+keyword
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">below
+demonstrates
+how
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">particular
+term
+in
+the
[email protected]
+:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value"><ins class="diff-chg">
+typed
+values
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+IRIs,
+and
+lists.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 21</span>: Expanded term definition with types</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;title&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+    }
+  },
+...
+  &quot;title&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Syntax&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    }</span>,
+    "homepage":
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id",
+      "@container": "@list"
+    }</span>
+  },
+  "@id": "http://example.com/people#john",
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": <span class="diff">"41"</span>,
+  "homepage":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">[<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">modified
+key's
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">markup
+shown
+</ins>
+above
+<del class="diff-old">is
+automatically
+language
+coerced
+to
+a
+English
+value
+because
+of
+the
+information
+specified
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">would
+generate
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">following
+data.
+</ins>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">second
+example
+uses
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+has
+no
+inherent
+order
+except
+for
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">expanded
+form
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">setting
+the
+language
+information
+in
+</del>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">body
+of
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://schema.org/homepage
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+which
+represent
+an
+ordered
+list.
+</ins></p><table class="example"><thead><tr><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Subject
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Property
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+</ins></th><th><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+Type
+</ins></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/people#john
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+John
+Smith
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+&nbsp;
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/people#john
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+41
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td rowspan="2"><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com/people#john
+</ins></td><td rowspan="2"><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://personal.example.org/
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+&nbsp;
+</ins></td></tr><tr><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://work.example.com/jsmith/
+</ins></td><td><ins class="diff-chg">
+&nbsp;
+</ins></td></tr></tbody></table><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Terms
+may
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+This
+allows
+coercion
+rules
+to
+be
+applied
+to
+keys
+which
+are
+not
+represented
+as
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+document:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">simple
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+<div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 22</span>: Term definitions using compact and absolute IRIs</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+</ins>
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;title&quot;:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>":
+</ins>
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+</del>
+      <span class="diff">"@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>":
+    {
+      "@type": "@id"
+</ins>
+    }
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">...
+  &quot;title&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Syntax&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "foaf:name": "John Smith",
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>": "41",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>":
+  [
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+this
+case
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">value
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+Syntax
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@id
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">tagged
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">definition
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">language
+en
+;
+which
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+definition
+</ins>
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">optional,
+but
+if
+it
+does
+exist,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">[
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<del class="diff-old">BCP47
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<del class="diff-old">]
+code
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+treated
+as
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(not
+a
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix:suffix
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+construct)
+so
+that
+the
+actual
+definition
+of
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+becomes
+unnecessary.
+Type
+coercion
+is
+performed
+using
+the
+unexpanded
+value
+of
+the
+key
+if
+there
+is
+an
+exact
+match
+</ins>
+for
+the
+<del class="diff-old">English
+language.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Systems
+that
+support
+</del>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Note
+</ins></span></div><p class=""><ins class="diff-chg">
+Keys
+in
+the
+context
+are
+treated
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+for
+the
+purpose
+of
+expansion
+and
+value
+coercion.
+At
+times,
+this
+may
+result
+in
+</ins>
+multiple
+<del class="diff-old">languages
+often
+need
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">representations
+for
+the
+same
+expanded
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+that
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+dog
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+cat
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+both
+expanded
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+data
+values
+in
+each
+language.
+Typically,
+such
+systems
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://example.com/vocab#animal
+</ins></code>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Doing
+this
+could
+be
+useful
+for
+establishing
+different
+type
+coercion
+or
+language
+specification
+rules.
+It
+</ins>
+also
+<del class="diff-old">try
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allows
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(or
+even
+an
+absolute
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">ensure
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+defined
+as
+something
+else
+entirely.
+For
+example,
+one
+could
+specify
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">developers
+have
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/zoo
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+expand
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/river
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+but
+this
+usage
+is
+discouraged
+because
+it
+would
+lead
+to
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">programatically
+easy
+way
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">great
+deal
+of
+confusion
+among
+developers
+attempting
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">navigate
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">understand
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">datastructures
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p></div></section><section id="advanced-context-usage"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+6.4
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Advanced
+Context
+Usage
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Section
+</ins><a href="#the-context" class="sec-ref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.1
+</ins></span><span class="sec-title"><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Context
+</ins></span></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+introduced
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">language-specific
+data.
+In
+this
+case,
+language
+maps
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">basics
+of
+what
+makes
+JSON-LD
+work.
+This
+section
+expands
+on
+the
+basic
+principles
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+demonstrates
+how
+more
+advanced
+use
+cases
+can
+be
+achieved
+using
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+In
+general,
+contexts
+</ins>
+may
+be
+<del class="diff-old">utilized.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+at
+any
+time
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+defined.
+The
+only
+time
+that
+one
+cannot
+express
+a
+context
+is
+inside
+a
+context
+definition
+itself.
+For
+example,
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_document" href="#dfn-json-ld_document"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+use
+more
+than
+one
+context
+at
+different
+points
+in
+a
+document:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+</del>
+    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 23</span>: Using multiple contexts</div><pre class="example">[
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;title&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+      
+    }
+</del>
+    <span class="diff">"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/person.jsonld",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": "Manu Sporny",
+    "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+    "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">...
+  &quot;title&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;en&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Syntax&quot;,
+    &quot;ru&quot;: &quot;JSON-LD Синтаксис&quot;,
+    &quot;ja&quot;: &quot;JSON-LDの構文&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@context": "http://example.org/contexts/place.jsonld",</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+    "name": "The Empire State Building",
+    "description": "The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark in New York City.",
+    "geo": {
+      "latitude": "40.75",
+      "longitude": "73.98"
+    }
+  }
+]
+</ins></pre></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Duplicate
+context
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+are
+overridden
+using
+a
+last-defined-wins
+mechanism.
+</ins></p>    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 24</span>: Scoped contexts within node objects</div><pre class="example">{  <span class="diff">"@context":<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    "name": "http://example.com/person#name",
+    "details": "http://example.com/person#details"
+  },</span>
+  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  ...
+  "details":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@context": {<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "name": "http://example.com/organization#name"
+    },</span>
+    "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Graz University of Technology"
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">title
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">name
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">expressed
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">overridden
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">three
+languages;
+English,
+Russian,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+details
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+structure.
+Note
+that
+this
+is
+rarely
+a
+good
+authoring
+practice
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">Japanese.
+To
+access
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+typically
+used
+when
+working
+with
+legacy
+applications
+that
+depend
+on
+a
+specific
+structure
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">data
+above
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+object
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+redefined
+within
+a
+context,
+all
+previous
+rules
+associated
+with
+the
+previous
+definition
+are
+removed.
+If
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+redefined
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+effectively
+removed
+from
+the
+list
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+defined
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Multiple
+contexts
+may
+be
+combined
+using
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array"><ins class="diff-chg">
+array
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+is
+processed
+</ins>
+in
+<ins class="diff-new">order.
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">programming
+language
+supporting
+dot-notation
+accessors
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specific
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+</ins>
+object
+<del class="diff-old">properties,
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+referred
+to
+as
+</ins><dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+contexts
+</ins></dfn>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+contexts
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">developer
+may
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specific
+point
+within
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">document.
+Setting
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+local
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+to
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">property.language
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">null
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">pattern.
+For
+example,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">effectively
+resets
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">access
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+empty
+context.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+an
+embedded
+context
+on
+top
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">Japanese
+version
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">external
+context:
+</ins></p>    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 25</span>: Combining external and local contexts</div><pre class="example">{  <span class="diff">"@context": [<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld",
+    {
+      "pic": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction"
+    }
+  ],</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"pic": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+}
+</ins></pre></div><div class="note"><div class="note-title"><span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+</ins></span></div><p class=""><ins class="diff-chg">
+It
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+definition
+at
+the
+top
+</ins>
+of
+the
+<del class="diff-old">title,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p></div><div class="note"><div class="note-title"><span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+</ins></span></div><p class=""><ins class="diff-chg">
+While
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">developer
+would
+use
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="compact_iri" href="#dfn-compact_iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="absolute_iri" href="#dfn-absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+expand
+to
+some
+other
+unrelated
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(for
+example,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf:name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+expanding
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.org/unrelated#species
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+),
+such
+usage
+is
+strongly
+discouraged.
+</ins></p></div><div class="note"><div class="note-title"><span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+</ins></span></div><p class=""><ins class="diff-chg">
+To
+avoid
+forward-compatibility
+issues,
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+starting
+with
+an&nbsp;
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+character
+are
+to
+be
+avoided
+as
+they
+might
+be
+used
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="keyword" href="#dfn-keyword"><ins class="diff-chg">
+keywords
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+future
+versions
+of
+JSON-LD.
+Furthermore,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">following
+code
+snippet:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">use
+of
+empty
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+terms
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+(
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">obj.title.ja
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">""
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+)
+is
+discouraged
+as
+not
+all
+programming
+languages
+are
+able
+to
+handle
+empty
+property
+names.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<section id="interpreting-json-as-json-ld">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.4.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Interpreting
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">Documents
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">as
+JSON-LD
+</ins></h4>
+<p>
+Ordinary
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+<del class="diff-old">transformed
+into
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">interpreted
+as
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">documents
+</del>
+by
+referencing
+<del class="diff-old">to
+an
+external
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">
+context
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">document
+</ins>
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header.
+Doing
+<del class="diff-old">this
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">so
+</ins>
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+<del class="diff-old">workflow
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">markup
+</ins>
+and
+provides
+an
+upgrade
+path
+for
+existing
+infrastructure
+without
+breaking
+existing
+clients
+that
+rely
+on
+the
+<code>
+application/json
+</code>
+media
+type.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document,
+an
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+specify
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+a
+valid
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_document" href="#dfn-json-ld_document">
+JSON-LD
+document
+</a>
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC5988">
+RFC5988
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+using
+the
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context
+</code>
+link
+relation.
+The
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+top-level
+<del class="diff-old">node
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+</ins>
+object
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+within
+that
+object
+is
+added
+to
+the
+top-level
+<del class="diff-old">node
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+</ins>
+object
+</a>
+of
+the
+referencing
+document.
+If
+an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+is
+at
+the
+top-level
+of
+the
+referencing
+document
+and
+its
+items
+are
+<del class="diff-old">node
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+</ins>
+objects
+</a>,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+is
+added
+to
+all
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">
+array
+</a>
+items.
+All
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+subtree
+in
+the
+referenced
+document
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+<ins class="diff-new">Effectively
+this
+means
+that
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+initialized
+with
+the
+referenced
+external
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+</del>
+      <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 26</span>: Referencing a JSON-LD context from a JSON document via an HTTP Link Header</div><pre class="example">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+Host: example.com
+Accept: application/ld+json,application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+====================================
+HTTP/1.0 200 OK
+...
+Content-Type: <span class="diff">application/json</span>
+<span class="diff">Link: &lt;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person.jsonld&gt;; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"</span>
+{
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Markus Lanthaler&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "image": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+Please
+note
+that
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_document" href="#dfn-json-ld_document">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</a>
+served
+with
+the
+<code>
+application/ld+json
+</code>
+media
+type
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+all
+context
+information,
+including
+references
+to
+external
+contexts,
+within
+the
+body
+of
+the
+document.
+Contexts
+linked
+via
+a
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context
+</code>
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+ignored
+for
+such
+documents.
+</p>
+</section>
+</section>
+<section id="string-internationalization">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+6.5
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">String
+Internationalization
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">At
+times,
+it
+is
+important
+to
+annotate
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context
+definition,
+terms
+may
+be
+defined
+using
+an
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-new">with
+its
+language.
+In
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+possible
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+ways.
+First,
+it
+is
+possible
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">allow
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">define
+a
+default
+language
+</ins>
+for
+<del class="diff-old">additional
+information
+associated
+with
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+setting
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">term
+to
+be
+specified
+(see
+also
+6.6
+Type
+Coercion
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@language
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a>:</p>  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 27</span>: Setting the default language of a JSON-LD document</div><pre class="example">{  <span class="diff">"@context":<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  }</span>,
+  "name": <span class="diff">"花澄"</span>,
+  "occupation": <span class="diff">"科学者"</span>
+}
+</ins></pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+ja
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+language
+code
+with
+the
+two
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-new">
+strings
+</ins>
+</a>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-new">花澄
+</ins></em>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">6.9
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">科学者
+</ins></em>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Languages
+codes
+are
+defined
+in
+[
+</ins><cite>
+<a class="bibref" href="#bib-BCP47">
+<ins class="diff-new">BCP47
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">).
+</del>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-chg">].
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Instead
+of
+using
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+IRI
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">To
+clear
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+may
+be
+specified
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">default
+language
+for
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON
+object
+having
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">subtree,
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@id
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@language
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">key,
+and
+a
+term
+,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+be
+set
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+null
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">compact
+IRI
+,
+or
+an
+absolute
+IRI
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">local
+context
+</ins>
+</a>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">value.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">follows:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: ,
+    &quot;name&quot;: ,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: ,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;: 
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 28</span>: Clearing default language</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "花澄",
+  "details": {
+</ins><span class="diff">    "@context": {<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@language": null
+    }</span>,
+    "occupation": "Ninja"
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+allows
+additional
+information
+to
+be
+associated
+with
+the
+term.
+This
+may
+be
+used
+for
+6.6
+Type
+Coercion
+,
+6.9
+Sets
+and
+Lists
+,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Second,
+it
+is
+possible
+</ins>
+to
+associate
+<ins class="diff-new">a
+</ins>
+language
+<del class="diff-old">information
+</del>
+with
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">specific
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+term
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_term_definition" href="#dfn-expanded_term_definition"><ins class="diff-chg">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</ins></a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+</del>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 29</span>: Expanded term definition with language</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context": {
+</ins>
+    ...
+<del class="diff-old">    &quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:name&quot;,  },
+    &quot;occupation&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot; },
+    &quot;occupation_en&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;,  },
+    &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;ex:occupation&quot;,  }
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "ex": "http://example.com/vocab/",
+    "@language": "ja",
+    "name": { "@id": "ex:name", <span class="diff">"@language": null</span> },
+    "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation" },
+    "occupation_en": { "@id": "ex:occupation", <span class="diff">"@language": "en"</span> },
+    "occupation_cs": { "@id": "ex:occupation", <span class="diff">"@language": "cs"</span> }
+</ins>
+  },
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Yagyū Muneyoshi&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation&quot;: &quot;忍者&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_en&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;,
+  &quot;occupation_cs&quot;: &quot;Nindža&quot;,
+</del>
+  <span class="diff">"name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "occupation": "忍者",
+  "occupation_en": "Ninja",
+  "occupation_cs": "Nindža",</span>
+</ins>
+  ...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+associate
+<em>
+忍者
+</em>
+with
+the
+specified
+default
+language
+code
+<code>
+ja
+</code>,
+<em>
+Ninja
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+en
+</code>,
+and
+<em>
+Nindža
+</em>
+with
+the
+language
+code
+<code>
+cs
+</code>.
+The
+value
+of
+<code>
+name
+</code>,
+<em>
+Yagyū
+Muneyoshi
+</em>
+wouldn't
+be
+associated
+with
+any
+language
+code
+since
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+was
+reset
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="null" href="#dfn-null">
+null
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_term_definition" href="#dfn-expanded_term_definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Expanded
+terms
+may
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+compact
+IRIs
+or
+absolute
+IRIs
+as
+keys.
+If
+the
+definition
+does
+not
+include
+an
[email protected]
+key,
+the
+expanded
+IRI
+is
+determined
+by
+performing
+expansion
+of
+the
+key
+within
+the
+current
+active
+context
+.
+This
+mechanism
+is
+mainly
+used
+to
+associate
+type
+or
+language
+information
+with
+a
+compact
+IRI
+or
+an
+absolute
+IRI
+.
+</del>
+<div class="note">
+<div class="note-title">
+<span>
+Note
+</span>
+</div>
+<p class="">
+<del class="diff-old">While
+it
+is
+possible
+to
+define
+a
+compact
+IRI
+,
+or
+an
+absolute
+IRI
+to
+expand
+to
+some
+other
+unrelated
+IRI
+(for
+example,
+foaf:name
+expanding
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Language
+associations
+can
+only
+be
+applied
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">http://example.org/unrelated#species
+),
+such
+usage
+is
+strongly
+discouraged.
+6.6
+Type
+Coercion
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">plain
+literal
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string"><ins class="diff-chg">
+strings
+</ins></a>.<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_value" href="#dfn-typed_value"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Typed
+</ins>
+values
+<del class="diff-old">to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+coercion
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+</del>
+</a>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">outgoing
+</del>
+values
+<ins class="diff-new">that
+are
+subject
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+data
+type
+IRIs
+to
+terms
+.
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+the
+data
+type
+to
+be
+specified
+with
+each
+piece
+of
+data.
+Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+</del>
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="sec-ref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<span class="sec-title">
+<del class="diff-old">Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+Coercion
+</ins>
+</span>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">using
+the
[email protected]
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+this
+key
+expands
+to
+an
+IRI
+.
+Alternatively,
+the
+keyword
[email protected]
+may
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">cannot
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">language
+tagged.
+</ins></p></div><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Just
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+the
+example
+above,
+systems
+often
+need
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">indicate
+that
+within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">express
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+a
+string
+</del>
+value
+of
+a
+<del class="diff-old">term
+coerced
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+in
+multiple
+languages.
+Typically,
+such
+systems
+also
+try
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">@id
+is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+a
+programmatically
+easy
+way
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">navigate
+the
+data
+structures
+for
+the
+language-specific
+data.
+In
+this
+case,
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="language_map" href="#dfn-language_map"><ins class="diff-new">
+language
+maps
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">interpreted
+as
+an
+IRI
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">utilized.
+</ins>
+</p>
+  <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 30</span>: Language map expressing a property in three languages</div><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "occupation": { "@id": "ex:occupation", <span class="diff">"@container": "@language"</span> }
+  },
+  "name": "Yagyū Muneyoshi",
+  "occupation":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "ja": "忍者",
+    "en": "Ninja",
+    "cs": "Nindža"
+  }</span>
+  ...
+}
+</ins></pre>
+<del class="diff-old">Terms
+or
+compact
+IRIs
+used
+</del>
+</div>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+example
+above
+expresses
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+</ins>
+as
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">previous
+example
+but
+consolidates
+all
+values
+in
+a
+single
+property.
+To
+access
+the
+</ins>
+value
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">specific
+language
+in
+a
+programming
+language
+supporting
+dot-notation
+accessors
+for
+object
+properties,
+a
+developer
+</ins>
+may
+<del class="diff-old">be
+defined
+within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">use
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">same
+context.
+This
+means
+that
+one
+may
+specify
+a
+term
+like
+</del>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">xsd
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property.language
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">and
+then
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pattern.
+For
+example,
+to
+access
+the
+occupation
+in
+English,
+a
+developer
+would
+</ins>