Added new sections for Type Coercion, JSON-LD Profiles and more.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Sun, 24 Oct 2010 23:50:42 -0400
changeset 11 400a612f8379
parent 10 31bd06d88c46
child 15 e1b43339f98a
Added new sections for Type Coercion, JSON-LD Profiles and more.

Changes include:
* New section on Type Coercion
* New section on JSON-LD Profiles
* New section on special keywords/tokens
* New section on contributing
* A few more issue markers to note features being debated
* New section on best practices
* Added #base and renamed __vocab__ to #vocab
spec/ED/20101014/spec.css
spec/ED/20101024/diff-20101014.html
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[email protected] screen {
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+.diff-old:after
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+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+<body style="display: inherit; ">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+-
+Linked
+Data
+Expression
+in
+JSON
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+Context-based
+JSON
+Serialization
+for
+Linked
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 id="unofficial-draft-24-october-2010">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">14
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">24
+</ins>
+October
+2010
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editor:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar,
+Inc.
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Mark
+Birbeck
+</a>,
+<a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar,
+Inc.
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20101014.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+Developers
+that
+embed
+structured
+data
+in
+their
+Web
+pages
+can
+choose
+among
+a
+number
+of
+languages
+such
+as
+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+Microformats
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">
+MICROFORMATS
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+Microdata
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">
+MICRODATA
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+Each
+of
+these
+structured
+data
+languages,
+while
+incompatible
+at
+the
+syntax
+level,
+can
+be
+easily
+mapped
+to
+RDF.
+JSON
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+<del class="diff-old">replacement
+for
+SOAP.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">format.
+</ins>
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+Linked
+Data
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+represent
+objects
+specified
+via
+RDFa,
+Microformats
+and
+Microdata.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Introduction
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+1.1
+</ins></span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Introduction
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Contributing
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+Rationale
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#goals" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Design
+Rationale
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Goals
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#map-terms-to-iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Map
+Terms
+to
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-default-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+Default
+Context
+</ins></a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#an-example-of-a-default-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+An
+Example
+of
+a
+Default
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">7.
+The
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+Algorithm
+</del>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Markup
+Examples
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microformats" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#microdata" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-json-ld-processing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">4.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+Algorithm
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Markup
+of
+RDF
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#plain-literals" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Plain
+Literals
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Language
+Specification
+in
+Plain
+Literals
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#typed-literals" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Typed
+Literals
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#blank-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#escape-character" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Escape
+Character
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#best-practices" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Best
+Practices
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#javascript" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JavaScript
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#schema-less-databases" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Schema-less
+Databases
+</ins></a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">10.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">7.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+Coercion
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#json-ld-profiles" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+7.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+Profiles
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#disjoint-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Disjoint
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">1.
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+JSON
+for
+Linked
+data.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+Developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Microformats,
+RDFa,
+or
+Microdata
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+JSON.
+Developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+encoding
+possibilities.
+To
+understand
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+RFC4627
+].
+</del>
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p class="issue">
+Write
+the
+introduction
+once
+all
+of
+the
+technical
+details
+are
+hammered
+out.
+Explain
+why
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+light-weight
+mechanism
+to
+express
+RDFa,
+Microformats
+and
+Microdata.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+as
+a
+way
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+environments
+as
+well
+as
+a
+way
+to
+pass
+Linked
+Data
+to
+and
+from
+Web
+services.
+It
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+(and
+understanding)
+that
+is
+out
+there
+already.
+It
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+key-value
+pairs,
+RDF
+data,
+Microformats
+data,
+and
+Microdata
+(that
+is,
+every
+data
+model
+currently
+in
+use)
+using
+one
+unified
+format.
+It
+does
+not
+require
+anyone
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+adding
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band
+-
+it
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+migration
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON
+with
+added
+semantics.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+fast
+to
+parse,
+fast
+to
+generate,
+stream-based
+and
+document-based
+processing
+compatible,
+and
+require
+a
+tiny
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">1.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+JSON
+for
+Linked
+data.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</ins></p><ul><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Web
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Microformats,
+RDFa,
+or
+Microdata
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+JSON.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+write
+processors
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></li></ul><p><ins class="diff-new">
+To
+understand
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC4627
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+and
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+].
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Contributing
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</ins></p><ul><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+All
+comments
+and
+discussion
+takes
+place
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+</ins><a href="http://groups.google.com/group/json-ld"><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></a></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="http://github.com/digitalbazaar/json-ld/issues"><ins class="diff-chg">
+issue
+tracker
+</ins></a>.</li><li><a href="http://github.com/digitalbazaar/json-ld"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Source
+code
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld"><ins class="diff-chg">
+#json-ld
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</ins></li></ul></div></div><div id="design-goals-and-rationale" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Design
+Goals
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+Rationale
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+following
+section
+outlines
+the
+design
+goals
+and
+rationale
+behind
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+language.
+</ins></p><div id="goals" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+2.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Goals
+</ins></h3><p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+considerations
+were
+explored
+during
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Developers
+don't
+need
+to
+know
+RDF
+in
+order
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+provided
+by
+JSON-LD.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+should
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+All
+major
+RDF
+concepts
+must
+be
+expressible
+via
+the
+JSON-LD
+syntax.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+provides
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+developers
+to
+specify
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Streaming
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+format
+supports
+both
+document-based
+and
+stream-based
+processing.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">4.
+Design
+Rationale
+The
+following
+section
+outlines
+the
+rationale
+behind
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+language.
+</del>
+<div id="map-terms-to-iris" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Map
+Terms
+to
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Establishing
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+values
+to
+IRIs
+will
+help
+in
+the
+mapping
+of
+JSON
+objects
+to
+RDF.
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+JSON-LD
+must
+be
+restrictive
+in
+declaring
+a
+set
+of
+terms,
+rather,
+experimentation
+and
+innovation
+should
+be
+supported
+as
+part
+of
+the
+core
+design
+of
+JSON-LD.
+There
+are,
+however,
+a
+number
+of
+very
+small
+design
+criterial
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+RDF
+data
+that
+will
+create
+value
+for
+the
+greater
+semantic
+web
+community
+and
+JSON/REST-based
+Web
+Services
+community.
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+will
+be
+using
+the
+following
+JSON
+object
+as
+the
+example
+for
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "a": "Person",
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="the-default-context" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.3
+</ins></span>
+The
+Default
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+default
+context
+is
+used
+in
+RDFa
+to
+allow
+developers
+to
+use
+keywords
+as
+aliases
+for
+IRIs.
+So,
+for
+instance,
+the
+keyword
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>
+above
+could
+refer
+to
+the
+IRI
+<em>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</em>.
+The
+semantic
+web,
+just
+like
+the
+document-based
+web,
+uses
+IRIs
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+that
+these
+terms
+mean
+something,
+which
+you
+will
+eventually
+want
+to
+query.
+The
+semantic
+web
+specifies
+this
+via
+<em>
+Vocabulary
+Documents
+</em>.
+The
+IRI
+<em>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</em>
+specifies
+a
+Vocabulary
+Document,
+and
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>
+is
+a
+term
+in
+that
+vocabulary.
+Paste
+the
+two
+items
+together
+and
+you
+have
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier
+for
+a
+term.
+</p>
+<p>
+Developers,
+and
+machines,
+would
+be
+able
+to
+use
+this
+IRI
+(plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+Much
+like
+we
+can
+use
+WordNet
+today
+to
+see
+the
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">
+definition
+</a>
+of
+words
+in
+the
+English
+language.
+Machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+dictionary
+of
+terms,
+and
+URIs
+provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+are
+unambiguous.
+</p>
+<p>
+Non-prefixed
+terms
+should
+have
+term
+mappings
+declared
+in
+the
+default
+context
+so
+that
+they
+may
+be
+expanded
+later.
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+a
+set
+of
+terms,
+like
+<strong>
+Person
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+are
+pre-defined
+in
+the
+default
+context,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+JSON
+objects,
+machines
+could
+automatically
+expand
+the
+terms
+to
+something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>": "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>"
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+In
+order
+to
+differentiate
+between
+plain
+text
+and
+IRIs,
+the
+<strong>
+<
+</strong> and <strong>
+>
+</strong>
+are
+used
+around
+IRIs.
+</p>
+<p>
+Doing
+this
+would
+mean
+that
+JSON
+would
+start
+to
+become
+unambiguously
+machine-readable,
+play
+well
+with
+the
+semantic
+web,
+and
+basic
+markup
+wouldn't
+be
+that
+much
+more
+complex
+than
+basic
+JSON
+markup.
+A
+win,
+all
+around.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="mashing-up-vocabularies" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</h3>
+<p>
+Developers
+would
+also
+benefit
+by
+allowing
+other
+vocabularies
+to
+be
+used
+automatically
+with
+their
+JSON
+API.
+There
+are
+over
+200
+Vocabulary
+Documents
+that
+are
+available
+for
+use
+on
+the
+Web
+today.
+Some
+of
+these
+vocabularies
+are:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+XSD
+-
+for
+specifying
+basic
+types
+like
+strings,
+integers,
+dates
+and
+times.
+</li>
+<li>
+Dublin
+Core
+-
+for
+describing
+creative
+works.
+</li>
+<li>
+FOAF
+-
+for
+describing
+social
+networks.
+</li>
+<li>
+Calendar
+-
+for
+specifying
+events.
+</li>
+<li>
+SIOC
+-
+for
+describing
+discussions
+on
+blogs
+and
+websites.
+</li>
+<li>
+CCrel
+-
+for
+describing
+Creative
+Commons
+and
+other
+types
+of
+licenses.
+</li>
+<li>
+GEO
+-
+for
+describing
+geographic
+location.
+</li>
+<li>
+VCard
+-
+for
+describing
+organizations
+and
+people.
+</li>
+<li>
+DOAP
+-
+for
+describing
+projects.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+Web
+Service
+could
+define
+these
+as
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+es
+in
+their
+default
+context
+beside
+the
+<em>
+terms
+</em>
+that
+are
+already
+defined.
+Using
+this
+feature,
+developers
+could
+also
+express
+markup
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">rdf:type</span>": "<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>",
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>": "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+  "sioc:avatar": "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"</span>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Developers
+can
+also
+specify
+their
+own
+Vocabulary
+documents
+by
+modifying
+the
+default
+context
+in-line
+using
+the
+<code>
+#
+</code>
+character,
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  <span class="diff">"#": { "myvocab": "http://example.org/myvocab#" }</span>,
+  "a": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;",
+  "sioc:avatar": "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+  "myvocab:credits": 500</span>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Think
+of
+the
+<code>
+#
+</code>
+character
+as
+a
+"hashtable",
+which
+maps
+one
+string
+to
+another
+string.
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
+myvocab
+</code>
+string
+is
+replaced
+with
+"
+<code>
+http://example.org/myvocab#
+</code>
+"
+when
+it
+is
+detected
+above.
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+"
+<code>
+myvocab:credits
+</code>
+"
+would
+expand
+to
+"
+<code>
+http://example.org/myvocab#credits
+</code>
+".
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+mechanism
+is
+a
+short-hand
+for
+RDF,
+and
+if
+defined,
+will
+give
+developers
+an
+unambiguous
+way
+to
+map
+any
+JSON
+value
+to
+RDF.
+</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="an-example-of-a-default-context" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+An
+Example
+of
+a
+Default
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+strives
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+don't
+have
+to
+change
+the
+JSON
+that
+is
+going
+into
+and
+being
+returned
+from
+their
+Web
+applications.
+A
+JSON-LD
+aware
+Web
+Service
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+define
+a
+default
+context.
+For
+example,
+the
+following
+default
+context
+could
+apply
+to
+all
+incoming
+Web
+Service
+calls
+previously
+accepting
+only
+JSON
+data:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+<del class="diff-old">    "__vocab__": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "#vocab": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+    "#base": "http://example.org/baseurl/",
+</ins>
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "sioc": "http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#",
+    "cc": "http://creativecommons.org/ns#",
+    "geo": "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#",
+    "vcard": "http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#",
+    "cal": "http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#",
+    "doap": "http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#",
+    "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"
+  }
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">__vocab__
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#vocab
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">string
+</ins>
+is
+a
+special
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keyword
+</ins>
+that
+states
+that
+any
+term
+that
+doesn't
+resolve
+to
+a
+term
+or
+a
+prefix
+should
+be
+appended
+to
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">__vocab__
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">#vocab
+</ins>
+</code>
+IRI.
+This
+is
+done
+to
+ensure
+that
+terms
+can
+be
+transformed
+to
+an
+IRI
+at
+all
+times.
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+#base
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+string
+is
+a
+special
+keyword
+that
+states
+that
+any
+relative
+IRI
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+appended
+to
+the
+string
+specified
+by
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+#base
+</ins></code>.</p></div></div><div id="markup-examples" class="section"><h2><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+3.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Markup
+Examples
+</ins></h2><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+examples
+below
+demonstrate
+how
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+semantic
+data
+marked
+up
+in
+other
+languages
+such
+as
+RDFa,
+Microformats,
+and
+Microdata.
+These
+sections
+are
+merely
+provided
+as
+proof
+that
+JSON-LD
+is
+very
+flexible
+in
+what
+it
+can
+express
+across
+different
+Linked
+Data
+approaches.
+</ins></p><div id="rdfa" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+3.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+RDFa
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+following
+example
+describes
+three
+people
+with
+their
+respective
+names
+and
+homepages.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+&lt;div <span class="diff">prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>&gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+An
+example
+JSON-LD
+implementation
+is
+described
+below,
+however,
+there
+are
+other
+ways
+to
+mark-up
+this
+information
+such
+that
+the
+context
+is
+not
+repeated.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+[
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode1",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/bob/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode2",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/eve/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode3",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/manu/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Manu"
+ }
+]
+</ins></pre></div><div id="microformats" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+3.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Microformats
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+following
+example
+uses
+a
+simple
+Microformats
+hCard
+example
+to
+express
+how
+the
+Microformat
+is
+represented
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+&lt;div class="vcard"&gt;
+ &lt;a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/"&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+representation
+of
+the
+hCard
+expresses
+the
+Microformat
+terms
+in
+the
+context
+and
+uses
+them
+directly
+for
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+url
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+fn
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+properties.
+Also
+note
+that
+the
+Microformat
+to
+JSON-LD
+processor
+has
+generated
+the
+proper
+URL
+type
+for
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+http://tantek.com
+</ins></code>.</p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+    "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard"
+    "url": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url"
+    "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+  },
+  "@": "_:bnode1",
+  "a": "vcard",
+  "url": "&lt;http://tantek.com/&gt;",
+  "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
+}
+</ins></pre></div><div id="microdata" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+3.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Microdata
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+Microdata
+example
+below
+expresses
+book
+information
+as
+a
+Microdata
+Work
+item.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N"&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Note
+that
+the
+JSON-LD
+representation
+of
+the
+Microdata
+information
+stays
+true
+to
+the
+desires
+of
+the
+Microdata
+community
+to
+avoid
+contexts
+and
+instead
+refer
+to
+items
+by
+their
+full
+IRI.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+[
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt;",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
+    "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization": 
+      ["&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;", "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;"]
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;",
+    "a": "&lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&gt;",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK&gt;"
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt;"
+  }
+]
+</ins></pre></div>
+</div>
+<div id="the-json-ld-processing-algorithm" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">7.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.
+</ins>
+</span>
+The
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+Algorithm
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+processing
+algorithm
+described
+in
+this
+section
+is
+provided
+in
+order
+to
+demonstrate
+how
+one
+might
+implement
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+Conformant
+implementations
+are
+only
+required
+to
+produce
+the
+same
+type
+and
+number
+of
+triples
+during
+the
+output
+process
+and
+are
+not
+required
+to
+implement
+the
+algorithm
+exactly
+as
+described.
+</p>
+<p class="issue">
+The
+Processing
+Algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+there
+are
+still
+major
+bugs
+in
+the
+algorithm
+and
+it's
+difficult
+to
+follow.
+It's
+provided
+only
+to
+very
+early
+implementers
+to
+give
+them
+an
+idea
+of
+how
+to
+implement
+a
+processor.
+</p>
+<h4 id="processing-algorithm-terms">
+Processing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</h4>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<dfn title="default_context" id="dfn-default_context">
+default
+context
+</dfn>
+-
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+JSON-LD
+processing
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="default_graph" id="dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</dfn>
+-
+the
+destination
+graph
+for
+all
+triples
+generated
+by
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</dfn>
+-
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+generating
+triples.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="inherited_subject" id="dfn-inherited_subject">
+inherited
+subject
+</dfn>
+-
+a
+subject
+that
+was
+detected
+at
+a
+higher
+level
+of
+processing
+to
+be
+used
+to
+generate
+a
+triple
+once
+a
+<a class="tref" title="current_subject">
+current
+subject
+</a>
+is
+discovered
+or
+generated.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</dfn>
+-
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+generating
+triples.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="inherited_property" id="dfn-inherited_property">
+inherited
+property
+</dfn>
+-
+a
+property
+that
+was
+detected
+at
+a
+higher
+level
+of
+processing
+to
+be
+used
+to
+generate
+a
+triple
+once
+a
+<a class="tref" title="current_subject">
+current
+subject
+</a>
+is
+discovered
+or
+generated.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</dfn>
+-
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+generating
+triples.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+-
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+CURIEs
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+the
+top-most
+item
+on
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+stack.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+-
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+at
+the
+JSON
+associative-array
+level,
+specified
+via
+the
+<code>
+#
+</code>
+key.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="list_of_incomplete_triples" id="dfn-list_of_incomplete_triples">
+list
+of
+incomplete
+triples
+</dfn>
+-
+A
+list
+of
+triples
+that
+have
+yet
+to
+have
+their
+subject
+set.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="list_of_unprocessed_items" id="dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">
+list
+of
+unprocessed
+items
+</dfn>
+-
+A
+list
+of
+objects
+that
+cannot
+be
+processed
+until
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+detected
+or
+the
+end
+of
+the
+current
+associative-array
+is
+detected.
+</li>
+<li>
+<dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</dfn>
+-
+the
+processor
+state,
+which
+includes
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+stack,
+<a class="tref" title="current_subject">
+current
+subject
+</a>,
+<a class="tref" title="current_property">
+current
+property
+</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_incomplete_triples" href="#dfn-list_of_incomplete_triples">
+list
+of
+incomplete
+triples
+</a>,
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">
+list
+of
+unprocessed
+items
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h4 id="processing-tokens-and-keywords">
+<ins class="diff-new">Processing
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</ins></h4><ul><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+#
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+active
+context.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+#base
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+object
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+active
+context.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+#vocab
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+property
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+active
+context.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+#types
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+specify
+type
+coercion.
+</ins><div class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+#types
+keyword
+assumes
+</ins><a href="#type-coercion"><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+Coercion
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+which
+is
+an
+experimental
+feature.
+</ins></div></li><li><code><</code> and <code><ins class="diff-new">
+>
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+express
+IRIs
+in
+JSON
+values.
+</ins></li><li><code>:</code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+The
+separator
+for
+CURIEs
+when
+used
+in
+JSON
+keys
+or
+JSON
+values.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Sets
+the
+active
+subjects.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+a
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+rdf:type
+of
+the
+active
+subjects.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+\
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+as
+an
+escape
+character
+to
+escape
+all
+the
+special
+tokens
+and
+keywords.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-new">
+^^
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+-
+Used
+to
+express
+the
+data
+type
+for
+Typed
+Literals.
+</ins></li></ul>
+<p>
+The
+algorithm
+below
+is
+designed
+for
+streaming
+(SAX-based)
+implementations.
+Implementers
+will
+find
+that
+non-streaming
+(document-based)
+implementations
+will
+be
+much
+easier
+to
+implement
+as
+full
+access
+to
+the
+JSON
+object
+model
+eliminates
+some
+of
+the
+steps
+that
+are
+necessary
+for
+streaming
+implementations.
+A
+conforming
+JSON-LD
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+implement
+a
+processing
+algorithm
+that
+results
+in
+the
+same
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</a>
+that
+the
+following
+algorithm
+generates:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="processing-step-default-context">
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_context" href="#dfn-default_context">
+default
+context
+</a>
+is
+supplied
+to
+the
+processing
+algorithm,
+push
+it
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+stack.
+</li>
+<li id="processing-step-associative">
+If
+an
+associative
+array
+is
+detected,
+create
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+Copy
+the
+<a class="tref" title="current_context">
+current
+context
+</a>
+stack
+to
+the
+newly
+created
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+Push
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+onto
+the
+newly
+created
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+'s
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+stack.
+For
+each
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+associative
+array,
+using
+the
+newly
+created
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+do
+the
+following:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+a
+<code>
+#
+</code>
+key
+is
+found,
+the
+processor
+merges
+each
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Process
+each
+object
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">
+list
+of
+unprocessed
+items
+</a>,
+starting
+at
+<a href="#processing-subject">
+Step
+2.2
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li id="processing-associative">
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+has
+not
+been
+detected,
+the
+current
+key-value
+pair
+is
+placed
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">
+list
+of
+unprocessed
+items
+</a>
+and
+processing
+proceeds
+to
+the
+next
+key-value
+pair.
+Otherwise,
+if
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+known
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+</li>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="processing-subject">
+If
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+is
+found,
+the
+processor
+sets
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>
+to
+the
+value
+after
+<a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">
+Object
+Processing
+</a>
+has
+been
+performed.
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_subject" href="#dfn-inherited_subject">
+inherited
+subject
+</a>
+and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_property" href="#dfn-inherited_property">
+inherited
+property
+</a>
+values
+are
+specified,
+generate
+a
+triple
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_subject" href="#dfn-inherited_subject">
+inherited
+subject
+</a>
+for
+the
+subject,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_property" href="#dfn-inherited_property">
+inherited
+property
+</a>
+for
+the
+property,
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>
+for
+the
+object.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+there
+are
+any
+triples
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_incomplete_triples" href="#dfn-list_of_incomplete_triples">
+list
+of
+incomplete
+triples
+</a>,
+complete
+each
+triple
+using
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>
+as
+the
+subject
+for
+each
+triple.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+an
+<code>
+a
+</code>
+key
+is
+found,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+to
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+a
+key
+that
+is
+not
+<code>
+#
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+or
+<code>
+a
+</code>
+is
+found,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+by
+performing
+<a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">
+Property
+Processing
+</a>
+on
+the
+key.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+not
+an
+array,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</a>
+by
+performing
+<a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">
+Object
+Processing
+</a>
+on
+the
+value.
+Generate
+a
+triple
+representing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+associative
+array,
+then
+process
+the
+value
+starting
+at
+<a href="#processing-step-associative">
+Step
+2
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+a
+regular
+array,
+then
+process
+the
+value
+starting
+at
+<a href="#processing-step-array">
+Step
+3
+</a>
+ensuring
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+are
+copied
+to
+a
+newly
+created
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+end
+of
+the
+associative
+array
+is
+detected,
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>
+was
+not
+discovered,
+then:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Generate
+a
+<a class="tref" title="blank_node_identifier">
+blank
+node
+identifier
+</a>
+and
+set
+it
+as
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+Complete
+any
+previously
+incomplete
+triples
+by
+running
+all
+substeps
+of
+<a href="#processing-subject">
+Step
+2.2.1
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+end
+of
+the
+associative
+array
+is
+detected,
+and
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+was
+not
+discovered,
+then
+assume
+that
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+unmodified
+and
+run
+all
+substeps
+of
+<a href="#processing-associative">
+Step
+2.2
+</a>
+on
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">
+list
+of
+unprocessed
+items
+</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li id="processing-step-array">
+If
+a
+regular
+array
+is
+detected,
+process
+each
+value
+in
+the
+array
+by
+doing
+the
+following:
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+associative
+array,
+processes
+per
+<a href="#processing-step-associative">
+Step
+2
+</a>,
+ensuring
+to
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_subject" href="#dfn-inherited_subject">
+inherited
+subject
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_property" href="#dfn-inherited_property">
+inherited
+property
+</a>
+to
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+newly
+created
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+not
+an
+array,
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</a>
+by
+performing
+<a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">
+Object
+Processing
+</a>
+on
+the
+value.
+Generate
+a
+triple
+representing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">
+active
+subject
+</a>,
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">
+active
+property
+</a>
+and
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">
+active
+object
+</a>
+and
+place
+it
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">
+default
+graph
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+value
+is
+a
+regular
+array,
+should
+we
+support
+RDF
+List/Sequence
+Processing?
+<div class="issue">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+a
+regular
+array,
+should
+we
+support
+RDF
+List/Sequence
+generation
+of
+triples?
+For
+example,
+would
+implementing
+this
+be
+worth
+the
+more
+complex
+processing
+rules:
+"ex:orderedItems"
+:
+[["one",
+"two",
+"three"]]
+</div>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">8.
+Markup
+Examples
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+examples
+below
+demonstrate
+how
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+semantic
+data
+marked
+up
+in
+other
+languages
+such
+as
+RDFa,
+Microformats,
+and
+Microdata.
+These
+sections
+are
+merely
+provided
+as
+proof
+that
+JSON-LD
+is
+very
+flexible
+in
+what
+it
+can
+express
+across
+different
+Linked
+Data
+approaches.
+8.1
+RDFa
+The
+following
+example
+describes
+three
+people
+with
+their
+respective
+names
+and
+homepages.
+&lt;div &gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+An
+example
+JSON-LD
+implementation
+is
+described
+below,
+however,
+there
+are
+other
+ways
+to
+mark-up
+this
+information
+such
+that
+the
+context
+is
+not
+repeated.
+[
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode1",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/bob/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode2",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/eve/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode3",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/manu/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Manu"
+ }
+]
+8.2
+Microformats
+The
+following
+example
+uses
+a
+simple
+Microformats
+hCard
+example
+to
+express
+how
+the
+Microformat
+is
+represented
+in
+JSON-LD.
+&lt;div class="vcard"&gt;
+ &lt;a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/"&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+The
+representation
+of
+the
+hCard
+expresses
+the
+Microformat
+terms
+in
+the
+context
+and
+uses
+them
+directly
+for
+the
+url
+and
+fn
+properties.
+Also
+note
+that
+the
+Microformat
+to
+JSON-LD
+processor
+has
+generated
+the
+proper
+URL
+type
+for
+http://tantek.com
+.
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+    "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard"
+    "url": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url"
+    "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+  },
+  "@": "_:bnode1",
+  "a": "vcard",
+  "url": "&lt;http://tantek.com/&gt;",
+  "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
+}
+8.3
+Microdata
+The
+Microdata
+example
+below
+expresses
+book
+information
+as
+a
+Microdata
+Work
+item.
+&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N"&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;
+Note
+that
+the
+JSON-LD
+representation
+of
+the
+Microdata
+information
+stays
+true
+to
+the
+desires
+of
+the
+Microdata
+community
+to
+avoid
+contexts
+and
+instead
+refer
+to
+items
+by
+their
+full
+IRI.
+[
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt;",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
+    "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization": 
+      ["&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;", "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;"]
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;",
+    "a": "&lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&gt;",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK&gt;"
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt;"
+  }
+]
+</del>
+<div id="markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Markup
+of
+RDF
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+most
+Linked
+Data
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+author
+by
+Web
+developers.
+In
+many
+cases,
+Javascript
+objects
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+context.
+Since
+RDF
+is
+also
+an
+important
+sub-community
+of
+the
+Linked
+Data
+movement,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+all
+RDF
+concepts
+are
+well-represented
+in
+this
+specification.
+This
+section
+details
+how
+each
+RDF
+concept
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+current
+specification
+relies
+on
+microsyntaxes
+to
+express
+things
+like
+IRIs,
+typed
+literals
+and
+CURIEs.
+There
+is
+a
+small
+amount
+of
+debate
+on
+whether
+or
+not
+to
+use
+full-blown
+JSON
+objects
+containing
+things
+like
+"value"
+and
+"datatype".
+The
+original
+authors
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+specification
+feel
+that
+microsyntaxes
+allow
+a
+much
+simpler,
+less
+error-prone
+structure
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+objects.
+Proponents
+of
+the
+verbose
+mechanism
+assert
+that
+there
+would
+be
+less
+chance
+of
+data
+markup
+issues
+concerning
+proper
+escaping
+and
+that
+the
+objects,
+while
+more
+verbose,
+would
+be
+easier
+to
+work
+with
+within
+JavaScript
+environments.
+Feedback
+on
+this
+issue
+would
+be
+appreciated.
+</ins></p>
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expressing
+IRIs
+are
+fundamental
+to
+Linked
+Data
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+subjects
+and
+many
+objects
+are
+identified.
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+by
+wrapping
+a
+text
+string
+with
+the
+<code>
+<
+</code> and <code>
+>
+</code>
+characters.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:homepage": "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+object
+to
+an
+IRI
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Wrapping
+IRIs
+with
+the
+<code>
+<
+</code> and <code>
+>
+</code>
+characters
+are
+only
+necessary
+when
+IRIs
+are
+specified
+as
+objects.
+At
+no
+other
+point
+do
+you
+need
+to
+wrap
+an
+IRI.
+You
+do
+not
+need
+to
+wrap
+IRIs
+when
+declaring
+a
+property,
+declaring
+a
+CURIE,
+or
+describing
+key-value
+pairs
+in
+a
+context.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+subject
+is
+declared
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+subject
+is
+the
+first
+piece
+of
+information
+needed
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+in
+order
+to
+create
+the
+(subject,
+predicate,
+object)
+tuple,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+triple.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "<span class="diff">@</span>": "<span class="diff">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+<code>
+<http://example.org/people#joebob>
+</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+subject
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
+a
+</code>
+key.
+Specifying
+the
+type
+in
+this
+way
+will
+generate
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form
+(subject,
+type,
+type-url).
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;",
+  "<span class="diff">a</span>": "<span class="diff">&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triple
+(in
+N-Triples
+notation):
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+Plain
+Literals
+</h3>
+<p>
+Regular
+text
+strings
+are
+called
+"plain
+literals"
+in
+RDF
+and
+are
+easily
+expressed
+using
+regular
+JSON
+strings.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Language
+Specification
+in
+Plain
+Literals
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+attempts
+to
+make
+sure
+that
+it
+is
+easy
+to
+express
+triples
+in
+other
+languages
+while
+simultaneously
+ensuring
+that
+hefty
+data
+structures
+aren't
+required
+to
+accomplish
+simple
+language
+markup.
+When
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+symbol
+is
+used
+in
+a
+literal,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+tags
+the
+literal
+text
+with
+the
+language
+tag
+that
+follows
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+symbol.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "<span class="diff">花澄@ja</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+a
+plain
+literal
+for
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+tag
+with
+the
+triple
+that
+is
+generated.
+Languages
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+expressed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+format.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="typed-literals" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Typed
+Literals
+</h3>
+<p>
+Literals
+may
+also
+be
+typed
+in
+JSON-LD
+by
+using
+the
+<code>
+^^
+</code>
+sequence
+at
+the
+end
+of
+the
+text
+string.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "dc:modified": "<span class="diff">2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+an
+object
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+and
+the
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+express
+multiple
+triples
+in
+a
+compact
+way
+by
+using
+arrays.
+If
+a
+subject
+has
+multiple
+values
+for
+the
+same
+property,
+the
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+express
+each
+property
+as
+an
+array.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;",
+  "foaf:nick": <span class="diff">["stu", "groknar", "radface"]</span>,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+<del class="diff-old">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+</ins>
+      "stu" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+<del class="diff-old">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+</ins>
+      "groknar" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+<del class="diff-old">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+</ins>
+"radface"
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+Multiple
+typed
+literals
+are
+expressed
+very
+much
+in
+the
+same
+way
+as
+multiple
+properties:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;",
+  "dcterms:modified": <span class="diff">["2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime", "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00^^xsd:dateTime"</span>],
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+"2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="blank-nodes" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Blank
+Nodes
+</h3>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+it
+becomes
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+information
+without
+being
+able
+to
+specify
+the
+subject.
+Typically,
+this
+is
+where
+blank
+nodes
+come
+into
+play.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+are
+automatically
+created
+if
+a
+subject
+is
+not
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+However,
+authors
+may
+name
+blank
+nodes
+by
+using
+the
+special
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+CURIE
+prefix.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+<code>
+_:foo
+</code>,
+which
+can
+then
+be
+used
+later
+on
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+to
+refer
+back
+to
+the
+named
+blank
+node.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="escape-character" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Escape
+Character
+</h3>
+<p>
+Special
+characters
+in
+property
+values
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+escaped
+in
+order
+to
+not
+be
+interpreted
+as
+CURIEs,
+IRIs,
+language
+tags,
+or
+TypedLiterals.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+special
+characters
+in
+JSON-LD
+are:
+<code>
+<
+</code>, <code>
+>
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
+#
+</code>,
+<code>:
+</code>
+and
+<code>
+^
+</code>.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "example:code": <span class="diff">"\\&lt;foobar\\^\\^2\\&gt;"</span>,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.11
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Since
+JSON
+is
+capable
+of
+expressing
+typed
+information
+such
+as
+decimals,
+integers
+and
+boolean
+values,
+JSON-LD
+utilizes
+that
+information
+to
+create
+<a href="#typed-literals">
+Typed
+Literals
+</a>.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:decimal
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  "chem:protons": <span class="diff">12</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  "sensor:active": <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="best-practices" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">6.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Best
+Practices
+</ins></h2><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+nature
+of
+Web
+programming
+allows
+one
+to
+use
+basic
+technologies,
+such
+as
+JSON-LD,
+across
+a
+variety
+of
+systems
+and
+environments.
+This
+section
+attempts
+to
+describe
+some
+of
+those
+environments
+and
+the
+way
+in
+which
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+integrated
+in
+order
+to
+help
+alleviate
+certain
+development
+headaches.
+</ins></p><div id="javascript" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JavaScript
+</ins></h3><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+It
+is
+expected
+that
+JSON-LD
+will
+be
+used
+quite
+a
+bit
+in
+JavaScript
+environments,
+however,
+features
+like
+IRIs
+requiring
+angled
+brackets
+in
+JSON-LD
+means
+that
+using
+JSON-LD
+directly
+in
+JavaScript
+is
+going
+to
+be
+annoying
+without
+a
+middleware
+layer
+such
+as
+a
+simple
+library
+that
+strips
+JSON-LD
+markup
+before
+JavaScript
+uses
+it.
+One
+could
+say
+that
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+good
+fit
+for
+the
+RDFa
+API,
+which
+would
+enable
+a
+triple-store
+in
+the
+browser,
+but
+some
+don't
+want
+to
+require
+that
+level
+of
+functionality
+just
+to
+use
+JSON-LD.
+The
+group
+is
+still
+discussing
+the
+best
+way
+to
+proceed,
+so
+input
+on
+how
+JSON-LD
+could
+more
+easily
+be
+utilized
+in
+JavaScript
+environments
+would
+be
+very
+much
+appreciated.
+</ins></p></div><div id="schema-less-databases" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Schema-less
+Databases
+</ins></h3><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+Databases
+such
+as
+CouchDB
+and
+MongoDB
+allow
+the
+creation
+of
+schema-less
+data
+stores.
+RDF
+is
+a
+type
+of
+schema-less
+data
+model
+and
+thus
+lends
+itself
+to
+databases
+such
+as
+CouchDB
+and
+MongoDB.
+Both
+of
+these
+databases
+can
+use
+JSON-LD
+as
+their
+storage
+format.
+The
+group
+needs
+feedback
+from
+CouchDB
+and
+MongoDB
+experts
+regarding
+the
+usefulness
+of
+JSON-LD
+in
+those
+environments.
+</ins></p></div></div>
+<div id="advanced-concepts" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">10.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p class="issue">
+There
+are
+a
+few
+advanced
+concepts
+where
+it
+is
+not
+clear
+whether
+or
+not
+the
+JSON-LD
+specification
+is
+going
+to
+support
+the
+complexity
+necessary
+to
+support
+each
+concept.
+The
+entire
+section
+on
+Advanced
+Concepts
+should
+be
+taken
+with
+a
+grain
+of
+salt;
+it
+is
+merely
+a
+list
+of
+possibilities
+where
+all
+of
+the
+benefits
+and
+drawbacks
+have
+not
+been
+explored.
+</p>
+<div id="type-coercion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">7.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Type
+Coercion
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+types
+to
+ensure
+that
+the
+zero-edit
+goal
+of
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+accomplished.
+Type
+coercion
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+and
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+types
+to
+the
+proper
+RDF
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+type
+IRIs
+to
+RDF
+types.
+Using
+type
+conversion,
+one
+may
+convert
+simple
+JSON
+data
+to
+properly
+typed
+RDF
+data.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+plain
+literals,
+typed
+literals
+and
+IRIs.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {  
+     "rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+</ins><span class="diff">     "#types":<ins class="diff-new">
+     {
+        "name": "rdf:PlainLiteral",
+        "age": "xsd:integer",
+        "homepage": "xsd:anyURI",
+     }</span>
+  },
+  "name": <span class="diff">"&lt;John Smith&gt;"</span>,
+  "age": <span class="diff">"41"</span>,
+  "homepage": <span class="diff">"http://example.org/home/"</span>
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      "&lt;John Smith&gt;" .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+&lt;http://example.org/home/&gt;
+.
+</ins></pre></div><div id="json-ld-profiles" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+7.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+Profiles
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+One
+of
+the
+more
+powerful
+features
+of
+RDFa
+1.1
+Core
+is
+the
+ability
+to
+specify
+a
+collection
+of
+prefixes
+and
+terms
+that
+can
+be
+re-used
+by
+a
+processor
+to
+simplfy
+markup.
+JSON-LD
+provides
+a
+similar
+mechanism
+called
+JSON-LD
+Profiles,
+which
+is
+the
+inclusion
+of
+a
+context
+external
+to
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+one
+may
+specify
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+Profile.
+Assume
+the
+following
+profile
+exists
+at
+this
+imaginary
+URL:
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+http://example.org/profiles/contacts
+</ins></code>.</p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+     "#types":
+     {
+        "age": "xsd:integer",
+        "homepage": "xsd:anyURI",
+     }
+  }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+profile
+listed
+above
+can
+be
+used
+in
+the
+following
+way:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+  "#": { "#profile": "http://example.org/profiles/contacts" },
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": "41",
+  "homepage": "http://example.org/home/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      "John Smith" .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+&lt;http://example.org/home/&gt;
+.
+</ins></pre></div>
+<div id="disjoint-graphs" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">10.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">7.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Disjoint
+Graphs
+</h3>
+<p>
+When
+serializing
+an
+RDF
+graph
+that
+contains
+two
+or
+more
+sections
+of
+the
+graph
+which
+are
+entirely
+disjoint,
+one
+must
+use
+an
+array
+to
+express
+the
+graph
+as
+two
+graphs.
+This
+may
+not
+be
+acceptable
+to
+some
+authors,
+who
+would
+rather
+express
+the
+information
+as
+one
+graph.
+Since,
+by
+definition,
+disjoint
+graphs
+require
+there
+to
+be
+two
+top-level
+objects,
+JSON-LD
+utilizes
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+disjoint
+graphs
+to
+be
+expressed
+using
+a
+single
+graph.
+</p>
+<p>
+Assume
+the
+following
+RDF
+graph:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#john&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+      &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#jane&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+<del class="diff-old">      &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; .
+&lt;/section&gt;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;
+.
+</ins>
+</pre>
+<p>
+Since
+the
+two
+subjects
+are
+entirely
+disjoint
+with
+one
+another,
+it
+is
+impossible
+to
+express
+the
+RDF
+graph
+above
+using
+a
+single
+JSON-LD
+associative
+array.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+JSON-LD,
+one
+can
+use
+the
+subject
+to
+express
+disjoint
+graphs
+as
+a
+single
+graph:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+  "@": 
+  [
+    {
+      "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#john&gt;",
+      "a": "foaf:Person"
+    },
+    {
+      "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#jane&gt;",
+      "a": "foaf:Person"
+    }
+  ]
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">10.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+editor
+would
+like
+to
+thank
+Mark
+Birbeck,
+who
+provided
+a
+great
+deal
+of
+the
+rationale
+and
+reasoning
+behind
+the
+JSON-LD
+work
+via
+his
+work
+on
+RDFj,
+Dave
+Longley
+who
+reviewed
+and
+provided
+feedback
+on
+the
+overall
+specification
+and
+contexts,
+and
+Ian
+Davis,
+who
+created
+RDF/JSON.
+<ins class="diff-new">Thanks
+also
+to
+Bradley
+P.
+Allen
+and
+Richard
+Cyganiak
+for
+their
+input
+on
+the
+specification.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="references" class="appendix section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</h2>
+<div id="normative-references" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</h3>
+<dl class="bibliography">
+<dt id="bib-BCP47">
+[BCP47]
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A.
+Phillips,
+M.
+Davis.
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt">
+<cite>
+Tags
+for
+Identifying
+Languages
+</cite>
+</a>
+September
+2009.
+IETF
+Best
+Current
+Practice.
+URL:
+<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt">
+http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+<ins class="diff-new">[RDF-CONCEPTS]
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Graham
+Klyne;
+Jeremy
+J.
+Carroll.
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite><ins class="diff-new">
+Resource
+Description
+Framework
+(RDF):
+Concepts
+and
+Abstract
+Syntax.
+</ins></cite></a><ins class="diff-new">
+10
+February
+2004.
+W3C
+Recommendation.
+URL:
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><ins class="diff-new">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210
+</ins></a></dd>
+<dt id="bib-RFC4627">
+[RFC4627]
+</dt>
+<dd>
+D.
+Crockford
+<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">
+The
+application/json
+Media
+Type
+for
+JavaScript
+Object
+Notation
+(JSON)
+</a>
+July
+2006.
+Internet
+RFC
+4627.
+URL:
+<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">
+http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="informative-references" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">A.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</h3>
+<dl class="bibliography">
+<dt id="bib-MICRODATA">
+[MICRODATA]
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Ian
+Hickson;
+et
+al.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">
+<cite>
+Microdata
+</cite>
+</a>
+04
+March
+2010.
+W3C
+Working
+Draft.
+URL:
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-MICROFORMATS">
+[MICROFORMATS]
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://microformats.org">
+<cite>
+Microformats
+</cite>
+</a>.
+URL:
+<a href="http://microformats.org">
+http://microformats.org
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt id="bib-RDFA-CORE">
+[RDFA-CORE]
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Shane
+McCarron;
+et
+al.
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803">
+<cite>
+RDFa
+Core
+1.1:
+Syntax
+and
+processing
+rules
+for
+embedding
+RDF
+through
+attributes.
+</cite>
+</a>
+3
+August
+2010.
+W3C
+Working
+Draft.
+URL:
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/20101024/index.html	Sun Oct 24 23:50:42 2010 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,1656 @@
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd'>
+<html dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
+
+<!--  
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+  out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+   -->
+
+
+
+<style>
+.diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
+</style>
+<style type="text/css">
+/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec CSS
+ * Robin Berjon (robin at berjon dot com)
+ * v0.05 - 2009-07-31
+ *****************************************************************/
+
+
+/* --- INLINES --- */
+em.rfc2119 { 
+    text-transform:     lowercase;
+    font-variant:       small-caps;
+    font-style:         normal;
+    color:              #900;
+}
+
+h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
+h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+dfn {
+    font-weight:    bold;
+}
+
+a.internalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  medium solid #99c;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.externalDFN {
+    color:  inherit;
+    border-bottom:  medium dotted #ccc;
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a.bibref {
+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+code {
+    color:  #ff4500;
+}
+
+
+/* --- WEB IDL --- */
+pre.idl {
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+</style><style type="text/css">ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
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+
+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/w3c-unofficial" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8" /></head><body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p></p><h1 class="title" id="title">JSON-LD - Linked Data Expression in JSON</h1><h2 id="subtitle">A Context-based JSON Serialization for Linked Data</h2><h2 id="unofficial-draft-24-october-2010">Unofficial Draft 24 October 2010</h2><dl><dt>Editor:</dt><dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar, Inc.</a></dd>
+<dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Mark Birbeck</a>, <a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Backplane Ltd.</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar, Inc.</a></dd>
+</dl><p>This document is also available in this non-normative format: <a href="diff-20101014.html">diff to previous version</a>.</p><p class="copyright">This document is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>.</p><hr /></div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+Developers that embed structured data in their Web pages can choose among
+a number of languages such as RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">RDFA-CORE</a></cite>], Microformats [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">MICROFORMATS</a></cite>] 
+and Microdata [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">MICRODATA</a></cite>]. Each of these structured data languages, while
+incompatible at the syntax level, can be easily mapped to RDF. JSON has 
+proven to be a highly useful object serialization and messaging format. 
+In an attempt to harmonize the representation of Linked Data in JSON, 
+this specification outlines a common JSON representation format for 
+Linked Data that can be used to represent objects specified via RDFa, 
+Microformats and Microdata.
+</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p>This document is merely a public working draft of a potential specification. It has no official standing of any kind and does not represent the support or consensus of any standards organisation.</p>
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+
+<!--  <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p>  -->
+
+</div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>How to Read this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#contributing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Contributing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#design-goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Design Goals and Rationale</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#goals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Goals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#map-terms-to-iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Map Terms to IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-default-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>The Default Context</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#an-example-of-a-default-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>An Example of a Default Context</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Markup Examples</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>RDFa</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microformats" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Microformats</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microdata" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Microdata</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-json-ld-processing-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Markup of RDF Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Specifying the Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#plain-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Plain Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Language Specification in Plain Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#typed-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Typed Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#blank-nodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.9 </span>Blank Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#escape-character" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.10 </span>Escape Character</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5.11 </span>Automatic Typing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#best-practices" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6. </span>Best Practices</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#javascript" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>JavaScript</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#schema-less-databases" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Schema-less Databases</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7. </span>Advanced Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.1 </span>Type Coercion</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#json-ld-profiles" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.2 </span>JSON-LD Profiles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#disjoint-graphs" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">7.3 </span>Disjoint Graphs</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">Write the introduction once all of the technical details
+are hammered out. Explain why JSON-LD is designed as a light-weight mechanism
+to express RDFa, Microformats and Microdata. It is primarily intended as
+a way to express Linked Data in Javascript environments as well as a way to pass
+Linked Data to and from Web services. It is designed to be as simple as 
+possible, utilizing the large number of JSON parsers (and understanding) that
+is out there already. It is designed to be able to express key-value pairs,
+RDF data, Microformats data, and Microdata (that is, every data model
+currently in use) using one unified format. It does not require anyone to change
+their JSON, but easily add meaning by adding context in a way that is 
+out-of-band - it is designed to not disturb already deployed systems running
+on JSON, but provide a smooth migration path from JSON to JSON with added
+semantics. Finally, the format is intended to be fast to parse, fast to 
+generate, stream-based and document-based processing compatible, and require
+a tiny memory footprint in order to operate.
+</p>
+
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>How to Read this Document</h3>
+
+<p>
+This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of JSON for Linked
+data. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>Web developers that want to understand the design decisions and 
+  language syntax for JSON-LD.</li>
+  <li>Software developers that want to encode Microformats, RDFa, or Microdata 
+  in a way that is cross-language compatible via JSON.</li>
+  <li>Software developers that want to write processors for JSON-LD.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+To understand this specification you must first be familiar with JSON, 
+which is detailed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] and [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>].</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Contributing</h3>
+
+<p>There are a number of ways that one may participate in the development of
+this specification:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>All comments and discussion takes place on the public mailing list:
+<a href="http://groups.google.com/group/json-ld">[email protected]
+</a></li>
+
+<li>Specification bugs and issues should be reported in the 
+<a href="http://github.com/digitalbazaar/json-ld/issues">issue tracker</a>.</li>
+
+<li><a href="http://github.com/digitalbazaar/json-ld">Source code</a> for the 
+specification can be found on Github.</li>
+
+<li>The <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">#json-ld</a> 
+IRC channel is available for real-time discussion on irc.freenode.net.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="design-goals-and-rationale" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Design Goals and Rationale</h2>
+
+<p>The following section outlines the design goals and rationale behind the 
+JSON-LD markup language.
+</p>
+
+<div id="goals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Goals</h3>
+
+<p>
+A number of design considerations were explored during the creation of this 
+markup language:
+</p>
+
+<dl>
+ <dt>Simplicity</dt>
+ <dd>Developers don't need to know RDF in order to use the basic functionality
+ provided by JSON-LD.</dd>
+ <dt>Compatibility</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD markup should be 100% compatible with JSON.</dd>
+ <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
+ <dd>All major RDF concepts must be expressible via the JSON-LD syntax.</dd>
+ <dt>Terseness</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable.</dd>
+ <dt>Zero Edits</dt>
+ <dd>JSON-LD provides a mechanism that allows developers to specify 
+ context in a way that is out-of-band. This allows organizations that have
+ already deployed large JSON-based infrastructure to add meaning to their
+ JSON in a way that is not disruptive to their day-to-day operations and is
+ transparent to their current customers.</dd>
+ <dt>Streaming</dt>
+ <dd>The format supports both document-based and stream-based processing.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="map-terms-to-iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Map Terms to IRIs</h3>
+
+<p>Establishing a mechanism to map JSON values to IRIs will
+help in the mapping of JSON objects to RDF. This does not mean that JSON-LD must
+be restrictive in declaring a set of terms, rather, experimentation and 
+innovation should be supported as part of the core design of JSON-LD. There are, 
+however, a number of very small design criterial that can ensure that developers 
+will generate good RDF data that will create value for the greater 
+semantic web community and JSON/REST-based Web Services community.
+</p>
+
+<p>We will be using the following JSON object as the example for this section:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "a": "Person",
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div id="the-default-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>The Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>A default context is used in RDFa to allow developers to use keywords
+as aliases for IRIs. So, for instance, the keyword <strong>name</strong>
+above could refer to the IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</em>.
+The semantic web, just like the document-based web, uses IRIs for
+unambiguous identification. The idea is that these terms mean something, 
+which you will eventually want to query. The semantic web specifies this via 
+<em>Vocabulary Documents</em>. The IRI <em>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</em> specifies
+a Vocabulary Document, and <strong>name</strong> is a term in that 
+vocabulary. Paste the two items together and you have an unambiguous identifier
+for a term.
+</p>
+
+<p>Developers, and machines, would be able to use this IRI (plugging it
+directly into a web browser, for instance) to go to the term and get a 
+definition of what the term means. Much
+like we can use WordNet today to see the 
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">definition</a>
+of words in the English language. Machines need the same sort of 
+dictionary of terms, and URIs provide a way to ensure that these terms
+are unambiguous.
+</p>
+
+<p>Non-prefixed terms should have term mappings declared in the default
+context so that they may be expanded later.</p>
+            
+<p>If a set of terms, like <strong>Person</strong>, 
+<strong>name</strong>, and <strong>homepage</strong>,
+are pre-defined in the default context, and that context is used to resolve the
+names in JSON objects, machines could automatically expand the terms to 
+something meaningful and unambiguous, like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>": "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>"
+}</pre>
+
+<p class="note">In order to differentiate between plain text and IRIs, the
+<strong><</strong> and <strong>></strong> are used around IRIs.</p>
+
+<p>Doing this would mean that JSON would start to become unambiguously
+machine-readable, play well with the semantic web, and basic markup wouldn't 
+be that much more complex than basic JSON markup. A win, all around.</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="mashing-up-vocabularies" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</h3>
+
+<p>Developers would also benefit by allowing other vocabularies to be used
+automatically with their JSON API. There are over 200 
+Vocabulary Documents that are available for use on the Web today. Some
+of these vocabularies are:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+   <li>XSD - for specifying basic types like strings, integers, dates and times.</li>
+   <li>Dublin Core - for describing creative works.</li>
+   <li>FOAF - for describing social networks.</li>
+   <li>Calendar - for specifying events.</li>
+   <li>SIOC - for describing discussions on blogs and websites.</li>
+   <li>CCrel - for describing Creative Commons and other types of licenses.</li>
+   <li>GEO - for describing geographic location.</li>
+   <li>VCard - for describing organizations and people.</li>
+   <li>DOAP - for describing projects.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD Web Service could define these as <em>prefix</em>es in their 
+default context beside the <em>terms</em> that are already defined. Using
+this feature, developers could also express markup like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">rdf:type</span>": "<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>",
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>": "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+  "sioc:avatar": "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"</span>
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Developers can also specify their own Vocabulary documents by modifying the 
+default context in-line using the <code>#</code> character, like so:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  <span class="diff">"#": { "myvocab": "http://example.org/myvocab#" }</span>,
+  "a": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;",
+  "sioc:avatar": "&lt;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&gt;"<span class="diff">,
+  "myvocab:credits": 500</span>
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Think of the <code>#</code> character as a "hashtable", which maps one
+string to another string. In the example above, the <code>myvocab</code>
+string is replaced with "<code>http://example.org/myvocab#</code>" when it
+is detected above. In the example above, "<code>myvocab:credits</code>" would
+expand to "<code>http://example.org/myvocab#credits</code>".</p>
+
+<p>This mechanism is a short-hand for RDF, and if defined, will give
+developers an unambiguous way to map any JSON value to RDF.</p><p>
+
+</p></div>
+
+<div id="an-example-of-a-default-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>An Example of a Default Context</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD strives to ensure that developers don't have to change the JSON
+that is going into and being returned from their Web applications. A JSON-LD 
+aware Web Service <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> define a default context. For example, the
+following default context could apply to all incoming Web Service calls
+previously accepting only JSON data:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+    "#vocab": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+    "#base": "http://example.org/baseurl/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "sioc": "http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#",
+    "cc": "http://creativecommons.org/ns#",
+    "geo": "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#",
+    "vcard": "http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#",
+    "cal": "http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#",
+    "doap": "http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#",
+    "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"
+  }
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The <code>#vocab</code> string is a special keyword that states 
+that any term that doesn't resolve to a term or a prefix should be 
+appended to the <code>#vocab</code> IRI. This is done to ensure that 
+terms can be transformed to an IRI at all times.
+</p>
+
+<p>The <code>#base</code> string is a special keyword that states 
+that any relative IRI <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be appended to the string specified by
+<code>#base</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+<div id="markup-examples" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Markup Examples</h2>
+
+<p>The JSON-LD markup examples below demonstrate how JSON-LD can be used to
+express semantic data marked up in other languages such as RDFa, Microformats,
+and Microdata. These sections are merely provided as proof that JSON-LD is
+very flexible in what it can express across different Linked Data approaches.
+</p>
+
+<div id="rdfa" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>RDFa</h3>
+
+<p>The following example describes three people with their respective names and
+homepages.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;div <span class="diff">prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>&gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>An example JSON-LD implementation is described below, however, there are
+other ways to mark-up this information such that the context is not
+repeated.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+[
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode1",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/bob/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode2",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/eve/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+   "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+   "@": "_:bnode3",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "&lt;http://example.com/manu/&gt;",
+   "foaf:name": "Manu"
+ }
+]</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microformats" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Microformats</h3>
+
+<p>The following example uses a simple Microformats hCard example to express
+how the Microformat is represented in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;div class="vcard"&gt;
+ &lt;a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/"&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>The representation of the hCard expresses the Microformat terms in the
+context and uses them directly for the <code>url</code> and <code>fn</code>
+properties. Also note that the Microformat to JSON-LD processor has 
+generated the proper URL type for <code>http://tantek.com</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+    "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard"
+    "url": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url"
+    "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn"
+  },
+  "@": "_:bnode1",
+  "a": "vcard",
+  "url": "&lt;http://tantek.com/&gt;",
+  "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microdata" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Microdata</h3>
+
+<p>The Microdata example below expresses book information as a Microdata Work
+item.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N"&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Note that the JSON-LD representation of the Microdata information stays
+true to the desires of the Microdata community to avoid contexts and
+instead refer to items by their full IRI.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+[
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&gt;",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
+    "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization": 
+      ["&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;", "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;"]
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&gt;",
+    "a": "&lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&gt;",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK&gt;"
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&gt;",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "&lt;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&gt;"
+  }
+]</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+<div id="the-json-ld-processing-algorithm" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>The JSON-LD Processing Algorithm</h2>
+
+<p>
+The processing algorithm described in this section is provided in
+order to demonstrate how one might implement a JSON-LD processor. 
+Conformant implementations are only required to produce the same type and
+number of triples during the output process and are not required to 
+implement the algorithm exactly as described.
+</p>
+
+<p class="issue">The Processing Algorithm is a work in progress, there are
+still major bugs in the algorithm and it's difficult to follow. It's provided
+only to very early implementers to give them an idea of how to implement a
+processor.</p>
+
+<h4 id="processing-algorithm-terms">Processing Algorithm Terms</h4>
+<ul>
+<li><dfn title="default_context" id="dfn-default_context">default context</dfn> - a context that is specified to the
+JSON-LD processing algorithm before processing begins.</li>
+<li><dfn title="default_graph" id="dfn-default_graph">default graph</dfn> - the destination graph for all triples
+generated by JSON-LD markup.</li>
+<li><dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">active subject</dfn> - the currently active subject that the
+processor should use when generating triples.</li>
+<li><dfn title="inherited_subject" id="dfn-inherited_subject">inherited subject</dfn> - a subject that was detected at a
+higher level of processing to be used to generate a triple once a 
+<a class="tref" title="current_subject">current subject</a> is discovered or generated.</li>
+<li><dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">active property</dfn> - the currently active property that the
+processor should use when generating triples.</li>
+<li><dfn title="inherited_property" id="dfn-inherited_property">inherited property</dfn> - a property that was detected at a
+higher level of processing to be used to generate a triple once a 
+<a class="tref" title="current_subject">current subject</a> is discovered or generated.</li>
+<li><dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">active object</dfn> - the currently active object that the
+processor should use when generating triples.</li>
+<li><dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">active context</dfn> - a context that is used to resolve
+CURIEs while the processing algorithm is running. The 
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> is the top-most item on the 
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> stack.</li>
+<li><dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">local context</dfn> - a context that is specified at the JSON
+associative-array level, specified via the <code>#</code> key.</li>
+<li><dfn title="list_of_incomplete_triples" id="dfn-list_of_incomplete_triples">list of incomplete triples</dfn> - A list of triples that have
+yet to have their subject set.</li>
+<li><dfn title="list_of_unprocessed_items" id="dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">list of unprocessed items</dfn> - A list of objects that cannot be
+processed until a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> is detected or the end of the
+current associative-array is detected.</li>
+<li><dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">processor state</dfn> - the processor state, which includes
+the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> stack, <a class="tref" title="current_subject">current subject</a>, 
+<a class="tref" title="current_property">current property</a>,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_incomplete_triples" href="#dfn-list_of_incomplete_triples">list of incomplete triples</a>, and the 
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">list of unprocessed items</a>.
+</li></ul>
+
+<h4 id="processing-tokens-and-keywords">Processing Tokens and Keywords</h4>
+<ul>
+<li><code>#</code> - Used to set the active context.</li>
+<li><code>#base</code> - Used to set the base IRI for all object IRIs affected 
+by the active context.</li>
+<li><code>#vocab</code> - Used to set the base IRI for all property IRIs
+affected by the active context.</li>
+<li><code>#types</code> - Used to specify type coercion.
+<div class="issue">The #types keyword assumes 
+<a href="#type-coercion">Type Coercion</a>, which is an 
+experimental feature.</div></li>
+<li><code><</code> and <code>></code> - Used to express IRIs in
+JSON values.</li>
+<li><code>:</code> - The separator for CURIEs when used in JSON keys or
+JSON values.</li>
+<li><code>@</code> - Sets the active subjects.</li>
+<li><code>a</code> - Used to set the rdf:type of the active subjects.</li>
+<li><code>\</code> - Used as an escape character to escape all the special
+tokens and keywords.</li>
+<li><code>^^</code> - Used to express the data type for Typed Literals.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>The algorithm below is designed for streaming (SAX-based) implementations.
+Implementers will find that non-streaming (document-based) implementations will
+be much easier to implement as full access to the JSON object model eliminates 
+some of the steps that are necessary for streaming implementations. A conforming
+JSON-LD processor <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> implement a processing algorithm that results in the 
+same <a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">default graph</a> that the following algorithm generates:</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li id="processing-step-default-context">If a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_context" href="#dfn-default_context">default context</a> is 
+supplied to the
+processing algorithm, push it onto the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> stack.</li>
+
+<li id="processing-step-associative">If an associative array is 
+detected, create a new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>. Copy the <a class="tref" title="current_context">current context</a> stack to
+the newly created <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>. Push the 
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> onto the newly created 
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> stack. For each 
+key-value pair in the associative array, using the newly created
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> do the following:
+
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+
+    <li>If a <code>#</code> key is found, the processor
+    merges each key-value pair in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> into the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>, overwriting
+    any duplicate values in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>. 
+    Process each object in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">list of unprocessed items</a>, 
+    starting at <a href="#processing-subject">Step 2.2</a>.</li>
+
+    <li id="processing-associative">If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> has not been detected, the current
+    key-value pair is placed into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">list of unprocessed items</a>
+    and processing proceeds to the next key-value pair. Otherwise, if the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> is known perform the following steps:</li>
+
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+
+      <li id="processing-subject">If a <code>@</code> key is found, the 
+      processor sets the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> to the value after 
+      <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Object Processing</a> has been performed.
+
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_subject" href="#dfn-inherited_subject">inherited subject</a> and 
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_property" href="#dfn-inherited_property">inherited property</a> values are specified, generate a triple
+        using the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_subject" href="#dfn-inherited_subject">inherited subject</a> for the subject, the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_property" href="#dfn-inherited_property">inherited property</a> for the property, and the 
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> for the object.
+        </li>
+ 
+        <li>If there are any triples in the 
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_incomplete_triples" href="#dfn-list_of_incomplete_triples">list of incomplete triples</a>, complete each triple using the 
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> as the subject for each triple.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+
+      </li>
+
+      <li>If an <code>a</code> key is found, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> 
+      to <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type</code>.
+      </li>
+
+      <li>If a key that is not <code>#</code>, 
+      <code>@</code>, or <code>a</code> is found, set the 
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> by performing 
+      <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Property Processing</a> on the key.
+      </li>
+
+      <li>If the value is not an array, set the 
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> by performing 
+      <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Object Processing</a> on the value. 
+      Generate a triple representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is an associative array, then
+      process the value starting at 
+      <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is a regular array, then process the value 
+      starting at 
+      <a href="#processing-step-array">Step 3</a> ensuring that
+      the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> and the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+      are copied to a newly created <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the end of the associative array is detected, and a
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> was not discovered, then:
+      
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>Generate a <a class="tref" title="blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a> and set it as the 
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>.</li>
+
+        <li>Complete any previously incomplete triples by running all substeps 
+        of <a href="#processing-subject">Step 2.2.1</a>.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+
+      </li><li>If the end of the associative array is detected, and a
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> was not discovered, then assume that the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> is unmodified and run all substeps of
+      <a href="#processing-associative">Step 2.2</a>
+      on the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unprocessed_items" href="#dfn-list_of_unprocessed_items">list of unprocessed items</a>.
+     </li></ol>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+
+  <li id="processing-step-array">If a regular array is detected, 
+  process each value in the array by doing the following:
+
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the value is an associative array, processes per 
+      <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a>, ensuring to set
+      the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_subject" href="#dfn-inherited_subject">inherited subject</a> to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>
+      and the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="inherited_property" href="#dfn-inherited_property">inherited property</a> to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+      in the newly created <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is not an array, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> 
+      by performing <a href="#markup-of-rdf-concepts">Object Processing</a> on 
+      the value. Generate a triple representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, 
+      the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> and 
+      place it into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">default graph</a>.</li>
+
+      <li>If the value is a regular array, should we support RDF 
+      List/Sequence Processing? 
+      <div class="issue">If the value is a regular array, should we support 
+      RDF List/Sequence generation of triples? For example, would implementing
+      this be worth the more complex processing rules: "ex:orderedItems" : 
+      [["one", "two", "three"]]</div></li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+</ol>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="markup-of-rdf-concepts" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Markup of RDF Concepts</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD is designed to ensure that most Linked Data concepts can be marked up
+in a way that is simple to understand and author by Web developers. In many
+cases, Javascript objects can become Linked Data with the simple addition
+of a context. Since RDF is also an important sub-community of the Linked
+Data movement, it is important that all RDF concepts are well-represented
+in this specification. This section details how each RDF concept can be
+expressed in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<p class="issue">The current specification relies on microsyntaxes to 
+express things like IRIs, typed literals and CURIEs. There is a small amount
+of debate on whether or not to use full-blown JSON objects containing things
+like "value" and "datatype". The original authors of the JSON-LD specification
+feel that microsyntaxes allow a much simpler, less error-prone structure in 
+the JSON-LD objects. Proponents of the verbose mechanism assert that there
+would be less chance of data markup issues concerning proper escaping and 
+that the objects, while more verbose, would be easier to work with within
+JavaScript environments. Feedback on this issue would be appreciated.</p>
+
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.1 </span>IRIs</h3>
+
+<p>Expressing IRIs are fundamental to Linked Data as that is how most subjects
+and many objects are identified. IRIs can be expressed by wrapping a
+text string with the <code><</code> and <code>></code> characters.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:homepage": "<span class="diff">&lt;</span>http://manu.sporny.org<span class="diff">&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the object to an IRI with the value of
+<code>http://manu.sporny.org</code>.
+</p>
+
+<p>Wrapping IRIs with the  <code><</code> and <code>></code> 
+characters are only necessary when IRIs are specified as objects. At no other
+point do you need to wrap an IRI. You do not need to wrap IRIs when declaring 
+a property, declaring a CURIE, or describing key-value pairs in a context.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</h3>
+
+<p>A subject is declared using the <code>@</code> key. The subject is the
+first piece of information needed by the JSON-LD processor in order to
+create the (subject, predicate, object) tuple, also known as a triple.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "<span class="diff">@</span>": "<span class="diff">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the subject to 
+<code><http://example.org/people#joebob></code>.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.3 </span>Specifying the Type</h3>
+
+<p>The type of a particular subject can be specified using the <code>a</code>
+key. Specifying the type in this way will generate a triple of the form 
+(subject, type, type-url).</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;",
+  "<span class="diff">a</span>": "<span class="diff">&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triple 
+(in N-Triples notation):</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+      &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.4 </span>Plain Literals</h3>
+
+<p>Regular text strings are called "plain literals" in RDF and are easily
+expressed using regular JSON strings.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="language-specification-in-plain-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.5 </span>Language Specification in Plain Literals</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD attempts to make sure that it is easy to express triples in other
+languages while simultaneously ensuring that hefty data structures 
+aren't required to accomplish simple language markup. When the 
+<code>@</code> symbol is used in a literal, the JSON-LD processor tags
+the literal text with the language tag that follows the <code>@</code>
+symbol.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "<span class="diff">花澄@ja</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate a plain literal for <em>花澄</em> and
+associate the <code>ja</code> language tag with the triple that is
+generated. Languages <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be expressed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>] format.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="typed-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.6 </span>Typed Literals</h3>
+
+<p>Literals may also be typed in JSON-LD by using the <code>^^</code>
+sequence at the end of the text string.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "dc:modified": "<span class="diff">2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate an object with the value of
+<code>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</code> and the datatype of
+<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD author can express multiple triples in a compact way by using
+arrays. If a subject has multiple values for the same property, the author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> express each property as an array.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;",
+  "foaf:nick": <span class="diff">["stu", "groknar", "radface"]</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The markup shown above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "stu" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "groknar" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "radface" .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<p>Multiple typed literals are expressed very much in the same way as 
+multiple properties:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;",
+  "dcterms:modified": <span class="diff">["2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00^^xsd:dateTime", "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00^^xsd:dateTime"</span>],
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The markup shown above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="blank-nodes" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.9 </span>Blank Nodes</h3>
+
+<p>At times, it becomes necessary to be able to express information without
+being able to specify the subject. Typically, this is where blank nodes come
+into play. In JSON-LD, blank node identifiers are automatically created if a 
+subject is not specified using the <code>@</code> key. However, authors may
+name blank nodes by using the special <code>_</code> CURIE prefix.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "@": "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the subject to <code>_:foo</code>, which can
+then be used later on in the JSON-LD markup to refer back to the 
+named blank node.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="escape-character" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.10 </span>Escape Character</h3>
+
+<p>Special characters in property values <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be escaped in order to not be 
+interpreted as CURIEs, IRIs, language tags, or TypedLiterals.</p>
+
+<p>The special characters in JSON-LD are: <code><</code>, <code>></code>,
+<code>@</code>, <code>#</code>, <code>:</code> and <code>^</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "example:code": <span class="diff">"\\&lt;foobar\\^\\^2\\&gt;"</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">5.11 </span>Automatic Typing</h3>
+
+<p>Since JSON is capable of expressing typed information such as decimals, 
+integers and boolean values, JSON-LD utilizes that information to create 
+<a href="#typed-literals">Typed Literals</a>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:decimal
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  "chem:protons": <span class="diff">12</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  "sensor:active": <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="best-practices" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">6. </span>Best Practices</h2>
+
+<p>The nature of Web programming allows one to use basic technologies, such as
+JSON-LD, across a variety of systems and environments. This section attempts to
+describe some of those environments and the way in which JSON-LD can be 
+integrated in order to help alleviate certain development headaches.
+</p>
+
+<div id="javascript" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">6.1 </span>JavaScript</h3>
+
+<p class="issue">It is expected that JSON-LD will be used quite a bit in 
+JavaScript environments, however, features like IRIs requiring angled
+brackets in JSON-LD means that using JSON-LD directly in JavaScript is going
+to be annoying without a middleware layer such as a simple library that 
+strips JSON-LD markup before JavaScript uses it. One could say that JSON-LD
+is a good fit for the RDFa API, which would enable a triple-store in the 
+browser, but some don't want to require that level of functionality just to use 
+JSON-LD. The group is still discussing the best way to proceed, so input
+on how JSON-LD could more easily be utilized in JavaScript environments
+would be very much appreciated.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="schema-less-databases" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Schema-less Databases</h3>
+
+<p class="issue">Databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB allow the creation of
+schema-less data stores. RDF is a type of schema-less data model and thus
+lends itself to databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB. Both of these databases
+can use JSON-LD as their storage format. The group needs feedback from 
+CouchDB and MongoDB experts regarding the usefulness of JSON-LD in those
+environments.</p>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="advanced-concepts" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Advanced Concepts</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">There are a few advanced concepts where it is not clear whether
+or not the JSON-LD specification is going to support the complexity necessary
+to support each concept. The entire section on Advanced Concepts should be
+taken with a grain of salt; it is merely a list of possibilities where all
+of the benefits and drawbacks have not been explored.
+</p>
+
+<div id="type-coercion" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">7.1 </span>Type Coercion</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD supports the coercion of types to ensure that the zero-edit goal of
+JSON-LD can be accomplished. Type coercion allows someone deploying JSON-LD to
+coerce and incoming or outgoing types to the proper RDF type based on a
+mapping of type IRIs to RDF types. Using type conversion, one may convert
+simple JSON data to properly typed RDF data.</p>
+
+<p>The example below demonstrates how a JSON-LD author can coerce values to 
+plain literals, typed literals and IRIs.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {  
+     "rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+<span class="diff">     "#types":
+     {
+        "name": "rdf:PlainLiteral",
+        "age": "xsd:integer",
+        "homepage": "xsd:anyURI",
+     }</span>
+  },
+  "name": <span class="diff">"&lt;John Smith&gt;"</span>,
+  "age": <span class="diff">"41"</span>,
+  "homepage": <span class="diff">"http://example.org/home/"</span>
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      "&lt;John Smith&gt;" .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+      &lt;http://example.org/home/&gt; .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="json-ld-profiles" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">7.2 </span>JSON-LD Profiles</h3>
+
+<p>One of the more powerful features of RDFa 1.1 Core is the ability to specify 
+a collection of prefixes and terms that can be re-used by a processor to simplfy
+markup. JSON-LD provides a similar mechanism called JSON-LD Profiles, which is 
+the inclusion of a context external to the JSON-LD document.</p>
+
+<p>The example below demonstrates how one may specify an external JSON-LD
+Profile. Assume the following profile exists at this imaginary URL:
+<code>http://example.org/profiles/contacts</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+     "#types":
+     {
+        "age": "xsd:integer",
+        "homepage": "xsd:anyURI",
+     }
+  }
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The profile listed above can be used in the following way:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": { "#profile": "http://example.org/profiles/contacts" },
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": "41",
+  "homepage": "http://example.org/home/"
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      "John Smith" .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+      &lt;http://example.org/home/&gt; .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="disjoint-graphs" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">7.3 </span>Disjoint Graphs</h3>
+
+<p>When serializing an RDF graph that contains two or more sections of the
+graph which are entirely disjoint, one must use an array to express the graph
+as two graphs. This may not be acceptable to some authors, who would rather
+express the information as one graph. Since, by definition, disjoint graphs
+require there to be two top-level objects, JSON-LD utilizes a mechanism that
+allows disjoint graphs to be expressed using a single graph.</p>
+
+<p>Assume the following RDF graph:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#john&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+      &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#jane&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+      &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; .</pre>
+
+<p>Since the two subjects are entirely disjoint with one another, it is
+impossible to express the RDF graph above using a single JSON-LD associative
+array.</p>
+
+<p>In JSON-LD, one can use the subject to express disjoint graphs as a 
+single graph:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "#": { "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" },
+  "@": 
+  [
+    {
+      "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#john&gt;",
+      "a": "foaf:Person"
+    },
+    {
+      "@": "&lt;http://example.org/people#jane&gt;",
+      "a": "foaf:Person"
+    }
+  ]
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+
+<p>The editor would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of the
+rationale and reasoning behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj, 
+Dave Longley who reviewed and provided feedback on the overall 
+specification and contexts, and Ian Davis, who created RDF/JSON. Thanks also
+to Bradley P. Allen and Richard Cyganiak for their input on the 
+specification.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div id="references" class="appendix section">
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-BCP47">[BCP47]</dt><dd>A. Phillips, M. Davis. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a> September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt">http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd>D. Crockford <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</a> July 2006. Internet RFC 4627. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-MICRODATA">[MICRODATA]</dt><dd>Ian Hickson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICROFORMATS">[MICROFORMATS]</dt><dd><a href="http://microformats.org"><cite>Microformats</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://microformats.org">http://microformats.org</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-CORE">[RDFA-CORE]</dt><dd>Shane McCarron; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803"><cite>RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</cite></a>3 August 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803">http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-rdfa-core-20100803</a> 
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/20101024/spec.css	Sun Oct 24 23:50:42 2010 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
--- a/spec/latest/index.html	Sat Oct 16 17:13:19 2010 -0400
+++ b/spec/latest/index.html	Sun Oct 24 23:50:42 2010 -0400
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
 
           // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
           // and its maturity status
-          previousPublishDate:  "2010-08-23",
+          previousPublishDate:  "2010-10-14",
           previousMaturity:  "ED",
 
           // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
@@ -201,7 +201,7 @@
           wgPatentURI:  "",
           maxTocLevel: 3,
           preProcess: [ preProc ],
-          //alternateFormats: [ {uri: "diff-20100823.html", label: "diff to previous version"} ],
+          //alternateFormats: [ {uri: "diff-20101014.html", label: "diff to previous version"} ],
       };
 
       function updateExample(doc, content) {
@@ -529,7 +529,8 @@
 {
   "#": 
   {
-    "__vocab__": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+    "#vocab": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+    "#base": "http://example.org/baseurl/",
     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
     "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
     "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
@@ -547,11 +548,16 @@
 -->
 </pre>
 
-<p>The <code>__vocab__</code> prefix is a special prefix that states 
+<p>The <code>#vocab</code> string is a special keyword that states 
 that any term that doesn't resolve to a term or a prefix should be 
-appended to the <code>__vocab__</code> IRI. This is done to ensure that 
+appended to the <code>#vocab</code> IRI. This is done to ensure that 
 terms can be transformed to an IRI at all times.
 </p>
+
+<p>The <code>#base</code> string is a special keyword that states 
+that any relative IRI MUST be appended to the string specified by
+<code>#base</code>.
+</p>
 </section>
 </section>
 
@@ -778,6 +784,28 @@
 <tref>list of unprocessed items</tref>.
 </ul>
 
+<h4>Processing Tokens and Keywords</h4>
+<ul>
+<li><code>#</code> - Used to set the active context.</li>
+<li><code>#base</code> - Used to set the base IRI for all object IRIs affected 
+by the active context.</li>
+<li><code>#vocab</code> - Used to set the base IRI for all property IRIs
+affected by the active context.</li>
+<li><code>#types</code> - Used to specify type coercion.
+<div class="issue">The #types keyword assumes 
+<a href="#type-coercion">Type Coercion</a>, which is an 
+experimental feature.</div></li>
+<li><code>&lt;</code> and <code>&gt;</code> - Used to express IRIs in
+JSON values.</li>
+<li><code>:</code> - The separator for CURIEs when used in JSON keys or
+JSON values.</li>
+<li><code>@</code> - Sets the active subjects.</li>
+<li><code>a</code> - Used to set the rdf:type of the active subjects.</li>
+<li><code>\</code> - Used as an escape character to escape all the special
+tokens and keywords.</li>
+<li><code>^^</code> - Used to express the data type for Typed Literals.</li>
+</ul>
+
 <p>The algorithm below is designed for streaming (SAX-based) implementations.
 Implementers will find that non-streaming (document-based) implementations will
 be much easier to implement as full access to the JSON object model eliminates 
@@ -921,6 +949,16 @@
 in this specification. This section details how each RDF concept can be
 expressed in JSON-LD.</p>
 
+<p class="issue">The current specification relies on microsyntaxes to 
+express things like IRIs, typed literals and CURIEs. There is a small amount
+of debate on whether or not to use full-blown JSON objects containing things
+like "value" and "datatype". The original authors of the JSON-LD specification
+feel that microsyntaxes allow a much simpler, less error-prone structure in 
+the JSON-LD objects. Proponents of the verbose mechanism assert that there
+would be less chance of data markup issues concerning proper escaping and 
+that the objects, while more verbose, would be easier to work with within
+JavaScript environments. Feedback on this issue would be appreciated.</p>
+
 <section>
 <h2>IRIs</h2>
 
@@ -1213,6 +1251,44 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
+<h1>Best Practices</h1>
+
+<p>The nature of Web programming allows one to use basic technologies, such as
+JSON-LD, across a variety of systems and environments. This section attempts to
+describe some of those environments and the way in which JSON-LD can be 
+integrated in order to help alleviate certain development headaches.
+</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>JavaScript</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">It is expected that JSON-LD will be used quite a bit in 
+JavaScript environments, however, features like IRIs requiring angled
+brackets in JSON-LD means that using JSON-LD directly in JavaScript is going
+to be annoying without a middleware layer such as a simple library that 
+strips JSON-LD markup before JavaScript uses it. One could say that JSON-LD
+is a good fit for the RDFa API, which would enable a triple-store in the 
+browser, but some don't want to require that level of functionality just to use 
+JSON-LD. The group is still discussing the best way to proceed, so input
+on how JSON-LD could more easily be utilized in JavaScript environments
+would be very much appreciated.
+</p>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Schema-less Databases</h2>
+
+<p class="issue">Databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB allow the creation of
+schema-less data stores. RDF is a type of schema-less data model and thus
+lends itself to databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB. Both of these databases
+can use JSON-LD as their storage format. The group needs feedback from 
+CouchDB and MongoDB experts regarding the usefulness of JSON-LD in those
+environments.</p>
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h1>Advanced Concepts</h1>
 
 <p class="issue">There are a few advanced concepts where it is not clear whether
@@ -1223,6 +1299,122 @@
 </p>
 
 <section>
+<h2>Type Coercion</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD supports the coercion of types to ensure that the zero-edit goal of
+JSON-LD can be accomplished. Type coercion allows someone deploying JSON-LD to
+coerce and incoming or outgoing types to the proper RDF type based on a
+mapping of type IRIs to RDF types. Using type conversion, one may convert
+simple JSON data to properly typed RDF data.</p>
+
+<p>The example below demonstrates how a JSON-LD author can coerce values to 
+plain literals, typed literals and IRIs.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "#": 
+  {  
+     "rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+****     "#types":
+     {
+        "name": "rdf:PlainLiteral",
+        "age": "xsd:integer",
+        "homepage": "xsd:anyURI",
+     }****
+  },
+  "name": ****"<John Smith>"****,
+  "age": ****"41"****,
+  "homepage": ****"http://example.org/home/"****
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+_:bnode1
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name>
+      "<John Smith>" .
+_:bnode1
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age>
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage>
+      <http://example.org/home/> .
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>JSON-LD Profiles</h2>
+
+<p>One of the more powerful features of RDFa 1.1 Core is the ability to specify 
+a collection of prefixes and terms that can be re-used by a processor to simplfy
+markup. JSON-LD provides a similar mechanism called JSON-LD Profiles, which is 
+the inclusion of a context external to the JSON-LD document.</p>
+
+<p>The example below demonstrates how one may specify an external JSON-LD
+Profile. Assume the following profile exists at this imaginary URL:
+<code>http://example.org/profiles/contacts</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "#": 
+  {
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+     "#types":
+     {
+        "age": "xsd:integer",
+        "homepage": "xsd:anyURI",
+     }
+  }
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The profile listed above can be used in the following way:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+{
+  "#": { "#profile": "http://example.org/profiles/contacts" },
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": "41",
+  "homepage": "http://example.org/home/"
+}
+-->
+</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
+<!--
+_:bnode1
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name>
+      "John Smith" .
+_:bnode1
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age>
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage>
+      <http://example.org/home/> .
+-->
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h2>Disjoint Graphs</h2>
 
 <p>When serializing an RDF graph that contains two or more sections of the
@@ -1280,7 +1472,9 @@
 <p>The editor would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of the
 rationale and reasoning behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj, 
 Dave Longley who reviewed and provided feedback on the overall 
-specification and contexts, and Ian Davis, who created RDF/JSON.</p>
+specification and contexts, and Ian Davis, who created RDF/JSON. Thanks also
+to Bradley P. Allen and Richard Cyganiak for their input on the 
+specification.</p>
 </section>
 
 </body>