Froze ED versions of Syntax and API. Diffs later, due to issues with server permissions.
authorGregg Kellogg <gregg@kellogg-assoc.com>
Sun, 23 Oct 2011 17:20:52 -0700
changeset 239 2cdfb7cc0e1b
parent 238 24495e36e257
child 240 5c35c065d935
Froze ED versions of Syntax and API. Diffs later, due to issues with server permissions.
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spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20111023/index.html
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+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/w3c-unofficial" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8" /></head>
+
+<body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p></p><h1 class="title" id="title">The JSON-LD API 1.0</h1><h2 id="subtitle">An Application Programming Interface for the JSON-LD Syntax</h2><h2 id="unofficial-draft-24-october-2011">Unofficial Draft 24 October 2011</h2><dl><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://manu.sporny.org/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">Gregg Kellogg</a>, <a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">Kellogg Associates</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Dave Longley</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Dave Longley</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">Gregg Kellogg</a>, <a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">Kellogg Associates</a></dd>
+</dl><p>This document is also available in this non-normative format: <a href="diff-20111016.html">diff to previous version</a>.</p><p class="copyright">This document is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>.</p><hr /></div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+JSON [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] has proven to be a highly useful object serialization and
+messaging format. JSON-LD [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>] harmonizes the representation of 
+Linked Data in JSON by outlining a common JSON representation format for
+expressing directed graphs; mixing both Linked Data and non-Linked Data in
+a single document. This document outlines an Application Programming
+Interface and a set of algorithms for programmatically transforming 
+JSON-LD documents.
+</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p>This document is merely a public working draft of a potential specification. It has no official standing of any kind and does not represent the support or consensus of any standards organisation.</p>
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+
+<!--  <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p>  -->
+
+</div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>How to Read this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Linked Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#contributing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Contributing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-application-programming-interface" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>The Application Programming Interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#jsonldprocessor" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>JsonLdProcessor</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#jsonldtriplecallback" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>JsonLdTripleCallback</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#methods-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Algorithms</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Algorithm Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#context-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Context</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Value Compaction</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expansion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Expansion</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Expansion Algorithm</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#compaction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Compaction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Compaction Algorithm</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#framing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Framing</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Framing Algorithm Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Framing Algorithm</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#normalization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Normalization</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normalization-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.1 </span>Normalization Algorithm Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#normalization-state" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.2 </span>Normalization State</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#normalization-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.3 </span>Normalization Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.4 </span>Node Relabeling Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#deterministic-labeling-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.5 </span>Deterministic Labeling Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#shallow-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.6 </span>Shallow Comparison Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#object-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.7 </span>Object Comparison Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.8 </span>Deep Comparison Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#node-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.9 </span>Node Serialization Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#serialization-label-generation-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.10 </span>Serialization Label Generation Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#combinatorial-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.11 </span>Combinatorial Serialization Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#serialization-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.12 </span>Serialization Comparison Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.13 </span>Mapping Serialization Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#label-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8.14 </span>Label Serialization Algorithm</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Data Round Tripping</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10 </span>RDF Conversion</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#overview" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10.1 </span>Overview</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10.2 </span>RDF Conversion Algorithm Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10.3 </span>RDF Conversion Algorithm</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.10.4 </span>Acknowledgements</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p>
+JSON, as specified in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>], is a simple language for representing
+data on the Web. Linked Data is a technique for creating a graph of interlinked data across
+different
+documents or Web sites. Data entities are described using <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s,
+which are typically dereferencable and thus may be used to find more
+information about an entity, creating a &quot;Web of Knowledge&quot;. JSON-LD is intended to be a simple
+publishing method for expressing not only Linked Data in JSON, but also for adding
+semantics to existing JSON.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+JSON-LD is designed as a light-weight syntax that can be used to express
+Linked Data. It is primarily intended to be a way to use Linked Data
+in Javascript and other Web-based programming environments. It is also
+useful when building interoperable Web services and when storing Linked
+Data in JSON-based document storage engines. It is practical and designed
+to be as simple as possible, utilizing the large number of JSON parsers
+and libraries available today. It is designed to be able to
+express key-value pairs, RDF data, RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">RDFA-CORE</a></cite>] data, Microformats
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">MICROFORMATS</a></cite>] data, and Microdata [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">MICRODATA</a></cite>]. That is, it supports
+every major Web-based structured data model in use today.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The syntax does not necessarily require applications to change their JSON, but
+allows to easily add meaning by adding context in a way that is either in-band or
+out-of-band. The syntax is designed to not disturb already deployed systems
+running on JSON, but provide a smooth upgrade path from JSON to JSON with
+added semantics. Finally, the format is intended to be easy to parse, efficient to
+generate, convertible to RDF in one pass, and require a very small memory footprint
+in order to operate.
+</p>
+
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>How to Read this Document</h3>
+
+<p>
+This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of Linked
+Data in JSON. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>Authors that want a very detailed view of how JSON-LD processors 
+  operate.</li>
+  <li>Software developers that want to implement processors and APIs for
+  JSON-LD.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+To understand the basics in this specification you must first be familiar with
+JSON, which is detailed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>]. You must also understand the
+JSON-LD Syntax [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>], which is the base syntax used by all of the
+algorithms in this document. To understand the API and how it is
+intended to operate  in a programming environment, it is useful to have working
+knowledge of the JavaScript programming language [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262">ECMA-262</a></cite>] and
+WebIDL [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL">WEBIDL</a></cite>]. To understand how JSON-LD maps to RDF, it is helpful to be
+familiar with the basic RDF concepts [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>].</p>
+
+<p>
+  Examples may contain references to existing vocabularies and use <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>es to refer to Web Vocabularies. The following is a list of all vocabularies and their <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> abbreviations, as used in this document:
+</p>
+<ul>
+  <li>The <a href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">Dublin Core</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>dc</code>, e.g., <code>dc:title</code>)</li>
+  <li>The <a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">Friend of a Friend</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>foaf</code>, e.g., <code>foaf:knows</code>)</li>
+  <li>The <a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">RDF</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>rdf</code>, e.g., <code>rdf:type</code>)</li>
+  <li>The <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">XSD</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>xsd</code>, e.g., <code>xsd:integer</code>)</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+  JSON [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] defines several terms which are used throughout this document:
+  </p><dl>
+    <dt><dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">JSON Object</dfn></dt><dd>
+      An object structure is represented as a pair of curly brackets surrounding zero or
+      more name/value pairs (or members). A name is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>. A single colon comes after
+      each name, separating the name from the value. A single comma separates a value
+      from a following name. The names within an object <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be unique.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">array</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      An array is an ordered collection of values. An array structure is represented as square brackets surrounding zero or more values (or elements). Elements are separated by commas.  Within JSON-LD, array order is not preserved by default, unless
+      specific markup is provided (see <a href="#lists">Lists</a>). This is because the basic data model of JSON-LD
+      is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a>, which is inherently unordered.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">string</dfn></dt><dd>
+      A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters, wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes. A
+      character is represented as a single character string.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">number</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      A number is is similar to that used in most programming languages, except that the octal and hexadecimal formats are not used and that leading zeros are not allowed.</dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">true</dfn> and <dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">false</dfn></dt><dd>
+      Boolean values.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">null</dfn></dt><dd>
+      The use of the <em>null</em> value is undefined within JSON-LD.
+      <div class="issue">Supporting <em>null</em> in JSON-LD might have a number of advantages and should be evaluated. This is currently an <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/11">open issue</a>.</div>
+    </dd>
+  </dl>
+<p></p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="linked-data" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Linked Data</h3>
+<p>
+The following definition for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> is the one that will
+be used for this specification.
+</p>
+<ol>
+  <li><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</dfn> is a set of documents, each containing a representation of a linked data graph.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</dfn> is an unordered labeled directed graph, where nodes are <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>s or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a>s, and edges are properties.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">subject</dfn> is any node in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a> with at least one outgoing edge.</li>
+  <li>A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be labeled with an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> (an Internationalized Resource Identifier as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]).</li>
+  <li>An <dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">object</dfn> is a node in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a> with at least one incoming edge.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be labeled with an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</li>
+  <li>An object <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> at the same time.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">property</dfn> is an edge of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a>.</li>
+  <li>A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be labeled with an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> that is a label in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be dereferencable to a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> document describing the labeled <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a>.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">literal</dfn> is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> with a label that is not an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a></li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+Note that the definition for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> above is silent on the
+topic of unlabeled nodes. Unlabeled nodes are not considered
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>. However, this specification allows for the expression
+of unlabled nodes, as most graph-based data sets on the Web contain a number
+of associated nodes that are not named and thus are not directly
+de-referenceable.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Contributing</h3>
+
+<p>There are a number of ways that one may participate in the development of
+this specification:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>Technical discussion typically occurs on the public mailing list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">[email protected]</a>
+</li>
+
+<li><a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">Public teleconferences</a> are held
+on Tuesdays at 1500UTC on the second and fourth week of each month.
+</li>
+
+<li>Specification bugs and issues should be reported in the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">issue tracker</a>.</li>
+
+<li><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">Source code</a> for the
+specification can be found on Github.</li>
+
+<li>The <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">#json-ld</a>
+IRC channel is available for real-time discussion on irc.freenode.net.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="the-application-programming-interface" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>The Application Programming Interface</h2>
+
+<p>This API provides a clean mechanism that enables developers to convert
+JSON-LD data into a a variety of output formats that are easier to work with in
+various programming languages. If a JSON-LD API is provided in a programming
+environment, the entirety of the following API <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be implemented.
+</p>
+
+<div id="jsonldprocessor" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>JsonLdProcessor</h3>
+<pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdProcessor">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdProcessor</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-object-object-input-object-context">expand</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-object-object-input-object-context">compact</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>, <span class="idlRaises"><a>ProcessingError</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-frame-object-object-input-object-frame-object-options">frame</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">frame</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">options</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidFrame</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-normalize-object-object-input-object-context">normalize</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>);</span>
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdProcessor-triples-object-object-input-JsonLdTripleCallback-tripleCallback-object-context">triples</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">input</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdTripleCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdTripleCallback</code></a></span> <span class="idlParamName">tripleCallback</span></span>, <span class="idlParam">optional <span class="idlParamType"><a>object</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">context</span></span>) raises (<span class="idlRaises"><a>InvalidContext</a></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre><div id="methods" class="section"><h4><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Methods</h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-compact-object-object-input-object-context"><code>compact</code></dt><dd><a href="#compaction">Compacts</a> the given <code>input</code>
+    according to the steps in the
+    <a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction Algorithm</a>. The
+    <code>input</code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be copied, compacted and returned if there are
+    no errors. If the compaction fails, an appropirate exception <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be
+    thrown.
+  
+
+    
+
+    
+
+  <table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">input</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The JSON-LD object to perform compaction on.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">context</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue">✔</td><td class="prmOptTrue">✔</td><td class="prmDesc">The base context to use when compacting the <code>input</code>.</td></tr></table><table class="exceptions"><tr><th>Exception</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="excName"><a>InvalidContext</a></td><td class="excDesc"><table class="exceptionCodes"><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>INVALID_SYNTAX</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">A general syntax error was detected in the <code>@context</code>.
+     For example, if a <code>@coerce</code> key maps to anything other than
+     a string or an array of strings, this exception would be raised.</td></tr><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>MULTIPLE_DATATYPES</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">There is more than one target datatype specified for a single
+     property in the list of coercion rules. This means that the processor
+     does not know what the developer intended for the target datatype for a
+     property.</td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="excName"><a>ProcessingError</a></td><td class="excDesc"><table class="exceptionCodes"><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>LOSSY_COMPACTION</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">The compaction would lead to a loss of information, such as a
+     <code>@language</code> value.</td></tr><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>CONFLICTING_DATATYPES</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">The target datatype specified in the coercion rule and the
+     datatype for the typed literal do not match.</td></tr></table></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>object</a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-expand-object-object-input-object-context"><code>expand</code></dt><dd><a href="#expansion">Expands</a> the given <code>input</code>
+    according to the steps in the
+    <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a>. The
+    <code>input</code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be copied, expanded and returned if there are
+    no errors. If the expansion fails, an appropriate exception <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be thrown.
+
+    
+
+    
+
+  <table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">input</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The JSON-LD object to copy and perform the expansion upon.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">context</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue">✔</td><td class="prmOptTrue">✔</td><td class="prmDesc">An external context to use additionally to the context embedded in <code>input</code> when expanding the <code>input</code>.</td></tr></table><table class="exceptions"><tr><th>Exception</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="excName"><a>InvalidContext</a></td><td class="excDesc"><table class="exceptionCodes"><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>INVALID_SYNTAX</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">A general syntax error was detected in the <code>@context</code>.
+     For example, if a <code>@coerce</code> key maps to anything other than
+     a string or an array of strings, this exception would be raised.</td></tr><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>MULTIPLE_DATATYPES</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">There is more than one target datatype specified for a single
+     property in the list of coercion rules. This means that the processor
+     does not know what the developer intended for the target datatype for a
+     property.</td></tr></table></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>object</a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-frame-object-object-input-object-frame-object-options"><code>frame</code></dt><dd><a href="#framing">Frames</a> the given <code>input</code>
+    using the <code>frame</code> according to the steps in the
+    <a href="#framing-algorithm">Framing Algorithm</a>. The
+    <code>input</code> is used to build the framed output and is returned if
+    there are no errors. If there are no matches for the frame,
+    <code>null</code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be returned. Exceptions <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be thrown if there are
+    errors.
+  
+
+    
+
+  <table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">input</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The JSON-LD object to perform framing on.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">frame</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The frame to use when re-arranging the data.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">options</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">A set of options that will affect the framing algorithm.</td></tr></table><table class="exceptions"><tr><th>Exception</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="excName"><a>InvalidFrame</a></td><td class="excDesc"><table class="exceptionCodes"><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>INVALID_SYNTAX</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">A frame must be either an object or an array of objects, if the frame
+    is neither of these types, this exception is thrown.</td></tr><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>MULTIPLE_EMBEDS</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">A subject IRI was specified in more than one place in the input
+    frame. More than one embed of a given subject IRI is not allowed, and if
+    requested, <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> result in this exception.</td></tr></table></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>object</a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-normalize-object-object-input-object-context"><code>normalize</code></dt><dd><a href="#normalization">Normalizes</a> the given <code>input</code>
+    according to the steps in the
+    <a href="#normalization-algorithm">Normalization Algorithm</a>. The
+    <code>input</code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be copied, normalized and returned if there are
+    no errors. If the compaction fails, <code>null</code> <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be returned.
+  
+
+    
+
+  <table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">input</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The JSON-LD object to perform normalization upon.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">context</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue">✔</td><td class="prmOptTrue">✔</td><td class="prmDesc">An external context to use additionally to the context embedded in <code>input</code> when expanding the <code>input</code>.</td></tr></table><table class="exceptions"><tr><th>Exception</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="excName"><a>InvalidContext</a></td><td class="excDesc"><table class="exceptionCodes"><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>INVALID_SYNTAX</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">A general syntax error was detected in the <code>@context</code>.
+     For example, if a <code>@coerce</code> key maps to anything other than
+     a string or an array of strings, this exception would be raised.</td></tr><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>MULTIPLE_DATATYPES</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">There is more than one target datatype specified for a single
+     property in the list of coercion rules. This means that the processor
+     does not know what the developer intended for the target datatype for a
+     property.</td></tr></table></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>object</a></code></div></dd><dt id="widl-JsonLdProcessor-triples-object-object-input-JsonLdTripleCallback-tripleCallback-object-context"><code>triples</code></dt><dd>Processes the <code>input</code> according to the
+    <a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm">RDF Conversion Algorithm</a>, calling
+    the provided <code>tripleCallback</code> for each triple generated.
+  
+
+    
+
+  <table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">input</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The JSON-LD object to process when outputting triples.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">tripleCallback</td><td class="prmType"><code><a href="#idl-def-JsonLdTripleCallback" class="idlType"><code>JsonLdTripleCallback</code></a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">A callback that is called whenever a processing error occurs on
+     the given <code>input</code>.
+     <div class="issue">This callback should be aligned with the
+       RDF API.</div></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">context</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>object</a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue">✔</td><td class="prmOptTrue">✔</td><td class="prmDesc">An external context to use additionally to the context embedded in <code>input</code> when expanding the <code>input</code>.</td></tr></table><table class="exceptions"><tr><th>Exception</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="excName"><a>InvalidContext</a></td><td class="excDesc"><table class="exceptionCodes"><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>INVALID_SYNTAX</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">A general syntax error was detected in the <code>@context</code>.
+     For example, if a <code>@coerce</code> key maps to anything other than
+     a string or an array of strings, this exception would be raised.</td></tr><tr><td class="excCodeName"><code>MULTIPLE_DATATYPES</code></td><td class="excCodeDesc">There is more than one target datatype specified for a single
+     property in the list of coercion rules. This means that the processor
+     does not know what the developer intended for the target datatype for a
+     property.</td></tr></table></td></tr></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>object</a></code></div></dd></dl></div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="jsonldtriplecallback" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>JsonLdTripleCallback</h3>
+<p>The JsonLdTripleCallback is called whenever the processor generates a
+triple during the <code>triple()</code> call.</p>
+
+<pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-JsonLdTripleCallback">[<span class="extAttr">NoInterfaceObject Callback</span>]
+interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">JsonLdTripleCallback</span> {
+<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType"><a>void</a></span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdTripleCallback-triple-void-DOMString-subject-DOMString-property-DOMString-objectType-DOMString-object-DOMString-datatype-DOMString-language">triple</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">subject</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">property</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">objectType</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a></span> <span class="idlParamName">object</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">datatype</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType"><a>DOMString</a>?</span> <span class="idlParamName">language</span></span>);</span>
+};</span>
+</pre><div id="methods-1" class="section"><h4><span class="secno">2.2.1 </span>Methods</h4><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-JsonLdTripleCallback-triple-void-DOMString-subject-DOMString-property-DOMString-objectType-DOMString-object-DOMString-datatype-DOMString-language"><code>triple</code></dt><dd>This callback is invoked whenever a triple is generated by the processor.
+  
+  <table class="parameters"><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">subject</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>DOMString</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The subject IRI that is associated with the triple.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">property</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>DOMString</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The property IRI that is associated with the triple.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">objectType</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>DOMString</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The type of object that is associated with the triple. Valid values
+       are <code>IRI</code> and <code>literal</code>.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">object</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>DOMString</a></code></td><td class="prmNullFalse">✘</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The object value associated with the subject and the property.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">datatype</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>DOMString</a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue">✔</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The datatype associated with the object.</td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">language</td><td class="prmType"><code><a>DOMString</a></code></td><td class="prmNullTrue">✔</td><td class="prmOptFalse">✘</td><td class="prmDesc">The language associated with the object in BCP47 format.</td></tr></table><div><em>No exceptions.</em></div><div><em>Return type: </em><code><a>void</a></code></div></dd></dl></div>
+</div>
+
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="algorithms" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Algorithms</h2>
+
+<p>All algorithms described in this section are intended to operate on
+language-native data structures. That is, the serialization to a text-based
+JSON document isn't required as input or output to any of these algorithms and
+language-native data structures <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be used where applicable.</p>
+
+<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Syntax Tokens and Keywords</h3>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD specifies a number of syntax tokens and keywords that are using
+  in all algorithms described in this section:</p>
+
+  <dl>
+  <dt><code>@context</code></dt><dd>Used to set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@base</code></dt><dd>Used to set the base IRI for all object IRIs affected  by the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@vocab</code></dt><dd>Used to set the base IRI for all property IRIs affected by the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@coerce</code></dt><dd>Used to specify type coercion rules.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@literal</code></dt><dd>Used to specify a literal value.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@iri</code></dt><dd>Used to specify an IRI value.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@language</code></dt><dd>Used to specify the language for a literal.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@datatype</code></dt><dd>Used to specify the datatype for a literal.</dd>
+  <dt><code>:</code></dt><dd>The separator for JSON keys and values that use the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> mechanism.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@subject</code></dt><dd>Sets the active subject.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@type</code></dt><dd>Used to set the type of the active subject.</dd>
+  </dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="algorithm-terms" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Algorithm Terms</h3>
+  <dl>
+    <dt><dfn title="initial_context" id="dfn-initial_context">initial context</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      a context that is specified to the algorithm before processing begins.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject">active subject</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      the currently active subject that the processor should use when
+      processing.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property">active property</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      the currently active property that the processor should use when
+      processing.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object">active object</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      the currently active object that the processor should use when
+      processing.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">active context</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      a context that is used to resolve <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s while the processing
+      algorithm is running. The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> is the context
+      contained within the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">local context</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      a context that is specified within a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>,
+      specified via the <code>@context</code> keyword.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state">processor state</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>, which includes the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active
+      context</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, and
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>. The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> is managed
+      as a stack with elements from the previous <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>
+      copied into a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> when entering a new
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="json-ld_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      The JSON-LD data structure that is provided as input to the algorithm.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="json-ld_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      The JSON-LD data structure that is produced as output by the algorithm.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">term</dfn></dt><dd>
+      A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> is a short word defined with a <a href="#context">context</a> that <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be expanded
+    to an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">prefix</dfn></dt><dd>
+      A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> that expands to a Web Vocabulary base IRI. It
+      is typically used along with a <em>suffix</em> to create an IRI within a Web Vocabulary.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</dfn></dt><dd>
+      A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a> is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">literal</a> without a datatype, possibly including
+      a language.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</dfn></dt><dd>
+      A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a> is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="literal" href="#dfn-literal">literal</a> with an associated <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>
+      which indicates the literal's datatype.
+    </dd>
+  </dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="context-1" class="section">
+  <h3 id="context"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Context</h3>
+  <p>
+    Processing of JSON-LD data structure is managed recursively.
+    During processing, each rule is applied using information provided by the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.
+    Processing begins by pushing a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> onto the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> stack and
+    initializing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">initial context</a>. If a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> is encountered,
+    information from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> is merged into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> is used for expanding keys and values of a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> (or elements
+    of a list (see <span a="#list-processing">List Processing</span>)).
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> is identified within a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> having a key of
+    <code>@context</code> with <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> or a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> value. When processing a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>, special processing rules apply:
+  </p>
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+    <li>Create a new, empty <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>.</li>
+    <li>Let <em>value</em> be the value of <code>@context</code></li>
+    <ol id="process-context" class="algorithm">
+      <li>If <em>value</em> is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, process
+        each element as <em>value</em>, in order using <a href="#process-context">Step 2</a>.
+      </li><li>
+        If <em>value</em> is a simple <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>, it <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a lexical form of IRI.
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>Set <em>value</em> to the result of performing <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a>
+            on <em>value</em>.
+          </li><li>If <em>value</em> does is not an absolute IRI, abort this processing step.
+            Otherwise, Dereference <em>value</em>.</li>
+          <li>If the resulting document is a JSON document, extract the top-level <code>@context</code>
+            element using the JSON Pointer &quot;/@context&quot; as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-POINTER">JSON-POINTER</a></cite>]. Set <em>value</em>
+            to the extracted content, or an empty <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON Object</a> if no value exists.</li>
+        </ol>
+      </li>
+    <li>If <em>value</em> is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>, perform the following steps:
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>
+          If <em>value</em> has a <code>@base</code> key, it <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a value of a simple
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> with the lexical form of an absolute IRI. Add the base mapping to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local
+          context</a>. <p class="issue">Turtle allows @base to be relative. If we did this, we
+          would have to add <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a>.</p>
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If <em>value</em> has a <code>@vocab</code> key, it <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a value of a simple
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> with the lexical form of an absolute IRI. Add the vocabulary mapping to the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> after performing <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> on
+          the associated value.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If <em>value</em> has a <code>@coerce</code> key, it <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a value of a
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>. Add the <code>@coerce</code> mapping to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>
+          performing <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> on the associated value(s).
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If <em>value</em> has a <code>@language</code> key, it <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a value of a
+          simple <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> or <code>null</code>. Add the language to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          Otherwise, for each key in <em>value</em>having the lexical form of <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName">NCName</a></cite>, it's value
+          <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have be a simple <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> with the lexical form of IRI. Merge the key-value
+          pair into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+    </li>
+    <li>
+      Merge the of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>'s <code>@coerce</code> mapping into  the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>'s <code>@coerce</code> mapping as described <a href="#coerce">below</a>.
+    </li>
+    <li>
+      Merge all entries other than the <code>@coerce</code> mapping from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> to the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> overwriting any duplicate values.
+    </li>
+  </ol>
+
+  <div class="section">
+    <h4 id="coerce">Coerce</h4>
+    <p>
+      Map each key-value pair in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>'s
+      <code>@coerce</code> mapping into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>'s
+      <code>@coerce</code> mapping, overwriting any duplicate values in
+      the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>'s <code>@coerce</code> mapping.
+      The <code>@coerce</code> mapping has either a single
+      <code>prefix:suffix</code> value, a single <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> value or an
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> of <code>prefix:suffix</code> or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> values.
+      When merging with an existing mapping in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>,
+      map all <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> values to
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> form and replace with the union of the value from
+      the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> and the value of the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>. If the result is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>
+      with a single value, the processor <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> represent this as a string value.
+    </p>
+  </div>
+
+  <div class="section">
+    <h4 id="initial-context">Initial Context</h4>
+    <p>The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">initial context</a> is initialized as follows:</p>
+    <ul>
+      <li>
+        <code>@base</code> is set using <cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">section 5.1 Establishing a
+        Base URI</a><a></a></cite><a> of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>]. Processors <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> provide a means
+        of setting the base IRI programatically.
+      </a></li><a>
+      <li><code>@coerce</code> is set with a single mapping from <code>@iri</code> to <code>@type</code>.</li>
+    </a></ul><a>
+    <pre class="example">{
+    &quot;@base&quot;: <span class="diff">document-location</span>,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;: {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;@type&quot;
+    }
+}</pre>
+  </a></div><a>
+</a></ol></div><a>
+
+<div class="section">
+  <h3 id="iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</h3>
+  <p>Keys and some values are evaluated to produce an IRI. This section defines an algorithm for
+    transforming a value representing an IRI into an actual IRI.</p>
+  <p>IRIs may be represented as an absolute IRI, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>:suffix construct, or as a value relative to <code>@base</code>
+    or <code>@vocab</code>.</p>
+  <p>The algorithm for generating an IRI is:
+    </p><ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Split the value into a <em>prefix</em> and <em>suffix</em> from the first occurrence of ':'.</li>
+      <li>If the prefix is a '_' (underscore), the IRI is unchanged.</li>
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> contains a term mapping for <em>prefix</em>, generate an IRI
+        by prepending the mapped prefix to the (possibly empty) suffix using textual concatenation. Note that an empty
+        suffix and no suffix (meaning the value contains no ':' string at all) are treated equivalently.</li>
+      <li>If the IRI being processed is for a property (i.e., a key's value in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>, or a
+        value in a <code>@coerce</code> mapping) and the active context has a <code>@vocab</code> mapping,
+        join the mapped value to the suffix using textual concatenation.</li>
+      <li>If the IRI being processed is for a subject or object (i.e., not a property) and the active context has a <code>@base</code> mapping,
+        join the mapped value to the suffix using the method described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>].</li>
+      <li>Otherwise, use the value directly as an IRI.</li>
+    </ol>
+  <p></p>
+</div>
+
+<div class="section">
+  <h3 id="iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</h3>
+  <p>Some keys and values are expressed using IRIs. This section defines an
+    algorithm for transforming an IRI to a compact IRI using the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s specified in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>.</p>
+
+  <p>The algorithm for generating a compacted IRI is:
+    </p><ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Search every key-value pair in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> for
+        a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> that is a complete match
+        against the IRI. If a complete match is found, the resulting compacted
+        IRI is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> associated with the IRI in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.</li>
+      <li>If a complete match is not found, search for a partial match from
+        the beginning of the IRI. For all matches that are found, the resulting
+        compacted IRI is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> associated with the partially
+        matched IRI in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> concatenated with a
+        colon (:) character and the unmatched part of the string. If there is
+        more than one compacted IRI produced, the final value is the
+        shortest and lexicographically least value of the entire set of compacted IRIs.</li>
+    </ol>
+  <p></p>
+</div>
+
+</a><div class="section"><a>
+  <h2 id="value-expansion">Value Expansion</h2>
+  <p>Some values in JSON-LD can be expressed in a compact form. These values
+    are required to be expanded at times when processing JSON-LD documents.
+  </p>
+
+  <p>The algorithm for expanding a value is:
+    </p></a><ol class="algorithm"><a>
+      </a><li><a>If the key that is associated with the value has an associated
+        coercion entry in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>, the resulting
+        expansion is an object populated according to the following steps:
+        </a><ol class="algorithm"><a>
+          </a><li><a>If the coercion target is <code>@iri</code>, expand the value
+            by adding a new key-value pair where the key is <code>@iri</code>
+            and the value is the expanded IRI according to the
+            </a><a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> rules.</li>
+          <li>If the coercion target is a typed literal, expand the value
+            by adding two new key-value pairs. The first key-value pair
+            will be <code>@literal</code> and the unexpanded value. The second
+            key-value pair will be <code>@datatype</code> and the associated
+            coercion datatype expanded according to the
+            <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> rules.</li>
+        </ol>
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  <p></p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="value-compaction" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Value Compaction</h3>
+  <p>Some values, such as IRIs and typed literals, may be expressed in an
+    expanded form in JSON-LD. These values are required to be compacted at
+    times when processing JSON-LD documents.
+  </p>
+
+  <p>The algorithm for compacting a value is:
+    </p><ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> contains a coercion target for the
+        key that is associated with the value, compact the value using the
+        following steps:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>If the coercion target is an <code>@iri</code>, the compacted
+            value is the value associated with the <code>@iri</code> key,
+            processed according to the
+            <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> steps.</li>
+          <li>If the coercion target is a typed literal, the compacted
+            value is the value associated with the <code>@literal</code> key.
+          </li>
+          <li>Otherwise, the value is not modified.</li>
+        </ol>
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  <p></p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="expansion" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>Expansion</h3>
+
+<p>Expansion is the process of taking a JSON-LD document and applying a
+context such that all IRI, datatypes, and literal values are expanded so
+that the context is no longer necessary. JSON-LD document expansion
+is typically used as a part of <a href="#normalization">Framing</a> or
+<a href="#normalization">Normalization</a>.</p>
+
+<p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+      {
+         &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Running the JSON-LD Expansion algorithm against the JSON-LD input document
+provided above would result in the following output:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+   }
+}</pre>
+
+<div id="expansion-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.5.1 </span>Expansion Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p class="issue">This algorithm is a work in progress, do not implement it.</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>If the top-level item in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>,
+  process each item in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> recursively using this algorithm.</li>
+  <li>If the top-level item in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> is an object,
+  update the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a> according to the steps outlined in
+  the <a href="#context">context</a> section. Process each key, expanding
+  the key according to the <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> rules.</li>
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+    <li>Process each value associated with each key:
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>If the value is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, process each item in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>
+        recursively using this algorithm.</li>
+        <li>If the value is an object, process the object recursively
+        using this algorithm.</li>
+        <li>Otherwise, check to see the associated key has an associated
+        coercion rule. If the value should be coerced, expand the value
+        according to the <a href="#value-expansion">Value Expansion</a> rules.
+        If the value does not need to be coerced, leave the value as-is.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+    </li><li>Remove the context from the object.</li>
+  </ol>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<p class="issue">What are the implications for expanding lists?</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="compaction" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Compaction</h3>
+
+<p>Compaction is the process of taking a JSON-LD document and applying a
+context such that the most compact form of the document is generated. JSON
+is typically expressed in a very compact, key-value format. That is, full
+IRIs are rarely used as keys. At times, a JSON-LD document may be received
+that is not in its most compact form. JSON-LD, via the API, provides a way
+to compact a JSON-LD document.
+</p>
+
+<p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+   }
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Additionally, assume the following developer-supplied JSON-LD context:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+   &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+   }
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Running the JSON-LD Compaction algorithm given the context supplied above
+against the JSON-LD input document provided above would result in the following
+output:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+      {
+         &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The compaction algorithm also enables the developer to map any expanded
+format into an application-specific compacted format. While the context
+provided above mapped <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code> to
+<strong>name</strong>, it could have also mapped it to any arbitrary string
+provided by the developer.
+</p>
+
+<div id="compaction-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.6.1 </span>Compaction Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p class="issue">This algorithm is a work in progress, do not implement it.</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Perform the <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a> on
+  the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a>. This removes any existing context to allow the given context to be cleanly applied.</li>
+  <li>Set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> to the given context.
+  </li><li>If the top-level item is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, process each item in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>
+    recursively, starting at this step.
+  </li><li>If the top-level item is an object, compress each key using the steps
+    defined in <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> and compress each
+    value using the steps defined in
+    <a href="#value-compaction">Value Compaction</a>.</li>
+  
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<p class="issue">What are the implications for compacting lists?</p>
+
+</div>
+
+
+<div id="framing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Framing</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD Framing allows developers to query by example and
+force a specific tree layout to a JSON-LD document.
+</p>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD document is a representation of a directed graph. A single
+directed graph can have many different serializations, each expressing
+exactly the same information. Developers typically work with trees, represented as
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>s. While mapping a graph to
+a tree can be done, the layout of the end result must be specified in advance.
+A <dfn title="frame" id="dfn-frame">Frame</dfn> can be used by a developer on a JSON-LD document to
+specify a deterministic layout for a graph.
+</p>
+
+<p>Framing is the process of taking a JSON-LD document, which expresses a
+graph of information, and applying a specific graph layout
+(called a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">Frame</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>The JSON-LD document below expresses a library, a book and a chapter:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
+    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
+    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
+    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;contains&quot;
+    },
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:
+  [{
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/library&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;: &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+  }]
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Developers typically like to operate on items in a hierarchical, tree-based
+fashion. Ideally, a developer would want the data above sorted into top-level
+libraries, then the books that are contained in each library, and then the
+chapters contained in each book. To achieve that layout, the developer can
+define the following <a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">frame</a>:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
+    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
+    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
+    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
+  &quot;contains&quot;: {
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;: {
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;
+    }
+  }
+}</pre>
+
+<p>When the framing algorithm is run against the previously defined
+JSON-LD document, paired with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">frame</a> above, the following
+JSON-LD document is the end result:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;Book&quot;:         &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Book&quot;,
+    &quot;Chapter&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Chapter&quot;,
+    &quot;contains&quot;:     &quot;http://example.org/vocab#contains&quot;,
+    &quot;creator&quot;:      &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;
+    &quot;description&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/description&quot;
+    &quot;Library&quot;:      &quot;http://example.org/vocab#Library&quot;,
+    &quot;title&quot;:        &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Library&quot;,
+  &quot;contains&quot;: {
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,</span>
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Book&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;creator&quot;: &quot;Plato&quot;,</span>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Republic&quot;,</span>
+    &quot;contains&quot;: {
+      <span class="diff">&quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,</span>
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Chapter&quot;,
+      <span class="diff">&quot;description&quot;: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,</span>
+      <span class="diff">&quot;title&quot;: &quot;The Introduction&quot;</span>
+    },
+  },
+}</pre>
+
+<div id="framing-algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.1 </span>Framing Algorithm Terms</h4>
+<p class="issue">This algorithm is a work in progress, do not implement it.</p>
+
+ <dl>
+   <dt><dfn title="input_frame" id="dfn-input_frame">input frame</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     the initial <a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame">frame</a> provided to the framing algorithm.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="framing_context" id="dfn-framing_context">framing context</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     a context containing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</a>, the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">explicit inclusion flag</a> and the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_default_flag" href="#dfn-omit_default_flag">omit default flag</a>.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="object_embed_flag" id="dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     a flag specifying that objects should be directly embedded in the output,
+     instead of being referred to by their IRI.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="explicit_inclusion_flag" id="dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">explicit inclusion flag</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     a flag specifying that for properties to be included in the output, they
+     must be explicitly declared in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">framing context</a>.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="omit_missing_properties_flag" id="dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">omit missing properties flag</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     a flag specifying that properties that are missing from the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> should be omitted from the output.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="omit_default_flag" id="dfn-omit_default_flag">omit default flag</dfn></dt>
+   <dd class="issue">
+     Referenced from <a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">framing context</a>, but not defined
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="match_limit" id="dfn-match_limit">match limit</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A value specifying the maximum number of matches to accept when building
+     arrays of values during the framing algorithm. A value of -1 specifies
+     that there is no match limit.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="map_of_embedded_subjects" id="dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">map of embedded subjects</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A map that tracks if a subject has been embedded in the output of the
+     <a href="#framing-algorithm">Framing Algorithm</a>.
+   </dd>
+ </dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="framing-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.7.2 </span>Framing Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>The framing algorithm takes <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> that has been
+normalized according to the
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm">Normalization Algorithm</a>
+(<strong>normalized input</strong>), an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="input_frame" href="#dfn-input_frame">input frame</a> that has been expanded according to the
+<a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a>
+(<strong>expanded frame</strong>), and a number of options and produces
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a>. The following series of steps is the recursive
+portion of the framing algorithm:
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Initialize the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="framing_context" href="#dfn-framing_context">framing context</a> by setting the
+   <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</a>, clearing the
+   <a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">explicit inclusion flag</a>, and clearing the
+   <a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">omit missing properties flag</a>. Override these values
+   based on input options provided to the algorithm by the application.
+  </li>
+  <li>Generate a <dfn title="list_of_frames" id="dfn-list_of_frames">list of frames</dfn> by processing the
+    <strong>expanded frame</strong>:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the <strong>expanded frame</strong> is not an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, set
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">match limit</a> to 1, place the
+        <strong>expanded frame</strong> into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">list of frames</a>,
+        and set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a> to <code>null</code>.</li>
+      <li>If the <strong>expanded frame</strong> is an empty <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, place an
+        empty object into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">list of frames</a>,
+        set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a> to an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, and set
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">match limit</a> to -1.</li>
+      <li>If the <strong>expanded frame</strong> is a non-empty <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, add
+        each item in the <strong>expanded frame</strong> into the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">list of frames</a>, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a> to an
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, and set <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">match limit</a> to -1.</li>
+    </ol></li>
+  <li>Create a <dfn title="match_array" id="dfn-match_array">match array</dfn> for each <strong>expanded frame</strong>
+    in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">list of frames</a> halting when either the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">match limit</a> is zero or the end of the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_frames" href="#dfn-list_of_frames">list of frames</a> is reached. If an
+    <strong>expanded frame</strong> is
+    not an object, the processor <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> throw a <code>Invalid Frame Format</code>
+    exception. Add each matching item from the <strong>normalized input</strong>
+    to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="matches_array" href="#dfn-matches_array">matches array</a> and decrement the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_limit" href="#dfn-match_limit">match limit</a> by 1 if:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+       <li>The <strong>expanded frame</strong> has an <code>rdf:type</code>
+         that exists in the item's list of <code>rdf:type</code>s. Note:
+         the <code>rdf:type</code> can be an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>, but only one value needs
+         to be in common between the item and the
+         <strong>expanded frame</strong> for a match.</li>
+       <li>The <strong>expanded frame</strong> does not have an
+         <code>rdf:type</code> property, but every property in the
+         <strong>expanded frame</strong> exists in the item.</li>
+    </ol>
+    <p class="issue"><dfn title="matches_array" id="dfn-matches_array">matches array</dfn> not defined anywhere.</p></li>
+  <li>Process each item in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_array" href="#dfn-match_array">match array</a> with its associated
+    <dfn title="match_frame" id="dfn-match_frame">match frame</dfn>:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a> contains an <code>@embed</code>
+        keyword, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</a> to its value.
+        If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a> contains an <code>@explicit</code>
+        keyword, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">explicit inclusion flag</a> to its value.
+        Note: if the keyword exists, but the value is neither
+        <code>true</code> or <code>false</code>, set the associated flag to
+        <code>true</code>.</li>
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</a> is cleared and the item has
+        the <code>@subject</code> property, replace the item with the value
+        of the <code>@subject</code> property.</li>
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</a> is set and the item has
+        the <code>@subject</code> property, and its IRI is in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_embedded_subjects" href="#dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">map of embedded subjects</a>, throw a
+        <code>Duplicate Embed</code> exception.</li>
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_embed_flag" href="#dfn-object_embed_flag">object embed flag</a> is set and the item has
+        the <code>@subject</code> property and its IRI is not in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_embedded_subjects" href="#dfn-map_of_embedded_subjects">map of embedded subjects</a>:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="explicit_inclusion_flag" href="#dfn-explicit_inclusion_flag">explicit inclusion flag</a> is set,
+            then delete any key from the item that does not exist in the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a>, except <code>@subject</code>.</li>
+          <li>For each key in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a>, except for
+            keywords and <code>rdf:type</code>:
+          <ol class="algorithm">
+            <li>If the key is in the item, then build a new
+              <dfn title="recursion_input_list" id="dfn-recursion_input_list">recursion input list</dfn> using the object or objects
+              associated with the key. If any object contains an
+              <code>@iri</code> value that exists in the
+              <strong>normalized input</strong>, replace the object in the
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_input_list" href="#dfn-recursion_input_list">recursion input list</a> with a new object containing
+              the <code>@subject</code> key where the value is the value of
+              the <code>@iri</code>, and all of the other key-value pairs for
+              that subject. Set the <dfn title="recursion_match_frame" id="dfn-recursion_match_frame">recursion match frame</dfn> to the
+              value associated with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a>'s key. Replace
+              the value associated with the key by recursively calling this
+              algorithm using <a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_input_list" href="#dfn-recursion_input_list">recursion input list</a>,
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="recursion_match_frame" href="#dfn-recursion_match_frame">recursion match frame</a> as input.</li>
+            <li>If the key is not in the item, add the key to the item and
+              set the associated value to an empty array if the
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a> key's value is an array
+              or <code>null</code> otherwise.</li>
+            <li>If value associated with the item's key is <code>null</code>,
+              process the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">omit missing properties flag</a>:
+              <ol class="algorithm">
+                <li>If the value associated with the key in the
+                  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="match_frame" href="#dfn-match_frame">match frame</a> is an array, use the first frame
+                  from the array as the <dfn title="property_frame" id="dfn-property_frame">property frame</dfn>, otherwise
+                  set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property_frame" href="#dfn-property_frame">property frame</a> to an empty object.</li>
+                <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property_frame" href="#dfn-property_frame">property frame</a> contains an
+                <code>@omitDefault</code> keyword, set the
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">omit missing properties flag</a> to its value.
+                Note: if the keyword exists, but the value is neither
+                <code>true</code> or <code>false</code>, set the associated
+                flag to <code>true</code>.</li>
+                <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="omit_missing_properties_flag" href="#dfn-omit_missing_properties_flag">omit missing properties flag</a> is set,
+                  delete the key in the item. Otherwise, if the
+                  <code>@default</code> keyword is set in the
+                  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property_frame" href="#dfn-property_frame">property frame</a> set the item's value to the value
+                  of <code>@default</code>.</li>
+              </ol></li>
+          </ol></li>
+        </ol>
+      </li><li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a> is <code>null</code> set it to
+        the item, otherwise, append the item to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a>.
+    </li></ol>
+  </li><li>Return the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a>.</li>
+</ol>
+
+The final, non-recursive step of the framing algorithm requires the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a> to be compacted according to the
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction Algorithm</a> by using the
+context provided in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="input_frame" href="#dfn-input_frame">input frame</a>. The resulting value is the
+final output of the compaction algorithm and is what should be returned to the
+application.
+
+</div>
+
+<p class="issue">What are the implications for framing lists?</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="normalization" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Normalization</h3>
+
+<p class="issue">This algorithm is a work in progress, do not implement it.</p>
+
+<p>Normalization is the process of taking <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> and
+performing a deterministic transformation on that input that results in all
+aspects of the graph being fully expanded and named in the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output">JSON-LD output</a>. The normalized output is generated in such a way
+that any conforming JSON-LD processor will generate identical output
+given the same input. The problem is a fairly difficult technical
+problem to solve because it requires a directed graph to be ordered into a
+set of nodes and edges in a deterministic way. This is easy to do when all of
+the nodes have unique names, but very difficult to do when some of the nodes
+are not labeled.
+</p>
+
+<p>Normalization is useful when comparing two graphs against one another,
+when generating a detailed list of differences between two graphs, and
+when generating a cryptographic digital signature for information contained
+in a graph or when generating a hash of the information contained in a graph.
+</p>
+
+<p>The example below is an un-normalized JSON-LD document:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+   &quot;@context&quot;:
+   {
+      &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+      &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+      {
+         &quot;@iri&quot;: [&quot;homepage&quot;]
+      }
+   },
+   &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+   &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example below is the normalized form of the JSON-LD document above:</p>
+
+<p class="note">Whitespace is used below to aid readability. The normalization
+algorithm for JSON-LD removes all unnecessary whitespace in the fully
+normalized form.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">[{
+    &quot;@subject&quot;:
+    {
+        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;_:c14n0&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;:
+    {
+        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;
+}]</pre>
+
+<p>Notice how all of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s have been expanded and sorted in
+alphabetical order. Also, notice how the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> has been
+labeled with a <dfn title="blank_node_identifier" id="dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</dfn>. Normalization ensures that any arbitrary
+graph containing exactly the same information would be normalized to exactly
+the same form shown above.</p>
+
+<p>In time, there may be more than one normalization algorithm that will need
+to be identified. For identification purposes, this algorithm is named
+&quot;Universal Graph Normalization Algorithm 2011&quot;
+(<abbr title="Universal Graph Normalization Algorithm 2011">UGNA2011</abbr>).
+</p>
+
+<div id="normalization-algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.1 </span>Normalization Algorithm Terms</h4>
+ <dl>
+   <dt><dfn title="label" id="dfn-label">label</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     The subject <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> associated with a graph node. The subject IRI is expressed
+     using a key-value pair in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> where the key is
+     <code>@subject</code> and the value is a string that is an IRI or
+     a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> containing the key <code>@iri</code> and
+     a value that is a string that is an IRI.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="list_of_expanded_nodes" id="dfn-list_of_expanded_nodes">list of expanded nodes</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A list of all nodes in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> graph containing no
+     embedded objects and having all keys and values expanded according to the
+     steps in the <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a>.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="alpha" id="dfn-alpha">alpha</dfn> and <dfn title="beta" id="dfn-beta">beta</dfn> values</dt>
+   <dd>
+     The words <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a> refer to the first and
+     second nodes or values being examined in an algorithm. The names are
+     merely used to refer to each input value to a comparison algorithm.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="renaming_counter" id="dfn-renaming_counter">renaming counter</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A counter that is used during the
+     <a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm">Node Relabeling Algorithm</a>. The
+     counter typically starts at one (1) and counts up for every node that is
+     relabeled. There will be two such renaming counters in an implementation
+     of the normalization algorithm. The first is the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a> and the second is the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="deterministic_labeling_counter" href="#dfn-deterministic_labeling_counter">deterministic labeling counter</a>.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="serialization_label" id="dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     An identifier that is created to aid in the normalization process in the
+     <a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm">Deep Comparison Algorithm</a>. The
+     value typically takes the form of <code>s&lt;NUMBER&gt;</code> or
+     <code>c&lt;NUMBER&gt;</code>.
+   </dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="normalization-state" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.2 </span>Normalization State</h4>
+
+<p>When performing the steps required by the normalization algorithm,
+it is helpful to track the many pieces of information in a
+data structure called the <dfn title="normalization_state" id="dfn-normalization_state">normalization state</dfn>. Many of these
+pieces simply provide indexes into the graph. The information
+contained in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">normalization state</a> is described below.</p>
+
+<dl>
+   <dt><dfn title="node_state" id="dfn-node_state">node state</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     Each node in the graph will be assigned a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>. This
+     state contains the information necessary to deterministically
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> all nodes in the graph. A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>
+     includes:
+     <dl>
+        <dt><dfn title="node_reference" id="dfn-node_reference">node reference</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> is a reference to a node in the graph.
+          For a given <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>
+          refers to the node that the state is for. When a
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a> is created, its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>
+          should be to the node it is created for.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="outgoing_list" id="dfn-outgoing_list">outgoing list</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Lists the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s for all nodes that are properties of
+          the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>. This list should be initialized
+          by iterating over every object associated with a property in the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> adding its label if it is another node.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="incoming_list" id="dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Lists the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s for all nodes in the graph for which
+          the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> is a property. This list is
+          initialized to an empty list.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="outgoing_serialization_map" id="dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Maps node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s to <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s.
+          This map is initialized to an empty map. When this map is populated,
+          it will be filled with keys that are the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s of every node in the
+          graph with a label that begins with <code>_:</code> and that has a
+          path, via properties, that starts with the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="outgoing_serialization" id="dfn-outgoing_serialization">outgoing serialization</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          A string that can be lexicographically compared to the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">outgoing serialization</a>s of other
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>s. It is a representation of the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a> and other related
+          information. This string is initialized to an empty string.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="incoming_serialization_map" id="dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Maps node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s to <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s.
+          This map is initialized to an empty map. When this map is populated,
+          it will be filled with keys that are the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s of every
+          node in the graph with a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> that begins with
+          <code>_:</code> and that has a path, via properties, that ends with
+          the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="incoming_serialization" id="dfn-incoming_serialization">incoming serialization</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          A string that can be lexicographically compared to the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">outgoing serialization</a>s of other
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>s. It is a representation of the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a> and other related
+          information. This string is initialized to an empty string.
+        </dd>
+     </dl>
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="node_state_map" id="dfn-node_state_map">node state map</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A mapping from a node's <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> to a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>.
+     It is initialized to an empty map.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="labeling_prefix" id="dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     The labeling prefix is a string that is used as the beginning of a node
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>. It should be initialized to a random base string that
+     starts with the characters <code>_:</code>, is not used by any other
+     node's <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a>, and does not
+     start with the characters <code>_:c14n</code>. The prefix has two uses.
+     First it is used to temporarily name nodes during the normalization
+     algorithm in a way that doesn't collide with the names that already
+     exist as well as the names that will be generated by the normalization
+     algorithm. Second, it will eventually be set to <code>_:c14n</code> to
+     generate the final, deterministic labels for nodes in the graph. This
+     prefix will be concatenated with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a> to
+     produce a node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>. For example, <code>_:j8r3k</code> is
+     a proper initial value for the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</a>.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="labeling_counter" id="dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A counter that is used to label nodes. It is appended to the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</a> to create a node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>. It is
+     initialized to <code>1</code>.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="deterministic_labeling_counter" id="dfn-deterministic_labeling_counter">deterministic labeling counter</dfn></dt>
+   <dd class="issue">
+     Not defined.
+   </dd>
+   <dt><dfn title="map_of_flattened_nodes" id="dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     A map containing a representation of all nodes in the graph where the
+     key is a node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> and the value is a single
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> that has no nested sub-objects
+     and has had all properties for the same node merged into a single
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>.
+   </dd>
+</dl>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="normalization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.3 </span>Normalization Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>The normalization algorithm expands the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a>,
+flattens the data structure, and creates an initial set of names for all
+nodes in the graph. The flattened data structure is then processed by a
+node labeling algorithm in order to get a fully expanded and named list of
+nodes which is then sorted. The result is a deterministically named and
+ordered list of graph nodes.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>Expand the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json-ld_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">JSON-LD input</a> according to the steps in
+the <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a> and store the
+result as the <strong>expanded input</strong>.</li>
+<li>Create a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">normalization state</a>.</li>
+<li>Initialize the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a> by recursively
+processing every <dfn title="expanded_node" id="dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</dfn> in the
+<strong>expanded input</strong> in depth-first order:
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+    <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a> is an unlabeled node, add a
+      new key-value pair to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a>
+      where the key is <code>@subject</code> and the value is the
+      concatenation of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</a>
+      and the string value of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a>.
+      Increment the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a>.</li>
+    <li>Add the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a> to the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a>:
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> is already
+          in the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a> merge all properties from the
+          entry in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a> into the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a>.</li>
+        <li>Go through every property associated with an array in the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a> and remove any duplicate <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> entries from
+          the array. If the resulting array only has one IRI entry, change it
+          from an array to an object.</li>
+        <li>Set the entry for the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>
+          in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a> to the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a>.
+        </li></ol></li>
+    <li>After exiting the recursive step, replace the reference to the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="expanded_node" href="#dfn-expanded_node">expanded node</a> with an object containing a single
+       key-value pair where the key is <code>@iri</code> and the value is
+       the value of the <code>@subject</code> key in the node.</li>
+  </ol></li>
+<li>For every entry in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a>, insert a
+  key-value pair into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">node state map</a> where the key is the
+  key from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a> and the value is a
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a> where its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> refers to
+  the value from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_flattened_nodes" href="#dfn-map_of_flattened_nodes">map of flattened nodes</a>.
+</li><li>Populate the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a> for each <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>
+  by iterating over every node in the graph and adding its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>
+  to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a> associated with each node found in its
+  properties.</li>
+<li>For every entry in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">node state map</a> that has a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> that begins with <code>_:c14n</code>, relabel the node
+using the <a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm">Node Relabeling Algorithm</a>.
+</li><li>Label all of the nodes that contain a <code>@subject</code> key associated
+with a value starting with <code>_:</code> according to the steps in the
+<a href="#deterministic-labeling-algorithm">Deterministic Labeling Algorithm</a>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<div id="node-relabeling-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.4 </span>Node Relabeling Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>This algorithm renames a node by generating a unique
+<dfn title="new_label" id="dfn-new_label">new label</dfn> and updating all references to that <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>
+in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">node state map</a>. The <dfn title="old_label" id="dfn-old_label">old label</dfn> and the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">normalization state</a> must be given as an input to the
+algorithm. The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">old label</a> is the current <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> of
+the node that is to be relabeled.
+
+</p><p>The node relabeling algorithm is as follows:</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</a> is <code>_:c14n</code> and the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">old label</a> begins with <code>_:c14n</code> then return as
+    the node has already been renamed.
+  </li>
+  <li>Generate the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">new label</a> by concatenating the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</a> with the string value of the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a>. Increment the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a>.
+  </li>
+  <li>For the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a> associated with the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">old label</a>, update every node in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a>
+  by changing all the properties that reference the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">old label</a> to
+  the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">new label</a>.
+  </li>
+  <li>Change the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="old_label" href="#dfn-old_label">old label</a> key in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">node state map</a>
+    to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">new label</a> and set the associated
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_label" href="#dfn-new_label">new label</a>.
+  </li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<div id="deterministic-labeling-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.5 </span>Deterministic Labeling Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>The deterministic labeling algorithm takes the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="normalization_state" href="#dfn-normalization_state">normalization state</a>
+and produces a <dfn title="list_of_finished_nodes" id="dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">list of finished nodes</dfn> that is sorted and
+contains deterministically named and expanded nodes from the graph.
+
+</p><ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_prefix" href="#dfn-labeling_prefix">labeling prefix</a> to <code>_:c14n</code>, the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="labeling_counter" href="#dfn-labeling_counter">labeling counter</a> to <code>1</code>,
+    the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_finished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">list of finished nodes</a> to an empty array, and create
+    an empty array, the <dfn title="list_of_unfinished_nodes" id="dfn-list_of_unfinished_nodes">list of unfinished nodes</dfn>.</li>
+  <li>For each <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state_map" href="#dfn-node_state_map">node state map</a>:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the node's <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> does not start with <code>_:</code>
+        then put the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_finished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">list of finished nodes</a>.
+      </li>
+      <li>If the node's <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> does start with <code>_:</code>
+        then put the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a> in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unfinished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_unfinished_nodes">list of unfinished nodes</a>.
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+  <li>Append to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_finished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">list of finished nodes</a> by processing
+    the remainder of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unfinished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_unfinished_nodes">list of unfinished nodes</a> until it is
+    empty:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Sort the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unfinished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_unfinished_nodes">list of unfinished nodes</a> in descending order
+        according to the
+        <a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm">Deep Comparison Algorithm</a> to
+        determine the sort order.</li>
+      <li>Create a <dfn title="list_of_labels" id="dfn-list_of_labels">list of labels</dfn> and initialize it to an
+        empty array.</li>
+      <li>For the first node from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unfinished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_unfinished_nodes">list of unfinished nodes</a>:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>Add its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_labels" href="#dfn-list_of_labels">list of labels</a>.
+          </li>
+          <li>For each key-value pair from its associated
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a>, add the key to a list and
+            then sort the list according to the lexicographical order of the
+            keys' associated values. Append the list to the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_nodes_to_label" href="#dfn-list_of_nodes_to_label">list of nodes to label</a>.
+            <span class="issue"><dfn title="list_of_nodes_to_label" id="dfn-list_of_nodes_to_label">list of nodes to label</dfn> not defined.</span>
+          </li>
+          <li>For each key-value pair from its associated
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a>, add the key to a list and
+            then sort the list according to the lexicographical order of the
+            keys' associated values. Append the list to the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_nodes_to_label" href="#dfn-list_of_nodes_to_label">list of nodes to label</a>.
+          </li></ol></li>
+      <li>For each <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_labels" href="#dfn-list_of_labels">list of labels</a>,
+        relabel the associated node according to the
+        <a href="#node-relabeling-algorithm">Node Relabeling Algorithm</a>. If
+        any <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a> contains a key that
+        matches the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>, clear the map and set the associated
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">outgoing serialization</a> to an empty string. If any
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a> contains a key that
+        matches the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>, clear the map and set the associated
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization">incoming serialization</a> to an empty string.
+      </li>
+      <li>
+        Remove each node with a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> that starts with
+        <code>_:c14n</code> from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_unfinished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_unfinished_nodes">list of unfinished nodes</a> and
+        add it to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_finished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">list of finished nodes</a>.
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+  <li>Sort the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_finished_nodes" href="#dfn-list_of_finished_nodes">list of finished nodes</a> in descending order
+    according to the
+    <a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm">Deep Comparison Algorithm</a> to
+    determine the sort order.</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<div id="shallow-comparison-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.6 </span>Shallow Comparison Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The shallow comparison algorithm takes two unlabeled nodes,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>, as input and
+determines which one should come first in a sorted list. The following
+algorithm determines the steps that are executed in order to determine the
+node that should come first in a list:
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Compare the total number of node properties. The node with fewer
+    properties is first.</li>
+  <li>Lexicographically sort the property <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s for each node and compare
+    the sorted lists. If an IRI is found to be lexicographically smaller, the
+    node containing that IRI is first.</li>
+  <li>Compare the values of each property against one another:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>The node associated with fewer property values is first.
+      </li>
+      <li>Create an <dfn title="alpha_list" id="dfn-alpha_list">alpha list</dfn> by adding all values associated
+        with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> property that are not unlabeled nodes.
+      </li>
+      <li>Create a <dfn title="beta_list" id="dfn-beta_list">beta list</dfn> by adding all values associated
+        with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a> property that is not an unlabeled node.
+      </li>
+      <li>Compare the length of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha_list" href="#dfn-alpha_list">alpha list</a> and
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta_list" href="#dfn-beta_list">beta list</a>. The node associated with the list containing
+        the fewer number of items is first.</li>
+      <li>Sort <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha_list" href="#dfn-alpha_list">alpha list</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta_list" href="#dfn-beta_list">beta list</a> according to
+        the
+        <a href="#object-comparison-algorithm">Object Comparison Algorithm</a>.
+        For each offset into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha_list" href="#dfn-alpha_list">alpha list</a>, compare the item
+        at the offset against the item at the same offset in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta_list" href="#dfn-beta_list">beta list</a> according to the
+        <a href="#object-comparison-algorithm">Object Comparison Algorithm</a>.
+        The node associated with the lesser item is first.
+    </li></ol></li>
+  <li>Process the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a>s associated with each node to
+    determine order:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>The node with the shortest <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a> is first.</li>
+      <li>Sort the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a>s according to incoming property
+         and then incoming <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>.
+      </li><li>The node associated with the fewest number of incoming nodes is
+        first.</li>
+      <li>For each offset into the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a>s,
+        compare the associated properties and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>The node associated with a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> that does not begin with
+            <code>_:</code> is first.
+          </li>
+          <li>If the nodes' <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s do not begin with
+            <code>_:</code>, then the node associated with the
+            lexicographically lesser <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> is first.</li>
+          
+          <li>The node associated with the lexicographically lesser associated
+            property is first.
+          </li>
+          <li>The node with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> that does not begin with
+            <code>_:c14n</code> is first.
+          </li>
+          <li>The node with the lexicographically lesser <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>
+            is first.
+          </li>
+        </ol>
+    </li></ol></li>
+  <li>Otherwise, the nodes are equivalent.</li>
+</ol></div>
+
+<div id="object-comparison-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.7 </span>Object Comparison Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The object comparison algorithm is designed to compare two graph node
+property values, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>, against the other.
+The algorithm is useful when sorting two lists of graph node properties.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>If one of the values is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> and the other is not, the value that is
+    a string is first.
+  </li>
+  <li>If both values are <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>s, the lexicographically lesser string is
+    first.
+  </li>
+  <li>If one of the values is a literal and the other is not, the value that is
+    a literal is first.
+  </li>
+  <li>If both values are literals:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>The lexicographically lesser string associated with
+        <code>@literal</code> is first.
+      </li>
+      <li>The lexicographically lesser string associated with
+        <code>@datatype</code> is first.
+      </li>
+      <li>The lexicographically lesser string associated with
+        <code>@language</code> is first.
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+  <li>If both values are expanded <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s, the
+    lexicographically lesser string associated with <code>@iri</code>
+    is first.</li>
+  <li>Otherwise, the two values are equivalent.</li>
+</ol>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="deep-comparison-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.8 </span>Deep Comparison Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The deep comparison algorithm is used to compare the difference between two
+nodes, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>.
+A deep comparison takes the incoming and outgoing node edges in
+a graph into account if the number of properties and value of those properties
+are identical. The algorithm is helpful when sorting a list of nodes and will
+return whichever node should be placed first in a list if the two nodes are
+not truly equivalent.
+</p>
+
+<p>When performing the steps required by the deep comparison algorithm, it
+is helpful to track state information about mappings. The information
+contained in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a> is described below.</p>
+
+<dl class="algorithm">
+   <dt><dfn title="mapping_state" id="dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</dfn></dt>
+   <dd>
+     <dl>
+        <dt><dfn title="mapping_counter" id="dfn-mapping_counter">mapping counter</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Keeps track of the number of nodes that have been mapped to
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s. It is initialized to
+          <code>1</code>.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="processed_labels_map" id="dfn-processed_labels_map">processed labels map</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Keeps track of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s of nodes that have already
+          been assigned <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s. It is initialized
+          to an empty map.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="serialized_labels_map" id="dfn-serialized_labels_map">serialized labels map</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Maps a node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> to its associated
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>. It is initialized to an empty map.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="adjacent_info_map" id="dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Maps a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> to the node
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> associated with it, the list of sorted
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s for adjacent nodes, and the map of
+          adjacent node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s to their associated
+          node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s. It is initialized to an empty map.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="key_stack" id="dfn-key_stack">key stack</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          A stack where each element contains an array of adjacent
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s and an index into that array. It
+          is initialized to a stack containing a single element where its
+          array contains a single string element <code>s1</code> and its
+          index is set to <code>0</code>.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="serialized_keys" id="dfn-serialized_keys">serialized keys</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          Keeps track of which <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s have already
+          been written at least once to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a>.
+          It is initialized to an empty map.
+        </dd>
+        <dt><dfn title="serialization_string" id="dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</dfn></dt>
+        <dd>
+          A string that is incrementally updated as a serialization is built.
+          It is initialized to an empty string.
+        </dd>
+     </dl>
+   </dd>
+</dl>
+
+<p>The deep comparison algorithm is as follows:</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Perform a comparison between <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>
+    according to the
+    <a href="#shallow-comparison-algorithm">Shallow Comparison Algorithm</a>.
+    If the result does not show that the two nodes are equivalent, return
+    the result.
+    </li>
+  <li>Compare incoming and outgoing edges for each node, updating their
+    associated <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a> as each node is processed:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a> for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>
+        is empty, generate the serialization according to the
+        <a href="#node-serialization-algorithm">Node Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+        Provide <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, a new
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a>,
+        <code>outgoing direction</code> to the algorithm as inputs.
+      </li><li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a> for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>
+        is empty, generate the serialization according to the
+        <a href="#node-serialization-algorithm">Node Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+        Provide <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, a new
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a>, and
+        <code>outgoing direction</code> to the algorithm as inputs.
+      </li><li>If <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">outgoing serialization</a> is
+        lexicographically less than <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>'s, then
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> is first. If it is greater, then <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>
+        is first.</li>
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a> for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>
+        is empty, generate the serialization according to the
+        <a href="#node-serialization-algorithm">Node Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+        Provide <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, a new
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a> with its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-serialized_labels_map">serialized labels map</a>
+        set to a copy of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>'s
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a>, and
+        <code>incoming direction</code> to the algorithm as inputs.
+      </li><li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a> for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>
+        is empty, generate the serialization according to the
+        <a href="#node-serialization-algorithm">Node Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+        Provide <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, a new
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a> with its <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-serialized_labels_map">serialized labels map</a>
+        set to a copy of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>'s
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a>, and
+        <code>incoming direction</code> to the algorithm as inputs.
+      </li><li>If <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>'s <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization">incoming serialization</a> is
+        lexicographically less than <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>'s, then
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> is first. If it is greater, then <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a>
+        is first.</li>
+    </ol></li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<div id="node-serialization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.9 </span>Node Serialization Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The node serialization algorithm takes a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a>, and a <dfn title="direction" id="dfn-direction">direction</dfn> (either
+<code>outgoing direction</code> or <code>incoming direction</code>) as
+inputs and generates a deterministic serialization for the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> exists in the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processed_labels_map" href="#dfn-processed_labels_map">processed labels map</a>, terminate the algorithm as the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> has already been created.
+</li>
+<li>Set the value associated with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> in the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processed_labels_map" href="#dfn-processed_labels_map">processed labels map</a> to <code>true</code>.
+</li>
+<li>Generate the next <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> for the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> according to the
+  <a href="#serialization-label-generation-algorithm">Serialization Label Generation Algorithm</a>.
+</li>
+<li>Create an empty map called the <dfn title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" id="dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</dfn>
+that will store mappings from <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s to adjacent
+node <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s.</li>
+<li>Create an empty array called the
+<dfn title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" id="dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</dfn> that will store
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>s of adjacent nodes that haven't been assigned
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>s yet.
+</li>
+<li>For every <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> in a list, where the list the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_list" href="#dfn-outgoing_list">outgoing list</a> if
+the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="direction" href="#dfn-direction">direction</a> is <code>outgoing direction</code> and the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a> otherwise, if the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> starts with
+<code>_:</code>, it is the <dfn title="target_node_label" id="dfn-target_node_label">target node label</dfn>:
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+    <li>Look up the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="target_node_label" href="#dfn-target_node_label">target node label</a> in the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processed_labels_map" href="#dfn-processed_labels_map">processed labels map</a> and if a mapping exists,
+      update the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</a> where the key is
+      the value in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_map" href="#dfn-serialization_map">serialization map</a>
+      (<span class="issue"><dfn title="serialization_map" id="dfn-serialization_map">serialization map</dfn> is used, but should it be <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization_map" href="#dfn-directed_serialization_map">directed serialization map</a>,
+         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a>or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a>?</span>)
+      and the value is the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="target_node_label" href="#dfn-target_node_label">target node label</a>.</li>
+    <li>Otherwise, add the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="target_node_label" href="#dfn-target_node_label">target node label</a> to the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a>.
+  </li></ol>
+</li>
+<li>Set the <dfn title="maximum_serialization_combinations" id="dfn-maximum_serialization_combinations">maximum serialization combinations</dfn> to
+  <code>1</code> or the length of the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a>, whichever is greater.</li>
+<li>While the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="maximum_serialization_combinations" href="#dfn-maximum_serialization_combinations">maximum serialization combinations</a> is greater than
+  <code>0</code>, perform the
+  <a href="#combinatorial-serialization-algorithm">Combinatorial Serialization Algorithm</a>
+  passing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a> for the
+  first iteration and a copy of it for each subsequent iteration, the
+  generated <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="direction" href="#dfn-direction">direction</a>,
+  the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</a>, and the
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a>.
+  Decrement the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="maximum_serialization_combinations" href="#dfn-maximum_serialization_combinations">maximum serialization combinations</a> by
+  <code>1</code> for each iteration.
+</li></ol>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="serialization-label-generation-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.10 </span>Serialization Label Generation Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The algorithm generates a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> given a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> and a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a> and returns the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>.
+</p>
+
+ <ol class="algorithm">
+   <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> is already in the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_labels_map" href="#dfn-serialization_labels_map">serialization labels map</a>, return its associated value.
+     (<span class="issue"><dfn title="serialization_labels_map" id="dfn-serialization_labels_map">serialization labels map</dfn> is used, but should it be <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization_map" href="#dfn-directed_serialization_map">directed serialization map</a>,
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a>or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a>?</span>)
+   </li>
+   <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> starts with the string <code>_:c14n</code>,
+     the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> is the letter <code>c</code>
+     followed by the number that follows <code>_:c14n</code> in the
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a>.
+   </li>
+   <li>Otherwise, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> is the
+     letter <code>s</code> followed by the string value of
+     <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_counter" href="#dfn-mapping_counter">mapping counter</a>. Increment the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_counter" href="#dfn-mapping_counter">mapping counter</a> by
+     <code>1</code>.
+   </li>
+   <li>Create a new key-value pair in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_labels_map" href="#dfn-serialization_labels_map">serialization labels map</a>
+     where the key is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> and the value is the
+     generated <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>.
+   </li>
+ </ol>
+</div>
+
+<div id="combinatorial-serialization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.11 </span>Combinatorial Serialization Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The combinatorial serialization algorithm takes a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_state" href="#dfn-node_state">node state</a>, a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a>, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>, a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="direction" href="#dfn-direction">direction</a>, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</a>,
+and a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a> as inputs and generates
+the lexicographically least serialization of nodes relating to the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a> is not empty:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Copy the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</a> to the
+        <dfn title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map_copy" id="dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map_copy">adjacent serialized labels map copy</dfn>.</li>
+      <li>Remove the first <dfn title="unserialized_label" id="dfn-unserialized_label">unserialized label</dfn> from the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a> and create a new
+        <dfn title="new_serialization_label" id="dfn-new_serialization_label">new serialization label</dfn> according to the
+        <a href="#serialization-label-generation-algorithm">Serialization Label Generation Algorithm</a>.
+      </li><li>Create a new key-value mapping in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map_copy" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map_copy">adjacent serialized labels map copy</a>
+        where the key is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="new_serialization_label" href="#dfn-new_serialization_label">new serialization label</a> and the value
+        is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="unserialized_label" href="#dfn-unserialized_label">unserialized label</a>.
+      </li><li>Set the <dfn title="maximum_serialization_rotations" id="dfn-maximum_serialization_rotations">maximum serialization rotations</dfn> to
+        <code>1</code> or the length of the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a>, whichever is greater.
+      </li>
+      <li>While the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="maximum_serialization_rotations" href="#dfn-maximum_serialization_rotations">maximum serialization rotations</a> is greater than
+        <code>0</code>:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>Recursively perform the
+            <a href="#combinatorial-serialization-algorithm">Combinatorial Serialization Algorithm</a>
+            passing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a> for the first iteration of the
+            loop, and a copy of it for each subsequent iteration.
+          </li>
+          <li>Rotate the elements in the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a> by shifting each of
+            them once to the right, moving the element at the end of the list
+            to the beginning of the list.
+          </li>
+          <li>Decrement the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="maximum_serialization_rotations" href="#dfn-maximum_serialization_rotations">maximum serialization rotations</a> by
+            <code>1</code> for each iteration.
+          </li>
+        </ol>
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+  <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_unserialized_labels_list" href="#dfn-adjacent_unserialized_labels_list">adjacent unserialized labels list</a> is empty:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Create a <dfn title="list_of_keys" id="dfn-list_of_keys">list of keys</dfn> from the keys in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</a> and sort it
+        lexicographically.
+      </li>
+      <li>Add a key-value pair to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_info_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</a> where
+        the key is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a> and the value is
+        an object containing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>'s label, the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_keys" href="#dfn-list_of_keys">list of keys</a> and the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_serialized_labels_map">adjacent serialized labels map</a>.
+      </li>
+      <li>Update the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> according to the
+        <a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm">Mapping Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+      </li>
+      <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="direction" href="#dfn-direction">direction</a> is <code>outgoing direction</code>
+        then <dfn title="directed_serialization" id="dfn-directed_serialization">directed serialization</dfn> refers to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization">outgoing serialization</a> and the
+        <dfn title="directed_serialization_map" id="dfn-directed_serialization_map">directed serialization map</dfn> refers to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="outgoing_serialization_map" href="#dfn-outgoing_serialization_map">outgoing serialization map</a>, otherwise it refers to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization">incoming serialization</a> and the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization_map" href="#dfn-directed_serialization_map">directed serialization map</a> refers to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_serialization_map" href="#dfn-incoming_serialization_map">incoming serialization map</a>. Compare the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization" href="#dfn-directed_serialization">directed serialization</a> according to the
+        <a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm">Serialization Comparison Algorithm</a>.
+        If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> is less than or equal to
+        the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization" href="#dfn-directed_serialization">directed serialization</a>:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>For each value in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="list_of_keys" href="#dfn-list_of_keys">list of keys</a>, run the
+            <a href="#node-serialization-algorithm">Node Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+          </li>
+	       <li>Update the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> according to the
+	         <a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm">Mapping Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+	       </li>
+	       <li>Compare the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> to the
+	         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization" href="#dfn-directed_serialization">directed serialization</a> again and if it is less than
+	         or equal and the length of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> is
+	         greater than or equal to the length of the
+	         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization" href="#dfn-directed_serialization">directed serialization</a>, then set the
+	         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization" href="#dfn-directed_serialization">directed serialization</a> to the
+	         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> and set the
+	         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="directed_serialization_map" href="#dfn-directed_serialization_map">directed serialization map</a> to the
+	         <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialized_labels_map" href="#dfn-serialized_labels_map">serialized labels map</a>.
+	       </li>
+        </ol>
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+</ol>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="serialization-comparison-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.12 </span>Serialization Comparison Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The serialization comparison algorithm takes two serializations,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a> and returns either which of the two
+is less than the other or that they are equal.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Whichever serialization is an empty string is greater. If they are
+    both empty strings, they are equal.</li>
+  <li>Return the result of a lexicographical comparison of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="alpha" href="#dfn-alpha">alpha</a>
+    and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="beta" href="#dfn-beta">beta</a> up to the number of characters in the shortest of
+    the two serializations.
+  </li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<div id="mapping-serialization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.13 </span>Mapping Serialization Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The mapping serialization algorithm incrementally updates the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a> in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="mapping_state" href="#dfn-mapping_state">mapping state</a>.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="key_stack" href="#dfn-key_stack">key stack</a> is not empty:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Pop the <dfn title="serialization_key_info" id="dfn-serialization_key_info">serialization key info</dfn> off of the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="key_stack" href="#dfn-key_stack">key stack</a>.
+      </li>
+      <li>For each <dfn title="serialization_key" id="dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</dfn> in the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key_info" href="#dfn-serialization_key_info">serialization key info</a> array, starting at
+        the <dfn title="serialization_key_index" id="dfn-serialization_key_index">serialization key index</dfn> from the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key_info" href="#dfn-serialization_key_info">serialization key info</a>:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a> is not in the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_info_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</a>, push the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key_info" href="#dfn-serialization_key_info">serialization key info</a> onto the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="key_stack" href="#dfn-key_stack">key stack</a> and exit from this loop.
+          </li>
+          <li>If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a> is a key in
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialized_keys" href="#dfn-serialized_keys">serialized keys</a>, a cycle has been detected. Append
+            the concatenation of the <code>_</code> character and the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a> to the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a>.
+          </li><li>Otherwise, serialize all outgoing and incoming edges in the
+            related node by performing the following steps:
+            <ol class="algorithm">
+              <li>Mark the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a> as having
+                been processed by adding a new key-value pair to
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialized_keys" href="#dfn-serialized_keys">serialized keys</a> where the key
+                is the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a> and the value is
+                <code>true</code>.
+              </li>
+              <li>Set the <dfn title="serialization_fragment" id="dfn-serialization_fragment">serialization fragment</dfn> to the value of
+                the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a>.</li>
+              <li>Set the <dfn title="adjacent_info" id="dfn-adjacent_info">adjacent info</dfn> to the value of the
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_key" href="#dfn-serialization_key">serialization key</a> in the
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_info_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</a>.
+              </li>
+              <li>Set the <dfn title="adjacent_node_label" id="dfn-adjacent_node_label">adjacent node label</dfn> to the node
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_info_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</a>.
+              </li>
+              <li>If a mapping for the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_node_label" href="#dfn-adjacent_node_label">adjacent node label</a>
+                exists in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="map_of_all_labels" href="#dfn-map_of_all_labels">map of all labels</a>:
+                <ol class="algorithm">
+                  <li>Append the result of the
+                    <a href="">Label Serialization Algorithm</a> to the
+                    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_fragment" href="#dfn-serialization_fragment">serialization fragment</a>.
+                  </li>
+                </ol>
+                <span class="issue"><dfn title="map_of_all_labels" id="dfn-map_of_all_labels">map of all labels</dfn> referenced but not defined.</span>
+              </li>
+              <li>Append all of the keys in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_info_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</a>
+                to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_fragment" href="#dfn-serialization_fragment">serialization fragment</a>.
+              </li>
+              <li>Append the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_fragment" href="#dfn-serialization_fragment">serialization fragment</a> to the
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a>.
+              </li>
+              <li>Push a new key info object containing the keys from the
+                <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_info_map" href="#dfn-adjacent_info_map">adjacent info map</a> and an index of <code>0</code>
+                onto the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="key_stack" href="#dfn-key_stack">key stack</a>.
+              </li>
+              <li>Recursively update the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_string" href="#dfn-serialization_string">serialization string</a>
+                according to the
+                <a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm">Mapping Serialization Algorithm</a>.
+              </li>
+            </ol>
+          </li>
+        </ol>
+      </li>
+    </ol>
+  </li>
+</ol>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="label-serialization-algorithm" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.8.14 </span>Label Serialization Algorithm</h4>
+
+<p>
+The label serialization algorithm serializes information about a node that
+has been assigned a particular <a class="tref internalDFN" title="serialization_label" href="#dfn-serialization_label">serialization label</a>.
+</p>
+
+<ol class="algorithm">
+  <li>Initialize the <dfn title="label_serialization" id="dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</dfn> to an empty string.</li>
+  <li>Append the <code>[</code> character to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+  <li>Append all properties to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a> by
+    processing each key-value pair in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="node_reference" href="#dfn-node_reference">node reference</a>,
+    excluding the
+    <code>@subject</code> property. The keys should be processed in
+    lexicographical order and their associated values should be processed
+    in the order produced by the
+    <a href="#object-comparison-algorithm">Object Comparison Algorithm</a>:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Build a string using the pattern <code>&lt;</code><strong>KEY</strong><code>&gt;</code>
+        where <strong>KEY</strong> is the current key. Append string to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+      <li>The value may be a single object or an array of objects.
+        Process all of the objects that are associated with the key, building
+        an <dfn title="object_string" id="dfn-object_string">object string</dfn> for each item:
+        <ol class="algorithm">
+          <li>If the object contains an <code>@iri</code> key with a
+            value that starts
+            with <code>_:</code>, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_string" href="#dfn-object_string">object string</a> to
+            the value <code>_:</code>. If the value does not
+            start with <code>_:</code>, build the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_string" href="#dfn-object_string">object string</a>
+            using the pattern
+            <code>&lt;</code><strong>IRI</strong><code>&gt;</code>
+            where <strong>IRI</strong> is the value associated with the
+            <code>@iri</code> key.</li>
+          <li>If the object contains a <code>@literal</code> key and a
+            <code>@datatype</code> key, build the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_string" href="#dfn-object_string">object string</a>
+            using the pattern
+            <code>&quot;</code><strong>LITERAL</strong><code>&quot;^^&lt;</code><strong>DATATYPE</strong><code>&gt;</code>
+            where <strong>LITERAL</strong> is the value associated with the
+            <code>@literal</code> key and <strong>DATATYPE</strong> is the
+            value associated with the <code>@datatype</code> key.</li>
+          <li>If the object contains a <code>@literal</code> key and a
+            <code>@language</code> key, build the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_string" href="#dfn-object_string">object string</a>
+            using the pattern
+            <code>&quot;</code><strong>LITERAL</strong><code>&quot;@</code><strong>LANGUAGE</strong>
+            where <strong>LITERAL</strong> is the value associated with the
+            <code>@literal</code> key and <strong>LANGUAGE</strong> is the
+            value associated with the <code>@language</code> key.</li>
+          <li>Otherwise, the value is a string. Build the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_string" href="#dfn-object_string">object string</a> using the pattern
+            <code>&quot;</code><strong>LITERAL</strong><code>&quot;</code>
+            where <strong>LITERAL</strong> is the value associated with the
+            current key.</li>
+          <li>If this is the second iteration of the loop,
+            append a <code>|</code> separator character to the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+          <li>Append the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object_string" href="#dfn-object_string">object string</a> to the
+            <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+        </ol>
+    </li></ol>
+  </li>
+  <li>Append the <code>]</code> character to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+  <li>Append the <code>[</code> character to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+  <li>Append all incoming references for the current
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a> by
+    processing all of the items associated with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="incoming_list" href="#dfn-incoming_list">incoming list</a>:
+    <ol class="algorithm">
+      <li>Build a <dfn title="reference_string" id="dfn-reference_string">reference string</dfn>
+        using the pattern <code>&lt;</code><strong>PROPERTY</strong><code>&gt;</code><code>&lt;</code><strong>REFERER</strong><code>&gt;</code>
+        where <strong>PROPERTY</strong> is the property associated with the
+        incoming reference and <strong>REFERER</strong> is either the subject of
+        the node referring to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label" href="#dfn-label">label</a> in the incoming reference
+        or <code>_:</code> if <strong>REFERER</strong> begins with
+        <code>_:</code>.
+      </li><li>If this is the second iteration of the loop,
+        append a <code>|</code> separator character to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+      <li>Append the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="reference_string" href="#dfn-reference_string">reference string</a> to the
+        <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+    </ol>
+  </li><li>Append the <code>]</code> character to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.</li>
+  <li>Append all <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_node_labels" href="#dfn-adjacent_node_labels">adjacent node labels</a> to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a> by concatenating the string value
+    for all of them, one after the other, to the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.
+    <span class="issue"><dfn title="adjacent_node_labels" id="dfn-adjacent_node_labels">adjacent node labels</dfn> referenced but not defined.</span></li>
+  <li>Push the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="adjacent_node_labels" href="#dfn-adjacent_node_labels">adjacent node labels</a> onto the
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="key_stack" href="#dfn-key_stack">key stack</a> and append the result of the
+    <a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm">Mapping Serialization Algorithm</a>
+    to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="label_serialization" href="#dfn-label_serialization">label serialization</a>.
+</li></ol>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="data-round-tripping" class="section">
+
+<h3><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Data Round Tripping</h3>
+
+<p>When normalizing <strong>xsd:double</strong> values, implementers <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>
+ensure that the normalized value is a string. In order to generate the
+string from a <strong>double</strong> value, output equivalent to the
+<code>printf(&quot;%1.6e&quot;, value)</code> function in C <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be used where
+<strong>&quot;%1.6e&quot;</strong> is the string formatter and <strong>value</strong>
+is the value to be converted.</p>
+
+<p>To convert the a double value in JavaScript, implementers can use the
+following snippet of code:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">// the variable 'value' below is the JavaScript native double value that is to be converted
+(value).toExponential(6).replace(/(e(?:\+|-))([0-9])$/, '$10$2')</pre>
+
+<p class="note">When data needs to be normalized, JSON-LD authors should
+not use values that are going to undergo automatic conversion. This is due
+to the lossy nature of <strong>xsd:double</strong> values.</p>
+
+<p class="note">Some JSON serializers, such as PHP's native implementation,
+backslash-escapes the forward slash character. For example, the value
+<code>http://example.com/</code> would be serialized as
+<code>http:\/\/example.com\/</code> in some
+versions of PHP. This is problematic when generating a byte
+stream for processes such as normalization. There is no need to
+backslash-escape forward-slashes in JSON-LD. To aid interoperability between
+JSON-LD processors, a JSON-LD serializer <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> backslash-escape
+forward slashes.</p>
+
+<p class="issue">Round-tripping data can be problematic if we mix and
+match @coerce rules with JSON-native datatypes, like integers. Consider the
+following code example:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">var myObj = { &quot;@context&quot; : {
+                &quot;number&quot; : &quot;http://example.com/vocab#number&quot;,
+                &quot;@coerce&quot;: {
+                   &quot;xsd:nonNegativeInteger&quot;: &quot;number&quot;
+                }
+              },
+              &quot;number&quot; : 42 };
+
+// Map the language-native object to JSON-LD
+var jsonldText = jsonld.normalize(myObj);
+
+// Convert the normalized object back to a JavaScript object
+var myObj2 = jsonld.parse(jsonldText);</pre>
+
+<p class="issue">At this point, myObj2 and myObj will have different
+values for the &quot;number&quot; value. myObj will be the number 42, while
+myObj2 will be the string &quot;42&quot;. This type of data round-tripping
+error can bite developers. We are currently wondering if having a
+&quot;coerce validation&quot; phase in the parsing/normalization phases would be a
+good idea. It would prevent data round-tripping issues like the
+one mentioned above.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="rdf-conversion" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.10 </span>RDF Conversion</h3>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD document <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be converted to any other RDF-compatible document
+format using the algorithm specified in this section.</p>
+
+<p>
+  The JSON-LD Processing Model describes processing rules for extracting RDF
+  from a JSON-LD document. Note that many uses of JSON-LD may not require
+  generation of RDF.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The processing algorithm described in this section is provided in
+order to demonstrate how one might implement a JSON-LD to RDF processor.
+Conformant implementations are only required to produce the same type and
+number of triples during the output process and are not required to
+implement the algorithm exactly as described.
+</p>
+
+<p class="issue">The RDF Conversion Algorithm is a work in progress.</p>
+
+<div class="informative section" id="overview">
+  <h4><span class="secno">3.10.1 </span>Overview</h4><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
+  <p>
+    JSON-LD is intended to have an easy to parse grammar that closely models existing
+    practice in using JSON for describing object representations. This allows the use
+    of existing libraries for parsing JSON.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    As with other grammars used for describing <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>, a key concept is that of
+    a <em>resource</em>. Resources may be of three basic types: <em><a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a></em>s, for describing
+    externally named entities, <em>BNodes</em>, resources for which an external name does not
+    exist, or is not known, and Literals, which describe terminal entities such as strings,
+    dates and other representations having a lexical representation possibly including
+    an explicit language or datatype.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+  An Internationalized Resource Identifier
+  (<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>),
+  as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>], is a mechanism for representing unique
+  identifiers on the web. In <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>, an IRI is commonly
+  used for expressing a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a> or an
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a>.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    Data described with JSON-LD may be considered to be the representation of a graph made
+    up of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> resources related via a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a> resource.
+    However, specific implementations may choose to operate on the document as a normal
+    JSON description of objects having attributes.
+  </p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="section">
+  <h4><span class="secno">3.10.2 </span>RDF Conversion Algorithm Terms</h4>
+  <dl>
+    <dt><dfn title="default_graph" id="dfn-default_graph">default graph</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      the destination graph for all triples generated by JSON-LD markup.
+    </dd>
+  </dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="section">
+  <h4><span class="secno">3.10.3 </span>RDF Conversion Algorithm</h4>
+  <p>
+    The algorithm below is designed for in-memory implementations with random access to <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> elements.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    A conforming JSON-LD processor implementing RDF conversion <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> implement a
+    processing algorithm that results in the same <a class="tref internalDFN" title="default_graph" href="#dfn-default_graph">default graph</a> that the following
+    algorithm generates:
+  </p>
+
+  <ol class="algorithm">
+    <li id="processing-step-default-context">
+      Create a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> with with the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> set to the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">initial context</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+      initialized to NULL.
+    </li>
+
+    <li id="processing-step-associative">
+      If a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> is detected, perform the following steps:
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> has a <code>@context</code> key, process the local context as
+          described in <a href="#context">Context</a>.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          Create a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> by mapping the keys from the current <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> using the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> to new keys using the associated value from the current <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>.
+          Repeat the mapping until no entry is found within the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> for the key. Use the new
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> in subsequent steps.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> has an <code>@iri</code> key, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> by
+          performing <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> on the associated value. Generate a
+          triple representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>. Return the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> to the calling location.
+          <p class="issue"><code>@iri</code> really just behaves the same as <code>@subject</code>, consider consolidating them.</p>
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> has a <code>@literal</code> key, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>
+          to a literal value as follows:
+          <ol class="algorithm">
+            <li>
+              as a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a> if the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> contains a <code>@datatype</code> key
+              after performing <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> on the specified<code>@datatype</code>.
+            </li>
+            <li>
+              otherwise, as a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a>. If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> contains
+              a <code>@language</code> key, use it's value to set the language of the plain literal.
+            </li>
+            <li>
+              Generate a triple representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>. Return the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> to the calling location.
+            </li>
+          </ol>
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> has a <code>@list</code> key and the value is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>
+          process the value as a list starting at <a href="#processing-step-list">Step 4</a>.
+        </li>
+        <li id="processing-step-subject">If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> has a <code>@subject</code> key:
+          <ol class="algorithm">
+            <li>
+              If the value is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> to the result of performing
+              <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a>. Generate a
+              triple representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>. Set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>.
+            </li>
+            <li>
+              Create a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> copies of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>,
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>.
+              <ol class="algorithm">
+                <li>
+                  If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> is the target of a <code>@list</code> coercion,
+                  and the value is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>,
+                  process the value as a list starting at <a href="#processing-step-list">Step 4</a>.
+                </li>
+                <li>
+                  Otherwise, process the value starting at
+                  <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a>.
+                </li>
+                <li>Proceed using the previous <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>.</li>
+              </ol>
+            </li>
+          </ol>
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> does not have a <code>@subject</code> key, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active
+          object</a> to newly generated <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a>. Generate a triple
+          representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>. Set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> to the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active
+          object</a>.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          For each key in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> that has not already been processed, perform
+          the following steps:
+          <ol class="algorithm">
+            <li>
+              If the key is <code>@type</code>, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+              to <code>rdf:type</code>.
+            </li>
+            <li>Otherwise, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> to the result of performing
+            <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> on the key.</li>
+            <li>
+              Create a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> copies of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>,
+              <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and process the value
+              starting at <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a> and proceed using the
+              previous <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>.
+            </li>
+          </ol>
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          Return the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> to the calling location.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+    </li>
+
+    <li>
+      If a regular <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> is detected, process each value in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> by doing the following
+      returning the result of processing the last value in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>:
+
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>
+          Create a new <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a> using copies of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active
+          context</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and process the value
+          starting at <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 2</a> then proceed using the previous
+          <a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">processor state</a>.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+    </li>
+
+    <li id="processing-step-list">
+      Generate an RDF List by linking
+      each element of the list using <code>rdf:first</code> and <code>rdf:next</code>, terminating the list with <code>rdf:nil</code>
+      using the following sequence:
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>
+          If the list has no element, generate a triple using the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+          and <code>rdf:nil</code>.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          Otherwise, generate a triple using using the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+          and a newly generated BNode identified as <em>first <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em>.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          For each element other than the last element in the list:
+          <ol class="algorithm">
+            <li>Create a processor state using the active context, <em>first <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em> as the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, and <code>rdf:first</code> as the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>.</li>
+            <li>Unless this is the last element in the list, generate a new BNode identified as <em>rest <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em>, otherwise use <code>rdf:nil</code>.</li>
+            <li>Generate a new triple using <em>first <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em>, <code>rdf:rest</code> and <em>rest <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em>.</li>
+            <li>Set <em>first <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em> to <em>rest <a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier">blank node identifier</a></em>.</li>
+          </ol>
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+    </li>
+
+    <li>
+      If a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> is detected:
+      <ol class="algorithm">
+        <li>
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> is the target of a <code>@iri</code> coercion,
+          set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> by
+          performing <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> on the string.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          Otherwise, if the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> is the target of coercion,
+          set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> by creating a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a> using
+          the string and the coercion key as the datatype IRI.
+        </li>
+        <li>
+          Otherwise, set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a> to a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a> value created from the string.
+          If the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> contains a <code>language</code> key with a non-<code>null</code> value,
+          use it's value to set the language of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a>.
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+      Generate a
+      triple representing the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the
+      <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_object" href="#dfn-active_object">active object</a>.
+    </li>
+
+    <li>
+      If a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">number</a> is detected, generate a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a> using a string representation of
+      the value with datatype set to either <code>xsd:integer</code> or
+      <code>xsd:double</code>, depending on if the value contains a
+      fractional and/or an exponential component. Generate a triple using the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active
+      subject</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a> and the generated typed literal.
+    </li>
+
+    <li>
+      Otherwise, if <strong>true</strong> or <strong>false</strong> is detected,
+      generate a triple using the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_subject" href="#dfn-active_subject">active subject</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_property" href="#dfn-active_property">active property</a>
+      and a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a> value created from the string representation of the
+      value with datatype set to <code>xsd:boolean</code>.
+    </li>
+  </ol>
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements">
+<h4><span class="secno">3.10.4 </span>Acknowledgements</h4>
+
+<p>The editors would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of
+the initial push behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj,
+Dave Longley, Dave Lehn and Mike Johnson who reviewed, provided feedback, and
+performed several implementations of the specification, and Ian Davis, who
+created RDF/JSON. Thanks also to Nathan Rixham, Bradley P. Allen,
+Kingsley Idehen, Glenn McDonald, Alexandre Passant, Danny Ayers, Ted
+Thibodeau Jr., Olivier Grisel, Niklas Lindström, Markus Lanthaler, and Richard
+Cyganiak for their input on the specification. Another huge thank you goes out
+to Dave Longley who designed many of the algorithms used in this specification,
+including the normalization algorithm which was a monumentally difficult
+design challenge.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+</div></div><div id="respec-err" style="position: fixed; width: 350px; top: 10px; right: 10px; border: 3px double #f00; background: #fff" class="removeOnSave"><ul><li style="color: #c00">There appears to have been a problem fetching the style sheet; status=0</li></ul></div><div id="references" class="appendix section">
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">A. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd>Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, et al. <a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/"><cite>The JSON-LD Syntax</cite></a> Latest. W3C Editor's Draft. URL: <a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/">http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-syntax/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-JSON-POINTER">[JSON-POINTER]</dt><dd>P. Bryan, Ed. <cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt">JSON Pointer</a></cite> Latest. IETF Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt">http://www.ietf.org/id/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-pointer-01.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd>M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd>D. Crockford. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt"><cite>The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</cite></a> July 2006. Internet RFC 4627. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-WEBIDL">[WEBIDL]</dt><dd>Cameron McCormack. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-WebIDL-20081219"><cite>Web IDL.</cite></a> 19 December 2008. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-WebIDL-20081219">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-WebIDL-20081219</a> 
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">A.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-ECMA-262">[ECMA-262]</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm"><cite>ECMAScript Language Specification, Third Edition.</cite></a> December 1999. URL: <a href="http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm">http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICRODATA">[MICRODATA]</dt><dd>Ian Hickson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICROFORMATS">[MICROFORMATS]</dt><dd><a href="http://microformats.org"><cite>Microformats</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://microformats.org">http://microformats.org</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-CORE">[RDFA-CORE]</dt><dd>Shane McCarron; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdfa-core-20110331"><cite>RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</cite></a> 31 March 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdfa-core-20110331">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdfa-core-20110331</a> 
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20111023/index.html	Sun Oct 23 17:20:52 2011 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,2234 @@
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd'>
+<html dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD Syntax 1.0</title>
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+
+<body style="display: inherit; "><div class="head"><p></p><h1 class="title" id="title">JSON-LD Syntax 1.0</h1><h2 id="subtitle">A Context-based JSON Serialization for Linking Data</h2><h2 id="unofficial-draft-24-october-2011">Unofficial Draft 24 October 2011</h2><dl><dt>Editor:</dt><dd><a href="http://manu.sporny.org/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dt>Authors:</dt><dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Manu Sporny</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Dave Longley</a>, <a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">Digital Bazaar</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">Gregg Kellogg</a>, <a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">Kellogg Associates</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">Markus Lanthaler</a>, <a href="http://www.tugraz.at/">Graz University of Technology</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Mark Birbeck</a>, <a href="http://webbackplane.com/">Backplane Ltd.</a></dd>
+</dl><p>This document is also available in this non-normative format: <a href="diff-20111016.html">diff to previous version</a>.</p><p class="copyright">This document is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>.</p><hr /></div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+<p>
+JSON [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] has proven to be a highly useful object serialization and
+messaging format. In an attempt to harmonize the representation of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>
+in JSON, this specification outlines a common JSON representation format for
+expressing directed graphs; mixing both Linked Data and non-Linked Data in
+a single document.
+</p>
+</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p>This document is merely a public working draft of a potential specification. It has no official standing of any kind and does not represent the support or consensus of any standards organisation.</p>
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+
+<!--  <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p>  -->
+
+</div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>How to Read this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#contributing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Contributing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#design" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Design</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Goals and Rationale</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Linked Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linking-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Linking Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#the-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4 </span>The Context</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#external-contexts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.4.1 </span>External Contexts</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.5 </span>From JSON to JSON-LD</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Basic Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#iris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>IRIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Specifying the Type</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#strings" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Strings</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.5 </span>String Internationalization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#typed-literals" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Typed Literals</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#lists" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Lists</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Advanced Concepts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#base-uri" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Base URI</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#default-vocabulary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Default Vocabulary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#default-language" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Default Language</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#vocabulary-prefixes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Vocabulary Prefixes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Automatic Typing</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.6 </span>Type Coercion</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#chaining" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.7 </span>Chaining</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.8 </span>Identifying Unlabeled Nodes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#aliasing-keywords" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.9 </span>Aliasing Keywords</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#using-json-ld-for-rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">5. </span>Using JSON-LD for RDF</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Markup Examples</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#turtle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Turtle</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#prefix-and-base-definitions" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1.1 </span>Prefix and Base definitions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#chaining-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1.2 </span>Chaining</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#lists-1" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1.3 </span>Lists</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.2 </span>RDFa</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microformats" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.3 </span>Microformats</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microdata" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.4 </span>Microdata</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#iana-considerations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>IANA Considerations</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
+
+
+
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p>
+JSON, as specified in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>], is a simple language for representing
+data on the Web. <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> is a technique for creating a graph of interlinked data across
+different
+documents or Web sites. Data entities are described using <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s,
+which are typically dereferencable and thus may be used to find more
+information about an entity, creating a &quot;Web of Knowledge&quot;. JSON-LD is intended to be a simple
+publishing method for expressing not only Linked Data in JSON, but also for adding
+semantics to existing JSON.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+JSON-LD is designed as a light-weight syntax that can be used to express
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>. It is primarily intended to be a way to use Linked Data
+in Javascript and other Web-based programming environments. It is also
+useful when building interoperable Web services and when storing Linked
+Data in JSON-based document storage engines. It is practical and designed
+to be as simple as possible, utilizing the large number of JSON parsers
+and libraries available today. It is designed to be able to
+express key-value pairs, RDF data, RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">RDFA-CORE</a></cite>] data, Microformats
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS">MICROFORMATS</a></cite>] data, and Microdata [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA">MICRODATA</a></cite>]. That is, it supports
+every major Web-based structured data model in use today.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The syntax does not necessarily require applications to change their JSON, but
+allows to easily add meaning by adding context in a way that is either in-band or
+out-of-band. The syntax is designed to not disturb already deployed systems
+running on JSON, but provide a smooth upgrade path from JSON to JSON with
+added semantics. Finally, the format is intended to be easy to parse, efficient to
+generate, convertible to RDF in one pass, and require a very small memory footprint
+in order to operate.
+</p>
+
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>How to Read this Document</h3>
+
+<p>
+This document is a detailed specification for a serialization of Linked
+Data in JSON. The document is primarily intended for the following audiences:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>Web developers that want to understand the design decisions and
+  language syntax for JSON-LD.</li>
+  <li>Software developers that want to encode Microformats, RDFa, or Microdata
+  in a way that is cross-language compatible via JSON.</li>
+  <li>Software developers that want to implement processors and APIs for
+  JSON-LD.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>This specification does not describe the processing algorithms and programming interfaces,
+  for those see [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">JSON-LD-API</a></cite>].</p>
+
+<p>
+To understand the basics in this specification you must first be familiar with
+JSON, which is detailed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>]. To understand the API and how it is
+intended to operate  in a programming environment, it is useful to have working
+knowledge of the JavaScript programming language [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262">ECMA-262</a></cite>] and
+WebIDL [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL">WEBIDL</a></cite>]. To understand how JSON-LD maps to RDF, it is helpful to be
+familiar with the basic RDF concepts [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>].</p>
+
+<p>
+  Examples may contain references to existing vocabularies and use <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>es to refer to Web Vocabularies. The following is a list of all vocabularies and their <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> abbreviations, as used in this document:
+</p>
+<ul>
+  <li>The <a href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">Dublin Core</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>dc</code>, e.g., <code>dc:title</code>)</li>
+  <li>The <a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">Friend of a Friend</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>foaf</code>, e.g., <code>foaf:knows</code>)</li>
+  <li>The <a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">RDF</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>rdf</code>, e.g., <code>rdf:type</code>)</li>
+  <li>The <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">XSD</a>
+  vocabulary (abbreviation: <code>xsd</code>, e.g., <code>xsd:integer</code>)</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+  JSON [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] defines several terms which are used throughout this document:
+  </p><dl>
+    <dt><dfn title="json_object" id="dfn-json_object">JSON Object</dfn></dt><dd>
+      An object structure is represented as a pair of curly brackets surrounding zero or
+      more name/value pairs (or members). A name is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>. A single colon comes after
+      each name, separating the name from the value. A single comma separates a value
+      from a following name. The names within an object <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be unique.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="array" id="dfn-array">array</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      An array is an ordered collection of values. An array structure is represented as square brackets surrounding zero or more values (or elements). Elements are separated by commas.  Within JSON-LD, array order is not preserved by default, unless
+      specific markup is provided (see <a href="#lists">Lists</a>). This is because the basic data model of JSON-LD
+      is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a>, which is inherently unordered.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="string" id="dfn-string">string</dfn></dt><dd>
+      A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters, wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes. A
+      character is represented as a single character string.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="number" id="dfn-number">number</dfn></dt>
+    <dd>
+      A number is is similar to that used in most programming languages, except that the octal and hexadecimal formats are not used and that leading zeros are not allowed.</dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="true" id="dfn-true">true</dfn> and <dfn title="false" id="dfn-false">false</dfn></dt><dd>
+      Boolean values.
+    </dd>
+    <dt><dfn title="null" id="dfn-null">null</dfn></dt><dd>
+      The use of the <em>null</em> value is undefined within JSON-LD.
+      <div class="issue">Supporting <em>null</em> in JSON-LD might have a number of advantages and should be evaluated. This is currently an <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/11">open issue</a>.</div>
+    </dd>
+  </dl>
+<p></p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Syntax Tokens and Keywords</h3>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD specifies a number of syntax tokens and keywords that are using
+  in all algorithms described in this section:</p>
+
+  <dl>
+  <dt><code>@context</code></dt><dd>Used to set the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@base</code></dt><dd>Used to set the base <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> for all object IRIs affected  by the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@vocab</code></dt><dd>Used to set the base <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> for all property IRIs affected by the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@coerce</code></dt><dd>Used to specify type coercion rules.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@literal</code></dt><dd>Used to specify a literal value.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@iri</code></dt><dd>Used to specify an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> value.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@language</code></dt><dd>Used to specify the language for a literal.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@datatype</code></dt><dd>Used to specify the datatype for a literal.</dd>
+  <dt><code>:</code></dt><dd>The separator for JSON keys and values that use the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> mechanism.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@subject</code></dt><dd>Sets the active subject.</dd>
+  <dt><code>@type</code></dt><dd>Used to set the type of the active subject.</dd>
+  </dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Contributing</h3>
+
+<p>There are a number of ways that one may participate in the development of
+this specification:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>Technical discussion typically occurs on the public mailing list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">[email protected]</a>
+</li>
+
+<li><a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">Public teleconferences</a> are held
+on Tuesdays at 1500UTC on the second and fourth week of each month.
+</li>
+
+<li>Specification bugs and issues should be reported in the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">issue tracker</a>.</li>
+
+<li><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">Source code</a> for the
+specification can be found on Github.</li>
+
+<li>The <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">#json-ld</a>
+IRC channel is available for real-time discussion on irc.freenode.net.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="design" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Design</h2>
+
+<p>The following section outlines the design goals and rationale behind the
+JSON-LD markup language.
+</p>
+
+<div id="goals-and-rationale" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Goals and Rationale</h3>
+
+<p>
+A number of design considerations were explored during the creation of this
+markup language:
+</p>
+
+<dl>
+ <dt>Simplicity</dt>
+ <dd>Developers need only know JSON and three keywords to use the basic
+ functionality in JSON-LD. No extra processors or software libraries are
+ necessary to use JSON-LD in its most basic form. The language attempts to
+ ensure that developers have an easy learning curve.</dd>
+ <dt>Compatibility</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD markup must be 100% compatible with JSON. This ensures that
+ all of the standard JSON libraries work seamlessly with JSON-LD documents.</dd>
+ <dt>Expressiveness</dt>
+ <dd>The syntax must be able to express directed graphs, which have been proven
+ to be able to simply express almost every real world data model.</dd>
+ <dt>Terseness</dt>
+ <dd>The JSON-LD syntax must be very terse and human readable, requiring as
+ little as possible effort from the developer.</dd>
+ 
+<!-- <dt>Pragmatism</dt>
+ <dd>Mixing the expression of pure Linked Data with data that is not
+ linked was an approach that was driven by pragmatism. JSON-LD attempts to be
+ more practical than theoretical in its approach to Linked Data.</dd> -->
+
+ <dt>Zero Edits, most of the time</dt>
+ <dd>JSON-LD provides a mechanism that allows developers to specify
+ <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> in a way that is out-of-band. This allows organizations that have
+ already deployed large JSON-based infrastructure to add meaning to their
+ JSON documents in a way that is not disruptive to their day-to-day operations and is
+ transparent to their current customers. At times, mapping JSON to
+ a graph representation can become difficult. In these instances, rather than
+ having JSON-LD support esoteric markup, we chose not to support the use case
+ and support a simplified syntax instead. So, while Zero Edits is a goal,
+ it is not always possible without adding great complexity to the language.
+ </dd>
+ <dt>One-pass Processing</dt>
+ <dd>JSON-LD supports one-pass processing, which results in a very small memory 
+ footprint when processing documents. For example, to convert a JSON-LD document
+ into an RDF document of any kind, only one pass is required over the data.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+
+<div id="linked-data" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Linked Data</h3>
+<p>
+The following definition for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> is the one that will
+be used for this specification.
+</p>
+<ol>
+  <li><dfn title="linked_data" id="dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</dfn> is a set of documents, each containing a representation of a linked data graph.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</dfn> is an unordered labeled directed graph, where nodes are <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>s or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a>s, and edges are properties.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject">subject</dfn> is any node in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a> with at least one outgoing edge.</li>
+  <li>A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be labeled with an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> (an Internationalized Resource Identifier as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>]).</li>
+  <li>An <dfn title="object" id="dfn-object">object</dfn> is a node in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a> with at least one incoming edge.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be labeled with an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</li>
+  <li>An object <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> at the same time.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="property" id="dfn-property">property</dfn> is an edge of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a>.</li>
+  <li>A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be labeled with an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> that is a label in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph">linked data graph</a> <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> be dereferencable to a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> document describing the labeled <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a>.</li>
+  <li>A <dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal">literal</dfn> is an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> with a label that is not an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a></li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+Note that the definition for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> above is silent on the
+topic of unlabeled nodes. Unlabeled nodes are not considered
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>. However, this specification allows for the expression
+of unlabled nodes, as most graph-based data sets on the Web contain a number
+of associated nodes that are not named and thus are not directly
+de-referenceable.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="linking-data" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Linking Data</h3>
+
+<p>
+An Internationalized Resource Identifier
+(<dfn title="iri" id="dfn-iri"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></dfn>),
+as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">RFC3987</a></cite>], is a mechanism for representing unique
+identifiers on the web. In <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>, an IRI is commonly
+used for expressing a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a> or an
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>JSON-LD defines a mechanism to map JSON terms, i.e., keys and values, to IRIs. This does not mean
+that JSON-LD requires every key or value to be an IRI, but rather ensures that
+keys and values can be mapped to IRIs if the developer desires to transform
+their data into <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>. There are a few techniques that can ensure
+that developers will generate good Linked Data for the Web. JSON-LD
+formalizes those techniques.
+</p>
+
+<p>We will be using the following JSON markup as the example for the
+rest of this section:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div id="the-context" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.4 </span>The Context</h3>
+
+<p>In JSON-LD, a <dfn title="context" id="dfn-context">context</dfn> is used to map <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s, i.e., keys and values
+  in an JSON document, to
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s. A <dfn title="term" id="dfn-term">term</dfn> is a short word that <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be expanded
+to an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>. The Web uses IRIs for unambiguous identification. The
+idea is that these <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s mean something that may be of use to
+other developers and that it is useful to give them an unambiguous identifier.
+That is, it is useful for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s to expand to IRIs so that
+developers don't accidentally step on each other's Web Vocabulary terms.
+For example, the term <code>name</code> may map directly to the IRI
+<code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>. This allows JSON-LD documents to
+be constructed using the common JSON practice of simple name/value pairs while
+ensuring that the data is useful outside of the page, API or database in which it
+resides.
+</p>
+
+<p>These Linked Data <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s are typically collected in a context document that would look something like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+    &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar&quot;
+  }
+}</pre>
+
+<p>This context document can then be used in an JSON-LD document by adding a 
+single line. The JSON markup as shown in the previous section could be changed 
+as follows to link to the context document:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person&quot;,</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The additions above transform the previous JSON document into a JSON document
+with added semantics because the <code>@context</code> specifies how the
+<strong>name</strong>, <strong>homepage</strong>, and <strong>avatar</strong>
+terms map to IRIs.
+Mapping those keys to IRIs gives the data global context. If two
+developers use the same IRI to describe a property, they are more than likely
+expressing the same concept. This allows both developers to re-use each others
+data without having to agree to how their data will inter-operate on a
+site-by-site basis. Contexts may also contain datatype information
+for certain <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s as well as other processing instructions for
+the JSON-LD processor.</p>
+
+<p>Contexts may be specified in-line. This ensures that JSON-LD documents
+can be processed when a JSON-LD processor does not have access to the Web.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+    &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar&quot;
+  },</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Contexts may be used at any time a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> is defined, and a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a>
+  may specify multiple contexts, to be processed in order, for example to include standard prefix
+  definitions along with a local language definition used to set the language of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a>s:</p>
+
+<p>
+  The set of contexts defined within a specific <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON Object</a> is termed a <dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context">local context</dfn>.
+  The <dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context">active context</dfn> refers to the accumulation of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">local context</a>s that are in scope
+  at a specific point within the document.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+    }
+  ],</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>JSON-LD strives to ensure that developers don't have to change the JSON
+  that is going into and being returned from their Web APIs. This means
+  that developers can also specify a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> for JSON data in an out-of-band
+  fashion. This is described later in this document. </p>
+
+<p>
+  JSON-LD uses a special type of machine-readable document called a
+  <dfn title="web_vocabulary" id="dfn-web_vocabulary">Web Vocabulary</dfn> to define <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s that are then used
+  to describe concepts and &quot;things&quot; in the world.
+  Typically, these Web Vocabulary documents have <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>es associated
+  with them and contain a number of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> declarations.
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">Prefix</a>es are helpful when a developer
+  wants to mix multiple vocabularies together in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>, but does not want
+  to go to the trouble of defining every single term in every single vocabulary.
+  Some Web Vocabularies may have dozens of terms defined. If a developer wants to use
+  3-4 different vocabularies, the number of terms that
+  would have to be declared in a single <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> could become quite large. To
+  reduce the number of different terms that must be defined, JSON-LD also allows
+  prefixes to be used to compact IRIs.
+</p><p>
+
+</p><p>For example, the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</code>
+specifies a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="web_vocabulary" href="#dfn-web_vocabulary">Web Vocabulary</a> which may be represented using the
+<code>foaf</code> <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>. The <code>foaf</code> Web Vocabulary
+contains a term called <strong>name</strong>. If you join the
+<code>foaf</code> <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> with the <strong>name</strong> suffix,
+you can build a compact IRI that will expand out into an absolute IRI for the
+<code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code> vocabulary term.
+That is, the compact IRI, or short-form, is <code>foaf:name</code> and the
+expanded-form is <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>. This vocabulary
+term is used to specify a person's name.
+</p>
+
+<p>Developers, and machines, are able to use this <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> (plugging it
+directly into a web browser, for instance) to go to the term and get a
+definition of what the term means. Much like we can use <a href="http://wordnet.princeton.edu/">WordNet</a> today to
+see the definition
+of words in the English language. Developers and machines need the same sort of
+definition of terms. IRIs provide a way to ensure that these terms
+are unambiguous.
+</p>
+
+<p>The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> provides a collection of vocabulary <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s and
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>es that can be used to expand JSON keys and values into
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s.</p>
+
+<p class="note">To ensure the best possible performance, it is a best practice to
+put the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> definition at the top of the JSON-LD document. If it isn't listed
+first, processors have to save each key-value pair until the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> is processed.
+This creates a memory and complexity burden for one-pass processors.</p>
+<div id="external-contexts" class="section">
+  <h4><span class="secno">2.4.1 </span>External Contexts</h4>
+
+  <p>Authors may choose to declare JSON-LD <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>s in external 
+documents to promote re-use of contexts as well as reduce the size of JSON-LD 
+documents.
+In order to use an external context, an author <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> specify an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> to a valid
+JSON-LD document. The referenced document <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a top-level <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON Object</a>.
+The value of any <code>@context</code> key within that object is substituted for
+the IRI within the referencing document to have the same effect as if the value were
+specified inline within the referencing document.</p>
+  <p>The following example demonstrates the use of an external context:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Authors may also import multiple contexts or a combination of external and local contexts by specifying a list of 
+contexts:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: [&quot;http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person&quot;, &quot;http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/event&quot;]</span>
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+  <span class="diff">&quot;celebrates&quot;:
+  {
+     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
+     &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
+     &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
+  }</span>
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Each context in a list will be evaluated in-order. Duplicate mappings within the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>s <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be
+overwritten on a last-defined-overrides basis. The context list <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> contain
+either de-referenceable <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s or <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON Object</a>s that conform to the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> syntax as described in this document.</p>
+
+<p>External JSON-LD context documents <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> contain extra information located
+outside of the <code>@context</code> key, such as
+documentation about the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>es declared in the document. It is
+also <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em> that a human-readable document encoded in HTML+RDFa 
+[<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-HTML-RDFA">HTML-RDFA</a></cite>] or other Linked Data compatible format is served as well to
+explain the correct usage of the JSON-LD context document.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="from-json-to-json-ld" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">2.5 </span>From JSON to JSON-LD</h3>
+
+<p>If a set of terms such as, <strong>name</strong>, <strong>homepage</strong>,
+and <strong>avatar</strong>,
+are defined in a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>, and that context is used to resolve the
+names in JSON objects, machines are able to automatically expand the terms to
+something meaningful and unambiguous, like this:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#avatar</span>&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Doing this allows JSON to be unambiguously machine-readable without
+requiring developers to drastically change their workflow.</p>
+<p class="note">Please note that this JSON-LD document doesn't define the
+subject and will thus result in an unlabeled or blank node.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div id="basic-concepts" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">3. </span>Basic Concepts</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD is designed to ensure that <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> concepts can be marked
+up in a way that is simple to understand and author by Web developers. In many
+cases, regular JSON markup can become Linked Data with the simple addition
+of a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>. As more JSON-LD features are used, more semantics are added
+to the JSON markup.</p>
+
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>IRIs</h3>
+
+<p>Expressing <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s are fundamental to <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> as that is how most
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>s and many <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a> are named. <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s can be
+expressed in a variety of different ways in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<ol>
+  <li>In general, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>s in the key position in
+    a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="json_object" href="#dfn-json_object">JSON object</a> that have a mapping to an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> or another key in the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> are
+    expanded to an IRI by JSON-LD processors. There are special rules for
+    processing keys in <code>@context</code> and when dealing with keys that
+    start with the <code>@subject</code> character.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> is generated for the value specified using <code>@subject</code>,
+    if it is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> is generated for the value specified using <code>@type</code>.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> is generated for the value specified using the <code>@iri</code>
+    keyword.</li>
+  <li>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> is generated when there are <code>@coerce</code> rules in
+    effect for a key named <code>@iri</code>.</li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>IRIs can be expressed directly in the key position like so:
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>In the example above, the key
+<code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code> is interpreted as an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>, as
+opposed to being interpreted as a string.</p>
+
+<p>Term expansion occurs for IRIs if a term is defined within the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;: {&quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>&quot;},
+...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">Prefix</a>es are expanded when used in keys:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@context</span>&quot;: {&quot;<span class="diff">foaf</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>&quot;},
+...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p><code>foaf:name</code> above will automatically expand out to the IRI
+<code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>.</p>
+
+<p>An <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> is generated when a value is associated with a key using
+the <code>@iri</code> keyword:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;<span class="diff">@iri</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>If type coercion rules are specified in the <code>@context</code> for
+a particular vocabulary term, an IRI is generated:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+    }
+  }</span>
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Even though the value <code>http://manu.sporny.org/</code> is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>,
+the type coercion rules will transform the value into an IRI when processed
+by a JSON-LD Processor</p>
+
+<p>IRIs may be represented as an absolute IRI, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a>, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>:<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> construct, or as a value relative to <code>@base</code> or <code>@vocab</code>.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Identifying the Subject</h3>
+
+<p>
+  To be able to externally reference nodes, it is important that each node has an unambiguous identifier.
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s are a fundamental concept of <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>, and nodes should have a de-referencable
+  identifier used to name and locate them. For nodes to be truely linked, de-referencing the identifier
+  should result in a representation of that node. Associating an IRI with a node tells an application
+  that the returned document contains a description of the node requested.
+</p>
+<p>
+  JSON-LD documents may also contain descriptions of other nodes, so it is necessary to be able to
+  uniquely identify each node which may be externally referenced.
+</p>
+<p>A <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>
+   of an object in JSON is declared using the <code>@subject</code> key. The subject is the
+first piece of information needed by the JSON-LD processor in order to
+create the (subject, property, object) tuple, also known as a triple.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@subject</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the subject to the IRI
+<code>http://example.org/people#joebob</code>.
+</p>
+
+<p class="note">To ensure the best possible performance, it is a best practice to
+put the <code>@subject</code> key before other key-value pairs in an object. If
+it isn't listed first, processors have to save each key-value pair until
+<code>@subject</code> is processed before they can create valid triples. This
+creates a memory and complexity burden for one-pass processors.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Specifying the Type</h3>
+
+<p>The type of a particular subject can be specified using the
+<code>@type</code> key. Specifying the type in this way will generate a
+triple of the form (subject, type, type-iri).</p>
+
+<p>To be <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>, types <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be uniquely identified by an
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triple if the JSON-LD
+document is mapped to RDF (in N-Triples notation):</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+      &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="strings" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.4 </span>Strings</h3>
+
+<p>Regular text strings, also referred to as <dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</dfn>s, are
+easily expressed using regular JSON <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a>s.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="string-internationalization" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.5 </span>String Internationalization</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD makes an assumption that strings with associated language encoding
+information are not very common when used in JavaScript and Web Services.
+Thus, it takes a little more effort to express strings with associated
+language information.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">
+  {
+    &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a> for
+<em>花澄</em> and associate the <code>ja</code> language code with the triple
+that is generated. Languages <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> be expressed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">BCP47</a></cite>] format.</p>
+
+<p>It is also possible to set a language to use within a <code>@context</code>, to allow specify a language
+to apply to all <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a>s within the scope of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a></p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context:&quot; {
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },</span>
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;花澄&quot;</span>
+...
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div id="typed-literals" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.6 </span>Typed Literals</h3>
+
+<p>
+  A value with an associated datatype, also known as a
+  <dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</dfn>, is indicated by associating a literal with
+  an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> which indicates the literal's datatype. Typed literals may be
+  expressed in JSON-LD in three ways:
+</p>
+
+<ol>
+  <li>By utilizing the <code>@coerce</code> keyword.</li>
+  <li>By utilizing the expanded form for specifying objects.</li>
+  <li>By using a native JSON datatype.</li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>The first example uses the <code>@coerce</code> keyword to express a
+typed literal:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;modified&quot;:  &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+    &quot;dateTime&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime&quot;
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;dateTime&quot;: &quot;modified&quot;
+    }
+  }</span>
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The second example uses the expanded form for specifying objects:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: <span class="diff">
+  {
+    &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@datatype&quot;: &quot;dateTime&quot;
+  }</span>
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Both examples above would generate an object with the literal value of
+<code>2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00</code> and the datatype of
+<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime</code>.</p>
+
+<p>The third example uses a built-in native JSON type, a
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">number</a>, to express a datatype:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">31</span>
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triple:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      &quot;31&quot;^^&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&gt; .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.7 </span>Multiple Objects for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<p>A JSON-LD author can express multiple triples in a compact way by using
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>s. If a subject has multiple values for the same property, the author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> express each property as an <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a>.</p>
+
+<p class="note">In JSON-LD, multiple objects on a property are not ordered. This is because typically graphs
+are not inherently ordered data structures. To see more on creating ordered collections
+in JSON-LD, see <a href="#lists">Lists</a>.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[&quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot;]</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The markup shown above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;joe&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;bob&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;jaybee&quot; .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">3.8 </span>Multiple Typed Literals for a Single Property</h3>
+
+<p>Multiple <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a>s may also be expressed using the expanded
+form for objects:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/articles/8&quot;,
+  &quot;modified&quot;: <span class="diff">
+  [
+    {
+      &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+      &quot;@datatype&quot;: &quot;dateTime&quot;
+    },
+    {
+      &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00&quot;,
+      &quot;@datatype&quot;: &quot;dateTime&quot;
+    }
+  ]</span>
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The markup shown above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      &quot;2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00&quot;^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="lists" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">3.9 </span>Lists</h3>
+  <p>
+    Because graphs do not describe ordering for links between nodes,  in contrast to plain JSON, multi-valued properties
+    in JSON-LD do not provide an ordering of the listed objects. For example, consider the following
+    simple document:
+  </p>
+  <pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[&quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot;]</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+  <p>
+    This results in three triples being generated, each relating the subject to an individual
+    object, with no inherent order.</p>
+  <p>To preserve the order of the objects, RDF-based languages, such as [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>]
+    use the concept of an <code>rdf:List</code> (as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>]). This uses a sequence
+    of unlabeled nodes with properties describing a value, a null-terminated next property. Without
+    specific syntactical support, this could be represented in JSON-LD as follows:
+  </p>
+  <pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: <span class="diff">{</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@first&quot;: &quot;joe&quot;</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@rest&quot;: {</span>
+      <span class="diff">&quot;@first&quot;: &quot;bob&quot;</span>,
+      <span class="diff">&quot;@rest&quot;: {</span>
+        <span class="diff">&quot;@first&quot;: &quot;jaybee&quot;</span>,
+        <span class="diff">&quot;@rest&quot;: &quot;@nil&quot;</span>
+        <span class="diff">}</span>
+      <span class="diff">}</span>
+    <span class="diff">}</span>
+  <span class="diff">}</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+  <p>
+    As this notation is rather unwieldy and the notion of ordered collections is rather important
+    in data modeling, it is useful to have specific language support. In JSON-LD, a list may
+    be represented using the <code>@list</code> keyword as follows:
+  </p>
+  <pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;: <span class="diff">{&quot;@list&quot;: [&quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot;]}</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+  <p>
+    This describes the use of this <a class="tref internalDFN" title="array" href="#dfn-array">array</a> as being ordered, and order is maintained through normalization
+    and RDF conversion as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">JSON-LD-API</a></cite>]. If every use of a given multi-valued property is a list, this
+    may be abbreviated by adding an <code>@coerce</code> term:
+  </p>
+  <pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: {</span>
+    ...
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@coerce&quot;: {</span>
+      <span class="diff">&quot;@list&quot;: [&quot;foaf:nick&quot;]</span>
+    <span class="diff">}</span>
+  <span class="diff">}</span>,
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;: <span class="diff">[&quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybee&quot;]</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+  <p>
+    The @list keyword can be used within the <code>@coerce</code> section of a <code>@context</code> to
+    cause value arrays to be coerced into an ordered list.
+  </p>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="advanced-concepts" class="section">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Advanced Concepts</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD has a number of features that provide functionality above and beyond
+the core functionality described above. The following sections outline the
+features that are specific to JSON-LD.
+</p>
+
+
+<div id="base-uri" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Base URI</h3>
+<p>JSON-LD allows <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s to be specified in a relative form. For <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a> and <a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">object</a>
+  IRIs, relative IRIs are resolved against the document base using
+  <cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">section 5.1 Establishing a
+  Base URI</a></cite> of [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>]. This value may be explicitly
+  set with a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> using the <code>@base</code> keyword.</p>
+
+<p>For example, if a JSON-LD document was retrieved from <code>http://manu.sporny.org/</code>,
+  relative IRIs would resolve against that URI:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;about/&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage: &quot;&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>This document uses an empty <code>@subject</code>, which resolves to the document base. However, if
+  the document is moved to a different location, the subject IRI would change. To prevent this, a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>
+  may have a <code>@base</code> mapping, to set an absolute base for the document in spite of where
+  it actually is retrieved from. It <em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em> have a value of a simple
+  <a class="tref internalDFN" title="string" href="#dfn-string">string</a> with the lexical form of an absolute <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: { &quot;@base&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;}</span>,
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;about/&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage: &quot;&quot;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div id="default-vocabulary" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Default Vocabulary</h3>
+<p>It is often common that all types and properties come from the same vocabulary. JSON-LD provides
+  a way to set a base URI to be used for all properties and types that aren't based on terms,
+  prefixes or absolute IRIs. Much like the <code>@base</code> keyword, the <code>@vocab</code> keyword
+  can be used to set a base <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> to use for all types and properties that don't otherwise resolve to
+  an absolute <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.
+
+</p><pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: { &quot;@vocab&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/1.0/&quot; },</span>
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Person&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div id="default-language" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Default Language</h3>
+<p>JSON-LD allows a default value to use as the language for <a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a>s.
+  It is commonly the case that documents are written using a single language. As described in
+  <a href="string-internationalization">String Internationalization</a>, a language-tagged literal
+  may be specified as follows:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  }
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>By specifying <code>@language</code> within a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>, multiple language-tagged literals may be
+  marked up using a simple string form:</p>
+</div>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: { &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;}</span>,
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;花澄&quot;</span>
+...
+}</pre>
+<div id="vocabulary-prefixes" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Vocabulary Prefixes</h3>
+  <p>
+    Vocabulary terms in <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> documents may draw from a number of
+    different Web vocabularies. At times, declaring every single term that
+    a document uses can require the developer to declare tens, if not
+    hundreds of potential vocabulary terms that may be used across an
+    application. This is a concern for at least three reasons; the
+    first is the cognitive load on the developer, the second is
+    the serialized size of the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>, the third is future-proofing
+    application contexts. In order to address these issues, the concept of a
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> mechanism is introduced.</p>
+  <p>
+    A <dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix">prefix</dfn> is a compact way of expressing a base
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a> to a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="web_vocabulary" href="#dfn-web_vocabulary">Web Vocabulary</a>.
+    Generally, these prefixes are used by concatenating the <em>prefix</em> and
+    a <em>suffix</em> separated by a colon (<code>:</code>).
+    The <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a> is a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">term</a> taken from the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a>,
+    a short string that identifies a particular Web vocabulary.
+    For example, the prefix <code>foaf</code> may be used as a short
+    hand for the Friend-of-a-Friend Web Vocabulary, which is identified using
+    the IRI <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</code>. A developer may append any of
+    the FOAF Vocabulary terms to the end of the prefix to specify a short-hand
+    version of the absolute IRI for the vocabulary term. For example,
+    <code>foaf:name</code> would be expanded out to the IRI
+    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>. Instead of having to remember
+    and type out the entire IRI, the developer can instead use the prefix in
+    their JSON-LD markup.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    The ability to use <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>es reduces the need for developers
+    to declare every vocabulary term that they intend to use in
+    the JSON-LD <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>. This reduces document serialization size because
+    every vocabulary term need not be declared in the context.
+    <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">Prefix</a> also
+    reduce the cognitive load on the developer. It is far easier to
+    remember <code>foaf:name</code> than it is to remember
+    <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>. The use of prefixes also
+    ensures that a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> document does not have to be updated in lock-step
+    with an externally defined <a class="tref internalDFN" title="web_vocabulary" href="#dfn-web_vocabulary">Web Vocabulary</a>. Without prefixes, a developer
+    would need to keep their application context terms in lock-step with an
+    externally defined Web Vocabulary. Rather, by just declaring the
+    Web Vocabulary prefix, one can use new terms as they're declared
+    without having to update the application's JSON-LD <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>.
+  </p>
+  <p>Consider the following example:</p>
+  <pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    <span class="diff">&quot;dc&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot;,</span>
+    <span class="diff">&quot;ex&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/vocab#&quot;</span>
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Library&quot;</span>,
+  <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>: {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Book&quot;</span>,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:creator&quot;</span>: &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;ex:contains&quot;</span>: {
+      &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;ex:Chapter&quot;</span>,
+      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:description&quot;</span>: &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      <span class="diff">&quot;dc:title&quot;</span>: &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+    },
+  },
+}</pre>
+  <p>
+    In this example, two different vocabularies are referred to using
+    prefixes. Those prefixes are then used as type and property values using
+    the <code>prefix:suffix</code> notation.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    Prefixes, also known as CURIEs, are defined more formally in RDFa Core 1.1,
+    <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies">Section 6
+    &quot;CURIE Syntax Definition&quot;</a></cite> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">RDFA-CORE</a></cite>].
+    JSON-LD does not support the square-bracketed CURIE syntax as the
+    mechanism is not required to disambiguate <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s in a JSON-LD document like
+    it is in HTML documents.
+  </p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.5 </span>Automatic Typing</h3>
+
+<p>Since JSON is capable of expressing typed information such as doubles,
+integers, and boolean values. As demonstrated below, JSON-LD utilizes that
+information to create <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a>s:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  // The following two values are automatically converted to a type of xsd:double
+  // and both values are equivalent to each other.
+  &quot;measure:cups&quot;: <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+  &quot;measure:cups&quot;: <span class="diff">5.3e0</span>,
+  // The following value is automatically converted to a type of xsd:double as well
+  &quot;space:astronomicUnits&quot;: <span class="diff">6.5e73</span>,
+  // The following value should never be converted to a language-native type
+  &quot;measure:stones&quot;: <span class="diff">{ &quot;@literal&quot;: &quot;4.8&quot;, &quot;@datatype&quot;: &quot;xsd:decimal&quot; }</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  &quot;chem:protons&quot;: <span class="diff">12</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  &quot;sensor:active&quot;: <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p class="note">When dealing with a number of modern programming languages,
+including JavaScript ECMA-262, there is no distinction between
+<strong>xsd:decimal</strong> and <strong>xsd:double</strong> values. That is,
+the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">number</a> <code>5.3</code> and the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="number" href="#dfn-number">number</a>
+<code>5.3e0</code> are treated as if they were the same. When converting from
+JSON-LD to a language-native format and back, datatype information is lost in a
+number of these languages. Thus, one could say that <code>5.3</code> is a
+<strong>xsd:decimal</strong> and <code>5.3e0</code> is an
+<strong>xsd:double</strong> in JSON-LD, but when both values are
+converted to a language-native format the datatype difference between the two
+is lost because the machine-level representation will almost always be a
+<strong>double</strong>.
+Implementers should be aware of this potential round-tripping issue between
+<strong>xsd:decimal</strong> and <strong>xsd:double</strong>. Specifically
+objects with a datatype of <strong>xsd:decimal</strong> <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em> be converted
+to a language native type.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="type-coercion" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.6 </span>Type Coercion</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD supports the coercion of values to particular data types.
+Type coercion allows someone deploying JSON-LD to coerce the incoming or
+outgoing types to the proper data type based on a mapping of data type <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s to
+property types. Using type coercion, one may convert simple JSON data to
+properly typed RDF data.</p>
+
+<p>The example below demonstrates how a JSON-LD author can coerce values to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">plain literal</a>s, <a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">typed literal</a>s and IRIs.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+     &quot;rdf&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;,
+     &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+     &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+     &quot;age&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+     &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+<span class="diff">     &quot;@coerce&quot;:
+     {
+        &quot;xsd:integer&quot;: &quot;age&quot;,
+        &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;homepage&quot;
+     }</span>
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;41&quot;</span>,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: <span class="diff">&quot;http://example.org/home/&quot;</span>
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would generate the following triples:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      &quot;John Smith&quot; .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      &quot;41&quot;^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+      &lt;http://example.org/home/&gt; .</pre>
+
+<div class="issue">
+  <p>The mechanism for type coercion is still being debated. It may be that the key/value
+    positions are swapped, yielding a <code>@context</code> such as the following:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;rdf&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+    &quot;currentProject&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/currentProject&quot;,
+    <span class="diff">&quot;@coerce&quot;: {
+      &quot;age&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;,
+      &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;@iri&quot;,
+      &quot;currentProject&quot;: [&quot;@iri&quot;, &quot;@list&quot;]
+     }</span>
+  },
+  ...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>An alternative is to merge the coercion into term definitions:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;rdf&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;: <span class="diff">{&quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;, &quot;@coerce&quot;: &quot;xsd:integer&quot;}</span>,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: <span class="diff">{&quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;, &quot;@coerce&quot;: &quot;@iri&quot;}</span>,
+    &quot;currentProject&quot;: <span class="diff">{&quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/currentProject&quot;, &quot;@coerce&quot;: [&quot;@iri&quot;, &quot;@list&quot;]}</span>,
+  },
+  ...
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="chaining" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">4.7 </span>Chaining</h3>
+  <p>
+    Object <dfn title="chaining" id="dfn-chaining">chaining</dfn> is a JSON-LD feature that allows an author to
+    use the definition of JSON-LD objects as <a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property">property</a> values. This
+    is a commonly used mechanism for creating a parent-child relationship
+    between two <a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">subject</a>s.
+  </p>
+  <p>The example shows an two subjects related by a property from the first
+  subject:</p>
+
+  <pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">knows</span>&quot;: {
+    &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Person</span>&quot;,
+    &quot;<span class="diff">name</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">Gregg Kellogg</span>&quot;,
+  }
+...
+}</pre>
+
+  <p>
+    An object definition, like the one used above, <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> be used as a
+    JSON value at any point in JSON-LD.
+  </p>
+</div>
+
+<div id="identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.8 </span>Identifying Unlabeled Nodes</h3>
+
+<p>At times, it becomes necessary to be able to express information without
+being able to specify the subject. Typically, this type of node is called
+an unlabeled node or a blank node. In JSON-LD, unlabeled node identifiers are
+automatically created if a subject is not specified using the
+<code>@subject</code> keyword. However, authors may provide identifiers for
+unlabeled nodes by using the special <code>_</code> (underscore)
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>. This allows to reference the node locally within the
+document but not in an external document.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+...
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">_:foo</span>&quot;,
+...
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The example above would set the subject to <code>_:foo</code>, which can
+then be used later on in the JSON-LD markup to refer back to the
+unlabeled node. This practice, however, is usually frowned upon when
+generating <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a>. If a developer finds that they refer to the unlabeled
+node more than once, they should consider naming the node using a resolve-able
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="aliasing-keywords" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">4.9 </span>Aliasing Keywords</h3>
+
+<p>JSON-LD allows all of the syntax keywords, except for <code>@context</code>,
+to be aliased. This feature allows more legacy JSON content to be supported
+by JSON-LD. It also allows developers to design domain-specific implementations
+using only the JSON-LD <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+     <span class="diff">&quot;url&quot;: &quot;@subject&quot;</span>,
+     <span class="diff">&quot;a&quot;: &quot;@type&quot;</span>,
+     &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;url&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/about#gregg&quot;,
+  &quot;a&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/Person&quot;,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>In the example above, the <code>@subject</code> and <code>@type</code>
+keywords have been given the aliases <strong>url</strong> and
+<strong>a</strong>, respectively.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="using-json-ld-for-rdf" class="section">
+  
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Using JSON-LD for RDF</h2>
+
+  <p>JSON-LD is a specification for representing <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> in JSON. A common
+    way of working with Linked Data is through <dfn title="rdf" id="dfn-rdf">RDF</dfn>, the Resource Description Framework.
+    RDF can be expressed using JSON-LD by associating JSON-LD concepts such as <code>@subject</code>
+    and <code>@type</code> with the equivalent <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>s in RDF. Further information about
+    RDF may be found in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER">RDF-PRIMER</a></cite>].</p>
+
+  <p>Some examples of encoding <a class="tref internalDFN" title="rdf" href="#dfn-rdf">RDF</a> into JSON-LD may be found
+    in <a href="#markup-examples">Appendix A</a>. Details of transforming JSON-LD into RDF
+    are defined in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">JSON-LD-API</a></cite>].</p>
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="markup-examples">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Markup Examples</h2>
+
+<p>The JSON-LD markup examples below demonstrate how JSON-LD can be used to
+  express semantic data marked up in other languages such as RDFa, Microformats,
+  and Microdata. These sections are merely provided as proof that JSON-LD is
+  very flexible in what it can express across different <a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data" href="#dfn-linked_data">Linked Data</a> approaches.</p>
+
+<div id="turtle" class="section">
+  <h3><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Turtle</h3>
+  
+  <p>The following are examples of representing <a class="tref internalDFN" title="rdf" href="#dfn-rdf">RDF</a> as expressed in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] into JSON-LD.</p>
+  
+<div id="prefix-and-base-definitions" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">A.1.1 </span>Prefix and Base definitions</h4>
+<p>The JSON-LD context has direct equivalents for Turtle <code>@base</code> and <code>@prefix</code> expressions:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">@base &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;;
+  foaf:homepage &lt;&gt; .</pre>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@base&quot;:  &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:       &quot;#me&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:  {&quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;&quot;}
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+<div id="chaining-1" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">A.1.2 </span>Chaining</h4>
+<p>Both Turtle and JSON-LD allow chaining of objects, although Turtle only allows chaining of objects which
+  use nlank node identifiers.</p>
+</div>
+
+<pre class="example">@base &lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt; .
[email protected] foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+&lt;#me&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;;
+  foaf:knows [ a foaf:Person; foaf:name &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot; ] .</pre>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@base&quot;:  &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:       &quot;#me&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:knows&quot;:  {
+    &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;
+  }
+}</pre>
+<div id="lists-1" class="section">
+<h4><span class="secno">A.1.3 </span>Lists</h4>
+<p>Both JSON-LD and Turtle can represent sequential lists of values.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Joe Bob&quot;;
+  foaf:nick ( &quot;joe&quot; &quot;bob&quot; &quot;jaybee&quot;) .</pre>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;@base&quot;:  &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;:       &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Joe Bob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:      {&quot;@list&quot;: [&quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybe&quot;]}
+}</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="rdfa" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">A.2 </span>RDFa</h3>
+
+<p>The following example describes three people with their respective names and
+homepages.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;div <span class="diff">prefix=&quot;foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;</span>&gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof=&quot;foaf:Person&quot;</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel=&quot;foaf:homepage&quot; href=&quot;http://example.com/bob/&quot; property=&quot;foaf:name&quot; </span>&gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof=&quot;foaf:Person&quot;</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel=&quot;foaf:homepage&quot; href=&quot;http://example.com/eve/&quot; property=&quot;foaf:name&quot; </span>&gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof=&quot;foaf:Person&quot;</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel=&quot;foaf:homepage&quot; href=&quot;http://example.com/manu/&quot; property=&quot;foaf:name&quot; </span>&gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>An example JSON-LD implementation is described below, however, there are
+other ways to mark-up this information such that the <a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> is not
+repeated.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: { &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;},
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: [
+   {
+     &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;_:bnode1&quot;,
+     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+     &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/bob/&quot;,
+     &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Bob&quot;
+   },
+   {
+     &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;_:bnode2&quot;,
+     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+     &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/eve/&quot;,
+     &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Eve&quot;
+   },
+   {
+     &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;_:bnode3&quot;,
+     &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+     &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/manu/&quot;,
+     &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Manu&quot;
+   }
+  ]
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microformats" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">A.3 </span>Microformats</h3>
+
+<p>The following example uses a simple Microformats hCard example to express
+how the Microformat is represented in JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;div class=&quot;vcard&quot;&gt;
+ &lt;a class=&quot;url fn&quot; href=&quot;http://tantek.com/&quot;&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>The representation of the hCard expresses the Microformat terms in the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="context" href="#dfn-context">context</a> and uses them directly for the <code>url</code> and <code>fn</code>
+properties. Also note that the Microformat to JSON-LD processor has
+generated the proper URL type for <code>http://tantek.com</code>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;vcard&quot;: &quot;http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard&quot;,
+    &quot;url&quot;: &quot;http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url&quot;,
+    &quot;fn&quot;: &quot;http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn&quot;,
+    &quot;@coerce&quot;: { &quot;@iri&quot;: &quot;url&quot; }
+  },
+  &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;_:bnode1&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;vcard&quot;,
+  &quot;url&quot;: &quot;http://tantek.com/&quot;,
+  &quot;fn&quot;: &quot;Tantek Çelik&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="microdata" class="section">
+<h3><span class="secno">A.4 </span>Microdata</h3>
+
+<p>The Microdata example below expresses book information as a Microdata Work
+item.
+</p>
+
+<pre class="example">&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype=&quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work&quot;
+    itemid=&quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&quot;&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop=&quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization&quot;
+     itemscope
+     itemtype=&quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&quot;
+     itemid=&quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/type&quot; href=&quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK&quot;&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop=&quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization&quot;
+     itemscope
+     itemtype=&quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&quot;
+     itemid=&quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&quot;&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/type&quot; href=&quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&quot;&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;</pre>
+
+<p>Note that the JSON-LD representation of the Microdata information stays
+true to the desires of the Microdata community to avoid contexts and
+instead refer to items by their full <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>.</p>
+
+<pre class="example">[
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work&quot;,
+    &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&quot;: &quot;Just a Geek&quot;,
+    &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator&quot;: &quot;Whil Wheaton&quot;,
+    &quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization&quot;:
+      [&quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&quot;, &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&quot;]
+  },
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&quot;,
+    &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK&quot;
+  },
+  {
+    &quot;@subject&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression&quot;,
+    &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/type&quot;: &quot;http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK&quot;
+  }
+]</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="mashing-up-vocabularies">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Mashing Up Vocabularies</h2>
+
+<p>Developers would also benefit by allowing other vocabularies to be used
+automatically with their JSON API. There are over 200
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="web_vocabulary" href="#dfn-web_vocabulary">Web Vocabulary</a> Documents that are available for use on the Web
+today. Some of these vocabularies are:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+   <li>RDF - for describing information about objects and concepts on the Web.</li>
+   <li>RDFS - for expressing things like labels and comments.</li>
+   <li>XSD - for specifying basic types like strings, integers, dates and times.</li>
+   <li>Dublin Core - for describing creative works.</li>
+   <li>FOAF - for describing social networks.</li>
+   <li>Calendar - for specifying events.</li>
+   <li>SIOC - for describing discussions on blogs and websites.</li>
+   <li>CCrel - for describing Creative Commons and other types of licenses.</li>
+   <li>GEO - for describing geographic location.</li>
+   <li>VCard - for describing organizations and people.</li>
+   <li>DOAP - for describing projects.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>You can use these vocabularies in combination, like so:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  &quot;<span class="diff">@type</span>&quot;: &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;<span class="diff">sioc:avatar</span>&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+}</pre>
+
+<p>Developers can also specify their own Vocabulary documents by modifying the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">active context</a> in-line using the <code>@context</code> keyword,
+like so:</p>
+
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">&quot;@context&quot;: { &quot;myvocab&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/myvocab#&quot; }</span>,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;sioc:avatar&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;<span class="diff">,
+  &quot;myvocab:personality&quot;: &quot;friendly&quot;</span>
+}</pre>
+
+<p>The <code>@context</code> keyword is used to change how the JSON-LD
+processor evaluates key-value pairs. In this case, it was used to
+map one string ('myvocab') to another string, which is interpreted as
+a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="iri" href="#dfn-iri">IRI</a>. In the example above, the <code>myvocab</code> string is replaced
+with &quot;<code>http://example.org/myvocab#</code>&quot; when it
+is detected. In the example above, &quot;<code>myvocab:personality</code>&quot; would
+expand to &quot;<code>http://example.org/myvocab#personality</code>&quot;.</p>
+
+<p>This mechanism is a short-hand, called a <a class="tref internalDFN" title="web_vocabulary" href="#dfn-web_vocabulary">Web Vocabulary</a> <a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">prefix</a>,
+and provides developers an unambiguous way to map any JSON value to RDF.</p><p>
+
+</p></div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="iana-considerations">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">C. </span>IANA Considerations</h2>
+
+<p>This section is included merely for standards community review and will be
+submitted to the Internet Engineering Steering Group if this specification
+becomes a W3C Recommendation.</p>
+
+<dl>
+  <dt>Type name:</dt>
+  <dd>application</dd>
+  <dt>Subtype name:</dt>
+  <dd>ld+json</dd>
+  <dt>Required parameters:</dt>
+  <dd>None</dd>
+  <dt>Optional parameters:</dt>
+  <dd>
+    <dl>
+      <dt><code>form</code></dt>
+      <dd>Determines the serialization form for the JSON-LD document. Valid
+        values include; <code>compacted</code>, <code>expanded</code>,
+        <code>framed</code>, and <code>normalized</code>. Other values are
+        allowed, but must be pre-pended with a <code>x-</code> string until
+        they are clearly defined by a stable specification. If no form
+        is specified in an HTTP request header to a responding application,
+        such as a Web server, the application <em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em> choose any form. If no
+        form is specified for a receiving application, the form <em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>
+        be assumed to take any particular form.</dd>
+      <div class="issue">It is currently <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/14"> being discussed to remove form=framed</a> from this specification as there are several issues with it.</div>
+    </dl>
+  </dd>
+  <dt>Encoding considerations:</dt>
+  <dd>The same as the <code>application/json</code> MIME media type.</dd>
+  <dt>Security considerations:</dt>
+  <dd>Since JSON-LD is intended to be a pure data exchange format for
+    directed graphs, the serialization <em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em> be passed through a
+    code execution mechanism such as JavaScript's <code>eval()</code>
+    function. It is <em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em> that a conforming parser does not attempt to
+    directly evaluate the JSON-LD serialization and instead purely parse the
+    input into a language-native data structure. </dd>
+  <dt>Interoperability considerations:</dt>
+  <dd>Not Applicable</dd>
+  <dt>Published specification:</dt>
+  <dd>The <a href="http://json-ld/spec/latest/">JSON-LD</a> specification.</dd>
+  <dt>Applications that use this media type:</dt>
+  <dd>Any programming environment that requires the exchange of
+    directed graphs. Implementations of JSON-LD have been created for
+    JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP and C++.
+  </dd>
+  <dt>Additional information:</dt>
+  <dd>
+    <dl>
+      <dt>Magic number(s):</dt>
+      <dd>Not Applicable</dd>
+      <dt>File extension(s):</dt>
+      <dd>.jsonld</dd>
+      <dt>Macintosh file type code(s):</dt>
+      <dd>TEXT</dd>
+    </dl>
+  </dd>
+  <dt>Person &amp; email address to contact for further information:</dt>
+  <dd>Manu Sporny &lt;[email protected]&gt;</dd>
+  <dt>Intended usage:</dt>
+  <dd>Common</dd>
+  <dt>Restrictions on usage:</dt>
+  <dd>None</dd>
+  <dt>Author(s):</dt>
+  <dd>Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Dave Longley</dd>
+  <dt>Change controller:</dt>
+  <dd>W3C</dd>
+</dl>
+
+</div>
+
+<div class="appendix section" id="acknowledgements">
+
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">D. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
+
+<p>The editors would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of
+the initial push behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj,
+Dave Longley, Dave Lehn and Mike Johnson who reviewed, provided feedback, and
+performed several implementations of the specification, and Ian Davis, who
+created RDF/JSON. Thanks also to Nathan Rixham, Bradley P. Allen,
+Kingsley Idehen, Glenn McDonald, Alexandre Passant, Danny Ayers, Ted
+Thibodeau Jr., Olivier Grisel, Niklas Lindström, Markus Lanthaler, and Richard
+Cyganiak for their input on the specification.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+
+
+<div id="respec-err" style="position: fixed; width: 350px; top: 10px; right: 10px; border: 3px double #f00; background: #fff" class="removeOnSave"><ul><li style="color: #c00">There appears to have been a problem fetching the style sheet; status=0</li></ul></div><div id="references" class="appendix section">
+<!-- OddPage -->
+<h2><span class="secno">E. </span>References</h2><div id="normative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">E.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-BCP47">[BCP47]</dt><dd>A. Phillips, M. Davis. <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt"><cite>Tags for Identifying Languages</cite></a> September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt">http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd>Graham Klyne; Jeremy J. Carroll. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210"><cite>Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3987">[RFC3987]</dt><dd>M. Dürst; M. Suignard. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt"><cite>Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs).</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3987. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd>D. Crockford. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt"><cite>The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</cite></a> July 2006. Internet RFC 4627. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-WEBIDL">[WEBIDL]</dt><dd>Cameron McCormack. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-WebIDL-20081219"><cite>Web IDL.</cite></a> 19 December 2008. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-WebIDL-20081219">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-WebIDL-20081219</a> 
+</dd></dl></div><div id="informative-references" class="section"><h3><span class="secno">E.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-ECMA-262">[ECMA-262]</dt><dd><a href="http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm"><cite>ECMAScript Language Specification, Third Edition.</cite></a> December 1999. URL: <a href="http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm">http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-HTML-RDFA">[HTML-RDFA]</dt><dd>Manu Sporny; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/"><cite>HTML+RDFa</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD-API">[JSON-LD-API]</dt><dd>Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Dave Longley, Eds. <cite><a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-api/">JSON-LD API</a></cite> Latest. W3C Editor's Draft. URL: <a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-api/">http://www.w3.org/2010/02/rdfa/sources/rdf-interfaces/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICRODATA">[MICRODATA]</dt><dd>Ian Hickson; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-MICROFORMATS">[MICROFORMATS]</dt><dd><a href="http://microformats.org"><cite>Microformats</cite></a>. URL: <a href="http://microformats.org">http://microformats.org</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-PRIMER">[RDF-PRIMER]</dt><dd>Frank Manola; Eric Miller. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/"><cite>RDF Primer.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-SCHEMA">[RDF-SCHEMA]</dt><dd>Dan Brickley; Ramanathan V. Guha. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210"><cite>RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema.</cite></a> 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFA-CORE">[RDFA-CORE]</dt><dd>Shane McCarron; et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdfa-core-20110331"><cite>RDFa Core 1.1: Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes.</cite></a> 31 March 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdfa-core-20110331">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-rdfa-core-20110331</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd>T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt"><cite>Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.</cite></a> January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt</a> 
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd>David Beckett, Tim Berners-Lee. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/"><cite>Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language.</cite></a> January 2008. W3C Team Submission. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/">http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/</a> 
+</dd></dl></div></div></body></html>
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