Merge branch 'master' of github.com:json-ld/json-ld.org
authorDave Longley <dlongley@digitalbazaar.com>
Fri, 23 Mar 2012 21:48:15 -0400
changeset 405 2acddd33b135
parent 379 85274934a3e3 (current diff)
parent 404 b30f42af39e1 (diff)
child 406 0d20ecc9a6aa
child 407 925e99da669e
Merge branch 'master' of github.com:json-ld/json-ld.org
test-suite/context.jsonld
--- a/site.css	Fri Mar 23 21:47:45 2012 -0400
+++ b/site.css	Fri Mar 23 21:48:15 2012 -0400
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
    margin: 12px 12px;
 }
 
-ul {
+ul, ol {
 margin: 0 2em;
 }
 
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/json-ld-syntax/20120318/diff-20120122.html	Fri Mar 23 21:48:15 2012 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,13538 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd'>
+<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD Syntax 1.0</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+<!--
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+  out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
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+
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+</style>
+<style type="text/css">
+/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec CSS
+ * Robin Berjon (robin at berjon dot com)
+ * v0.05 - 2009-07-31
+ *****************************************************************/
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+}
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+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    width:  100%;
+}
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+/* --- TOC --- */
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+    text-decoration:    none;
+}
+
+a .secno {
+    color:  #000;
+}
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+/* --- TABLE --- */
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+    border-spacing: 0;
+    border-collapse:    collapse;
+    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
+}
+
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+    background: #005a9c;
+    color:  #fff;
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+/* --- DL --- */
+.section dd > p:first-child {
+    margin-top: 0;
+}
+
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+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.section dd {
+    margin-bottom:  1em;
+}
+
+.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
+    margin-bottom:  0;
+}
+
+/* --- EXAMPLES --- */
+pre.example {
+    border-top: 1px solid #ff4500;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ff4500;
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin-top: 1em;
+}
+
+pre.example::before {
+    content:    "Example";
+    display:    block;
+    width:      150px;
+    background: #ff4500;
+    color:  #fff;
+    font-family:    initial;
+    padding:    3px;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    margin: -1em 0 1em -1em;
+}
+
+/* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
+.issue {
+    padding:    1em;
+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #ffc;
+}
+
+.issue::before {
+    content:    "Issue";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #f00;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
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+    margin: 1em 0em 0em;
+    padding:    1em;
+    border: 2px solid #cff6d9;
+    background: #e2fff0;
+}
+
+.note::before {
+    content:    "Note";
+    display:    block;
+    width:  150px;
+    margin: -1.5em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-weight:    bold;
+    border: 1px solid #cff6d9;
+    background: #fff;
+    padding:    3px 1em;
+}
+
+/* --- Best Practices --- */
+div.practice {
+    border: solid #bebebe 1px;
+    margin: 2em 1em 1em 2em;
+}
+
+span.practicelab {
+    margin: 1.5em 0.5em 1em 1em;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    font-style: italic;
+}
+
+span.practicelab   { background: #dfffff; }
+
+span.practicelab {
+    position: relative;
+    padding: 0 0.5em;
+    top: -1.5em;
+}
+
+p.practicedesc {
+    margin: 1.5em 0.5em 1em 1em;
+}
+
[email protected] screen {
+    p.practicedesc {
+        position: relative;
+        top: -2em;
+        padding: 0;
+        margin: 1.5em 0.5em -1em 1em;
+    }
+}
+
+/* --- SYNTAX HIGHLIGHTING --- */
+pre.sh_sourceCode {
+  background-color: white;
+  color: black;
+  font-style: normal;
+  font-weight: normal;
+}
+
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_keyword { color: #005a9c; font-weight: bold; }           /* language keywords */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_type { color: #666; }                            /* basic types */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_usertype { color: teal; }                             /* user defined types */
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+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_number { color: purple; }                             /* literal numbers */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_preproc { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }       /* e.g., #include, import */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_symbol { color: blue; }                            /* e.g., *, + */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_function { color: black; font-weight: bold; }         /* function calls and declarations */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_cbracket { color: red; }                              /* block brackets (e.g., {, }) */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_todo { font-weight: bold; background-color: #00FFFF; }   /* TODO and FIXME */
+
+/* Predefined variables and functions (for instance glsl) */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_predef_var { color: #00008B; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_predef_func { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }
+
+/* for OOP */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_classname { color: teal; }
+
+/* line numbers (not yet implemented) */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_linenum { display: none; }
+
+/* Internet related */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_url { color: blue; text-decoration: underline; font-family: monospace; }
+
+/* for ChangeLog and Log files */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_date { color: blue; font-weight: bold; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_time, pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_file { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_ip, pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_name { color: #006400; }
+
+/* for Prolog, Perl... */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_variable { color: #006400; }
+
+/* for LaTeX */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_italics { color: #006400; font-style: italic; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_bold { color: #006400; font-weight: bold; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_underline { color: #006400; text-decoration: underline; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_fixed { color: green; font-family: monospace; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_argument { color: #006400; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_optionalargument { color: purple; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_math { color: orange; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_bibtex { color: blue; }
+
+/* for diffs */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_oldfile { color: orange; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_newfile { color: #006400; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_difflines { color: blue; }
+
+/* for css */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_selector { color: purple; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_property { color: blue; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_value { color: #006400; font-style: italic; }
+
+/* other */
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_section { color: black; font-weight: bold; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_paren { color: red; }
+pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }
+
+</style><style type="text/css">ol.algorithm { counter-reset:numsection; list-style-type: none; }
+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
+</style><link charset="utf-8" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/w3c-unofficial"><style type='text/css'>
+.diff-old-a {
+  font-size: smaller;
+  color: red;
+}
+
+.diff-new { background-color: yellow; }
+.diff-chg { background-color: lime; }
+.diff-new:before,
+.diff-new:after
+    { content: "\2191" }
+.diff-chg:before, .diff-chg:after
+    { content: "\2195" }
+.diff-old { text-decoration: line-through; background-color: #FBB; }
+.diff-old:before,
+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body style="display: inherit;">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+Syntax
+1.0
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+Context-based
+JSON
+Serialization
+for
+Linking
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 id="unofficial-draft-18-march-2012">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">22
+January
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">18
+March
+</ins>
+2012
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Dave
+Longley
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+Bazaar
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+<a href="http://kellogg-assoc.com/">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">
+Markus
+Lanthaler
+</a>,
+<a href="http://www.tugraz.at/">
+Graz
+University
+of
+Technology
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Mark
+Birbeck
+</a>,
+<a href="http://webbackplane.com/">
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20120122.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr>
+</div>
+<div class="introductory section" id="abstract">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RFC4627" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+Linked
+Data
+and
+non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="toc">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#introduction">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#how-to-read-this-document">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#contributing">
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#design">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#goals-and-rationale">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#linking-data">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Linking
+Data
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#the-context">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#from-json-to-json-ld">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.2
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#basic-concepts">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#iris">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+IRIs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#identifying-the-subject">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#specifying-the-type">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#strings">
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Strings
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#string-internationalization">
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#typed-values">
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property">
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#multiple-values-for-a-single-property">
+<span class="secno">
+3.8
+</span>
+Multiple
+Values
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#lists">
+<span class="secno">
+3.9
+</span>
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#advanced-concepts">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#compact-iris">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Prefixes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#external-contexts">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+External
+Contexts
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#default-language"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.4
+</ins></span>
+Default
+Language
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#expanded-term-definition">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#automatic-typing">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#type-coercion">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#iri-expansion-within-a-context">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+Within
+a
+Context
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#embedding">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#aliasing-keywords">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#expansion">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">4.12
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Expansion
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#compaction"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.13
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Compaction
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#framing"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.14
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Framing
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#normalization"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.15
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Normalization
+</ins></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#markup-examples">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Markup
+Examples
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#turtle">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+Turtle
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#prefix-definitions">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1.1
+</span>
+Prefix
+definitions
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#embedding-1">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1.2
+</span>
+Embedding
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#lists-1">
+<span class="secno">
+A.1.3
+</span>
+Lists
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#rdfa">
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+RDFa
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#microformats">
+<span class="secno">
+A.3
+</span>
+Microformats
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#microdata">
+<span class="secno">
+A.4
+</span>
+Microdata
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#linked-data">
+<span class="secno">
+B.
+</span>
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#mashing-up-vocabularies">
+<span class="secno">
+C.
+</span>
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#iana-considerations">
+<span class="secno">
+D.
+</span>
+IANA
+Considerations
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#acknowledgements">
+<span class="secno">
+E.
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#references">
+<span class="secno">
+F.
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#normative-references">
+<span class="secno">
+F.1
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a class="tocxref" href="#informative-references">
+<span class="secno">
+F.2
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div id="introduction" class="informative section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RFC4627" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+creating
+a
+graph
+of
+interlinked
+data
+across
+different
+documents
+or
+Web
+sites.
+Data
+entities
+are
+described
+using
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s,
+which
+are
+typically
+dereferencable
+and
+thus
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information
+about
+an
+entity,
+creating
+a
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Web
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Web
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">Knowledge&quot;.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Knowledge".
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+not
+only
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+but
+also
+for
+adding
+semantics
+to
+existing
+JSON.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+lightweight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+use
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+interoperable
+Web
+services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+libraries
+available
+today.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+syntax
+does
+not
+necessarily
+require
+applications
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+allows
+one
+to
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+simply
+adding
+or
+referencing
+a
+context.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+upgrade
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+with
+added
+semantics.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+easy
+to
+parse,
+efficient
+to
+generate,
+and
+only
+requires
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<div class="section" id="how-to-read-this-document">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+implement
+processors
+and
+APIs
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+This
+specification
+does
+not
+describe
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+Syntax.
+The
+specification
+that
+describes
+the
+programming
+interfaces
+for
+JSON-LD
+documents
+is
+the
+JSON-LD
+Application
+Programming
+Interface
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+the
+basics
+in
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RFC4627" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-ECMA-262" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+ECMA-262
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+and
+WebIDL
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-WEBIDL" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+WEBIDL
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RFC4627" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+defines
+several
+terms
+which
+are
+used
+throughout
+this
+document:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-json_object" title="json_object">
+JSON
+Object
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+object
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+pair
+of
+curly
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+name/value
+pairs
+(or
+members).
+A
+name
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-string" title="string" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+</a>.
+A
+single
+colon
+comes
+after
+each
+name,
+separating
+the
+name
+from
+the
+value.
+A
+single
+comma
+separates
+a
+value
+from
+a
+following
+name.
+The
+names
+within
+an
+object
+<em title="should" class="rfc2119">
+should
+</em>
+be
+unique.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-array" title="array">
+array
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+An
+array
+is
+an
+ordered
+collection
+of
+values.
+An
+array
+structure
+is
+represented
+as
+square
+brackets
+surrounding
+zero
+or
+more
+values
+(or
+elements).
+Elements
+are
+separated
+by
+commas.
+Within
+JSON-LD,
+array
+order
+is
+not
+preserved
+by
+default,
+unless
+specific
+markup
+is
+provided
+(see
+<a href="#lists">
+Lists
+</a>
+).
+This
+is
+because
+the
+basic
+data
+model
+of
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data_graph" title="linked_data_graph" class="tref internalDFN">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</a>,
+which
+is
+inherently
+unordered.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-string" title="string">
+string
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+string
+is
+a
+sequence
+of
+zero
+or
+more
+Unicode
+characters,
+wrapped
+in
+double
+quotes,
+using
+backslash
+escapes.
+A
+character
+is
+represented
+as
+a
+single
+character
+string.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-number" title="number">
+number
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+A
+number
+is
+is
+similar
+to
+that
+used
+in
+most
+programming
+languages,
+except
+that
+the
+octal
+and
+hexadecimal
+formats
+are
+not
+used
+and
+that
+leading
+zeros
+are
+not
+allowed.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-true" title="true">
+true
+</dfn>
+and
+<dfn id="dfn-false" title="false">
+false
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Values
+that
+are
+used
+to
+express
+one
+of
+two
+possible
+boolean
+states.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<dfn id="dfn-null" title="null">
+null
+</dfn>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+use
+of
+the
+<em>
+null
+</em>
+value
+is
+undefined
+within
+JSON-LD.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+keywords
+that
+are
+using
+in
+all
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+define
+the
+short-hand
+names
+that
+are
+used
+throughout
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+These
+short-hand
+names
+are
+called
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+and
+help
+developers
+express
+specific
+identifiers
+in
+a
+compact
+manner.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+detail
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#the-context">
+The
+Context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+things
+that
+are
+being
+described
+in
+the
+document.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#identifying-the-subject">
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+data
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+particular
+<a href="#dfn-property" title="property" class="tref internalDFN">
+property
+</a>
+in
+the
+graph.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+sections
+titled
+<a href="#string-internationalization">
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#typed-values">
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+native
+language
+for
+a
+particular
+value.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#string-internationalization">
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+data
+type
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+or
+<a href="#dfn-typed_value" title="typed_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+typed
+value
+</a>.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#typed-values">
+Typed
+Values
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-new">@container
+</ins></code></dt><dd><ins class="diff-new">
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+container
+of
+a
+particular
+value.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+</ins><a href="#lists"><ins class="diff-new">
+Lists
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+express
+an
+ordered
+set
+of
+data.
+This
+keyword
+is
+described
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#lists">
+Lists
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+that
+use
+<del class="diff-old">the
+prefix
+mechanism.
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">For
+the
+avoidance
+of
+doubt,
+all
+keys,
+keywords
+and
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+case-sensitive.
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="contributing">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.3
+</span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Technical
+discussion
+typically
+occurs
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+Public
+teleconferences
+</a>
+are
+held
+every
+week
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500
+UTC.
+</li>
+<li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="design" class="informative section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+section
+outlines
+the
+design
+goals
+and
+rationale
+behind
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+language.
+</p>
+<div class="section" id="goals-and-rationale">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+considerations
+were
+explored
+during
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Developers
+need
+only
+know
+JSON
+and
+two
+keywords
+(
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+)
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+in
+JSON-LD.
+No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+are
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+attempts
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+an
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+must
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+syntax
+must
+be
+able
+to
+express
+directed
+graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+simply
+express
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+effort
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+provides
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+developers
+to
+specify
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+documents
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+At
+times,
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+a
+graph
+representation
+can
+become
+difficult.
+In
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+having
+JSON-LD
+support
+esoteric
+markup,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+Zero
+Edits
+is
+a
+goal,
+it
+is
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+One-pass
+Processing
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+one-pass
+processing,
+which
+results
+in
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+when
+processing
+documents.
+For
+example,
+to
+expand
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+from
+a
+compacted
+form,
+only
+one
+pass
+is
+required
+over
+the
+data.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="linking-data">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+Linking
+Data
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+(
+<dfn id="dfn-iri" title="iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+),
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RFC3987" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+mechanism
+for
+representing
+unique
+identifiers
+on
+the
+web.
+In
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+commonly
+used
+for
+expressing
+a
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-property" title="property" class="tref internalDFN">
+property
+</a>
+or
+an
+<a href="#dfn-object" title="object" class="tref internalDFN">
+object
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+defines
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+terms,
+i.e.,
+keys
+and
+values,
+to
+IRIs.
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+JSON-LD
+requires
+every
+key
+or
+value
+to
+be
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+but
+rather
+ensures
+that
+keys
+and
+values
+can
+be
+mapped
+to
+IRIs
+if
+the
+developer
+desires
+to
+transform
+their
+data
+into
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+There
+are
+a
+few
+techniques
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+Linked
+Data
+for
+the
+Web.
+JSON-LD
+formalizes
+those
+techniques.
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+will
+be
+using
+the
+following
+JSON
+markup
+as
+the
+example
+for
+the
+rest
+of
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<div class="section" id="the-context">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.1
+</span>
+The
+Context
+</h4>
+<p>
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-context" title="context">
+context
+</dfn>
+is
+used
+to
+map
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s,
+i.e.,
+keys
+with
+associated
+values
+in
+an
+JSON
+document,
+to
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+A
+<dfn id="dfn-term" title="term">
+term
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+A
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName">
+NCName
+</a>
+</cite>
+(see
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-XML-NAMES" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+XML-NAMES
+</a>
+</cite>
+]),
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-new">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,
+or
+be
+an
+empty
+string.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+Web
+uses
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+that
+these
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+mean
+something
+that
+may
+be
+of
+use
+to
+other
+developers
+and
+that
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+give
+them
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+That
+is,
+it
+is
+useful
+for
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+to
+expand
+to
+IRIs
+so
+that
+developers
+don't
+accidentally
+step
+on
+each
+other's
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+terms.
+For
+example,
+the
+term
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+constructed
+using
+the
+common
+JSON
+practice
+of
+simple
+name/value
+pairs
+while
+ensuring
+that
+the
+data
+is
+useful
+outside
+of
+the
+page,
+API
+or
+database
+in
+which
+it
+resides.
+The
+value
+of
+a
+term
+mapping
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+either;
+1)
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+an
+absolute
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or,
+2)
+an
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+containing
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-new">@language
+</ins></code>,
+or
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@list
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@container
+</ins>
+</code>
+keyword.
+</p>
+<p>
+These
+Linked
+Data
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+are
+typically
+collected
+in
+a
+context
+document
+that
+would
+look
+something
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+       &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+       &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+       &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+       &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "depiction":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This
+context
+document
+can
+then
+be
+used
+in
+an
+JSON-LD
+document
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+line.
+The
+JSON
+markup
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+previous
+section
+could
+be
+changed
+as
+follows
+to
+link
+to
+the
+context
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+additions
+above
+transform
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+specifies
+how
+the
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+depiction
+</strong>
+terms
+map
+to
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs.
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins></a>.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+the
+data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+the
+same
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+more
+than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+This
+allows
+both
+developers
+to
+re-use
+each
+others
+data
+without
+having
+to
+agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+interoperate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+Contexts
+may
+also
+contain
+type
+information
+for
+certain
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+as
+well
+as
+other
+processing
+instructions
+for
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor.
+</p>
+<p>
+Contexts
+may
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+This
+ensures
+that
+JSON-LD
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+when
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+does
+not
+have
+access
+to
+the
+Web.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+    {
+       &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;,
+       &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+       &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+       &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    },
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "depiction":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+  },</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Contexts
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+at
+any
+time
+a
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+is
+defined.
+A
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+specify
+multiple
+contexts,
+using
+an
+<a href="#dfn-array" title="array" class="tref internalDFN">
+array
+</a>,
+which
+is
+processed
+in
+array-order.
+This
+is
+useful
+when
+an
+author
+would
+like
+to
+use
+an
+existing
+context
+and
+add
+application-specific
+terms
+to
+the
+existing
+context.
+Duplicate
+context
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+overridden
+using
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+mechanism.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+set
+of
+contexts
+defined
+within
+a
+specific
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+Object
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+as
+<dfn id="dfn-local_context" title="local_context">
+local
+context
+</dfn>
+s.
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-active_context" title="active_context">
+active
+context
+</dfn>
+refers
+to
+the
+accumulation
+of
+<a href="#dfn-local_context" title="local_context" class="tref internalDFN">
+local
+context
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+in
+scope
+at
+a
+specific
+point
+within
+the
+document.
+The
+following
+example
+specifies
+an
+external
+context
+and
+then
+layers
+a
+local
+context
+on
+top
+of
+the
+external
+context:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
+    {
+      &quot;pic&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction&quot;
+    }
+  ],
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context": [
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person",
+    {
+      "pic": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction"
+    }
+  ],</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"pic": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"</span>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+uses
+a
+special
+type
+of
+machine-readable
+document
+called
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary">
+vocabulary
+</dfn>
+to
+define
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+then
+used
+to
+describe
+concepts
+and
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;things&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"things"
+</ins>
+in
+the
+world.
+Typically,
+these
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+documents
+have
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>
+es
+associated
+with
+them
+and
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+declarations.
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+Prefix
+</a>
+es
+are
+helpful
+when
+a
+developer
+wants
+to
+mix
+multiple
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabularies
+</a>
+together
+in
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>,
+but
+does
+not
+want
+to
+go
+to
+the
+trouble
+of
+defining
+every
+single
+term
+in
+every
+single
+vocabulary.
+Some
+<del class="diff-old">Web
+Vocabularies
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">vocabularies
+</ins></a>
+may
+have
+dozens
+of
+terms
+defined.
+If
+a
+developer
+wants
+to
+use
+3-4
+different
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabularies
+</a>,
+the
+number
+of
+terms
+that
+would
+have
+to
+be
+declared
+in
+a
+single
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+could
+become
+quite
+large.
+To
+reduce
+the
+number
+of
+different
+terms
+that
+must
+be
+defined,
+JSON-LD
+also
+allows
+prefixes
+to
+be
+used
+to
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+compact
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+For
+example,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>
+specifies
+a
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+which
+may
+be
+represented
+using
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>.
+The
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+vocabulary
+contains
+a
+term
+called
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>.
+If
+you
+join
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>
+with
+the
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>
+suffix,
+you
+can
+build
+a
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+that
+will
+expand
+out
+into
+an
+<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+term.
+That
+is,
+the
+compact
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+(or
+short-form),
+is
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+and
+the
+expanded-form
+is
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+vocabulary
+term
+is
+used
+to
+specify
+a
+person's
+name.
+</p>
+<p>
+Developers,
+and
+machines,
+are
+able
+to
+use
+this
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+(by
+plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+Much
+like
+we
+can
+use
+<a href="http://wordnet.princeton.edu/">
+WordNet
+</a>
+today
+to
+see
+the
+definition
+of
+words
+in
+the
+English
+language.
+Developers
+and
+machines
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+definition
+of
+terms.
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+IRIs
+</a>
+provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+are
+unambiguous.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+provides
+a
+collection
+of
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<del class="diff-old">and
+prefix
+es
+</del>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+expand
+JSON
+keys
+and
+values
+into
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+s.
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+at
+the
+top
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+is
+processed.
+This
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+one-pass
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="from-json-to-json-ld">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2.2
+</span>
+From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</h4>
+<p>
+If
+a
+set
+of
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+such
+as,
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>,
+<strong>
+homepage
+</strong>,
+and
+<strong>
+depiction
+</strong>,
+are
+defined
+in
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+the
+names
+in
+JSON
+objects,
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+automatically
+expand
+the
+terms
+to
+something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot;
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org"
+  "<span class="diff">http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#avatar</span>": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+The
+example
+above
+does
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+set
+the
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+of
+the
+node
+being
+described
+above.
+This
+type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+an
+<dfn id="dfn-unlabeled_node" title="unlabeled_node">
+unlabeled
+node
+</dfn>
+and
+is
+considered
+to
+be
+a
+weaker
+form
+of
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+It
+is
+advised
+that
+all
+nodes
+described
+in
+JSON-LD
+are
+given
+unique
+identifiers
+via
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+unless
+the
+data
+is
+not
+intended
+to
+be
+linked
+to
+from
+other
+data
+sets.
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="basic-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+Basic
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+create
+by
+Web
+authors.
+In
+many
+cases,
+regular
+JSON
+markup
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>.
+As
+more
+JSON-LD
+features
+are
+used,
+more
+semantics
+are
+added
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup.
+</p>
+<div class="section" id="iris">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expressing
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+are
+fundamental
+to
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+s,
+all
+<a href="#dfn-property" title="property" class="tref internalDFN">
+properties
+</a>
+and
+many
+<a href="#dfn-object" title="object" class="tref internalDFN">
+object
+</a>
+s
+are
+identified.
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+Except
+within
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+a
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+to
+an
+<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+another
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-active_context" title="active_context" class="tref internalDFN">
+active
+context
+</a>
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-string" title="string" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+</a>
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-string" title="string" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+</a>
+value
+of
+any
+key
+for
+which
+there
+are
+<a href="#dfn-coercion" title="coercion" class="tref internalDFN">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+in
+effect
+that
+identify
+the
+value
+as
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">,
+</del>
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-relative_iri" title="relative_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><dfn id="dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+defined
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a href="#bib-RFC3987" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3987
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+containing
+a
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+scheme
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+along
+with
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+path
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+optional
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+query
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+fragment
+segments.
+A
+</ins><dfn id="dfn-relative_iri" title="relative_iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+relative
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+</ins>
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+that
+is
+relative
+<del class="diff-old">to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">some
+other
+</ins><a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+;
+in
+the
+case
+of
+JSON-LD
+this
+is
+</ins>
+the
+base
+location
+of
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document,
+a
+term
+,
+or
+a
+prefix
+:suffix
+construct.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+key
+position
+like
+so:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>,
+as
+opposed
+to
+being
+interpreted
+as
+a
+string.
+</p>
+<p>
+Term
+expansion
+occurs
+for
+IRIs
+if
+the
+value
+matches
+a
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a href="#dfn-active_context" title="active_context" class="tref internalDFN">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot; },
+...
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">@context</span>":
+  {
+    "<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>"
+...
+  },
+  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+Prefix
+</a>
+es
+are
+expanded
+when
+the
+form
+of
+the
+value
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-new">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+represented
+as
+</ins>
+is
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>,
+and
+the
+prefix
+matches
+a
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+defined
+within
+the
+<a href="#dfn-active_context" title="active_context" class="tref internalDFN">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;&quot; },
+...
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">@context</span>":
+  {
+    "<span class="diff">foaf</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>"
+...
+  },
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+are
+case
+sensitive,
+and
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+matched
+using
+a
+case-sensitive
+comparison.
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Keys
+that
+do
+not
+expand
+to
+an
+absolute
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+ignored.
+</ins></p><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-new">
+It
+is
+not
+determined
+if
+processing
+proceeds
+into
+values
+of
+undefined
+keys.
+If
+so,
+this
+would
+result
+in
+a
+graph
+which
+is
+not
+</ins><a href="#dfn-embedding" title="embedding" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+embedded
+</ins></a>.</p><p>
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+See
+<del class="diff-old">Prefixes
+</del>
+<a href="#compact-iris">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+for
+more
+details.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+value
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+key
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: { &quot;&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org&quot; }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "homepage": { "<span class="diff">@id</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org" }
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+Specifying
+a
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+Object
+</a>
+with
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+is
+used
+to
+identify
+that
+object
+using
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+This
+facility
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+to
+link
+a
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+with
+an
+<a href="#dfn-object" title="object" class="tref internalDFN">
+object
+</a>
+using
+a
+mechanism
+called
+<a href="#dfn-embedding" title="embedding" class="tref internalDFN">
+embedding
+</a>,
+which
+is
+covered
+in
+the
+section
+titled
+<a href="#embedding">
+Embedding
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+If
+type
+<a href="#dfn-coercion" title="coercion" class="tref internalDFN">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+or
+property
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ...
+    &quot;homepage&quot;:
+    {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;
+    }
+    ...
+  }
+...
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{<span class="diff">
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+    ...
+  }</span>
+...
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Even
+though
+the
+value
+<code>
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</code>
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-string" title="string" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+</a>,
+the
+type
+<a href="#dfn-coercion" title="coercion" class="tref internalDFN">
+coercion
+</a>
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+when
+processed
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+Processor.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="identifying-the-subject">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</h3>
+<p>
+To
+be
+able
+to
+externally
+reference
+nodes,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+each
+node
+has
+an
+unambiguous
+identifier.
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+are
+a
+fundamental
+concept
+of
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+and
+nodes
+should
+have
+a
+de-referencable
+identifier
+used
+to
+name
+and
+locate
+them.
+For
+nodes
+to
+be
+truly
+linked,
+de-referencing
+the
+identifier
+should
+result
+in
+a
+representation
+of
+that
+node.
+Associating
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+with
+a
+node
+tells
+an
+application
+that
+the
+returned
+document
+contains
+a
+description
+of
+the
+node
+requested.
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+documents
+may
+also
+contain
+descriptions
+of
+other
+nodes,
+so
+it
+is
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+uniquely
+identify
+each
+node
+which
+may
+be
+externally
+referenced.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+of
+an
+object
+in
+JSON
+is
+declared
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+subject
+is
+the
+first
+piece
+of
+information
+needed
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+in
+order
+to
+create
+the
+(subject,
+property,
+object)
+tuple,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+triple.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "<span class="diff">@id</span>": "<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+To
+ensure
+the
+best
+possible
+performance,
+it
+is
+a
+best
+practice
+to
+put
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+before
+other
+key-value
+pairs
+in
+an
+object.
+If
+it
+isn't
+listed
+first,
+processors
+have
+to
+save
+each
+key-value
+pair
+until
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+is
+processed
+before
+they
+can
+start
+generating
+triples.
+Not
+specifying
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+first
+creates
+a
+memory
+and
+complexity
+burden
+for
+one-pass
+processors.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="specifying-the-type">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+subject
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+Specifying
+the
+type
+in
+this
+way
+will
+generate
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form
+(subject,
+type,
+type-
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+).
+To
+be
+considered
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>,
+types
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+uniquely
+identified
+by
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="strings">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.4
+</span>
+Strings
+</h3>
+<p>
+Regular
+text
+strings,
+also
+referred
+to
+as
+<dfn id="dfn-string_value" title="string_value">
+string
+value
+</dfn>
+s,
+are
+easily
+expressed
+using
+regular
+JSON
+<a href="#dfn-string" title="string" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "name": "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="string-internationalization">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.5
+</span>
+String
+Internationalization
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+makes
+an
+assumption
+that
+strings
+with
+associated
+language
+encoding
+information
+are
+not
+very
+common
+when
+used
+in
+JavaScript
+and
+Web
+Services.
+Thus,
+it
+takes
+a
+little
+more
+effort
+to
+express
+strings
+with
+associated
+language
+information.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "name": <span class="diff">
+  {
+    "@value": "花澄",
+    "@language": "ja"
+  }</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+a
+<a href="#dfn-string_value" title="string_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+value
+</a>
+for
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+code
+with
+the
+triple
+that
+is
+generated.
+Languages
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+expressed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-BCP47" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+format.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="typed-values">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.6
+</span>
+Typed
+Values
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+value
+with
+an
+associated
+type,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+<dfn id="dfn-typed_value" title="typed_value">
+typed
+value
+</dfn>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+associating
+a
+value
+with
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+which
+indicates
+the
+value's
+type.
+Typed
+values
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+when
+defining
+a
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+within
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+section.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+type.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+express
+a
+typed
+value:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;modified&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:dateTime&quot;
+    }
+  }
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "modified":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified",
+      "@type": "xsd:dateTime"
+    }
+  }</span>
+...
+  "modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;modified&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;xsd:dateTime&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "modified":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@value": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+    "@type": "xsd:dateTime"
+  }</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+an
+object
+with
+the
+value
+of
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+and
+the
+type
+of
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+third
+example
+uses
+a
+built-in
+native
+JSON
+type,
+a
+<a href="#dfn-number" title="number" class="tref internalDFN">
+number
+</a>,
+to
+express
+a
+type:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;:
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "age": <span class="diff">31</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+is
+really
+just
+a
+shorthand
+for
+the
+following:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;31&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "age":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@value": "31",
+    "@type": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer"
+  }</span>
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+is
+also
+used
+to
+associate
+a
+type
+with
+a
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>.
+Although
+the
+same
+keyword
+is
+used
+in
+both
+places,
+the
+concept
+of
+an
+<em>
+object
+type
+</em>
+and
+a
+<em>
+value
+type
+</em>
+are
+different.
+This
+is
+similar
+to
+object-oriented
+programming
+languages
+where
+both
+scalar
+and
+structured
+types
+use
+the
+same
+class
+inheritance
+mechanism,
+even
+though
+scalar
+types
+and
+structured
+types
+are
+inherently
+different.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.7
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+express
+multiple
+values
+in
+a
+compact
+way
+by
+using
+<a href="#dfn-array" title="array" class="tref internalDFN">
+array
+</a>
+s.
+If
+a
+subject
+has
+multiple
+values
+for
+the
+same
+property,
+the
+author
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+express
+each
+property
+as
+an
+<a href="#dfn-array" title="array" class="tref internalDFN">
+array
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+In
+JSON-LD,
+multiple
+objects
+on
+a
+property
+are
+not
+ordered.
+This
+is
+because
+graphs
+are
+inherently
+unordered
+data
+structures.
+To
+learn
+more
+about
+creating
+ordered
+collections
+in
+JSON-LD,
+see
+the
+section
+on
+<a href="#lists">
+Lists
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "nick": <span class="diff">[ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;joe&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      &quot;bob&quot; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+&quot;jaybee&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "joe" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "bob" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt;
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+"jaybee"
+</ins>
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="multiple-values-for-a-single-property">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.8
+</span>
+Multiple
+Values
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+Multiple
+<a href="#dfn-value" title="value" class="tref internalDFN">
+value
+</a>
+s
+may
+also
+be
+expressed
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+<a href="#dfn-object" title="object" class="tref internalDFN">
+object
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/articles/8&quot;,
+  &quot;dc:title&quot;:
+  [
+    {&quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Das Kapital&quot;, &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;de&quot;},
+    {&quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Capital&quot;, &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;}
+  ]
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@id": "http://example.org/articles/8",
+  "dc:title": <span class="diff">
+  [
+    {
+      "@value": "Das Kapital",
+      "@language": "de"
+    },
+    {
+      "@value": "Capital",
+      "@language": "en"
+    }
+  ]</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+      &quot;Das Kapital&quot;@de .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+&quot;Capital&quot;@en
+</del>
+<pre class="example">&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+      "Das Kapital"@de .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt;
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/title&gt;
+"Capital"@en
+</ins>
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="lists">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+3.9
+</span>
+Lists
+</h3>
+<p>
+Because
+graphs
+do
+not
+describe
+ordering
+for
+links
+between
+nodes,
+in
+contrast
+to
+plain
+JSON,
+multi-valued
+properties
+in
+JSON-LD
+do
+not
+provide
+an
+ordering
+of
+the
+listed
+objects.
+For
+example,
+consider
+the
+following
+simple
+document:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "nick": <span class="diff">[ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This
+results
+in
+three
+triples
+being
+generated,
+each
+relating
+the
+subject
+to
+an
+individual
+object,
+with
+no
+inherent
+order.
+</p>
+<p>
+As
+the
+notion
+of
+ordered
+collections
+is
+rather
+important
+in
+data
+modeling,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+specific
+language
+support.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+list
+may
+be
+represented
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "foaf:nick":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]
+  }</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This
+describes
+the
+use
+of
+this
+<a href="#dfn-array" title="array" class="tref internalDFN">
+array
+</a>
+as
+being
+ordered,
+and
+order
+is
+maintained
+through
+alternate
+representations
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+If
+every
+use
+of
+a
+given
+multi-valued
+property
+is
+a
+list,
+this
+may
+be
+abbreviated
+by
+<del class="diff-old">adding
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">setting
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@container
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">coercion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins>
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ...
+    &quot;nick&quot;: {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&quot;,
+      &quot;@list&quot;: true
+    }
+},
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;nick&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    ...
+    "nick":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick",
+      "@container": "@list"
+    }
+  }</span>,
+...
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "nick": <span class="diff">[ "joe", "bob", "jaybee" ]</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+List
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+expanded
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+definition
+using
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@list
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@container
+</ins>
+</code>
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+this
+key,
+if
+present,
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">true
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@list
+</ins>
+</code>.
+This
+indicates
+that
+array
+values
+of
+keys
+coerced
+as
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+to
+be
+serialized
+as
+a
+<a href="#lists">
+List
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+<ins class="diff-new">List
+of
+lists
+are
+not
+allowed
+in
+this
+version
+of
+JSON-LD.
+If
+a
+list
+of
+lists
+is
+detected,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+throw
+an
+exception.
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="advanced-concepts">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+Advanced
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+described
+above.
+The
+following
+sections
+outline
+the
+features
+that
+are
+specific
+to
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<div class="section" id="compact-iris">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Prefixes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+in
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+documents
+may
+draw
+from
+a
+number
+of
+different
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabularies
+</a>.
+At
+times,
+declaring
+every
+single
+term
+that
+a
+document
+uses
+can
+require
+the
+developer
+to
+declare
+tens,
+if
+not
+hundreds
+of
+potential
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+that
+are
+used
+across
+an
+application.
+This
+is
+a
+concern
+for
+at
+least
+three
+reasons;
+the
+first
+is
+the
+cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer
+of
+remembering
+all
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s,
+the
+second
+is
+the
+serialized
+size
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+if
+it
+is
+specified
+inline,
+the
+third
+is
+future-proofing
+embedded
+application
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+s
+that
+may
+not
+be
+easy
+to
+change
+after
+they
+are
+deployed.
+In
+order
+to
+address
+these
+issues,
+the
+concept
+of
+a
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">mechanism
+</del>
+is
+introduced.
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<dfn id="dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">compact
+</del>
+way
+of
+expressing
+<del class="diff-old">a
+base
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+</ins><a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">using
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">vocabulary
+.
+</del>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefix
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+suffix
+</ins></em>.
+Generally,
+these
+prefixes
+are
+used
+by
+concatenating
+the
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+a
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>,
+which
+is
+separated
+by
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+).
+The
+<dfn id="dfn-prefix" title="prefix">
+prefix
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+taken
+from
+the
+<a href="#dfn-active_context" title="active_context" class="tref internalDFN">
+active
+context
+</a>
+and
+is
+a
+short
+string
+identifying
+a
+particular
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+For
+example,
+the
+prefix
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+may
+be
+used
+as
+a
+short
+hand
+for
+the
+Friend-of-a-Friend
+vocabulary,
+which
+is
+identified
+using
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>.
+A
+developer
+may
+append
+any
+of
+the
+FOAF
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+terms
+to
+the
+end
+of
+the
+prefix
+to
+specify
+a
+short-hand
+version
+of
+the
+<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+term.
+For
+example,
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+would
+be
+expanded
+out
+to
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+Instead
+of
+having
+to
+remember
+and
+type
+out
+the
+entire
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+developer
+can
+instead
+use
+the
+prefix
+in
+their
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">To
+generate
+an
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Terms
+are
+interpreted
+as
+</ins><a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+compact
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">out
+of
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s
+if
+they
+contain
+at
+least
+one
+colon
+and
+the
+first
+colon
+is
+not
+followed
+by
+two
+slashes
+(
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">prefix:suffix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">//
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+as
+in
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://example.com
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">construct,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">).
+To
+generate
+the
+full
+</ins><a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,
+the
+value
+is
+first
+split
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+at
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+a
+colon
+(
+<code>:
+</code>
+).
+If
+the
+<a href="#dfn-active_context" title="active_context" class="tref internalDFN">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+term
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+generated
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+If
+no
+prefix
+mapping
+is
+defined,
+the
+value
+is
+used
+directly
+as
+an
+<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-new">absolute
+</ins>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">.
+</del>
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+an
+underscore
+(
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+),
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+remains
+unchanged.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+effectively
+means
+that
+every
+term
+containing
+a
+colon
+will
+be
+interpreted
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+as
+an
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+ability
+to
+use
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">es
+</del>
+reduces
+the
+need
+for
+developers
+to
+declare
+every
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+term
+that
+they
+intend
+to
+use
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>.
+This
+reduces
+stand-alone
+JSON-LD
+document
+serialization
+size
+because
+every
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+term
+need
+not
+be
+declared
+in
+the
+embedded
+context.
+<del class="diff-old">Prefix
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compact
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+also
+reduces
+the
+cognitive
+load
+on
+the
+developer.
+It
+is
+far
+easier
+to
+remember
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+than
+it
+is
+to
+remember
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+The
+use
+of
+prefixes
+also
+ensures
+that
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+document
+does
+not
+have
+to
+be
+updated
+in
+lock-step
+with
+an
+externally
+defined
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>.
+Without
+prefixes,
+a
+developer
+would
+need
+to
+keep
+their
+application
+context
+terms
+in
+lock-step
+with
+an
+externally
+defined
+vocabulary.
+Rather,
+by
+just
+declaring
+the
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabulary
+</a>
+prefix,
+one
+can
+use
+new
+terms
+as
+they're
+declared
+without
+having
+to
+update
+the
+application's
+JSON-LD
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Consider
+the
+following
+example:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+
+
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+  : {
+    &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic&quot;,
+    &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+    : &quot;Plato&quot;,
+    : &quot;The Republic&quot;,
+    : {
+      &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction&quot;,
+      &quot;@type&quot;: ,
+      : &quot;An introductory chapter on The Republic.&quot;,
+      : &quot;The Introduction&quot;
+    }
+  }
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",</span>
+    <span class="diff">"ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  },
+  "@id": "http://example.org/library",
+  "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Library"</span>,
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"ex:contains"</span>:
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    "@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+    "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Book"</span>,
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"dc:creator"</span>: "Plato",
+    <span class="diff">"dc:title"</span>: "The Republic",
+    <span class="diff">"ex:contains"</span>:
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    {
+      "@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+      "@type": <span class="diff">"ex:Chapter"</span>,
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"dc:description"</span>: "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+      <span class="diff">"dc:title"</span>: "The Introduction"
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    }
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+two
+different
+<a href="#dfn-vocabulary" title="vocabulary" class="tref internalDFN">
+vocabularies
+</a>
+are
+referred
+to
+using
+prefixes.
+Those
+prefixes
+are
+then
+used
+as
+type
+and
+property
+values
+using
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>
+<code>
+prefix:suffix
+</code>
+notation.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Prefixes,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">It's
+also
+possible
+to
+use
+compact
+IRIs
+within
+the
+context
+as
+shown
+in
+the
+following
+example:
+</ins></p><p>  </p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@context":
+  {
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"foaf:homepage"</span>: { "@type": "@id" },
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "picture": { "@id": <span class="diff">"foaf:depiction"</span>, "@type": "@id" }
+  },
+  "@subject": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  "foaf:homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "picture": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a>,
+also
+known
+as
+CURIEs,
+are
+defined
+more
+formally
+in
+RDFa
+Core
+1.1,
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies">
+Section
+6
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;CURIE
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"CURIE
+</ins>
+Syntax
+<del class="diff-old">Definition&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Definition"
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RDFA-CORE" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+JSON-LD
+does
+not
+support
+the
+square-bracketed
+CURIE
+syntax
+as
+the
+mechanism
+is
+not
+required
+to
+disambiguate
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+in
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+like
+it
+is
+in
+HTML
+documents.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="external-contexts">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+External
+Contexts
+</h3>
+<p>
+Authors
+may
+choose
+to
+declare
+JSON-LD
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+s
+in
+external
+documents
+to
+promote
+re-use
+of
+contexts
+as
+well
+as
+reduce
+the
+size
+of
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</p>
+<p>
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context,
+an
+author
+<del class="diff-old">may
+</del>
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+<ins class="diff-chg">must
+</ins>
+</em>
+specify
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+to
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document.
+The
+referenced
+document
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+top-level
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+Object
+</a>.
+The
+value
+of
+any
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+within
+that
+object
+is
+substituted
+for
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+within
+the
+referencing
+document
+to
+have
+the
+same
+effect
+as
+if
+the
+value
+were
+specified
+inline
+within
+the
+referencing
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  ,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context": "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Authors
+may
+also
+import
+multiple
+contexts
+or
+a
+combination
+of
+external
+and
+local
+contexts
+by
+specifying
+a
+list
+of
+contexts:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  [
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&quot;,
+    { &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot; },
+    &quot;http://json-ld.org/contexts/event&quot;,
+  ]
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+  &quot;celebrates&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;Event&quot;,
+    &quot;description&quot;: &quot;International Talk Like a Pirate Day&quot;,
+    &quot;date&quot;: &quot;R/2011-09-19&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+<ins class="diff-chg">  [
+    "http://json-ld.org/contexts/person",
+    {
+      "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+    },
+    "http://json-ld.org/contexts/event",
+  ]</span>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"celebrates":
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  {
+    "@type": "Event",
+    "description": "International Talk Like a Pirate Day",
+    "date": "R/2011-09-19"
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Each
+context
+in
+a
+list
+will
+be
+evaluated
+in-order.
+Duplicate
+mappings
+among
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+s
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+overwritten
+on
+a
+last-defined-overrides
+basis.
+The
+context
+list
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+contain
+either
+de-referenceable
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+or
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+Object
+</a>
+s
+that
+conform
+to
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+syntax
+as
+described
+in
+this
+document.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+author
+may
+nest
+contexts
+within
+<a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN">
+JSON
+object
+</a>
+s,
+with
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+contexts
+overriding
+the
+values
+in
+previously
+defined
+contexts:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#name&quot;,
+    &quot;details&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/person#details&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;&quot;: &quot;Markus&quot;,
+  ...
+  &quot;details&quot;:
+  {
+
+    &quot;&quot;: &quot;Acme, Ltd.&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    "name": "http://example.com/person#name",
+    "details": "http://example.com/person#details"
+  },</span>
+  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  ...
+  "details":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@context": { "name": "http://example.com/organization#name" },</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Graz University of Technology"
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+prefix
+is
+overridden
+in
+the
+more
+deeply
+nested
+<code>
+details
+</code>
+structure.
+Note
+that
+this
+is
+rarely
+a
+good
+authoring
+practice
+and
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+the
+JSON
+object
+has
+legacy
+applications
+using
+the
+structure
+of
+the
+object.
+</p>
+<p>
+External
+JSON-LD
+context
+documents
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+contain
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key,
+such
+as
+documentation
+about
+the
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">prefixes
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">es
+</del>
+declared
+in
+the
+document.
+When
+importing
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+from
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+context
+document,
+any
+extra
+information
+contained
+outside
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+value
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+discarded.
+It
+is
+also
+<em title="recommended" class="rfc2119">
+recommended
+</em>
+that
+a
+human-readable
+document
+encoded
+in
+HTML+RDFa
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-HTML-RDFA" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+HTML-RDFA
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+or
+other
+Linked
+Data
+compatible
+format
+is
+served
+as
+well
+to
+explain
+the
+correct
+usage
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+context
+document.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="referencing-contexts-from-json-documents">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">Referencing
+Contexts
+from
+JSON
+Documents
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Ordinary
+JSON
+documents
+can
+be
+transformed
+in
+JSON-LD
+documents
+by
+referencing
+to
+an
+external
+JSON-LD
+</ins><a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header.
+Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+to
+be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+to
+drastically
+change
+their
+workflow
+and
+provides
+an
+upgrade
+path
+for
+existing
+infrastructure
+without
+breaking
+existing
+clients
+that
+rely
+on
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+application/json
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+media
+type.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+In
+order
+to
+use
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document,
+an
+author
+</ins><em title="must" class="rfc2119"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+specify
+an
+</ins><a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+to
+a
+valid
+JSON-LD
+document
+in
+an
+HTTP
+Link
+Header
+[
+</ins><cite><a href="#bib-RFC5988" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC5988
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+describedby
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+link
+relation.
+The
+referenced
+document
+</ins><em title="must" class="rfc2119"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+have
+a
+top-level
+</ins><a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON
+Object
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+subtree
+within
+that
+object
+is
+added
+to
+the
+top-level
+object
+of
+the
+referencing
+document.
+If
+an
+array
+is
+at
+the
+top-level
+of
+the
+referencing
+document
+and
+its
+items
+are
+objects,
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+subtree
+is
+added
+to
+all
+array
+items.
+All
+extra
+information
+located
+outside
+of
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+subtree
+in
+the
+referenced
+document
+</ins><em title="must" class="rfc2119"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+discarded.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+following
+example
+demonstrates
+the
+use
+of
+an
+external
+context
+with
+an
+ordinary
+JSON
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">GET /ordinary-json-document.json HTTP/1.1
+<ins class="diff-new">
+Host: example.com
+Accept: application/json,*/*;q=0.1
+
+----------------------------------------------------
+
+HTTP/1.0 200 OK
+...
+Content-Type: application/json
+</ins><span class="diff">Link: &lt;http://json-ld.org/contexts/person&gt;; rel="describedby"; type="application/ld+json"</span>
+<ins class="diff-new">
+
+{
+  "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
+  "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/markuslanthaler"
+}
+</ins></pre><p class="note"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</ins><em title="must" class="rfc2119"><ins class="diff-new">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+have
+all
+context
+information,
+including
+references
+to
+external
+contexts,
+within
+the
+body
+of
+the
+document.
+</ins></p></div><div class="section" id="default-language"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+4.4
+</ins></span>
+Default
+Language
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+allows
+a
+default
+value
+to
+use
+as
+the
+language
+for
+<a href="#dfn-string_value" title="string_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+value
+</a>
+s.
+It
+is
+commonly
+the
+case
+that
+documents
+are
+written
+using
+a
+single
+language.
+As
+described
+in
+<a href="string-internationalization">
+String
+Internationalization
+</a>,
+a
+language-tagged
+value
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+specified
+as
+follows:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  ...
+  "name":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@value": "花澄",
+    "@language": "ja"
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+apply
+a
+particular
+language
+code
+to
+all
+<a href="#dfn-string_value" title="string_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+value
+</a>
+s
+by
+setting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context:&quot;
+  {
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;:
+  &quot;occupation&quot;:
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+  <span class="diff">"@context":
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },</span>
+  "name": <span class="diff">"花澄"</span>,
+  "occupation": <span class="diff">"科学者"</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+a
+<a href="#dfn-string_value" title="string_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+value
+</a>
+for
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+科学者
+</em>
+and
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+code
+with
+each
+value.
+</p>
+<p>
+It
+is
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+by
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+of
+a
+value:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context:&quot;
+  {
+     &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;
+  &quot;occupation&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Scientist&quot;,
+    &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;en&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },
+  "name": "花澄",
+  "occupation":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@value": "Scientist",
+    "@language": "en"
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+It
+is
+also
+possible
+to
+override
+the
+default
+language
+and
+specify
+a
+plain
+value
+by
+omitting
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+tag
+when
+expressing
+the
+expanded
+value:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context:&quot;
+  {
+     &quot;@language&quot;: &quot;ja&quot;
+  },
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;花澄&quot;
+  &quot;occupation&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;@value&quot;: &quot;Ninja&quot;
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },
+  "name": "花澄",
+  "occupation": <span class="diff">
+  {
+    "@value": "Ninja"
+  }</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Object
+<a href="#dfn-property" title="property" class="tref internalDFN">
+properties
+</a>
+that
+use
+the
+expanded
+form
+are
+considered
+explicitly
+defined.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword,
+when
+used
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>,
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+only
+be
+applied
+to
+<a href="#dfn-string_value" title="string_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+value
+</a>
+s.
+That
+is,
+<a href="#dfn-string_value" title="string_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+string
+value
+</a>
+s
+expressed
+in
+expanded
+form
+are
+not
+affected
+by
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword,
+when
+it
+is
+used
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">To
+clear
+the
+default
+language
+for
+a
+subtree,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+can
+be
+set
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+null
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+in
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-local_context" title="local_context" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+local
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+as
+follows:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+  "@context":
+  {
+    ...
+    "@language": "ja"
+  },
+  "name": "花澄",
+  "details":
+  {
+</ins><span class="diff">    "@context":
+<ins class="diff-new">
+    {
+      "@language": null
+    },</span>
+    "occupation": "Ninja"
+  }
+}
+</ins></pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="expanded-term-definition">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Expanded
+Term
+Definition
+</h3>
+<p>
+Within
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+using
+an
+expanded
+notation
+to
+allow
+for
+additional
+information
+associated
+with
+the
+term
+to
+be
+specified
+(see
+<a href="#type-coerceion">
+Type
+Coercion
+</a>
+and
+<a href="#lists">
+Lists
+</a>
+).
+</p>
+<p>
+Instead
+of
+using
+a
+string
+representation
+of
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>,
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+specified
+using
+an
+object
+having
+an
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+value
+of
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+be
+either
+a
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>:suffix
+value,
+an
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+Type
+information
+may
+be
+specified
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: ,
+    &quot;name&quot;: ,
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: ,
+    &quot;depiction&quot;:
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot;,
+  &quot;depiction&quot;: &quot;http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": <span class="diff">{ "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" }</span>,
+    "name": <span class="diff">{ "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name" }</span>,
+    "homepage": <span class="diff">{ "@id": "foaf:homepage" }</span>,
+    "depiction": <span class="diff">{ "@id": "foaf:depiction" }</span>
+  },
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "depiction": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="automatic-typing">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Since
+JSON
+is
+capable
+of
+expressing
+typed
+information
+such
+as
+doubles,
+integers,
+and
+boolean
+values.
+As
+demonstrated
+below,
+JSON-LD
+utilizes
+that
+information
+to
+create
+<a href="#dfn-typed_value" title="typed_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  // The following two values are automatically converted to a type of xsd:double
+  // and both values are equivalent to each other.
+  &quot;measure:cups&quot;: ,
+  &quot;measure:cups&quot;: ,
+  // The following value is automatically converted to a type of xsd:double as well
+  &quot;space:astronomicUnits&quot;: ,
+  // The following value is never converted to a language-native type
+  &quot;measure:stones&quot;: ,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  &quot;chem:protons&quot;: ,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  &quot;sensor:active&quot;: ,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  // The following two values are automatically converted to a type of xsd:double
+  // and both values are equivalent to each other.
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3e0</span>,
+  // The following value is automatically converted to a type of xsd:double as well
+  "space:astronomicUnits": <span class="diff">6.5e73</span>,
+  // The following value is never converted to a language-native type
+  "measure:stones": <span class="diff">{ "@value": "4.8", "@type": "xsd:decimal" }</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  "chem:protons": <span class="diff">12</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  "sensor:active": <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+When
+dealing
+with
+a
+number
+of
+modern
+programming
+languages,
+including
+JavaScript
+ECMA-262,
+there
+is
+no
+distinction
+between
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+values.
+That
+is,
+the
+<a href="#dfn-number" title="number" class="tref internalDFN">
+number
+</a>
+<code>
+5.3
+</code>
+and
+the
+<a href="#dfn-number" title="number" class="tref internalDFN">
+number
+</a>
+<code>
+5.3e0
+</code>
+are
+treated
+as
+if
+they
+were
+the
+same.
+When
+converting
+from
+JSON-LD
+to
+a
+language-native
+format
+and
+back,
+type
+information
+is
+lost
+in
+a
+number
+of
+these
+languages.
+Thus,
+one
+could
+say
+that
+<code>
+5.3
+</code>
+is
+a
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<code>
+5.3e0
+</code>
+is
+an
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+in
+JSON-LD,
+but
+when
+both
+values
+are
+converted
+to
+a
+language-native
+format
+the
+type
+difference
+between
+the
+two
+is
+lost
+because
+the
+machine-level
+representation
+will
+almost
+always
+be
+a
+<strong>
+double
+</strong>.
+Implementers
+should
+be
+aware
+of
+this
+potential
+round-tripping
+issue
+between
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>.
+Specifically
+objects
+with
+a
+type
+of
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+<em title="must not" class="rfc2119">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+converted
+to
+a
+language
+native
+type.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="type-coercion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+values
+to
+particular
+data
+types.
+Type
+<dfn id="dfn-coercion" title="coercion">
+coercion
+</dfn>
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+the
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+types
+to
+the
+proper
+data
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+data
+type
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+to
+property
+types.
+Using
+type
+coercion,
+value
+representation
+is
+preserved
+without
+requiring
+the
+data
+type
+to
+be
+specified
+with
+each
+usage.
+</p>
+<p>
+Type
+coercion
+is
+specified
+within
+an
+<a href="#expanded-term-definition">
+expanded
+term
+definition
+</a>
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key.
+The
+values
+of
+this
+key
+represent
+type
+IRIs
+and
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+take
+the
+form
+of
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">prefix
+:suffix,
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>,<a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+absolute
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+or
+the
+keyword
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+Specifying
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+indicates
+that
+within
+the
+body
+of
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+string
+values
+of
+keys
+coerced
+as
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+are
+to
+be
+interpreted
+as
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+Terms
+</a>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">prefixes
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+used
+as
+the
+value
+of
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+key
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+defined
+within
+the
+same
+context.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+<a href="#dfn-typed_value" title="typed_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s,
+IRIs
+and
+lists.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+     &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+     &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+     &quot;age&quot;: ,
+     &quot;homepage&quot;:
+  },
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;John Smith&quot;,
+  &quot;age&quot;: ,
+  &quot;homepage&quot;:
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    }</span>,
+    "homepage":
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id",
+      "@container": "@list"
+    }</span>
+  },
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": <span class="diff">"41"</span>,
+  "homepage":
+</ins>  <span class="diff">[
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "http://personal.example.org/",
+    "http://work.example.com/jsmith/"
+  ]</span>
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+Turtle:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
+[ foaf:name &quot;John Smith&quot;;
+  foaf:age  &quot;41&quot;^^xsd:integer;
+  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix xsd: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+[ foaf:name "John Smith";
+  foaf:age  "41"^^xsd:integer;
+  foaf:homepage ( &lt;http://personal.example.org/&gt; &lt;http://work.example.com/jsmith/&gt; )
+</ins>
+]
+.
+</pre>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Terms
+may
+also
+be
+defined
+using
+</ins><a href="#dfn-absolute_iri" title="absolute_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+absolute
+IRIs
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+compact
+IRIs
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+This
+allows
+coercion
+rules
+to
+by
+applied
+to
+keys
+which
+are
+not
+represented
+as
+a
+simple
+</ins><a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-new">
+For
+example:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-new">
+    "<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>":
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }</span>
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+In
+this
+case,
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+definition
+is
+optional,
+but
+if
+it
+does
+exist,
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+or
+</ins><a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN"><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+treated
+as
+a
+term
+so
+that
+the
+actual
+definition
+of
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+becomes
+unnecessary.
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="iri-expansion-within-a-context">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+Expansion
+Within
+a
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+To
+be
+consistent
+with
+JSON-LD,
+in
+general,
+anywhere
+an
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+is
+expected,
+normal
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+expansion
+rules
+apply
+(see
+<a href="#iris">
+IRIs
+</a>
+).
+Within
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+definition,
+this
+can
+mean
+that
+terms
+defined
+within
+a
+given
+context
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+within
+that
+context,
+as
+long
+as
+there
+are
+no
+circular
+dependencies.
+For
+example,
+it
+is
+common
+to
+use
+the
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+namespace
+when
+defining
+<a href="#dfn-typed_value" title="typed_value" class="tref internalDFN">
+typed
+value
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    ,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;,
+    &quot;age&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&quot;, &quot;@type&quot;: },
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&quot;, &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;}
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "age":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+      "@type": <span class="diff">"xsd:integer"</span>
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+this
+example,
+the
+<code>
+xsd
+</code>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+is
+defined,
+and
+used
+as
+a
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>
+for
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+coercion
+of
+the
+<code>
+age
+</code>
+property.
+</p>
+<p>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+when
+defining
+the
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+of
+another
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: ,
+    &quot;age&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: , &quot;@type&quot;: xsd:integer&quot;},
+    &quot;homepage&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: , &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot;}
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": <span class="diff">"foaf:name"</span>,
+    "age":
+    {
+      "@id": <span class="diff">"foaf:age"</span>,
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "homepage":
+    {
+      "@id": <span class="diff">"foaf:homepage"</span>,
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+Term
+</a>
+s
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+on
+the
+left-hand
+side
+of
+a
+definition.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    ,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
+    &quot;&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;, &quot;@type&quot;: xsd:integer&quot;},
+    &quot;
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "foaf:name",
+    "<span class="diff">foaf:age</span>":
+    {
+      "@id": "foaf:age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "<span class="diff">foaf:homepage</span>":
+</ins>    <span class="diff">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }</span>
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+in
+this
+example,
+the
+<del class="diff-old">prefixed
+</del>
+<a href="#dfn-compact_iri" title="compact_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr></a>
+form
+is
+used
+in
+two
+different
+ways.
+The
+first
+way,
+as
+shown
+with
+<code>
+foaf:age
+</code>
+declares
+both
+the
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+for
+the
+term
+(using
+short-form)
+as
+well
+as
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>.
+The
+second
+way,
+only
+declares
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+associated
+with
+the
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>.
+In
+the
+second
+case,
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+still
+derive
+the
+full
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+by
+looking
+up
+the
+<code>
+foaf
+</code>
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+for
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+Full
+IRIs
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+on
+the
+left-hand
+side
+of
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;: &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;,
+    &quot;xsd&quot;: &quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&quot;,
+    &quot;name&quot;: &quot;foaf:name&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf:age&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;foaf:age&quot;, &quot;@type&quot;: xsd:integer&quot;},
+    &quot;&quot;: { &quot;@type&quot;: &quot;@id&quot; }
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "name": "foaf:name",
+    "foaf:age":
+    {
+      "@id": "foaf:age",
+      "@type": "xsd:integer"
+    },
+    "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>":
+    {
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Note
+that
+in
+order
+for
+the
+full
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+to
+match
+above,
+the
+full
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+<em title="must" class="rfc2119">
+must
+</em>
+also
+be
+used
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+document.
+Also
+note
+that
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+will
+not
+use
+the
+<code>
+{
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;@type&quot;:
+&quot;@id&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"@type":
+"@id"
+</ins>
+}
+</code>
+declaration
+because
+<code>
+foaf:homepage
+</code>
+is
+not
+the
+same
+as
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
+</code>.
+That
+is,
+a
+JSON-LD
+processor
+will
+use
+direct
+string
+comparison
+when
+looking
+up
+<a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN">
+term
+</a>
+s
+in
+a
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+before
+it
+applies
+the
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>
+lookup
+mechanism.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+only
+exception
+for
+using
+terms
+in
+the
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+is
+that
+they
+<em title="must not" class="rfc2119">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+used
+in
+a
+circular
+manner.
+That
+is,
+a
+definition
+of
+<em>
+term-1
+</em>
+<em title="must not" class="rfc2119">
+must
+not
+</em>
+depend
+on
+the
+definition
+of
+<em>
+term-2
+</em>
+if
+<em>
+term-2
+</em>
+also
+depends
+on
+<em>
+term-1
+</em>.
+For
+example,
+the
+following
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>
+definition
+is
+illegal:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+    &quot;term1&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;term2:foo&quot;},
+    &quot;term2&quot;: {&quot;@id&quot;: &quot;term1:bar&quot;}
+  },
+  ...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"term1": "term2:foo",
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "term2": "term1:bar"</span>
+  },
+  ...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="embedding">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+Embedding
+</h3>
+<p>
+Object
+<dfn id="dfn-embedding" title="embedding">
+embedding
+</dfn>
+is
+a
+JSON-LD
+feature
+that
+allows
+an
+author
+to
+use
+the
+definition
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+as
+<a href="#dfn-property" title="property" class="tref internalDFN">
+property
+</a>
+values.
+This
+is
+a
+commonly
+used
+mechanism
+for
+creating
+a
+parent-child
+relationship
+between
+two
+<a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN">
+subject
+</a>
+s.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+shows
+<del class="diff-old">an
+</del>
+two
+subjects
+related
+by
+a
+property
+from
+the
+first
+subject:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">  {
+...
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;&quot;: {
+    &quot;&quot;,
+    &quot;&quot;,
+  }
+...
+</del>
+  <pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">knows</span>":
+  {
+    "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">Person</span>",
+    "<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">Gregg Kellogg</span>",
+  }
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+An
+object
+definition,
+like
+the
+one
+used
+above,
+<em title="may" class="rfc2119">
+may
+</em>
+be
+used
+as
+a
+JSON
+value
+at
+any
+point
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="identifying-unlabeled-nodes">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</h3>
+<p>
+At
+times,
+it
+becomes
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+information
+without
+being
+able
+to
+specify
+the
+subject.
+Typically,
+this
+type
+of
+node
+is
+called
+an
+unlabeled
+node
+or
+a
+blank
+node.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+unlabeled
+node
+identifiers
+are
+automatically
+created
+if
+a
+subject
+is
+not
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+However,
+authors
+may
+provide
+identifiers
+for
+unlabeled
+nodes
+by
+using
+the
+special
+<code>
+_
+</code>
+(underscore)
+<a href="#dfn-prefix" title="prefix" class="tref internalDFN">
+prefix
+</a>.
+This
+allows
+to
+reference
+the
+node
+locally
+within
+the
+document
+but
+not
+in
+an
+external
+document.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+...
+  &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;&quot;,
+...
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">...
+  "@id": "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+<code>
+_:foo
+</code>,
+which
+can
+then
+be
+used
+later
+on
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+to
+refer
+back
+to
+the
+unlabeled
+node.
+This
+practice,
+however,
+is
+usually
+frowned
+upon
+when
+generating
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>.
+If
+a
+developer
+finds
+that
+they
+refer
+to
+the
+unlabeled
+node
+more
+than
+once,
+they
+should
+consider
+naming
+the
+node
+using
+a
+resolve-able
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="aliasing-keywords">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.10
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+Aliasing
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+allows
+all
+of
+the
+syntax
+keywords,
+except
+for
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>,
+to
+be
+aliased.
+This
+feature
+allows
+more
+legacy
+JSON
+content
+to
+be
+supported
+by
+JSON-LD.
+It
+also
+allows
+developers
+to
+design
+domain-specific
+implementations
+using
+only
+the
+JSON-LD
+<a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN">
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;:
+  {
+     ,
+     ,
+     &quot;name&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/name&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;url&quot;: &quot;http://example.com/about#gregg&quot;,
+  &quot;a&quot;: &quot;http://schema.org/Person&quot;,
+  &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>     <span class="diff">"url": "@id"</span>,
+     <span class="diff">"a": "@type"</span>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+     "name": "http://schema.org/name"
+  },
+  "url": "http://example.com/about#gregg",
+  "a": "http://schema.org/Person",
+  "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keywords
+have
+been
+given
+the
+aliases
+<strong>
+url
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+a
+</strong>,
+respectively.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="expansion">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">4.12
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Expansion
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+[
+</ins><cite><a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><ins class="diff-new">
+JSON-LD-API
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+defines
+an
+method
+for
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-new">
+expanding
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+Expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+all
+</ins><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></abbr>,<ins class="diff-new">
+datatypes,
+and
+literal
+values
+are
+expanded
+so
+that
+the
+context
+is
+no
+longer
+necessary.
+JSON-LD
+document
+expansion
+is
+typically
+used
+as
+a
+part
+of
+</ins><a href="#framing"><ins class="diff-new">
+Framing
+</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "@context":
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": {
+        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+        "@type", "@id"
+      }
+   },
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Expansion
+algorithm
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-new">
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="compaction">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.13
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compaction
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+[
+</ins><cite><a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD-API
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+defines
+an
+method
+for
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+compacting
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+Compaction
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+the
+most
+compact
+form
+of
+the
+document
+is
+generated.
+JSON
+is
+typically
+expressed
+in
+a
+very
+compact,
+key-value
+format.
+That
+is,
+full
+IRIs
+are
+rarely
+used
+as
+keys.
+At
+times,
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+may
+be
+received
+that
+is
+not
+in
+its
+most
+compact
+form.
+JSON-LD,
+via
+the
+API,
+provides
+a
+way
+to
+compact
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
+    "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+  }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Additionally,
+assume
+the
+following
+developer-supplied
+JSON-LD
+context:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+  "homepage": {
+    "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+    "@type": "@id"
+  }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Compaction
+algorithm
+given
+the
+context
+supplied
+above
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@context": {
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    }
+  },
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+compaction
+algorithm
+also
+enables
+the
+developer
+to
+map
+any
+expanded
+format
+into
+an
+application-specific
+compacted
+format.
+While
+the
+context
+provided
+above
+mapped
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+name
+</ins></strong>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+it
+could
+have
+also
+mapped
+it
+to
+any
+arbitrary
+string
+provided
+by
+the
+developer.
+</ins></p></div><div class="section" id="framing"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+4.14
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Framing
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+[
+</ins><cite><a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD-API
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+defines
+an
+method
+for
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+framing
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+This
+allows
+developers
+to
+query
+by
+example
+and
+force
+a
+specific
+tree
+layout
+to
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+directed
+graph.
+A
+single
+directed
+graph
+can
+have
+many
+different
+serializations,
+each
+expressing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information.
+Developers
+typically
+work
+with
+trees,
+represented
+as
+</ins><a href="#dfn-json_object" title="json_object" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+While
+mapping
+a
+graph
+to
+a
+tree
+can
+be
+done,
+the
+layout
+of
+the
+end
+result
+must
+be
+specified
+in
+advance.
+A
+</ins><dfn id="dfn-frame" title="frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Frame
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+can
+be
+used
+by
+a
+developer
+on
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+specify
+a
+deterministic
+layout
+for
+a
+graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Framing
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+which
+expresses
+a
+graph
+of
+information,
+and
+applying
+a
+specific
+graph
+layout
+(called
+a
+</ins><a href="#dfn-frame" title="frame" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Frame
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+).
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+document
+below
+expresses
+a
+library,
+a
+book
+and
+a
+chapter:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     {
+      "@id": "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator",
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description",
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@id":
+  [{
+    "@id": "http://example.com/library",
+    "@type": "Library",
+    "contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic"
+  },
+  {
+    "@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+    "@type": "Book",
+    "creator": "Plato",
+    "title": "The Republic",
+    "contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction"
+  },
+  {
+    "@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+    "@type": "Chapter",
+    "description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+    "title": "The Introduction"
+  }]
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Developers
+typically
+like
+to
+operate
+on
+items
+in
+a
+hierarchical,
+tree-based
+fashion.
+Ideally,
+a
+developer
+would
+want
+the
+data
+above
+sorted
+into
+top-level
+libraries,
+then
+the
+books
+that
+are
+contained
+in
+each
+library,
+and
+then
+the
+chapters
+contained
+in
+each
+book.
+To
+achieve
+that
+layout,
+the
+developer
+can
+define
+the
+following
+</ins><a href="#dfn-frame" title="frame" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+frame
+</ins></a>:</p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@type": "Library",
+  "contains": {
+    "@type": "Book",
+    "contains": {
+      "@type": "Chapter"
+    }
+  }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+When
+the
+framing
+algorithm
+is
+run
+against
+the
+previously
+defined
+JSON-LD
+document,
+paired
+with
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-frame" title="frame" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+frame
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+above,
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+the
+end
+result:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@context": {
+    "Book":         "http://example.org/vocab#Book",
+    "Chapter":      "http://example.org/vocab#Chapter",
+    "contains":     "http://example.org/vocab#contains",
+    "creator":      "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"
+    "description":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description"
+    "Library":      "http://example.org/vocab#Library",
+    "title":        "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"
+  },
+  "@id": "http://example.org/library",
+  "@type": "Library",
+  "contains": {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "@type": "Book",
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"creator": "Plato",</span>
+    <span class="diff">"title": "The Republic",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "contains": {
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"@id": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+      "@type": "Chapter",
+</ins>      <span class="diff">"description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",</span>
+      <span class="diff">"title": "The Introduction"</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    },
+  },
+}
+</ins></pre></div><div class="section" id="normalization"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+4.15
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+API
+[
+</ins><cite><a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD-API
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+]
+defines
+an
+method
+for
+</ins><em><ins class="diff-chg">
+normalizing
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+Normalization
+is
+the
+process
+of
+performing
+a
+deterministic
+transformation
+on
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+resulting
+in
+a
+normalized
+representation.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+is
+useful
+when
+comparing
+two
+graphs
+against
+one
+another,
+when
+generating
+a
+detailed
+list
+of
+differences
+between
+two
+graphs,
+and
+when
+generating
+a
+cryptographic
+digital
+signature
+for
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph
+or
+when
+generating
+a
+hash
+of
+the
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+example
+below
+is
+an
+un-normalized
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@context": {
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": {
+      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@type": "@id"
+    },
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+  },
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+example
+below
+is
+the
+normalized
+form
+of
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+above:
+</ins></p><pre class="example">[{
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+  "@id": "_:c14n0",
+  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": {
+    "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+  },
+  "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
+}]
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Notice
+how
+all
+of
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-term" title="term" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+have
+been
+expanded
+and
+sorted
+in
+alphabetical
+order.
+Also,
+notice
+how
+the
+</ins><a href="#dfn-subject" title="subject" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+has
+been
+labeled
+with
+a
+named
+</ins><a href="#dfn-unlabeled_node" title="unlabeled_node" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-chg">
+unlabeled
+node
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+ensures
+that
+any
+arbitrary
+graph
+containing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+would
+be
+normalized
+to
+exactly
+the
+same
+form
+shown
+above.
+</ins></p></div></div><div id="markup-examples" class="appendix informative section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+Markup
+Examples
+</h2>
+<p>
+<em>
+This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+</em>
+</p>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+a
+specification
+for
+representing
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+in
+JSON.
+A
+common
+way
+of
+working
+with
+Linked
+Data
+is
+through
+<dfn id="dfn-rdf" title="rdf">
+RDF
+</dfn>,
+the
+Resource
+Description
+Framework.
+RDF
+can
+be
+expressed
+using
+JSON-LD
+by
+associating
+JSON-LD
+concepts
+such
+as
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+the
+equivalent
+<a href="#dfn-iri" title="iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</a>
+s
+in
+RDF.
+Further
+information
+about
+RDF
+may
+be
+found
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-RDF-PRIMER" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+RDF-PRIMER
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+examples
+below
+demonstrate
+how
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+semantic
+data
+marked
+up
+in
+other
+languages
+such
+as
+Turtle,
+RDFa,
+Microformats,
+and
+Microdata.
+These
+sections
+are
+merely
+provided
+as
+proof
+that
+JSON-LD
+is
+very
+flexible
+in
+what
+it
+can
+express
+across
+different
+<a href="#dfn-linked_data" title="linked_data" class="tref internalDFN">
+Linked
+Data
+</a>
+approaches.
+Details
+of
+transforming
+JSON-LD
+into
+RDF
+are
+defined
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-JSON-LD-API" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+JSON-LD-API
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<div class="section" id="turtle">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+A.1
+</span>
+Turtle
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+following
+are
+examples
+of
+representing
+<a href="#dfn-rdf" title="rdf" class="tref internalDFN">
+RDF
+</a>
+as
+expressed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a href="#bib-TURTLE" rel="biblioentry" class="bibref">
+TURTLE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+into
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<div class="section" id="prefix-definitions">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+A.1.1
+</span>
+Prefix
+definitions
+</h4>
+<p>
+The
+JSON-LD
+context
+has
+direct
+equivalents
+for
+the
+Turtle
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+declaration:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
+</ins>
+foaf:homepage
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;:            &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:  { &quot;@id&quot;: &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/&quot; }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+  },
+  "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:homepage": { "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/" }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<div class="note">
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+no
+equivalent
+for
+the
+Turtle
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+declaration.
+Authors
+could,
+of
+course,
+use
+a
+prefix
+definition
+to
+resolve
+<a href="#dfn-relative_iri" title="relative_iri" class="tref internalDFN">
+relative
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs.
+</del>
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+</ins></abbr></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+For
+example,
+an
+empty
+prefix
+could
+be
+used
+to
+get
+a
+similar
+effect
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>:
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;:            ,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:homepage&quot;:  { &quot;@id&quot;: }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+</ins>    <span class="diff">"": "http://manu.sporny.org/",</span>
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+  },
+  "@id": <span class="diff">":i/public"</span>,
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:homepage": { "@id": <span class="diff">":" </span>}
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="embedding-1">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+A.1.2
+</span>
+Embedding
+</h4>
+<p>
+Both
+Turtle
+and
+JSON-LD
+allow
+embedding
+of
+objects,
+although
+Turtle
+only
+allows
+embedding
+of
+objects
+which
+use
+unlabeled
+node
+identifiers.
+</p>
+</div>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&gt;
+  a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+&lt;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&gt;
+  a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name "Manu Sporny";
+</ins>
+foaf:knows
+[
+a
+foaf:Person;
+foaf:name
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;Gregg
+Kellogg&quot;
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"Gregg
+Kellogg"
+</ins>
+]
+.
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;:            &quot;http://manu.sporny.org/i/public&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:          &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:      &quot;Manu Sporny&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:knows&quot;: {
+    &quot;@type&quot;:        &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+    &quot;foaf:name&quot;:    &quot;Gregg Kellogg&quot;
+  }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+  },
+  "@id": "http://manu.sporny.org/i/public",
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:knows":
+  {
+    "@type": "foaf:Person",
+    "foaf:name": "Gregg Kellogg"
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<div class="section" id="lists-1">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+A.1.3
+</span>
+Lists
+</h4>
+<p>
+Both
+JSON-LD
+and
+Turtle
+can
+represent
+sequential
+lists
+of
+values.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name &quot;Joe Bob&quot;;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
+<ins class="diff-chg">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; a foaf:Person;
+  foaf:name "Joe Bob";
+</ins>
+foaf:nick
+(
+<del class="diff-old">&quot;joe&quot;
+&quot;bob&quot;
+&quot;jaybee&quot;)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">"joe"
+"bob"
+"jaybee"
+)
+</ins>
+.
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">{
+  &quot;@context&quot;: {
+    &quot;foaf&quot;:   &quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;@id&quot;:        &quot;http://example.org/people#joebob&quot;,
+  &quot;@type&quot;:      &quot;foaf:Person&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:name&quot;:  &quot;Joe Bob&quot;,
+  &quot;foaf:nick&quot;:  { &quot;@list&quot;: [ &quot;joe&quot;, &quot;bob&quot;, &quot;jaybe&quot; ] }
+</del>
+<pre class="example">{
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@context":
+  {
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+  },
+  "@id": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "@type": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Joe Bob",
+  "foaf:nick":
+  {
+    "@list": [ "joe", "bob", "jaybe" ]
+  }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="rdfa">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+A.2
+</span>
+RDFa
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+following
+example
+describes
+three
+people
+with
+their
+respective
+names
+and
+homepages.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">&gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+</del>
+<pre class="example">&lt;div <span class="diff">prefix="foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"</span>&gt;
+<ins class="diff-chg">   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/bob/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/eve/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li <span class="diff">typeof="foaf:Person"</span>&gt;
+        &lt;a <span class="diff">rel="foaf:homepage" href="http://example.com/manu/" property="foaf:name" </span>&gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+</ins>
+&lt;/div&gt;
+</pre>
+<p>
+An
+example
+JSON-LD
+implementation
+<ins class="diff-new">using
+a
+single
+</ins><a href="#dfn-context" title="context" class="tref internalDFN"><ins class="diff-new">
+context
+</ins></a>
+is
+described
+<del class="diff-old">below,
+however,
+there
+are
+other
+ways
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">below.