Remove alternate API doc.
authorGregg Kellogg <gregg@kellogg-assoc.com>
Mon, 18 Feb 2013 15:47:19 -0800
changeset 1305 21000f924b08
parent 1304 95b67a55071e
child 1306 04f210e1dcca
Remove alternate API doc.
spec/latest/json-ld-api/alternate.html
--- a/spec/latest/json-ld-api/alternate.html	Mon Feb 18 15:46:42 2013 -0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,2265 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html>
-<html>
-<head>
-<title>JSON-LD Algorithms 1.0</title>
-<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
-<script type="text/javascript" src="../respec-w3c-common.js" class="remove"></script>
-<script type="text/javascript" src="../respec-w3c-extensions.js" class="remove"></script>
-<script type="text/javascript" class="remove">
-//<![CDATA[
-  var respecConfig = {
-      // extend the bibliography entries
-      "localBiblio": localBibliography,
-
-      doRDFa: "1.1",
-      // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
-      specStatus:           "ED",
-      // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
-      //publishDate:          "2012-12-25",
-      copyrightStart:       "2010",
-
-      // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
-      shortName:            "json-ld-api",
-      subtitle:             "Algorithms for Processing JSON-LD Documents",
-
-      // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
-      // and its maturity status
-      previousPublishDate:  "2012-12-25",
-      previousMaturity:     "ED",
-      previousURI:          "http://json-ld.org/spec/ED/json-ld-api/20121225/index.html",
-
-      // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
-      edDraftURI:           "http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-api/index.html",
-
-      testSuiteURI:         "http://json-ld.org/test-suite/",
-
-      // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
-      // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
-
-      // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
-      // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
-      // extraCSS: [],
-
-      issueBase: "https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues/",
-
-      // editors, add as many as you like
-      // only "name" is required
-      editors:  [
-          { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://manu.sporny.org/",
-            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
-          { name: "Gregg Kellogg", url: "http://greggkellogg.net/",
-            company: "Kellogg Associates", companyURL: "http://kellogg-assoc.com/" },
-          { name: "Markus Lanthaler", url: "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-            company: "Graz University of Technology", companyURL: "http://www.tugraz.at/" }
-      ],
-
-      // authors, add as many as you like.
-      // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
-      // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
-
-      authors:  [
-          { name: "Dave Longley", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
-            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/"},
-          { name: "Manu Sporny", url: "http://digitalbazaar.com/",
-            company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" },
-          { name: "Gregg Kellogg", url: "http://greggkellogg.net/",
-            company: "Kellogg Associates", companyURL: "http://kellogg-assoc.com/" },
-          { name: "Markus Lanthaler", url: "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-            company: "Graz University of Technology", companyURL: "http://www.tugraz.at/" }
-      ],
-
-      // name of the WG
-      wg:           "RDF Working Group",
-
-      // URI of the public WG page
-      wgURI:        "http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/",
-
-      // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
-      wgPublicList: "public-rdf-comments",
-
-      // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
-      // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
-      // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
-      // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
-      // Team Contact.
-      wgPatentURI:  "http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status",
-      maxTocLevel: 3,
-      preProcess: [ preProc ],
-      alternateFormats: [ {uri: "diff-20120930.html", label: "diff to previous version"} ],
-  };
-//]]>
-</script>
-<style type="text/css">
-  .diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
-</style>
-</head>
-
-<body>
-<section id="abstract">
-<p>
-JSON [[!RFC4627]] has proven to be a highly useful object serialization and
-messaging format. JSON-LD [[!JSON-LD]] harmonizes the representation of
-Linked Data in JSON by outlining a common JSON representation format for
-expressing directed graphs; mixing both Linked Data and non-Linked Data in
-a single document. This document outlines an Application Programming
-Interface and a set of algorithms for programmatically transforming
-JSON-LD documents in order to make them easier to work with in programming
-environments like JavaScript, Python, and Ruby.
-</p>
-</section>
-
-<section id='sotd'>
-<p>This document has been under development for over 18 months in the
-JSON for Linking Data Community Group. The document has recently been
-transferred to the RDF Working Group for review, improvement, and publication
-along the Recommendation track. The specification has undergone significant
-development, review, and changes during the course of the last 18 months.
-</p>
-<p>There are several independent
-<a href="http://json-ld.org/#impl">interoperable implementations</a> of
-this specification. There is
-a <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/test-suite">fairly complete test suite</a>
-and a <a href="http://json-ld.org/playground/">live JSON-LD editor</a>
-that is capable of demonstrating the features described in
-this document. While development on implementations, the test suite
-and the live editor will continue, they are believed to be mature enough
-to be integrated into a non-production system at this point in time with
-the expectation that they could be used in a production system within the
-next year.
-</p>
-<p class="issue">
-It is important for readers to understand that the scope of this document is
-currently under debate and new features may be added to the specification.
-Existing features may be modified heavily or removed entirely from the
-specification upon further review and feedback from the broader community.
-This is a work in progress and publication as a Working Draft
-does not require that all Working Group members agree on the content of the
-document.
-</p>
-
-<p>There are a number of ways that one may participate in the development of
-  this specification:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>If you want to make sure that your feedback is formally addressed by
-    the RDF Working Group, you should send it to public-rdf-comments:
-    <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">[email protected]</a></li>
-
-  <li>Ad-hoc technical discussion primarily occurs on the public community mailing list:
-    <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">[email protected]</a></li>
-
-  <li><a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">Public JSON-LD Community Group teleconferences</a>
-  are held on Tuesdays at 1500UTC every week. Participation is open to the
-  public.</li>
-
-  <li>RDF Working Group teleconferences are held on Wednesdays at 1500UTC
-  every week. Participation is limited to RDF Working Group members.</li>
-
-  <li>Specification bugs and issues should be reported in the
-    <a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">issue tracker</a>
-    if you do not want to send an e-mail to the public-rdf-comments mailing
-    list.</li>
-
-  <li><a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">Source code</a>
-    for the specification can be found on Github.</li>
-
-  <li>The <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=json-ld">#json-ld</a>
-    IRC channel is available for real-time discussion on irc.freenode.net.</li>
-</ul>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-<h2>Introduction</h2>
-
-<p>
-This document is a detailed specification for an Application Programming
-Interface for the JSON-LD Syntax. The document is primarily intended for
-the following audiences:
-</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>Web authors and developers that want a very detailed view of how
-  a JSON-LD processor and the API operates.</li>
-  <li>Software developers that want to implement processors and APIs for
-  JSON-LD.</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-To understand the basics in this specification you must first be familiar with
-JSON, which is detailed in [[!RFC4627]]. You must also understand the
-JSON-LD Syntax [[!JSON-LD]], which is the base syntax used by all of the
-algorithms in this document. To understand the API and how it is
-intended to operate in a programming environment, it is useful to have working
-knowledge of the JavaScript programming language [[ECMA-262]] and
-WebIDL [[!WEBIDL]]. To understand how JSON-LD maps to RDF, it is helpful to be
-familiar with the basic RDF concepts [[!RDF-CONCEPTS]].</p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-<h1>Features</h1>
-
-<p>The JSON-LD Syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]] outlines a language that may be
-  used to express Linked Data in JSON. Often, it is useful to be able to transform
-  JSON-LD documents so that they may be easily processed in various programming
-  environments.</p>
-
-<p>There are four major types of transformation that are discussed in this document:
-  expansion, compaction, flattening, and RDF conversion.</p>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Expansion</h2>
-  <p>Software algorithms are easiest to write when the data that they are processing
-    have a regular form. Since information can be represented by JSON-LD in a
-    variety of different ways, transforming all of these methods into a uniform
-    structure allows the developer to simplify their processing code. For example,
-    note that the following input uses only <tref>term</tref>s and is fairly
-    compact:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "homepage": {
-        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-    },
-    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>The next input example uses one <tref>IRI</tref> to express a property, but leaves
-    the rest of the information untouched.</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "homepage": {
-        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-    },
-    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "****http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name****": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>While both inputs are valid JSON-LD, writing a program to handle every
-    permutation of possible inputs can be difficult, especially when the incoming
-    context could change as well. To ensure that the data can be given a more
-    uniform structure, JSON-LD introduces the notion of expansion. <tdef>Expansion</tdef>
-    performs two important operations. The first is to expand all values that represent
-    <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> to <tref title="absolute IRI">absolute IRIs</tref>.
-    The second is to express all values in <tref>expanded form</tref>. Running the
-    <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion algorithm</a> against the examples provided
-    above results in the following output:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        { "@value": "Markus Lanthaler" }
-      ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
-        { "@id": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/" }
-      ]
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Note that in the output above all <tref>context</tref> definitions have
-    been removed, all <tref title="term">terms</tref> and <tref title="prefix">prefixes</tref>
-    have been expanded to absolute <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>, and all
-    <tref title="JSON-LD value">JSON-LD values</tref> are expressed in <tref>expanded form</tref>.
-    While the output is more difficult for a human to read, it is easier for a
-    software program to process because of its very regular structure.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Compaction</h2>
-  <p>While expansion expands a given input as much as possible, compaction performs
-    the opposite operation: it expresses a given input as succinctly as possible. In contrast
-    to expansion which is meant to produce something that is easy to process by software
-    programs, compaction is meant to produce something that is easy to read by software
-    developers. Compaction uses a developer-supplied <tref>context</tref> to compress
-    <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> to <tref title="term">terms</tref> or
-    <tref title="compact IRI">compact IRIs</tref> and <tref title="JSON-LD value">JSON-LD values</tref>
-    expressed in <tref>expanded form</tref> to simple values such as
-    <tref title="string">strings</tref> and <tref title="number">numbers</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, assume the following expanded JSON-LD input document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        { "@value": "Markus Lanthaler" }
-      ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
-        { "@id": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/" }
-      ]
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Additionally, assume the following developer-supplied JSON-LD <tref>context</tref>:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "homepage": {
-        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-    }
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Running the <a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction Algorithm</a> given the context
-    supplied above against the JSON-LD input document provided above would result in the
-    following output:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "homepage": {
-        "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
-        "@type": "@id"
-      }
-    },
-    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "homepage": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/"
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Note that all <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> have been compacted to
-    <tref title="term">terms</tref> as specified in the <tref>context</tref>
-    which consequently has been injected into the output. While compacted
-    output is most useful to humans, it can often also be used to generate
-    structures that are easy to program against. Compaction enables developers
-    to map any expanded document into an application-specific compacted document.
-    While the context provided above mapped <code>http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</code>
-    to <code>name</code>, it could have also have been mapped to any other term
-    provided by the developer.</p>
-
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>Flattening</h2>
-  <p>While expansion ensures that a document is in a uniform structure, flattening
-    goes a step further and ensures that also the shape of the data is deterministic.
-    In expanded documents properties of a single <tref>node</tref> may still be
-    spread across a number of different <tref title="JSON object">JSON objects</tref>.
-    By flattening a document, all properties of a <tref>node</tref> are collected in a
-    single <tref>JSON object</tref> and all <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>
-    are labeled with a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>. Often this drastically
-    simplifies the code to process JSON-LD data.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, assume the following JSON-LD input document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
-    },
-    "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-    "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-    "knows": [
-      {
-        "name": "Manu Sporny",
-        "knows": {
-          "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
-        }
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
-        "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Running the <a href="#flattening-algorithm">Flattening Algorithm</a>
-    with a context set to <tref>null</tref> to prevent compaction returns
-    the following document:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        { "@value": "Markus Lanthaler" }
-      ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows": [
-        { "@id": "_:t0" },
-        { "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me" }
-      ]
-    },
-    {
-      "@id": "_:t0",
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        { "@value": "Manu Sporny" }
-      ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows": [
-        { "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me" }
-      ]
-    },
-    {
-      "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        { "@value": "Gregg Kellogg" }
-      ]
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Note how in the output above all properties of a <tref>node</tref> are collected in a
-    single <tref>JSON object</tref> and how the <tref>blank node</tref> representing
-    &quot;Manu Sporny&quot; has been assigned the <tref>blank node identifier</tref>
-    <code>_:t0</code>.</p>
-
-  <p>To make it easier for humans to read such a flattened document can be compacted by
-    passing a context. Using the same context as the input document, the flattened
-    and compacted document looks as follows:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  {
-    "@context": {
-      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
-      "knows": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows"
-    },
-    "@graph": [
-      {
-        "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-        "name": "Markus Lanthaler",
-        "knows": [
-          { "@id": "_:t0" },
-          { "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me" }
-        ]
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "_:t0",
-        "name": "Manu Sporny",
-        "knows": {
-          "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me"
-        }
-      },
-      {
-        "@id": "http://greggkellogg.net/foaf#me",
-        "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
-      }
-    ]
-  }
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Please note that the flattened and compacted result will always explicitly
-    designate the default by the <code>@graph</code> member in the top-level
-    <tref>JSON object</tref>. <a href="#compaction">Compaction</a> optimizes that
-    member away if its value contains just one item.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section class="informative">
-  <h2>RDF Conversion</h2>
-  <p>JSON-LD can be used to serialize data expressed in RDF as described in
-    [[RDF-CONCEPTS]]. This ensures that data can be round-tripped from and to
-    any RDF syntax without any loss in the fidelity of the data.</p>
-
-  <p>For example, assume the following RDF input serialized in Turtle [[TURTLE-TR]]:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  <http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> "Markus Lanthaler" .
-  <http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage> <http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/> .
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Using the <a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm">Convert from RDF Algorithm</a> a
-    developer could transform this document into expanded JSON-LD:</p>
-
-  <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-  <!--
-  [
-    {
-      "@id": "http://me.markus-lanthaler.com/",
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": [
-        {
-          "@value": "Markus Lanthaler"
-        }
-      ],
-      "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": [
-        {
-          "@id": "http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/"
-        }
-      ]
-    }
-  ]
-  -->
-  </pre>
-
-  <p>Note that the output above could easily be compacted using the technique outlined
-    in the previous section. It is also possible to transform the JSON-LD document back
-    to RDF using the <a href="#convert-to-rdf-algorithm">Convert to RDF Algorithm</a>.</p>
-  </section>
-
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Conformance</h2>
-
-  <p>All examples and notes as well as sections marked as non-normative in this
-    specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is
-    normative.</p>
-
-  <p>The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED,
-    MAY, and OPTIONAL in this specification are to be interpreted as described
-    in [[!RFC2119]].</p>
-
-  <p>There are two classes of products that can claim conformance to this
-    specification: <tref title="JSON-LD Implementation">JSON-LD Implementations</tref>
-    and <tref title="JSON-LD Processor">JSON-LD Processors</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>A conforming <tdef>JSON-LD Implementation</tdef> is a system capable of transforming
-    JSON-LD documents according the algorithms defined in this specification.</p>
-
-  <p>A conforming <tdef>JSON-LD Processor</tdef> is a conforming <tref>JSON-LD Implementation</tref>
-    that exposes the application programming interface (API) defined in this specification.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithms in this specification are generally written with more concern for clarity than
-    over efficiency. Thus, JSON-LD Implementations and Processors may implement the algorithms
-    given in this specification in any way desired, so long as the end result is indistinguishable
-    from the result that would be obtained by the specification's algorithms.</p>
-
-  <p>This specification does not define how JSON-LD Implementations or Processors handle
-    non-conforming input documents. This implies that JSON-LD Implementations or Processors
-    MUST NOT attempt to correct malformed IRIs or language tags; however, they MAY issue
-    validation warnings.</p>
-
-  <p class="note">Implementers can partially check their level of conformance to
-    this specification by successfully passing the test cases of the JSON-LD test
-    suite [[JSON-LD-TESTS]]. Note, however, that passing all the tests in the test
-    suite does not imply complete conformance to this specification. It only implies
-    that the implementation conforms to aspects tested by the test suite.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h3>General Terminology</h3>
-
-  <p>This document uses the following terms as defined in JSON [[!RFC4627]]. Refer
-    to the <em>JSON Grammar</em> section in [[!RFC4627]] for formal definitions.</p>
-
-  <dl>
-    <dt><tdef>JSON object</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>An object structure is represented as a pair of curly brackets
-      surrounding zero or more key-value pairs. A key is a
-      <tref>string</tref>. A single colon comes after each key, separating the
-      key from the value. A single comma separates a value from a following
-      key.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>array</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>An array structure is represented as square brackets surrounding zero
-      or more values (or elements). Elements are separated by commas.
-      In JSON, an array is an <em>ordered</em> sequence of zero or more values.
-      While JSON-LD uses the same array representation as JSON,
-      the collection is <em>unordered</em> by default. While order is
-      preserved in regular JSON arrays, it is not in regular JSON-LD arrays
-      unless specific markup is provided (see <a href="#sets-and-lists"></a>).</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>string</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters,
-      wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes (if necessary). A
-      character is represented as a single character string.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>number</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A number is similar to that used in most programming languages, except
-      that the octal and hexadecimal formats are not used and that leading
-      zeros are not allowed.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>true</tdef> and <tdef>false</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>Values that are used to express one of two possible boolean states.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>null</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The <tref>null</tref> value. A key-value pair in the
-      <code>@context</code> where the value, or the <code>@id</code> of the
-      value, is <tref>null</tref> explicitly decouples a term's association
-      with an IRI. A key-value pair in the body of a JSON-LD document whose
-      value is <tref>null</tref> has the same meaning as if the key-value pair
-      was not defined. If <code>@value</code>, <code>@list</code>, or
-      <code>@set</code> is set to <tref>null</tref> in expanded form, then
-      the entire <tref>JSON object</tref> is ignored.</dd>
-  </dl>
-
-  <p>Furthermore, the following terminology is used throughout this document:</p>
-
-  <dl>
-    <dt><tdef>keyword</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A JSON key that is specific to JSON-LD, specified in the JSON-LD Syntax specification [[!JSON-LD]]
-      in the section titled <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#syntax-tokens-and-keywords">Syntax Tokens and Keywords</a></cite>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>context</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A a set of rules for interpreting a JSON-LD document as specified in
-      <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#the-context">The Context</a></cite> of the [[JSON-LD]] specification.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>JSON-LD document</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>JSON-LD document</tref> is a serialization of a collection of
-      <tref title="JSON-LD graph">JSON-LD graphs</tref> and comprises exactly one
-      <tref>default graph</tref> and zero or more <tref title="named graph">named graphs</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>named graph</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A named graph is a pair consisting of an <tref>IRI</tref> or <tref>blank node</tref>
-      (the <tdef>graph name</tdef>) and a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>default graph</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The default graph is the only graph in a JSON-LD document which has no <tref>graph name</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>JSON-LD graph</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A labeled directed graph, i.e., a set of <tref title="node">nodes</tref> connected by <tref title="edge">edges</tref>,
-      as specified in the <cite><a href="../json-ld-syntax/#data-model">Data Model</a></cite> section of the JSON-LD syntax
-      specification [[!JSON-LD]].</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>edge</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>Every <tref>edge</tref> has a direction associated with it and is labeled with
-      an <tref>IRI</tref> or a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>. Within the JSON-LD syntax
-      these edge labels are called <tdef title="property">properties</tdef>. Whenever possible, an
-      <tref>edge</tref> SHOULD be labeled with an <tref>IRI</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>node</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>Every <tref>node</tref> is an <tref>IRI</tref>, a <tref>blank node</tref>,
-      a <tref>JSON-LD value</tref>, or a <tref>list</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef><abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</abbr></tdef></dt>
-    <dd>An <tref>IRI</tref> (Internationalized Resource Identifier) is a string that conforms to the syntax
-      defined in [[RFC3987]].</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>absolute IRI</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>An absolute IRI is defined in [[!RFC3987]] containing a <em>scheme</em> along with a <em>path</em> and
-      optional <em>query</em> and fragment segments.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>relative IRI</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A relative IRI is an IRI that is relative some other <tref>absolute IRI</tref>;
-      in the case of JSON-LD this is the base location of the document.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>blank node</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>node</tref> in a <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> that does not contain a de-referenceable
-      identifier because it is either ephemeral in nature or does not contain information that needs to be
-      linked to from outside of the JSON-LD graph.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>blank node identifier</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A blank node identifier is a string that can be used as an identifier for a <tref>blank node</tref> within
-      the scope of a JSON-LD document. Blank node identifiers begin with <code>_:</code>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>JSON-LD value</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>JSON-LD value</tref> is a <tref>string</tref>, a <tref>number</tref>,
-      <tref>true</tref> or <tref>false</tref>, a <tref>typed value</tref>, or a
-      <tref>language-tagged string</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>typed value</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>typed value</tref> consists of a value, which is a string, and a type, which is an <tref>IRI</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>language-tagged string</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>language-tagged string</tref> consists of a string and a non-empty language
-      tag as defined by [[BCP47]]. The language tag must be well-formed according to section
-      <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47#section-2.2.9">2.2.9</a> of [[BCP47]], and MUST
-      be normalized to lowercase.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>list</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>list</tref> is an ordered sequence of <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>,
-      <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>, and
-      <tref title="JSON-LD value">JSON-LD values</tref>.</dd>
-  </dl>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-<h1>Algorithms</h1>
-
-<p>All algorithms described in this section are intended to operate on
-  language-native data structures. That is, the serialization to a text-based
-  JSON document isn't required as input or output to any of these algorithms and
-  language-native data structures MUST be used where applicable.</p>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Algorithm Terms</h2>
-  <dl>
-    <dt><tdef>active graph</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The name of the currently active graph that the processor should use when
-      processing.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>active subject</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The currently active subject that the processor should use when
-      processing.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>active property</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The currently active property that the processor should use when
-      processing. The active property is represented in the original lexical form, which
-      is used for finding type mappings in the <tref>active context</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>active object</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The currently active object that the processor should use when
-      processing.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>active context</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A context that is used to resolve <tref>term</tref>s while the processing
-      algorithm is running. The <tref>active context</tref> is the context
-      contained within the <tref>processor state</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>local context</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A context that is specified within a <tref>JSON object</tref>,
-      specified via the <code>@context</code> <tref>keyword</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>processor state</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The <tref>processor state</tref>, which includes the <tref>active
-      context</tref>, <tref>active subject</tref>, and
-      <tref>active property</tref>. The <tref>processor state</tref> is managed
-      as a stack with elements from the previous <tref>processor state</tref>
-      copied into a new <tref>processor state</tref> when entering a new
-      <tref>JSON object</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>JSON-LD input</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The JSON-LD data structure that is provided as input to the algorithm.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>JSON-LD output</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>The JSON-LD data structure that is produced as output by the algorithm.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>term</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>term</tref> is a short word defined in a context that MAY be expanded to an <tref>IRI</tref></dd>
-    <dt><tdef>compact IRI</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A compact IRI is has the form of <tdef>prefix</tdef>:<em>suffix</em> and is used as a way
-      of expressing an IRI without needing to define separate <tref>term</tref> definitions for
-      each IRI contained within a common vocabulary identified by <tref>prefix</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>node object</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>node object</tref> represents zero or more properties of a
-      <tref>node</tref> in the <tref>JSON-LD graph</tref> serialized by the
-      JSON-LD document. A <tref>JSON object</tref> is a <tref>node object</tref>
-      if it exists outside of the JSON-LD <tref>context</tref> and:
-      <ul>
-        <li>it does not contain the <code>@value</code>, <code>@list</code>,
-          or <code>@set</code> keywords, or</li>
-        <li>it is not the top-level <tref>JSON object</tref> in the JSON-LD document containing
-          the <code>@graph</code> keyword.</li>
-      </ul>
-    </dd>
-    <dt><tdef>list object</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A <tref>list object</tref> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> that has a <code>@list</code>
-      member.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>scalar</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>A scalar is either a JSON <tref>string</tref>, <tref>number</tref>, <tref>true</tref>,
-      or <tref>false</tref>.</dd>
-    <dt><tdef>quad</tdef></dt>
-    <dd>An <em>RDF triple</em> as specified by [[RDF-CONCEPTS]] augmented with a a fourth component,
-      a <tref>graph name</tref>.</dd>
-  </dl>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Expansion Algorithm</h2>
-
-  <p>The algorithm takes three input variables: an <tref>active context</tref>,
-    an <tref>active property</tref>, and an <em>element</em> to be expanded. To
-    begin, the <tref>active context</tref> is set to the result of performing, <a
-    href="#context-processing">Context Processing</a> on the passed
-    <code class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-expandContext">expandContext</a></code>,
-    or empty if <code class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-expandContext">expandContext</a></code>
-    is <tref>null</tref>, <tref>active property</tref> is set to <tref>null</tref>, and
-    <em>element</em> is set to the <tref>JSON-LD input</tref>. This algorithm expects the
-    <tref>JSON-LD input</tref> to be a well-formed JSON-LD document as defined in [[!JSON-LD]].</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is a <tref>scalar</tref> or <tref>null</tref>,
-      set <em>element</em> to the result of expanding it according to the
-      <a href="#value-expansion">Value Expansion</a> algorithm, passing copies of the
-      <tref>active context</tref> and <tref>active property</tref> and return. If the
-      <tref>active property</tref> is <tref>null</tref> or <code>@graph</code>
-      return <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is an <tref>array</tref>,
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>initialize an empty <tref>array</tref> <em>result</em>.</li>
-        <li>Expand each <em>item</em> by recursively using this algorithm, passing copies of
-          the <tref>active context</tref> and <tref>active property</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If the <tref title="active property">active property's</tref>
-          <tref>container mapping</tref> is set to <code>@list</code>, the expanded
-          <em>item</em> MUST NOT be an <tref>array</tref> or a <tref>list object</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If the expanded <em>item</em> is <tref>null</tref>, drop it.</li>
-        <li>Otherwise, if the expanded <em>item</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, merge its
-          entries with <em>result's</em> entries.</li>
-        <li>Otherwise, append <em>item</em> to <em>result</em>.</li>
-        <li>Finally, return <em>result</em>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>element</em> MUST be an object
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>If <em>element</em> has a <code>@context</code> member, update the
-          <tref>active context</tref> according to the steps outlined in
-          <a href="#context-processing">Context Processing</a>.</li>
-        <li>Initialize an empty <tref>JSON object</tref> <em>result</em>.</li>
-
-        <li>Process each <em>property</em> and <em>value</em> in <em>element</em> other than <code>@contect</code>
-          ordered by <em>property</em> as follows:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Expand
-              <em>property</em> according to the steps outlined in <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a> relative
-              to the <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref> from the <tref>active context</tref>
-              and re-labeling <tref title="blank node">Blank Nodes</tref>.
-              Set the <tref>active property</tref> to the original un-expanded <em>property</em> if
-              <em>property</em> is not a <tref>keyword</tref>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, remove every element which is not a
-              <tref>absolute IRI</tref>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is an empty array, or <code>null</code>,
-              continue with the next property from <em>element</em>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is a <tref>keyword</tref>, process it as
-              follows:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@id</code>, <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>string</tref>.
-                  Set the <code>@id</code>
-                  member in <em>result</em> to the result of expanding <em>value</em>
-                  according the <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a> relative to the
-                  <em>document base</em> and re-labeling <tref title="blank node">Blank Nodes</tref>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@type</code>, <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>string</tref>
-                  or <tref>array</tref> of <tref title="string">strings</tref>. Set the <code>@type</code>
-                  member of <em>result</em> to the result of expanding <em>value</em>
-                  according the <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a> relative to the <em>document base</em>
-                  and re-labeling <tref title="blank node">Blank Nodes</tref>, unless that result
-                  is an empty <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@value</code>, <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>scalar</tref>
-                  or <tref>null</tref>. Set the <code>@value</code>
-                  member of <em>result</em> to <em>value</em>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@language</code>, <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>string</tref>
-                  with the lexical form described in [[!BCP47]] or <tref>null</tref>.
-                  Set the <code>@language</code> member of <em>result</em> to the lowercased <em>value</em>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@annotation</code> <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>string</tref>.
-                  Set the <code>@annotation</code> member of <em>result</em> to <em>value</em>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@set</code>, <code>@list</code>, or <code>@graph</code>, set the
-                  <em>expanded property</em> member of <em>result</em> to the result of expanding <em>value</em> by
-                  recursively using this algorithm, along with the <tref>active context</tref> and
-                  <tref>active property</tref>. If <em>expanded property</em> is <code>@list</code>
-                  and <tref>active property</tref> is <tref>null</tref> or
-                  <code>@graph</code>, pass <code>@list</code> as <tref>active property</tref> instead.</li>
-                <li>Continue with the next <em>property</em>-<em>value</em> pair from <em>element</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise, if <em>property's</em> <tref>container mapping</tref> is set to <code>@language</code>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Initialize a new empty <tref>array</tref> <em>language map values</em>.</li>
-                <li>Process each <em>key</em>-<em>val</em> pair of <em>value</em> ordered by
-                  <em>key</em> as follows:
-                  <ol class="algorithm">
-                    <li>Transform <em>val</em> to <tref>array</tref> form, if necessary.</li>
-                    <li>For each <em>item</em> of <em>val</em>, construct a new <tref>JSON object</tref>
-                      consisting of two members: <code>@value</code> set to the currently
-                      processed <em>item</em>, which MUST be a <tref>string</tref>, and <code>@language</code>
-                      set to the lowercased <em>key</em>.
-                      Append the object to <em>language map values</em>.</li>
-                  </ol>
-                </li>
-                <li>Set <em>value</em> to <em>language map values</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise, if <em>property's</em> <tref>container mapping</tref> is set to
-              <code>@annotation</code>
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Initialize a new empty <tref>array</tref> <em>annotation map values</em>.</li>
-                <li>Process each <em>key</em>-<em>val</em> pair of <em>value</em> ordered by
-                  <em>key</em> as follows:
-                  <ol class="algorithm">
-                    <li>Transform <em>val</em> to <tref>array</tref> form, if necessary.</li>
-                    <li>Expand <em>val</em> by recursively using this algorithm, using
-                      the <tref>active context</tref> and <em>property</em>.</li>
-                    <li>Add to each <em>item</em> of <em>val</em> an <code>@annotation</code> member set to
-                      <em>key</em> if no such member exists in <em>item</em>, and append the resulting
-                      <tref>JSON object</tref> to <em>annotation map values</em>.</li>
-                  </ol>
-                </li>
-                <li>Set <em>value</em> to <em>annotation map values</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise, expand <em>value</em> by recursively using this algorithm, passing
-              copies of the <tref>active context</tref> and <em>property</em> as
-              <tref>active property</tref>.</li>
-            <li>Continue to the next <em>property</em>-<em>value</em> pair from <em>element</em>
-              if <em>value</em> is <tref>null</tref> and <em>property</em>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>property's</em> <tref>container mapping</tref> is set to <code>@list</code> and
-              <em>value</em> is not a <tref>JSON object</tref> or is a <tref>JSON object</tref>
-              without a <code>@list</code> member, replace <em>value</em> with a
-              <tref>JSON object</tref> having a <code>@list</code> member whose value is set to
-              <em>value</em>, ensuring that <em>value</em> is an <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>expanded property</em> is an <tref>array</tref>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Label all <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref> in <em>value</em> with
-                  <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref> by using the
-                  <a href="#label-blank-nodes-algorithm">Label Blank Nodes Algorithm</a>.</li>
-                <li>Then, for each <em>iri</em> of <em>expanded property</em> merge a copy
-                  of <em>value</em> into the <em>iri</em> member of the <em>result</em>
-                  <tref>JSON object</tref> as an <tref>array</tref> member.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise, merge a copy
-              of <em>value</em> into the <em>expanded property</em> member of the <em>result</em>
-              <tref>JSON object</tref> as an <tref>array</tref> member.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>Set <em>element</em> to <em>result</em>.</li>
-        <li>If the <tref>active property</tref> is <tref>null</tref> or <code>@graph</code> and
-          <em>element</em> has a <code>@value</code> member without an <code>@annotation</code> member,
-          or <em>element</em> consists of only an <code>@id</code> member, set <em>element</em> to <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-        <li>Otherwise, if the processed <em>element</em> has an <code>@value</code> property
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Remove any <code>@type</code> or <code>@language</code> members with <tref>null</tref> or empty values.</li>
-            <li>Other than <code>@annotation</code>, <em>element</em> MUST NOT have more than one other member,
-              which can either be <code>@language</code> or <code>@type</code> with a <tref>string</tref> value.</li>
-            <li>If the value of <code>@value</code> is <tref>null</tref>, replace <em>element</em> with <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>If <em>element</em> has a <code>@type</code> member and its value is not in the form of an
-          <tref>array</tref>, convert it to an <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If <em>element</em> has an <code>@set</code> or <code>@list</code> member, it MUST be the only member other than
-          <code>@annotation</code>.
-          Set <em>element</em> to the value of <code>@set</code>; leave <code>@list</code> untouched.</li>
-        <li>If <em>element</em> has just a <code>@language</code> property, set <em>element</em> to <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-        <li>Return <em>element</em>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-  </ol>
-
-  <p>If, after the algorithm outlined above is run, the resulting <em>element</em> is an
-    <tref>JSON object</tref> with just a <code>@graph</code> member, <em>element</em> is set to
-    the value of <code>@graph</code>'s value. Finally, if <em>element</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref>,
-    it is wrapped into an <tref>array</tref>.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2 id="context">Context Processing</h2>
-  <p>Processing of JSON-LD data structure is managed recursively.
-    During processing, each rule is applied using information provided by the <tref>active context</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>Processing begins by pushing a new <tref>processor state</tref> onto the <tref>processor state</tref> stack.
-    If a <tref>local context</tref> is encountered, information from the <tref>local context</tref> is merged
-    into the <tref>active context</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The <tref>active context</tref> contains the active <tdef title="term definition">term definitions</tdef>
-    which specify how properties and values are interpreted as well as the current
-    <tdef>vocabulary mapping</tdef> and the <tdef>default language</tdef>. Each <tref>term definition</tref> consists
-    of an <tdef>IRI mapping</tdef> and optionally a <tdef>type mapping</tdef> from terms to datatypes or
-    <tdef>language mapping</tdef> from terms to language codes, and a <tdef>container mapping</tdef>. If an
-    <tref>IRI mapping</tref> maps a term to multiple <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> it is said to be a
-    <tdef>property generator</tdef>.</p>
-
-  <p>A <tref>local context</tref> is identified within a <tref>JSON object</tref> having a <code>@context</code>
-    property with a <tref>string</tref>, <tref>JSON object</tref>, or <tref>array</tref> of either value.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>Initialize <tref>local context</tref> with a copy of any passed <tref>active context</tref>, or to be empty otherwise.</li>
-    <li>Let <em>context</em> be the value of <code>@context</code>
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li id="process-context">If <em>context</em> equals <tref>null</tref>, clear <tref>local context</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If <em>context</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, process each element as <em>context</em> in order
-          recursively using this algorithm along with <tref>local context</tref> as the <tref>active context</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If <em>context</em> is a <tref>string</tref>, it MUST have a lexical form of <tref>IRI</tref>.
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Expand <em>context</em> according to <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion</a>
-              relative to the enclosing document.
-              Processors MUST NOT process a previously processed <em>context</em>.</li>
-            <li>The resulting dereferencing <em>context</em> MUST be a JSON document; process the resulting
-              <tref>array</tref> or <tref>JSON object</tref> recursively using this algorithm with
-              <tref>local context</tref> as the <tref>active context</tref>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>Otherwise, <em>context</em> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref>, perform the following steps:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>If the <tref>local context</tref> does not have a <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>, initialize
-              it to the <em>document base</em>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>context</em> has a <code>@vocab</code> member, it MUST have a value of a
-              simple <tref>string</tref> with the lexical form of <tref>absolute IRI</tref>,
-              <tref>Blank Node identifier</tref>, or <tref>null</tref>.
-              Set the <tref title="active context">local context's</tref>
-              <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref> to this value.</li>
-            <li>If <em>context</em> has a <code>@language</code> member it MUST have a value of a
-              simple <tref>string</tref> with the lexical form described in [[!BCP47]], or <tref>null</tref>.
-              Set the
-              <tref title="active context">local context's</tref> <tref>default language</tref> to
-              its value.</li>
-            <li>For each other <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> pair in <em>context</em> perform the
-              following steps:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If <em>key</em> is a JSON-LD <tref>keyword</tref>, continue with the next
-                  <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> pair.</li>
-                <li>If <em>value</em> is <tref>null</tref>, replace the <tref>term definition</tref>
-                  for <em>key</em> in the <tref>local context</tref> with an <tref>IRI mapping</tref>
-                  set to <tref>null</tref> and continue with the next <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> pair.</li>
-                <li>If <em>value</em> is a <tref>string</tref>, expand it according to the
-                  <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a>
-                  relative to the <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref> and replace the
-                  <tref>term definition</tref> for <em>key</em> in the <tref>local context</tref> with
-                  an <tref>IRI mapping</tref> set to the expanded <em>value</em>. Continue with
-                  the next <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> pair.</li>
-                <li>Otherwise, <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>JSON object</tref>.
-                  Set <tref>term definition</tref> for <em>key</em> to a new, empty <tref>term definition</tref> <em>definition</em>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>value</em> has an <code>@id</code> member with a value <em>val</em>:
-                  <ol class="algorithm">
-                    <li>if <em>val</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, each <em>item</em> in <em>val</em>
-                      MUST be a <tref>string</tref>:
-                      <ol class="algorithm">
-                        <li>Expand each <em>item</em> in the array according the
-                          <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a> relative to the <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-                        <li>Lexicographically sort <em>val</em> and set the <tref>IRI mapping</tref>
-                          of <em>definition</em> to expanded <em>val</em>.</li>
-                      </ol>
-                    </li>
-                    <li>Otherwise, set the
-                      <tref>IRI mapping</tref> of <em>definition</em> to the result of expanding <em>val</em> according the
-                      <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a> relative to the <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-                  </ol>
-                </li>
-                <li>Otherwise, set the <tref>IRI mapping</tref> of <em>definition</em> to the result of
-                  expanding <em>key</em> according the <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a>
-                  relative to the <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-                <li>If the <tref>IRI mapping</tref> of <em>definition</em> is <tref>null</tref> or a
-                  <tref>keyword</tref>, store <em>definition</em> as the <tref>term definition</tref>
-                  for <em>key</em> in the <tref>local context</tref> and continue with the next
-                  <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> pair from <em>context</em>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>value</em> has an <code>@type</code> member with a value <em>val</em>,
-                  set the <tref>type mapping</tref> of <em>definition</em> the
-                  result of expanding <em>val</em> using the <a
-                  href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a> relative to
-                  the <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-                <li>Otherwise, if <em>value</em> has an <code>@language</code> member with a value <em>val</em>,
-                  <em>val</em> MUST be a <tref>string</tref> having the lexical representation defined in [[!BCP47]]
-                  or <tref>null</tref>, set the <tref>language mapping</tref> of
-                  <em>definition</em> to the lowercased <em>val</em>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>value</em> has an <code>@container</code> member with a value <em>val</em>
-                  it MUST be one of <code>@list</code>, <code>@set</code>, or <code>@annotation</code>, set the
-                  <tref>container mapping</tref> of <em>definition</em> to <em>val</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-  </ol>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="iri-expansion">
-  <h2>IRI Expansion Algorithm</h2>
-  <p>Keys and some values are evaluated to produce an <tref>IRI</tref>. This section defines an algorithm for
-    transforming a value representing an IRI into an <tref>absolute IRI</tref>. If <tref>IRI</tref> expansion
-    occurs during context processing, the <tref>local context</tref> that is being processed
-    is passed to this algorithm. After application of this algorithm, values processed by this
-    algorithm are said to be in <tdef>expanded IRI form</tdef>, although this may also include
-    named <tref title="blank node">blank nodes</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm is passed a <em>value</em> and an <tref>active context</tref> and may be used
-    to expand values relative to a <em>document base</em> or a <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>. It
-    may also re-label <tref title="blank node identifier">Blank Node identifiers</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm for generating an IRI is:</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If the <tref>active context</tref> contains a <tref>term definition</tref> for the <em>value</em>
-      that is not a <tref>property generator</tref>, set <em>value</em> to the <tref>IRI mapping</tref>.</li>
-    <li>If <em>value</em> contains a <code>:</code>:
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>Split the value into a <em>prefix</em> and <em>suffix</em> from the first occurrence of ':'.</li>
-        <li>Unless <em>prefix</em> is <code>_</code> or <em>suffix</em> begins with <em>//</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Expand <em>prefix</em> recursively using this algorithm, ensuring that <em>prefix</em>. Such expansion
-              MUST NOT result in repeatedly expanding the same <em>prefix</em>.</li>
-            <li>Set <em>value</em> to the expanded result appending <em>suffix</em> using textual concatenation.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>If <em>value</em> is a <tref>Blank Node identifier</tref> and <tref>Blank Node identifier</tref> re-labeling is requested,
-          set <em>value</em> to the result of performing <a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">generated a new blank node identifier</a>.</li>
-        <li>Return <em>value</em>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if performing expansion relative to a <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>, return the result
-      of appending <em>value</em> to this mapping using textual concatenation.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if performing expansion relative to a <em>document base</em>, return the result of resolving <em>value</em>
-      against the <em>document base</em> as per [[!RFC3986]] and return the resulting <tref>IRI</tref>. Only the basic
-      algorithm in section&nbsp;5.2 of [[!RFC3986]] is used; neither <em>Syntax-Based Normalization</em>
-      nor <em>Scheme-Based Normalization</em> (as described in sections&nbsp;6.2.2 and&nbsp;6.2.3 of [[!RFC3986]])
-      are performed. Characters additionally allowed in IRI references are treated in the same way that
-      unreserved characters are treated in URI references, per section&nbsp;6.5 of [[!RFC3987]]</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, return <em>value</em> as is.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section id="value-expansion">
-  <h2>Value Expansion Algorithm</h2>
-
-  <p>Some values in JSON-LD can be expressed in a <tref>compacted form</tref>. These values
-    are required to be expanded at times when processing JSON-LD documents.
-    A value is said to be in <tdef>expanded form</tdef> after
-    the application of this algorithm.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm for expanding a <em>value</em> takes an <tref>active property</tref>
-    and <tref>active context</tref>. It is implemented as follows:</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>value</em> is <tref>null</tref>, return <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-    <li>Initialize an empty object <em>result</em>.</li>
-    <li>If <tref>active property</tref> is <code>@graph</code> or the
-      <tref title="active property">active property's</tref> <tref>type mapping</tref> is set to
-      <code>@id</code>, add a key-value pair to <em>result</em> where the key is <code>@id</code>
-      and the value is the result of expanding <em>value</em> according to the
-      <a href="#iri-expansion">IRI Expansion algorithm</a> passing <code>true</code> for the
-      <em>documentRelative</em> flag. Then return <em>result</em>.</li>
-    <li>Add a key-value pair to <em>result</em> where the key is <code>@value</code>
-      and the value is <em>value</em>.</li>
-    <li>If the <tref>active property</tref> has a <tref>type mapping</tref>, add a key-value
-      pair to <em>result</em> where the key is <code>@type</code> and the value is the
-      <tref>IRI</tref> associated with the <tref>type mapping</tref> or a newly
-      <a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">generated blank node identifier</a> if the
-      <tref>type mapping</tref> is set to a <tref>blank node identifier</tref>.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>value</em> is a <tref>string</tref> and the <tref>active property</tref> has a
-      <tref>language mapping</tref> or an <tref>default language</tref> is set in the <tref>active context</tref>,
-      add a key-value pair to <em>result</em> where the key is <code>@language</code> and the value is the
-      language tag associated with the <tref>language mapping</tref> or the <tref>active property</tref> or the
-      <tref>default language</tref>.</li>
-    <li>Return <em>result</em>.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Label Blank Nodes Algorithm</h2>
-
-  <p>The algorithm takes a single input variable: an <em>element</em> to be labeled with
-    <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, recursively apply this
-      algorithm to all its items.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>element</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> with a
-      <code>@list</code> member, recursively apply this algorithm to all items
-      of the <code>@list</code> member's value.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>element</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref>
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>For each <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> pair ordered by <em>key</em>
-          recursively apply this algorithm to <em>value</em>.</li>
-        <li>If <em>element</em> is a <tref>node object</tref> without an <code>@id</code> member,
-          create a new <code>@id</code> member and assign it a new
-          <tref>blank node identifier</tref> according the
-          <a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">Generate Blank Node Identifier</a> algorithm.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Generate Blank Node Identifier</h2>
-
-  <p>This algorithm is used to generate new
-    <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref> or to relabel existing
-    <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref> with a new one to avoid
-    collision by the introduction of new ones. It needs to keep an <em>identifier map</em>,
-    a <em>counter</em>, and a <em>prefix</em> between its executions to be able to generate new
-    <tref title="blank node identifier">blank node identifiers</tref>. The <em>counter</em>
-    is initialized to <code>0</code> and <em>prefix</em> is set to <code>_:t</code> by default.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm takes a single input variable <em>identifier</em> which might be
-    <tref>null</tref>.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If the <em>identifier</em> is not <tref>null</tref> and is in the <em>identifier map</em>,
-      return the mapped identifier.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, generate a new <em>blankNodeIdentifier</em> by concatenating <em>prefix</em>
-      and <em>counter</em>.</li>
-    <li>Increment <em>counter</em> by <code>1</code>.</li>
-    <li>If <em>identifier</em> is not <tref>null</tref>, create a new entry in
-      <em>identifier map</em> set to <em>blankNodeIdentifer</em>.</li>
-    <li>Return <em>blankNodeIdentifier</em>.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Compaction Algorithm</h2>
-
-  <p>The algorithm takes three input variables: an <tref>active context</tref>, an <tref>active property</tref>,
-    and an <em>element</em> to be compacted. To begin, the <tref>active context</tref> is
-    set to the result of performing <a href="#context-processing">Context Processing</a> on the passed <em>context</em>,
-    <tref>active property</tref> is set to <tref>null</tref>, and <em>element</em> is set to the result of performing the
-    <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a> on the <tref>JSON-LD input</tref> which is expected to be a
-    a well-formed JSON-LD document as defined in [[!JSON-LD]]. This removes any existing
-    context to allow the given <tref>active context</tref> to be cleanly applied.</p>
-
-  <p>This algorithm can optionally be called to compact arrays contiaining a single element.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is an <tref>array</tref>,
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>Initialize a new empty array <em>result</em>.</li>
-        <li>Process each item in <em>element</em> recursively using this algorithm,
-          passing a copy of the <tref>active context</tref> and the <tref>active property</tref>.
-          dd each compacted item to <em>result</em> unless it is <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If <em>result</em> has a single item and the
-          algorithm is invoked with the compact arrays option, return that item; otherwise return <em>result</em>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is not a <tref>JSON object</tref> it is already in
-      compact form, return it as is.</li>
-    <li>If <em>element</em> has an <code>@value</code> property or element has only the <code>@id</code> property,
-      return the result of performing
-      <a href="#value-compaction">Value Compaction</a> on <em>element</em> using <tref>active property</tref>.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>element</em> has a <code>@list</code> property:
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>Recursively compact the value of the <code>@list</code> property using <code>@list</code> as the
-          <tref>active property</tref> ensuring that the result is an <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If <tref>active property</tref> has a <tref>container mapping</tref> of <code>@list</code>, return
-          that <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-        <li>Create a new <tref>JSON object</tref> <em>list</em> with a key being the result of performing
-          <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> on <code>@list</code> and the <tref>array</tref> from above as
-          the value.</li>
-        <li>If <em>element</em> has a <code>@annotation</code> property add a key/value pair to <em>list</em> composed
-          of the result of performing
-          <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> on <code>@annotation</code> and the value of the <code>@annotation</code>
-          property in <em>element</em>.</li>
-        <li>Return <em>list</em>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>Otherwise, construct <em>output</em> as a new <tref>JSON object</tref> used for returning the result
-      of compacting <em>element</em>.</li>
-    <li>For each <tref>property generator</tref> <em>term</em> in the <tref>active context</tref> ordered
-      lexically:
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>Set <em>p</em> to the first entry in <tref>IRI mapping</tref> for <em>term</em>.</li>
-        <li>Continue to the next <tref>property generator</tref> if <em>p</em> is not a property of <em>element</em>.</li>
-        <li>Create an empty <tref>array</tref> <em>items</em> used to hold common value items for this <tref>property generator</tref>.</li>
-        <li>For each <em>item</em> in the value of <em>p</em> in <em>element</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Continue to the next <em>item</em> unless every property value in <em>element</em> where the property
-              is in <tref>IRI mapping</tref> for <em>term</em> having an equivalent item, using
-              <a href="find-property-generator-equivalents">Find Property Generator Equivalents</a>.</li>
-            <li>Remove every property value item in <em>element</em> where the property
-              is in <tref>IRI mapping</tref> for <em>term</em> is an equivalent item, using
-              <a href="find-property-generator-equivalents">Find Property Generator Equivalents</a>.</li>
-            <li>Append <em>item</em> to <em>iterms</em></li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>If <em>items</em> is not empty or the value of every property from <tref>IRI mapping</tref> in <em>element</em>
-          does not exist, or is empty:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Add an entry to <em>output</em> for <em>term</em> and <em>items</em> ensuring that it is an <tref>array</tref>
-              if the <tref>container mapping</tref> for <em>term</em> is <code>@set</code>.</li>
-            <li>Remove every property in <em>element</em> from <tref>IRI mapping</tref> for <em>term</em> who's value
-              is empty.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>For each <em>property</em> and <em>value</em> in <em>element:</em>
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>If <em>property</em> is <code>@id</code> or <code>@type</code>
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Set <tref>active property</tref> to the result of performing
-              <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> on <em>property</em> relative to <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>value</em> is a <tref>string</tref>, the compacted <em>value</em> is the result of performing
-              <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> on <em>value</em> relative to <em>document base</em>.</li>
-            <li>Otherwise, <em>value</em> MUST be an <tref>array</tref>. Perform <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a>
-              on every entry of <em>value</em> relative to either <em>document base</em> or <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>
-              depnding on if <em>property</em> is <code>@id</code> or <code>@type</code>.
-              If <em>value</em> contains just one entry and the
-                algorithm is invoked with the compact arrays option, <em>value</em> is set to that entry.</li>
-            <li>Add <tref>active property</tref> and the compacted <em>value</em> to <em>output</em>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>Otherwise, if <em>property</em> is <code>@annotation</code> and
-          <tref>active property</tref> is a <tref>term</tref> in the <tref>active context</tref>
-          that contains a <code>@container</code> key associated with a value of <code>@annotation</code>,
-          skip this entry.</li>
-        <li>Otherwise, <em>value</em> MUST be an <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-        <li>If <em>value</em> is empty:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Set <tref>active property</tref> to the result of performing
-              <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> on <em>property</em> relative to <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-            <li>Create an entry in <em>output</em> for <tref>active property</tref> and <em>value</em>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>For each <em>item</em> in <em>value</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Set <tref>active property</tref> to the result of performing <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a>
-              for <em>property</em> and <em>item</em> relative to <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>.</li>
-            <li>Compact <em>item</em> by recursively performing this algorithm passing a copy of
-              the <tref>active context</tref> and the <tref>active property</tref>.</li>
-            <li>If <tref>active property</tref> is a <tref>term</tref> in the <tref>active context</tref> that contains a
-              <code>@container</code> key associated with a value of <code>@language</code> or <code>@annotation</code>,
-              then
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Unless such an entry already exists, create an entry in <em>output</em>
-                  for <tref>active property</tref> set to an empty <tref>JSON object</tref>
-                  as <em>map object</em>.</li>
-                  <li>If an entry already exists in <em>map object</em> for key, convert it
-                    to an <tref>array</tref> if necessary, and append the compacted <em>value</em>.</li>
-                  <li>Otherwise, if the compacted <em>value</em> is not an <tref>array</tref> and <tref>active property</tref>
-                    has a <code>@container</code> mapping to <code>@set</code> or if the
-                    <code class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-compactArrays">compactArrays</a></code> option is set to
-                    <code>false</code>, convert <em>value</em> to an array.</li>
-                  <li>Create an entry in <em>map object</em> for key and <em>value</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise,
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If an entry already exists in <em>output</em> for <tref>active property</tref>, convert it
-                  to an <tref>array</tref> if necessary, and append the compacted <em>value</em>.</li>
-                <li>Otherwise, if the compacted <em>value</em> is not an <tref>array</tref> and <tref>active property</tref>
-                  has a <code>@container</code> mapping to <code>@set</code> or if the
-                  <code class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-compactArrays">compactArrays</a></code> option is set to
-                  <code>false</code>, convert <em>value</em> to an array.</li>
-                <li>Create an entry in <em>output</em> for <tref>active property</tref> and <em>value</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-  </ol>
-
-  <p>If, after the algorithm outlined above is run, the resulting <em>element</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, put <em>element</em> into the
-    <code>@graph</code> property of a new <tref>JSON object</tref> and then set <em>element</em> to that <tref>JSON object</tref>.
-    Finally, add a <code>@context</code> property to <em>element</em> and set it to the initially passed <em>context</em>.</p>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h3>IRI Compaction Algorithm</h3>
-
-  <p>This section defines an algorithm for transforming an <tref>IRI</tref> to a
-    <tref>term</tref> or <tref>compact IRI</tref> using an <tref>active context</tref>.
-    If a <em>value</em> is passed it is used to choose the best matching <tref>term</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm for generating a <tref>compact IRI</tref> is:
-    <ol class="algorithm">
-      <li>Create an empty list of terms <em>terms</em> that will be populated with
-        <tref>term</tref>s that are ranked according to how closely they match
-        <em>value</em>. Initialize <em>highest rank</em> to <code>0</code>,
-        and set a flag <em>list container</em> to <code>false</code>.</li>
-      <li>For each <em>term</em> in the <tref>active context</tref>:
-        <ol class="algorithm">
-          <li>If the <em>term</em>'s <tref>IRI</tref> is not a complete match against
-            <em>iri</em>, continue to the next <em>term</em>.</li>
-          <li>If <em>value</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing only the property <code>@list</code>:
-            <ol class="algorithm">
-              <li>If <em>term</em> has a <code>@container</code> set to <code>@set</code>, continue
-                to the next <em>term</em>.</li>
-              <li>If <em>list container</em> is <code>true</code> and <em>term</em> does not have a
-                <code>@container</code> set to <code>@list</code> and <em>value</em> is <tref>null</tref>,
-                continue to the next <em>term</em>.</li>
-            </ol>
-          </li>
-          <li>Otherwise, if <em>term</em> has a <code>@container</code> set to <code>@list</code>,
-            continue to the next <em>term</em>.</li>
-          <li>Set <em>rank</em> to the <tref>term rank</tref> of <em>value</em> by passing
-            passing <em>term</em>, <em>value</em>, and <tref>active context</tref> to
-            the <a href="#term-rank-algorithm">Term Rank Algorithm</a>.</li>
-          <li>If <em>rank</em> is greater than <code>0</code>:
-            <ol class="algorithm">
-              <li>If <em>term</em> has a <code>@container</code> set to <code>@set</code>, then add
-                <code>1</code> to <em>rank</em>.</li>
-              <li>If <em>value</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing only the property <code>@list</code>
-                and <em>list container</em> is <code>false</code> and <em>term</em> has a <code>@container</code>
-                set to <code>@list</code>, then set <em>list container</em> to <code>true</code>, clear
-                <em>terms</em>, set <em>highest rank</em> to <em>rank</em>, and add <em>term</em> to <em>terms</em>.</li>
-              <li>Otherwise, if <em>rank</em> is greater than or equal to <em>highest rank</em>:
-                <ol class="algorithm">
-                  <li>If <em>rank</em> is greater than <em>highest rank</em>, clear <em>terms</em> and set
-                    <em>highest rank</em> to <em>rank</em>.</li>
-                  <li>Add <em>term</em> to <em>terms</em>.</li>
-                </ol>
-              </li>
-            </ol>
-          </li>
-        </ol>
-      </li>
-      <li>If <em>terms</em> is empty, and the <tref>active context</tref> has a <tref>vocabulary mapping</tref>
-        which is a prefix of <em>iri</em> where
-        the resulting <tref>relative IRI</tref> is not a <tref>term</tref> in the
-        <tref>active context</tref>. The resulting <tref>relative IRI</tref> is the
-        unmatched part of <em>iri</em>.</li>
-      <li>If <em>terms</em> is empty, add a <tref>compact IRI</tref> representation of <em>iri</em>
-        for each <tref>term</tref> in the <tref>active context</tref> which
-        maps to an <tref>IRI</tref> which is a prefix for <em>iri</em> where
-        the resulting <tref>compact IRI</tref> is not a <tref>term</tref> in the
-        <tref>active context</tref>. The resulting <tref>compact IRI</tref> is the
-        <tref>term</tref> associated with the partially
-        matched IRI in the <tref>active context</tref> concatenated with a
-        colon (:) character and the unmatched part of <em>iri</em>.</li>
-      <li>If <em>terms</em> is empty, the <tref>IRI</tref> being processed is a property or the
-        value of <code>@type</code> and <code>@vocab</code> is not null and matches the beginning
-        of <em>iri</em>, return the unmatched portion of <em>iri</em>. Otherwise return
-        <em>iri</em>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, return the shortest and lexicographically least value in <em>terms</em>.</li>
-    </ol>
-  </p>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-<h3>Term Rank Algorithm</h3>
-<p>When selecting among multiple possible terms for a given property, it may be that multiple
-  <tref title="term">terms</tref> are defined with the same <tref>IRI</tref>, but differ in <code>@type</code>, <code>@container</code>
-  or <code>@language</code>. The purpose of this algorithm is to take a <tref>term</tref>
-  and a value and give it a <tdef>term rank</tdef>. The selection can then be based, partly, on
-  the <tref>term</tref> having the highest <tref>term rank</tref>.</p>
-<p>Given a <tref>term</tref> <em>term</em>, <em>value</em>, and <tref>active context</tref>
-  determine the <tref>term rank</tref> using the following steps:</p>
-<ol class="algorithm">
-  <li>If <em>value</em> is <tref>null</tref>, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>3</code>.</li>
-  <li>Otherwise, if <em>value</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing only the member <code>@list</code>:
-    <ol class="algorithm">
-      <li>If the value of the <code>@list</code> member is an empty <tref>array</tref>,
-        return <code>1</code> if <em>term</em> has <tref>container mapping</tref> of
-        <code>@list</code>, otherwise <code>0</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, return the minimum of the <tref>term rank</tref> for every entry in the list.</li>
-    </ol>
-  </li>
-  <li>Otherwise, if <em>value</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref> having a <code>@value</code> member:
-    <ol class="algorithm">
-      <li>If <em>value</em> has a <code>@type</code> member: if that type matches a
-        <tref>type mapping</tref> for <em>term</em>, <tref>term rank</tref>
-        is <code>3</code>, otherwise if <em>term</em> has no <tref>type mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref>,
-        <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>1</code>, otherwise <code>0</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, if <code>@value</code> is not a <tref>string</tref>: if <em>term</em> has
-        no <tref>type mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref>,
-        <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>2</code>, otherwise <code>1</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, if <em>value</em> does not have a <code>@language</code> member:
-        <ol class="algorithm">
-          <li>If <em>term</em> has a <tref>language mapping</tref> set to <tref>null</tref>, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>3</code>.</li>
-          <li>Otherwise, if <em>term</em> has no <tref>type mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref> and
-            there is no <tref>default language</tref>, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>3</code>.</li>
-          <li>Otherwise, if <em>term</em> has no <tref>type mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref>,
-            <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>2</code>.</li>
-          <li>Otherwise, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>0</code>.</li>
-        </ol>
-      </li>
-      <li>Otherwise, if <em>term</em> has a <tref>container mapping</tref> of
-        <code>@language</code>, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>3</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, if the value of the <code>@language</code> member in <em>value</em>
-        is the same as the <tref>language mapping</tref> for <em>term</em>, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>2</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, if <em>term</em> has no <tref>type mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref> and
-        the <tref>default language</tref> is the same as the value of the <code>@language</code> member in <em>value</em>,
-        <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>2</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, if <em>term</em> has no <tref>type mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref>,
-        <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>1</code>.</li>
-      <li>Otherwise, <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>0</code>.</li>
-    </ol>
-  </li>
-  <li>Otherwise, <em>value</em> MUST be a <tref>node object</tref>.
-    <ol class="algorithm">
-      <li>If <em>term</em> has <tref>IRI mapping</tref> of <code>@id</code>,
-        <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>3</code>, otherwise
-        if <em>term</em> has no <tref>IRI mapping</tref> and no <tref>language mapping</tref>,
-        <tref>term rank</tref> is <code>1</code>, otherwise <code>0</code>.</li>
-    </ol>
-  </li>
-  <li>Return <tref>term rank</tref>.</li>
-</ol>
-</section>
-
-<section id="value-compaction">
-  <h2>Value Compaction Algorithm</h2>
-  <p>Some values, such as <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref> and <tref title="typed value">typed values</tref>, may be expressed in an
-    <tref>expanded form</tref> (<tdef>expanded value</tdef>) in JSON-LD. These values are required to be compacted at
-    times when processing JSON-LD documents. A value is said to be in <tdef>compacted form</tdef> after
-    the application of this algorithm on an <tref>expanded value</tref>.
-  </p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm for compacting an <tref>expanded value</tref> <em>value</em> takes an <tref>active property</tref>
-    and <tref>active context</tref>. It is implemented as follows:</p>
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>value</em> only has one property and the <tref>active context</tref> has no default language,
-      then the compacted value is the value of <code>@value</code>.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <tref>active property</tref> is <code>@graph</code>, the compacted value is the
-      value associated with the <code>@id</code> key, processed according to
-      the <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> steps.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if the <tref>active context</tref> contains a coercion target for the
-      key that matches the expression of the value, compact the value using the
-      following steps:
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>If the coercion target is an <code>@id</code>, the compacted
-          value is the value associated with the <code>@id</code> key,
-          processed according to the
-          <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> steps.</li>
-        <li>If the coercion target is a <tref>typed value</tref>, the compacted
-          value is the value associated with the <code>@value</code> key.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>value</em> contains an <code>@id</code> key, the compacted value is <em>value</em> with
-      the value of <code>@id</code> processed according to the
-      <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> steps.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if the <tref>active context</tref> contains a <code>@language</code>, which
-      matches the <code>@language</code> of the value, or the value has only a <code>@value</code> key, the compacted
-      value is the value associated with the <code>@value</code> key.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if the value contains a <code>@type</code> key, the compacted value
-      is <em>value</em> with the <code>@type</code> value processed according to the
-      <a href="#iri-compaction">IRI Compaction</a> steps.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, the value is not modified.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Find Property Generator Equivalents</h2>
-
-  <p>This algorithm checks determins if two values <em>source</em> and <em>target</em> are equivalent
-    for the purposes removing duplicates when performing <a href="compaction">Compaction</a>.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>source</em> and <em>target</em> are both <tref title="array">arrays</tref> with the same length,
-      return <code>true</code> if each item from <em>source</em> is equivalent to the matching item
-      from <em>target</em> by recursively invoking this algorithm, otherwise return <code>false</code>.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if both <em>source</em> and <em>target</em> are <tref title="json object">JSON objects</tref>
-      having a <code>@value</code> member, return <code>true</code> if every <em>key</em>-<em>value</em> is
-      equivalent, <code>false</code> otherwise.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>source</em> and <em>target</em> are <tref title="json object">JSON objects</tref>
-      having a <code>@list</code> member, return <code>true</code> if they have the same <code>@annotation</code>
-      values (if any) and if the values of their respective <code>@list</code> properties are equivalent by
-      recursively invoking this algorithm, otherwise return <code>false</code>.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, if <em>source</em> and <em>target</em> are <tref title="json object">JSON objects</tref>
-      having a <code>@id</code> member, return <code>true</code> if those values are equivalent.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, return <code>false</code>.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>Flattening Algorithm</h2>
-
-  <p>The algorithm takes two input variables, an <em>element</em> to flatten and a
-    <em>context</em> used to compact the flattened document.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>Expand <em>element</em> according the
-      <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion algorithm</a>.</li>
-    <li>Generate a <em>nodeMap</em> according the
-      <a href="#node-map-generation">Node Map Generation algorithm</a>.</li>
-    <li>Let <em>defaultGraph</em> be the value of the <code>@default</code> member of
-      <em>nodeMap</em>; a <tref>JSON object</tref> representing the <tref>default graph</tref>.</li>
-    <li>For each other <em>graphName</em>-<em>graph</em> pair in <em>nodeMap</em>
-      perform the following steps:
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>If <em>defaultGraph</em> does not have a <em>graphName</em> member, create
-          one and initialize its value to a <tref>JSON object</tref> consisting of an
-          <code>@id</code> member whose value is set to <em>graphName</em>.</li>
-        <li>Add a <code>@graph</code> member set to an empty <tref>array</tref>
-          (referred to as <em>nodes</em>) to the <tref>JSON object</tref> which is the
-          value of the <em>graphName</em> member of <em>nodeMap</em>.</li>
-        <li>For each <em>id</em>-<em>node</em> pair in <em>graph</em> ordered by <em>id</em>,
-          add <em>node</em> to the <em>nodes</em> <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-    <li>Initialize an empty <tref>array</tref> flattened.</li>
-    <li>For each <em>id</em>-<em>node</em> pair in <em>defaultGraph</em> ordered by <em>id</em>,
-      add <em>node</em> to <em>flattened</em>.</li>
-    <li>If <em>context</em> equals <tref>null</tref>, return <em>flattened</em>.</li>
-    <li>Otherwise, return the result of compacting <em>flattened</em> according the
-      <a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction algorithm</a> passing <em>context</em>
-      ensuring that the compaction result uses the <code>@graph</code> keyword (or its alias)
-      at the top-level, even if the context is empty or if there is only one element to
-      put in the <code>@graph</code> <tref>array</tref>. This ensures that the returned
-      document has a deterministic structure.</li>
-  </ol>
-</section>
-
-<section id="node-map-generation">
-  <h2>Node Map Generation Algorithm</h2>
-  <p>The Node Map Generation algorithm takes as input an expanded JSON-LD document and results in a <tref>JSON object</tref>
-    <em>nodeMap</em> holding a flat representation of the graphs and <tref title="node">nodes</tref> represented in the document. All <tref title="node">nodes</tref> that are not
-    uniquely identified by an IRI get assigned a (new) <tref>blank node identifier</tref>. The resulting <em>nodeMap</em>
-    document will have a property for every graph in the document whose value is another object with a property for every
-    <tref>node</tref> represented in the document. While the default graph is stored under the <code>@default</code> property and the merged graph
-    under the <code>@merged</code> property, all other graphs are stored under their respective <tref title="IRI">IRIs</tref>.</p>
-
-  <p>The algorithm takes as input the expanded JSON-LD document as <em>element</em>, the initially empty <em>nodeMap</em>,
-    <code>@default</code> as <em>graph</em>, <tref>null</tref> as <em>list</em>, and <tref>null</tref> as <em>id</em>.</p>
-
-  <ol class="algorithm">
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is an array, process each entry in <em>element</em> recursively, using this algorithm
-      and return.</li>
-    <li>If <em>element</em> is not a <tref>JSON object</tref> or if it has a <code>@value</code> property,
-      then if <em>list</em> is not <tref>null</tref>, append <em>element</em> to <em>list</em> and return.</li>
-    <li>If <em>id</em> is <tref>null</tref> and if the <code>@id</code>
-      property exists and is an <tref>IRI</tref>, set <em>id</em> to its value,
-      otherwise set it to a <tref>blank node identifier</tref> created by the
-      <a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">Generate Blank Node Identifier</a>
-      algorithm.</li>
-    <li>If <em>list</em> is not <tref>null</tref>, append a new <tref>node object</tref> to <em>list</em> using
-      <em>id</em> as the value for <code>@id</code>.</li>
-    <li>Let <em>nodes</em> be the value in <em>nodeMap</em> where the key is <em>graph</em>; if no such
-      value exists, insert a new <tref>JSON object</tref> for the key <em>graph</em>. If <em>id</em> is not in
-      <em>nodes</em>, create a new <tref>JSON object</tref> <em>node</em> with <em>id</em> as the value
-      for <code>@id</code>. Let <em>node</em> be the value of <em>id</em> in <em>nodes</em>.</li>
-    <li>For each <em>property</em> that is not <code>@id</code> and each <em>value</em> in <em>element</em> ordered
-      by <em>property</em>:
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>If <em>property</em> is <code>@graph</code>, recursively call this algorithm passing <em>value</em>
-          for <em>element</em>, <em>nodeMap</em>, <tref>null</tref> for <em>list</em> and if <em>graph</em>
-          is <code>@merged</code> use <em>graph</em>, otherwise use <em>id</em> for <em>graph</em> and then continue.</li>
-        <li>If <em>property</em> is not <code>@type</code> and is a keyword, merge <code>property</code> and
-          <code>value</code> into <code>node</code> and then continue.</li>
-        <li>For each value <em>v</em> in the array <em>value</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>If <em>v</em> is a <tref>node object</tref> or <tref>node object</tref>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If the property <code>@id</code> is not an <tref>IRI</tref> or it does not exist,
-                  map <em>v</em> to a <a
-                  href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">new blank node
-                  identifier</a> <em>name</em> to avoid collisions. If one does
-                  not already exist, add a <tref>node object</tref> for
-                  <em>v</em> into <em>node</em> for <em>property</em>.</li>
-                <li>Recursively call this algorithm passing <em>v</em> for <em>value</em>, <em>nodeMap</em>,
-                  <em>graph</em>, <tref>null</tref> for <em>list</em>, and <em>name</em> for <em>id</em>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise if <em>v</em> has the property <code>@list</code> then recursively call this algorithm
-              with the value of <code>@list</code> as <em>element</em>, <em>nodeMap</em>, <em>graph</em>, and
-              a new array <em>flattenedList</em> as <em>list</em>. Create a new <tref>JSON object</tref> with the
-              property <code>@list</code> set to <em>flattenedList</em> and add it to <em>node</em> for
-              <em>property</em>.</li>
-             <li>If <tref>active property</tref> is <tref>null</tref> or <code>@graph</code>,
-               <a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">generate a blank node identifier</a> <em>id</em>
-               and store <em>result</em> as value of the member <em>id</em> in <em>activeGraph</em>.</li>
-             <li>Otherwise, if <em>property</em> is <code>@type</code> and <em>v</em> is not an <tref>IRI</tref>,
-               generate a <a href="#generate-blank-node-identifier">new blank node identifier</a> and add it
-               to <em>node</em> for <em>property</em>.</li>
-            <li>Otherwise, add <em>v</em> to <em>node</em> for <em>property</em>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-      </ol>
-    </li>
-  </ol>
-
-  <p>After the above outlined algorithm has been executed, the node map for all graphs including the default graph are contained in
-    <em>nodeMap</em>. To also create the node map for the merged graph, execute the algorithm again, but pass <code>@merged</code>
-    for <em>graph</em>.</p>
-</section>
-
-  <section>
-    <h2>RDF Conversion Algorithms</h2>
-
-    <p>This specification describes algorithms to transform JSON-LD documents to an array of
-      RDF <tref title="quad">quads</tref> and vice-versa. Note that many uses of JSON-LD
-      may not require generation of RDF.</p>
-
-    <p>The processing algorithms described in this section are provided in order to demonstrate
-      how one might implement a JSON-LD to RDF processor. Conformant implementations are only
-      required to produce the same type and number of <tref title="quad">quads</tref> but are
-      not required to implement the algorithm exactly as described.</p>
-
-    <p class="issue">This algorithm hasn't been updated yet.</p>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>Convert to RDF Algorithm</h3>
-      <p>
-        The algorithm below is designed for in-memory implementations with random access to <tref>JSON object</tref> elements.
-      </p>
-      <p>
-        A conforming JSON-LD processor implementing RDF conversion MUST implement a
-        processing algorithm that results in the same set of RDF <tref title="quad">quads</tref> that the following
-        algorithm generates:
-      </p>
-
-      <p>The algorithm takes four input variables: a <em>element</em> to be converted, an
-        <tref>active subject</tref>, <tref>active property</tref> and <tref>graph name</tref>.
-        To begin, the <tref>active subject</tref>, <tref>active property</tref> and <tref>graph name</tref>
-        are set to <tref>null</tref>, and <em>element</em> is
-        set to the result of performing the <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a> on
-        the <tref>JSON-LD input</tref> which is expected to be a a well-formed JSON-LD document as defined in [[!JSON-LD]].
-        This removes any existing context to allow the given context to be cleanly applied.</p>
-
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li id="processing-step-associative">
-          If <em>element</em> is a <tref>JSON object</tref>, perform the following steps:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Set <tref>active object</tref> to <tref>null</tref>.</li>
-            <li>
-              If <em>element</em> has a <code>@value</code> property:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If the value of <code>@value</code> is a <tref>number</tref>, set the
-                  <tref>active object</tref> to a <tref>typed value</tref> using a <tref>canonical lexical form</tref>
-                  of the value as defined in the section <a href="#data-round-tripping">Data Round Tripping</a>.
-                  Set datatype to the value of the <code>@type</code> property if it exists, otherwise
-                  either <code>xsd:integer</code> or <code>xsd:double</code>, depending
-                  on if the value contains a fractional and/or an exponential component.</li>
-                <li>Otherwise, if the value of <code>@value</code> is <strong>true</strong> or <strong>false</strong>,
-                  set the <tref>active object</tref> to a <tref>typed value</tref> created from the
-                  <tref>canonical lexical form</tref> of the value. Set datatype to the value of the <code>@type</code>
-                  property if it exists, otherwise <code>xsd:boolean</code>.</li>
-                <li>
-                  Otherwise, if <em>element</em> contains a <code>@type</code> property, set the
-                  <tref>active object</tref> to a <tref>typed value</tref>.
-                </li>
-                <li>
-                  Otherwise, if <em>element</em> contains a <code>@language</code> property, set the
-                  <tref>active object</tref> to a <tref>language-tagged string</tref>.
-                </li>
-                <li>
-                  Otherwise, set the <tref>active object</tref> to a <tref>typed value</tref>
-                  using <code>xsd:string</code> as the datatype.
-                </li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>
-              If <em>element</em> has a <code>@list</code> property the value MUST be an <tref>array</tref>.
-              Process its value as a list as described in <a href="#list-conversion">List Conversion</a> using
-              the return value as the <tref>active object</tref>
-            </li>
-            <li>If <tref>active object</tref> is not <tref>null</tref>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If neither <tref>active subject</tref> nor <tref>active property</tref> are <tref>null</tref>,
-                  generate a <tref>Quad</tref>
-                  representing <tref>active subject</tref>, <tref>active property</tref>,
-                  <tref>active object</tref>, and <tref>graph name</tref>.</li>
-                <li>Return <tref>active object</tref>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li id="processing-step-subject">If <em>element</em> has a <code>@id</code> property,
-              the value MUST be a <tref>string</tref>, set the <tref>active subject</tref> to the previously
-              expanded value (either a <tref>blank node</tref> or an <tref>IRI</tref>).</li>
-            <li>
-              Otherwise, if <em>element</em> does not have a <code>@id</code> property, set the <tref>active
-              subject</tref> to newly generated <tref>blank node</tref>.</li>
-            <li>
-              Process each <em>property</em> and <em>value</em> in <em>element</em>, ordered by
-              <em>property</em>, as follows:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>
-                  If <em>property</em> is <code>@type</code>, set the <tref>active property</tref>
-                  to <code>rdf:type</code>.
-                </li>
-                <li>Otherwise, if <em>property</em> is <code>@graph</code>,
-                  process <em>value</em> algorithm recursively, using <tref>active subject</tref> as <tref>graph name</tref>
-                  and null values for <tref>active subject</tref> and <tref>active property</tref> and then
-                  proceed to next property.</li>
-                <li>Otherwise, if <em>property</em> is a <tref>keyword</tref>, skip this step.</li>
-                <li>Otherwise, set <tref>active property</tref> to the <tref>expanded IRI form</tref> of <em>property</em>.</li>
-                <li>Process <em>value</em> recursively using this algorithm, passing copies of
-                  <tref>active subject</tref>, <tref>active property</tref> and <tref>graph name</tref>.
-                </li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>
-              Set <tref>active object</tref> to <tref>active subject</tref>.
-            </li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-
-        <li>Otherwise, if <em>element</em> is an <tref>array</tref>, process each value in the <tref>array</tref>
-          as follows, process <em>element</em> recursively using this algorithm, using copies of
-          <tref>active subject</tref>, <tref>active property</tref>, and <tref>graph name</tref>.</li>
-
-        <li>Otherwise, if <em>element</em> is a <tref>string</tref>, then the <tref>active property</tref>
-          must be <code>rdf:type</code> so set the <tref>active object</tref> to an <tref>IRI</tref>.</li>
-
-        <li>If any of these steps created an <tref>active object</tref> and neither <tref>active subject</tref>
-          nor <tref>active property</tref> are <tref>null</tref>, generate a <tref>Quad</tref> using
-          <tref>active subject</tref>,<tref>active property</tref>, <tref>active object</tref> and
-          <tref>graph name</tref>.
-        </li>
-        <li>Return <tref>active object</tref>.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </section>
-
-    <section id="list-conversion">
-      <h3>List Conversion</h3>
-
-      <p>List Conversion is the process of taking an <tref>array</tref> of values and adding them to a newly
-        created <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/#ch_collectionvocab">RDF Collection</a></cite> (see
-        [[!RDF-SCHEMA]]) by linking each element of the list using <code>rdf:first</code> and <code>rdf:next</code>,
-        terminating the list with <code>rdf:nil</code> using the following sequence:</p>
-      <p>The algorithm is invoked with an <tref>array</tref> <em>array</em>, the <tref>active property</tref>
-        and returns a value to be used as an <tref>active object</tref> in the calling location.</p>
-      <div class="note">This algorithm does not support lists containing lists.</div>
-
-      <p class="issue">This algorithm hasn't been updated yet.</p>
-
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li>
-          If <em>array</em> is empty return <code>rdf:nil</code>.
-        </li>
-        <li>
-          Otherwise, generate a <tref>Quad</tref> using using the <tref>active subject</tref>, <tref>active property</tref>
-          and a newly generated <tref>blank node</tref> identified as <em>first <tref>blank node</tref></em>.
-        </li>
-        <li>
-          For each element in <em>array</em> other than the last element:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Create a processor state using
-              <em>first blank node</em> as the <tref>active subject</tref>, and
-              <code>rdf:first</code> as the <tref>active property</tref>.
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Process the value starting at <a href="#processing-step-associative">Step 1</a>.</li>
-                <li>Proceed using the previous <tref>processor state</tref>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Unless this is the last element in <em>array</em>, generate a new <tref>blank node</tref> identified as
-              <em>rest blank node</em>, otherwise use <code>rdf:nil</code>.</li>
-            <li>Generate a new <tref>Quad</tref> using <em>first blank node</em>,
-              <code>rdf:rest</code> and <em>rest blank node</em>.</li>
-            <li>Set <em>first blank node</em> to
-              <em>rest blank node</em>.</li>
-            <li>Return <em>first blank node</em>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-      </ol>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h2>Convert from RDF Algorithm</h2>
-      <p>In some cases, data exists natively in the form of triples or or <tref title="quad">quads</tref>;
-        for example, if the data was originally represented in an RDF graph or triple/quad store. This
-        algorithm is designed to simply translate an array of <tref title="quad">quads</tref> into a
-        JSON-LD document.</p>
-      <p>When expanding <tref title="typed value">typed values</tref> having a datatype of <code>xsd:string</code>,
-        the <code>@type</code> MUST NOT be set to <code>xsd:string</code> and the resulting value
-        MUST have only a <code>@value</code> property.</p>
-
-      <p>The conversion algorithm takes a single parameter <em>input</em> in the form of an
-        array of <tref>Quad</tref> representations.</p>
-
-      <p class="issue">This algorithm hasn't been updated yet.</p>
-
-      <ol class="algorithm">
-        <li id="new_graph">Construct <em>defaultGraph</em> as a <tref>JSON object</tref>
-          containing <em>nodes</em> and <em>listMap</em>, each an empty <tref>JSON object</tref>.</li>
-        <li>Construct <em>graphs</em> as a <tref>JSON object</tref> containing <em>defaultGraph</em>
-          identified by
-          an empty <tref>string</tref>.</li>
-        <li>For each <tref>quad</tref> in <em>input</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Set <em>graph</em> to the entry in <em>graphs</em> identified
-              by <em>name</em>, initializing it to a new entry using the mechanism
-              described in <a href="#new_graph">Step 1</a>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>property</em> is <code>rdf:first</code>,
-              use the entry in <em>graph.listMap</em> indexed by <em>subject</em>,
-              initializing it to a new <tref>JSON object</tref> if nesessary. Represent
-              <em>object</em> in <tref>expanded form</tref>, as described in
-              <a href="#value-expansion">Value Expansion</a>. Add the
-              resulting <em>object representation</em> to the entry indexed by
-              <em>first</em>, and skip to the next <tref>quad</tref>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>property</em> is <code>rdf:rest</code>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>If <em>object</em> is a <tref>blank node</tref>, use the entry in
-                  <em>graph.listMap</em> indexed by <em>subject</em>, initializing it
-                  to a new <tref>JSON object</tref> if necessary. Add the <em>nominalValue</em> of
-                  <em>object</em> to the entry indexed by <em>rest</em>.
-                </li>
-                <li>Skip to the next <tref>quad</tref>.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>If <em>name</em> is not <tref>null</tref>, and <em>defaultGraph.nodes</em>
-              does not contain an entry for <em>name</em>,
-              create a new entry for <em>name</em> from a new
-              <tref>JSON object</tref> with key/value pair of <code>@id</code> and
-              <em>name</em> represented in <tref>expanded IRI form</tref>.</li>
-            <li>Set <em>value</em> as the entry from <em>graph.nodes</em> for
-              <em>subject</em>, initializing it to a new
-              <tref>JSON object</tref> with key/value pair of <code>@id</code> and
-              <em>subject</em> represented in <tref>expanded IRI form</tref> if necessary.</li>
-            <li>If <em>property</em> is <code>rdf:type</code>, <em>object</em> is not a <tref>JSON-LD value</tref>, and the
-              <code class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-useRdfType">useRdfType</a></code>
-              option is not present or <tref>false</tref>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Append <em>object</em> represented in <tref>expanded IRI form</tref> to the array value for the
-                  key <code>@type</code>, creating an entry in <em>value</em> if necessary.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>Otherwise, if <em>object</em> is a <tref>typed value</tref> and the
-              <code class="idlMemberName"><a href="#widl-JsonLdOptions-useNativeTypes">useNativeTypes</a></code>
-              option is set to <tref>true</tref>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Generate a <em>converted value</em>:
-                  <ol class="algorithm">
-                    <li>If the literal's type is <code>xsd:boolean</code>, the
-                      <em>converted value</em> is <tref>true</tref> if the literal
-                      matches the value <code>true</code> or <code>false</code> if
-                      the literal matches the value <code>false</code>.</li>
-                    <li>If the literal's type is <code>xsd:integer</code> or
-                      <code>xsd:double</code>, try to convert the literal to a
-                      JSON <tref>number</tref>. If the conversion is successful,
-                      store the result in <em>converted value</em>, otherwise
-                      set <em>converted value</em> to <em>value</em>.</li>
-                    <li>Otherwise, do not perform a conversion. Set
-                      the <em>converted value</em> to the <em>value</em>.</li>
-                  </ol>
-                </li>
-                <li>Append the <em>converted value</em> to the array value for the
-                  key, creating an entry in <em>value</em> if necessary.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>Otherwise, if <em>object</em> is <code>rdf:nil</code>:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Let <em>key</em> be <em>property</em> expressed in <tref>expanded IRI form</tref>.</li>
-                <li>Append an empty <code>@list</code> representation to the array value for
-                  <em>key</em>, creating an entry in <em>value</em> if necessary.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-            <li>Otherwise,
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Let <em>key</em> be <em>property</em> expressed in <tref>expanded IRI form</tref> and let
-                  <em>object representation</em>
-                  be <em>object</em> represented in <tref>expanded form</tref> as described in
-                  <a href="#value-expansion">Value Expansion</a>.</li>
-                <li>If <em>object</em> is a <tref>blank node</tref>,
-                  use the entry in <em>graph.listMap</em> indexed by <em>object</em>,
-                  initializing it to a new <tref>JSON object</tref> if nesessary.
-                  Add an entry for <em>head</em> with <em>object representation</em>.</li>
-                <li>Append <em>object representation</em> to the array value for
-                  <em>key</em>, creating an entry in <em>value</em> if necessary.</li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>For each <em>name</em> and <em>graph</em> in <em>graphs</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>For each <em>subject</em> and <em>entry</em> in <em>graph</em>
-              where <em>entry</em> has both <em>head</em> and <em>first</em> keys:
-              <ol class="algorithm">
-                <li>Set <em>value</em> to the value of <em>head</em> in <em>entry</em>.</li>
-                <li>Remove the entry for <code>@id</code> in <em>value</em>.</li>
-                <li>Add an entry to <em>value</em> for <code>@list</code> initialized to a new array
-                  containing the value of <em>first</em> from <em>entry</em>.</li>
-                <li>While <em>entry</em> has a key for <em>rest</em>:
-                  <ol class="algorithm">
-                    <li>Set <em>entry</em> to the value of <em>graph.listMap</em> for <em>entry.rest</em>.</li>
-                    <li>Add the value for <em>entry.first</em> to the list array.</li>
-                  </ol>
-                </li>
-              </ol>
-            </li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>Create <em>array</em> as an empty <tref>array</tref>.</li>
-        <li>For each <em>subject</em> and <em>entry</em> in <em>defaultGraph.nodes</em>
-          ordered by <em>subject</em>:
-          <ol class="algorithm">
-            <li>Add <em>entry</em> to <em>array</em>.</li>
-            <li>If <em>graphs</em> has an entry for <em>subject</em>, add a property
-              <code>@graph</code> in <em>entry</em> containing the ordered entries
-              from <em>graphs[subject].nodes</em>.</li>
-          </ol>
-        </li>
-        <li>Return <em>array</em> as the result.</li>
-      </ol>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>Data Round Tripping</h3>
-
-      <p>When <a href="#rdf-conversion">converting JSON-LD to RDF</a> JSON-native types such as
-        <em>numbers</em> and <em>booleans</em> are automatically coerced to <strong>xsd:integer</strong>,
-        <strong>xsd:double</strong>, or <strong>xsd:boolean</strong>. Implementers MUST ensure that the
-        result is in <tref>canonical lexical form</tref>. A
-        <tdef>canonical lexical form</tdef> is a set of literals from among the valid set of literals for
-        a datatype such that there is a one-to-one mapping between the <tref>canonical lexical form</tref> and a value
-        in the value space as defined in [[!XMLSCHEMA11-2]]. In other words, every value MUST be converted
-        to a deterministic <tref>string</tref> representation.</p>
-
-      <p>The canonical lexical form of an <em>integer</em>, i.e., a number without fractions
-        or a number coerced to <strong>xsd:integer</strong>, is a finite-length sequence of decimal
-        digits (<code>0-9</code>) with an optional leading minus sign; leading zeroes are prohibited.
-        To convert the number in JavaScript, implementers can use the following snippet of code:</p>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-      <!--
-      (value).toFixed(0).toString()
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-      <p>The canonical lexical form of a <em>double</em>, i.e., a number with fractions
-        or a number coerced to <strong>xsd:double</strong>, consists of a mantissa followed by the
-        character "E", followed by an exponent. The mantissa MUST be a decimal number. The exponent
-        MUST be an integer. Leading zeroes and a preceding plus sign (<code>+</code>) are prohibited
-        in the exponent. If the exponent is zero, it must be indicated by <code>E0</code>.
-        For the mantissa, the preceding optional plus sign is prohibited and the decimal point is
-        required. Leading and trailing zeroes are prohibited subject to the following: number
-        representations must be normalized such that there is a single digit which is non-zero to the
-        left of the decimal point and at least a single digit to the right of the decimal point unless
-        the value being represented is zero. The canonical representation for zero is <code>0.0E0</code>.
-        <strong>xsd:double</strong>'s value space is defined by the IEEE double-precision 64-bit
-        floating point type [[!IEEE-754-1985]]; in JSON-LD the mantissa is rounded to 15 digits after the
-        decimal point.</p>
-
-      <p>To convert the number in JavaScript, implementers can use the following snippet of code:</p>
-
-      <pre class="example" data-transform="updateExample">
-      <!--
-      (value).toExponential(15).replace(/(\d)0*e\+?/,'$1E')
-      -->
-      </pre>
-
-      <p class="note">When data such as decimals need to be normalized, JSON-LD authors should
-        not use values that are going to undergo automatic conversion. This is due to the lossy nature
-        of <strong>xsd:double</strong> values. Authors should instead use the expanded object form to
-        set the canonical lexical form directly.</p>
-
-      <p>The canonical lexical form of the <em>boolean</em> values <code>true</code> and <code>false</code>
-        are the strings <strong>true</strong> and <strong>false</strong>.</p>
-
-      <p>When JSON-native <tref>number</tref>s, are type coerced, lossless data round-tripping can not
-        be guaranted as rounding errors might occur. Additionally, only literals typed as
-        <strong>xsd:integer</strong>, <strong>xsd:double</strong>, and  <strong>xsd:boolean</strong> are
-        automatically converted back to their JSON-native counterparts in when
-        <a href="#rdf-conversion">converting from RDF</a>.</p>
-
-      <p>Some JSON serializers, such as PHP's native implementation in some versions,
-        backslash-escape the forward slash character. For example, the value
-        <code>http://example.com/</code> would be serialized as <code>http:\/\/example.com\/</code>.
-        This is problematic as other JSON parsers might not understand those escaping characters.
-        There is no need to backslash-escape forward slashes in JSON-LD. To aid interoperability
-        between JSON-LD processors, a JSON-LD serializer MUST NOT backslash-escape forward slashes.</p>
-    </section>
-  </section>
-</section>
-
-<section>
-  <h2>The Application Programming Interface</h2>
-
-  <p>This API provides a clean mechanism that enables developers to convert
-  JSON-LD data into a a variety of output formats that are easier to work
-  with in JavaScript. If a JavaScript JSON-LD API is provided, the entirety
-  of the following API MUST be implemented.</p>
-
-  <section>
-    <h3>JsonLdProcessor</h3>
-
-    <p>The JSON-LD Processor interface is the high-level programming structure
-      that developers use to access the JSON-LD transformation methods.</p>
-
-    <p>It is important to highlight that conformant <tref title="JSON-LD Processor">JSON-LD processors</tref>
-      MUST NOT modify the input parameters.</p>
-
-    <dl title="[Constructor] interface JsonLdProcessor" class="idl">
-
-      <dt>void expand()</dt>
-      <dd>
-        <a href="#expansion">Expands</a> the given <code>input</code> according to
-        the steps in the <a href="#expansion-algorithm">Expansion Algorithm</a>.
-
-        <dl class="parameters">
-          <dt>(object or object[] or DOMString) input</dt>
-          <dd>The JSON-LD object or array of JSON-LD objects to perform the expansion upon or an
-            <tref>IRI</tref> referencing the JSON-LD document to expand.</dd>
-          <dt>JsonLdCallback callback</dt>
-          <dd>A callback that is called when processing completed successfully
-            on the given <code>input</code>, or a fatal error prevented
-            processing from completing.</dd>
-          <dt>optional JsonLdOptions? options</dt>
-          <dd>A set of options to configure the used algorithms such. This allows, e.g.,
-            to set the input document's base <tref>IRI</tref>.</dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-
-      <dt>void compact()</dt>
-      <dd>
-        <a href="#compaction">Compacts</a> the given <code>input</code> using the
-        <code>context</code> according to the steps in the
-        <a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction Algorithm</a>.
-
-        <dl class="parameters">
-          <dt>(object or object[] or DOMString) input</dt>
-           <dd>The JSON-LD object or array of JSON-LD objects to perform the compaction upon or an
-            <tref>IRI</tref> referencing the JSON-LD document to compact.</dd>
-          <dt>(object or DOMString) context</dt>
-          <dd>The context to use when compacting the <code>input</code>; either in the
-            form of an <tref>JSON object</tref> or as <tref>IRI</tref>.</dd>
-          <dt>JsonLdCallback callback</dt>
-          <dd>A callback that is called when processing completed successfully
-            on the given <code>input</code>, or a fatal error prevented
-            processing from completing.</dd>
-          <dt>optional JsonLdOptions? options</dt>
-          <dd>A set of options to configure the used algorithms such. This allows, e.g.,
-            to set the input document's base <tref>IRI</tref>. This also includes
-            the <code>optimize</code> flag, which, if set, will allow processor-specific
-            optimization.</dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-
-      <dt>void flatten()</dt>
-      <dd>
-        <a href="#flattening">Flattens</a> the given <code>input</code> and
-        <a href="#compaction">compacts</a> it using the passed <code>context</code>
-          according to the steps in the <a href="#flattening-algorithm">Flattening Algorithm</a>.
-
-        <dl class="parameters">
-          <dt>(object or object[] or DOMString) input</dt>
-           <dd>The JSON-LD object or array of JSON-LD objects or an <tref>IRI</tref>
-            referencing the JSON-LD document to flatten.</dd>
-          <dt>(object or DOMString)? context</dt>
-          <dd>The context to use when compacting the flattened <code>input</code>; either
-            in the form of an <tref>JSON object</tref> or as <tref>IRI</tref>. If
-            <tref>null</tref> is passed, the result will not be compacted but keept
-            in expanded form.</dd>
-          <dt>JsonLdCallback callback</dt>
-          <dd>A callback that is called when processing completed successfully
-            on the given <code>input</code>, or a fatal error prevented
-            processing from completing.</dd>
-          <dt>optional JsonLdOptions? options</dt>
-          <dd>A set of options to configure the used algorithms such. This allows, e.g.,
-            to set the input document's base <tref>IRI</tref>.</dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-    </dl>
-
-  </section>
-
-  <section>
-    <h3>Callbacks</h3>
-
-    <p>JSON-LD processors utilize callbacks in order to return information in an
-      asynchronous manner to calling applications. This section details the
-      parameters sent to those callbacks.</p>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>JsonLdCallback</h3>
-      <p>The <a>JsonLdCallback</a> is called when an API method
-        of <a>JsonLdProcessor</a> has completed successfully, detected an
-        issue, or been terminated by a fatal error.</p>
-
-      <dl title="callback JsonLdCallback = void" class="idl">
-        <dt>JsonLdProcessingIssue issue</dt>
-        <dd>If the value is <code>null</code>, then no issue was detected
-          during processing. If the value is non-<code>null</code>, a
-          processing issue was detected and the details will be contained
-          within the <code>issue</code> object.</dd>
-        <dt>object or object[] document</dt>
-        <dd>The output JSON-LD document at the time the issue was
-          detected.</dd>
-      </dl>
-    </section>
-  </section>
-
-  <section>
-    <h3>Data Structures</h3>
-    <p>This section describes datatype definitions used within the JSON-LD API.</p>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>JsonLdOptions</h3>
-      <p>The <a>JsonLdOptions</a> type is used to pass various options to the <a>JsonLdProcessor</a> methods.</p>
-      <dl title="dictionary JsonLdOptions" class="idl">
-        <dt>DOMString base</dt>
-        <dd>The Base IRI to use when expanding the document. This overrides the value of
-          <em>input</em> if it is a <a>IRI</a>. If not specified and <em>input</em> is not
-          an <a>IRI</a>, the base IRI defaults to the current document IRI if in a browser context,
-          or the empty string if there is no document context.
-        </dd>
-        <dt>object or DOMString expandContext = null</dt>
-        <dd>A context that is used to initialize the active context when expanding a document.</dd>
-        <dt>boolean compactArrays = true</dt>
-        <dd>If set to <code>true</code>, the JSON-LD processor replaces arrays with just
-          one element with that element during compaction. If set to <code>false</code>,
-          all arrays will remain arrays even if they have just one element.
-        </dd>
-        <dt>JsonLdCallback issueCallback = null</dt>
-        <dd>If set to a function, the JSON-LD processor will use this callback
-          whenever it generates a warning, recoverable error, or fatal error
-          while processing the JSON-LD document. This callback is typically
-          used to convey debugging information regarding markup issues from the
-          JSON-LD processor to the developer. Note that this callback SHOULD be
-          used if a developer is interested in detecting issues while a
-          document is being processed as the <code>callback</code> parameter
-          provided to each API method is only used to report no errors or
-          fatal errors.
-        </dd>
-        <dt>boolean optimize = false</dt>
-        <dd>If set to <code>true</code>, the JSON-LD processor is allowed to
-          optimize the output of the <a href="#compaction-algorithm">Compaction Algorithm</a>
-          to produce even compacter representations. The algorithm for compaction
-          optimization is beyond the scope of this specification and thus
-          not defined. Consequently, different implementations MAY implement
-          different optimization algorithms.
-        </dd>
-        <dt>boolean useRdfType = false</dt>
-        <dd>If set to <code>true</code>, the JSON-LD processor will use the
-          expanded <code>rdf:type</code> IRI as the property instead of
-          <code>@type</code> when <a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm">converting from RDF</a>.
-        </dd>
-        <dt>boolean useNativeTypes = true</dt>
-        <dd>If set to <code>true</code>, the JSON-LD processor will try to convert
-          <tref title="typed value">typed values</tref> to JSON native types instead of using the
-          expanded object form when <a href="#convert-from-rdf-algorithm">converting from RDF</a>.
-          <code>xsd:boolean</code> values will be converted to <tref>true</tref> or <tref>false</tref>.
-          <code>xsd:integer</code> and <code>xsd:double</code> values will be
-          converted to
-          <tref title="number">JSON numbers</tref>.
-        </dd>
-      </dl>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>JsonLdProcessingIssue</h3>
-
-      <p class="issue" data-number="153">Developers should note that the details of
-        processor issue handling are being actively debated.</p>
-
-      <p>The <a>JsonLdProcessingIssue</a> type is used to report processing
-        issues to a <a>JsonLdCallback</a>.</p>
-
-      <dl title="dictionary JsonLdProcessingIssue" class="idl">
-        <dt>JsonLdProcessorCode code</dt>
-        <dd>a string representing the particular issue type, as described in
-          the various algorithms in this document.</dd>
-        <dt>JsonLdProcessorIssueSeverity severity</dt>
-        <dd>a string representing the severity of the issue.</dd>
-        <dt>DOMString? message</dt>
-        <dd>an optional error message containing additional debugging information.
-          The specific contents of error messages are outside the scope of this
-          specification.</dd>
-      </dl>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>JsonLdProcessorCode</h3>
-      <p>The JsonLdProcessorCode represent the collection of valid JSON-LD error
-        codes.</p>
-
-      <dl title="enum JsonLdProcessorCode" class="idl">
-        <dt>invalidSyntax</dt>
-        <dd>A violation of the grammar as defined by the JSON-LD syntax specification
-          [[!JSON-LD]] was detected.</dd>
-        <dt>retrievalFailure</dt>
-        <dd>There was a problem encountered loading a remote context.</dd>
-        <dt>listOfListsDetected</dt>
-        <dd>A list of lists was detected. List of lists are not supported in
-          this version of JSON-LD due to the algorithmic complexity associated
-          with conversion to RDF.</dd>
-      </dl>
-    </section>
-
-    <section>
-      <h3>JsonLdProcessorIssueSeverity</h3>
-      <p>The JsonLdProcessorIssueSeverity represents the collection of
-        valid JSON-LD processing severity codes.</p>
-
-      <dl title="enum JsonLdProcessorIssueSeverity" class="idl">
-        <dt>warning</dt>
-        <dd>A warning is used when the processor has detected markup that may
-          could negatively impact the final output of the processor. Warnings
-          MAY be used to convey alternate markup suggestions to the document
-          author.</dd>
-        <dt>recoverableError</dt>
-        <dd>A recoverable error is used when the processor detects markup
-          that violates rules outlined in the JSON-LD specifications, but
-          is able to recover from the error and continue processing.</dd>
-        <dt>fatalError</dt>
-        <dd>A fatal error is used when the processor detects markup
-          that violates rules outlined in the JSON-LD specifications and is
-          not able to recover from the error.</dd>
-      </dl>
-    </section>
-
-  </section>
-</section>
-
-<section class="appendix">
-  <h1>Acknowledgements</h1>
-
-  <p>A large amount of thanks goes out to the JSON-LD Community Group
-    participants who worked through many of the technical issues on the mailing
-    list and the weekly telecons - of special mention are Niklas Lindström,
-    François Daoust, Lin Clark, and Zdenko 'Denny' Vrandečić.
-    The editors would like to thank Mark Birbeck, who provided a great deal of
-    the initial push behind the JSON-LD work via his work on RDFj.
-    The work of Dave Lehn and Mike Johnson are appreciated for reviewing,
-    and performing several implementations of the specification. Ian Davis is
-    thanked for his work on RDF/JSON. Thanks also to Nathan Rixham,
-    Bradley P. Allen, Kingsley Idehen, Glenn McDonald, Alexandre Passant,
-    Danny Ayers, Ted Thibodeau Jr., Olivier Grisel, Josh Mandel, Eric Prud'hommeaux,
-    David Wood, Guus Schreiber, Pat Hayes, Sandro Hawke, and Richard Cyganiak
-    or their input on the specification.</p>
-</section>
-
-</body>
-</html>