Added Editors Draft for 2011-08-08 specification.
authorManu Sporny <msporny@digitalbazaar.com>
Mon, 08 Aug 2011 16:20:13 -0400
changeset 141 18819e8ce8f5
parent 140 4298ae98c45e
child 142 e6a011087404
Added Editors Draft for 2011-08-08 specification.
spec/ED/20110808/diff-20110615.html
spec/ED/20110808/index.html
spec/ED/20110808/spec.css
spec/latest/index.html
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/spec/ED/20110808/diff-20110615.html	Mon Aug 08 16:20:13 2011 -0400
@@ -0,0 +1,20618 @@
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[email protected] screen {
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+
+</style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/w3c-unofficial" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8" /><style type='text/css'>
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+.diff-old:after
+    { content: "\2193" }
+:focus { border: thin red solid}
+</style>
+</head>
+
+
+<body style="display: inherit; ">
+<div class="head">
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1 class="title" id="title">
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">-
+Linked
+Data
+Expression
+in
+JSON
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">1.0
+</ins>
+</h1>
+<h2 id="subtitle">
+A
+Context-based
+JSON
+Serialization
+for
+<del class="diff-old">Linked
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linking
+</ins>
+Data
+</h2>
+<h2 id="unofficial-draft-08-august-2011">
+Unofficial
+Draft
+<del class="diff-old">15
+June
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">08
+August
+</ins>
+2011
+</h2>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Editors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://manu.sporny.org/">
+Manu
+Sporny
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+<del class="diff-old">Bazaar,
+Inc.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Bazaar
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+Gregg
+Kellogg
+</a>,
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Authors:
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">Mark
+Birbeck
+</del>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Manu
+Sporny
+</ins>
+</a>,
+<del class="diff-old">Backplane
+Ltd.
+</del>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Digital
+Bazaar
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<a href="http://greggkellogg.net/">
+<ins class="diff-new">Gregg
+Kellogg
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-new">
+Kellogg
+Associates
+</ins></dd><dd>
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+<del class="diff-old">Manu
+Sporny
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Dave
+Longley
+</ins>
+</a>,
+<a href="http://digitalbazaar.com/">
+Digital
+<del class="diff-old">Bazaar,
+Inc.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Bazaar
+</ins></a></dd><dd><a href="http://webbackplane.com/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Mark
+Birbeck
+</ins></a>,<a href="http://webbackplane.com/"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Backplane
+Ltd.
+</ins>
+</a>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+also
+available
+in
+this
+non-normative
+format:
+<a href="diff-20110615.html">
+diff
+to
+previous
+version
+</a>.
+</p>
+<p class="copyright">
+This
+document
+is
+licensed
+under
+a
+<a class="subfoot" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">
+Creative
+Commons
+Attribution
+3.0
+License
+</a>.
+</p>
+<hr />
+</div>
+<div id="abstract" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Abstract
+</h2>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Developers
+that
+embed
+structured
+data
+in
+their
+Web
+pages
+can
+choose
+among
+a
+number
+of
+languages
+such
+as
+RDFa
+[
+RDFA-CORE
+],
+Microformats
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+</ins>
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">MICROFORMATS
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC4627
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+<del class="diff-old">and
+Microdata
+[
+MICRODATA
+].
+Each
+of
+these
+structured
+data
+languages,
+while
+incompatible
+at
+the
+syntax
+level,
+can
+be
+easily
+mapped
+to
+RDF.
+JSON
+</del>
+has
+proven
+to
+be
+a
+highly
+useful
+object
+serialization
+and
+messaging
+format.
+In
+an
+attempt
+to
+harmonize
+the
+representation
+of
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+this
+specification
+outlines
+a
+common
+JSON
+representation
+format
+for
+<ins class="diff-new">expressing
+directed
+graphs;
+mixing
+both
+</ins>
+Linked
+Data
+<del class="diff-old">that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+represent
+objects
+specified
+via
+RDFa,
+Microformats
+</del>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">Microdata.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">non-Linked
+Data
+in
+a
+single
+document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="sotd" class="introductory section">
+<h2>
+Status
+of
+This
+Document
+</h2>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+merely
+a
+public
+working
+draft
+of
+a
+potential
+specification.
+It
+has
+no
+official
+standing
+of
+any
+kind
+and
+does
+not
+represent
+the
+support
+or
+consensus
+of
+any
+standards
+organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+an
+experimental
+work
+in
+progress.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" class="section">
+<h2 class="introductory">
+Table
+of
+Contents
+</h2>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#introduction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#how-to-read-this-document" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#contributing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Contributing
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#design" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</del>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#goals-and-rationale" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Goals
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+Rationale
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Map
+Terms
+to
+IRIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+Data
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#linking-data" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+JSON-LD
+Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linking
+Data
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#the-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+2.4
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Unambiguous
+Identifiers
+for
+JSON
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+Context
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#inside-a-context" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.4.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Inside
+a
+Context
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#from-json-to-json-ld" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+Example
+of
+a
+Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">From
+JSON
+to
+JSON-LD
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#basic-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Markup
+Examples
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Basic
+Concepts
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iris" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">RDFa
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-the-subject" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Microformats
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#specifying-the-type" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+3.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Microdata
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Specifying
+the
+Type
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#strings" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.4
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Strings
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#string-internationalization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.5
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+String
+Internationalization
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#datatypes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.6
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Datatypes
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.7
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.8
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#expansion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.9
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expansion
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#compaction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.10
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compaction
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#framing" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.11
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Framing
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#advanced-concepts" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Markup
+of
+RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Advanced
+</ins>
+Concepts
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#automatic-typing" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.1
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Automatic
+Typing
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#type-coercion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Type
+Coercion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#chaining" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.3
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Specifying
+the
+Type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Chaining
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.4
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Plain
+Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overriding-keywords" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.5
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Language
+Specification
+in
+Plain
+Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Overriding
+Keywords
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+4.6
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Typed
+Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Algorithms
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Syntax
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Algorithm
+Terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#context-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Blank
+Nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Context
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#coerce" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.3.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Coerce
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#initial-context" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.3.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Initial
+Context
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Advanced
+Features
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+Expansion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#iri-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Automatic
+Typing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+Compaction
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-expansion" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Type
+Coercion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Value
+Expansion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#value-compaction" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.7
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+Compaction
+</ins></a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#expansion-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.8.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expansion
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">5.9
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Compaction
+</ins></a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#compaction-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.9.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Overview
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Compaction
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.10
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Framing
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#framing-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.10.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Framing
+</ins>
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#framing-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.10.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Framing
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.4.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Coerce
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-labeling-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Chaining
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Node
+Labeling
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#shallow-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+Processing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Shallow
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#object-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.5
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Object
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</ins></a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#deep-comparison-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">7.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Sequence
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Deep
+Comparison
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#node-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Best
+Practices
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Node
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#combinatorial-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">JavaScript
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Combinatorial
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#mapping-serialization-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">8.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.11.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Schema-less
+Databases
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Mapping
+Serialization
+Algorithm
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#label-generation-algorithm" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.11.10
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Label
+Generation
+Algorithm
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#data-round-tripping" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.12
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Advanced
+Concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Data
+Round
+Tripping
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-conversion" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.13
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF
+Conversion
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#overview" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.13.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Vocabulary
+Profiles
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Overview
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.13.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-algorithm" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">5.13.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+Conversion
+Algorithm
+</ins></a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#experimental-concepts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-new">
+6.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Experimental
+Concepts
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline">
+<a href="#disjoint-graphs" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Disjoint
+Graphs
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#lists" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+JSON-LD
+API
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Lists
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#expansion-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.3.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Methods
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normalization-2" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.3.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Methods
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#rdf-conversion-1" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">9.3.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">6.2.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Methods
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">RDF
+Conversion
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#markup-examples" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+A.
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Default
+Context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Markup
+Examples
+</ins></a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+A.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+RDFa
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microformats" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+A.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Microformats
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#microdata" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+A.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Microdata
+</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#mashing-up-vocabularies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+A.4
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+</ins>
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">B.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">A.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+Acknowledgements
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.
+</ins>
+</span>
+References
+</a>
+<ul class="toc">
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Normative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+<li class="tocline">
+<a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">C.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">B.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Informative
+references
+</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div id="introduction" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+1.
+</span>
+Introduction
+</h2>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627"><ins class="diff-new">
+RFC4627
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+data
+on
+the
+Web.
+Linked
+Data
+is
+a
+technique
+for
+describing
+content
+across
+different
+documents
+or
+Web
+sites.
+Web
+resources
+are
+described
+using
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s,
+and
+typically
+are
+dereferencable
+entities
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information,
+creating
+a
+"Web
+of
+Knowledge".
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+not
+only
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON,
+but
+for
+adding
+semantics
+to
+existing
+JSON.
+</ins></p><p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+as
+a
+light-weight
+syntax
+that
+can
+be
+used
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data.
+It
+is
+primarily
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+way
+to
+express
+Linked
+Data
+in
+Javascript
+and
+other
+Web-based
+programming
+environments.
+It
+is
+also
+useful
+when
+building
+interoperable
+Web
+Services
+and
+when
+storing
+Linked
+Data
+in
+JSON-based
+document
+storage
+engines.
+It
+is
+practical
+and
+designed
+to
+be
+as
+simple
+as
+possible,
+utilizing
+the
+large
+number
+of
+JSON
+parsers
+and
+existing
+code
+that
+is
+in
+use
+today.
+It
+is
+designed
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+key-value
+pairs,
+RDF
+data,
+<ins class="diff-new">RDFa
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDFA-CORE
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+data,
+</ins>
+Microformats
+<ins class="diff-new">[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICROFORMATS"><ins class="diff-new">
+MICROFORMATS
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+]
+</ins>
+data,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">Microdata.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Microdata
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-MICRODATA"><ins class="diff-chg">
+MICRODATA
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+</ins>
+That
+is,
+it
+supports
+every
+major
+Web-based
+structured
+data
+model
+in
+use
+today.
+<del class="diff-old">It
+</del>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+syntax
+</ins>
+does
+not
+require
+<del class="diff-old">anyone
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">many
+applications
+</ins>
+to
+change
+their
+JSON,
+but
+easily
+add
+meaning
+by
+adding
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">either
+in-band
+or
+</ins>
+out-of-band.
+The
+syntax
+is
+designed
+to
+not
+disturb
+already
+deployed
+systems
+running
+on
+JSON,
+but
+provide
+a
+smooth
+migration
+path
+from
+JSON
+to
+JSON
+with
+added
+semantics.
+Finally,
+the
+format
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+fast
+to
+parse,
+fast
+to
+generate,
+stream-based
+and
+document-based
+processing
+compatible,
+and
+require
+a
+very
+small
+memory
+footprint
+in
+order
+to
+operate.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">JSON,
+as
+specified
+in
+[
+RFC4627
+],
+is
+a
+simple
+language
+for
+representing
+objects
+on
+the
+web.
+Linked
+Data
+is
+a
+way
+of
+describing
+content
+across
+different
+documents,
+or
+web
+resources.
+Web
+resources
+are
+described
+using
+IRI
+s,
+and
+typically
+are
+dereferencable
+entities
+that
+may
+be
+used
+to
+find
+more
+information,
+creating
+a
+"web
+of
+knowledge".
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+to
+be
+a
+simple
+publishing
+method
+for
+expressing
+linked
+data
+in
+JSON.
+</del>
+<div id="how-to-read-this-document" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.1
+</span>
+How
+to
+Read
+this
+Document
+</h3>
+<p>
+This
+document
+is
+a
+detailed
+specification
+for
+a
+serialization
+of
+JSON
+for
+Linked
+data.
+The
+document
+is
+primarily
+intended
+for
+the
+following
+audiences:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+Web
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+understand
+the
+design
+decisions
+and
+language
+syntax
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+encode
+Microformats,
+RDFa,
+or
+Microdata
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+cross-language
+compatible
+via
+JSON.
+</li>
+<li>
+Software
+developers
+that
+want
+to
+<del class="diff-old">write
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">implement
+</ins>
+processors
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+APIs
+</ins>
+for
+JSON-LD.
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+To
+understand
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+basics
+in
+</ins>
+this
+specification
+you
+must
+first
+be
+familiar
+with
+JSON,
+which
+is
+detailed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC4627">
+RFC4627
+</a>
+</cite>
+<ins class="diff-new">].
+To
+understand
+the
+API
+and
+how
+it
+is
+intended
+to
+operate
+in
+a
+programming
+environment,
+it
+is
+useful
+to
+have
+working
+knowledge
+of
+the
+JavaScript
+programming
+language
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-ECMA-262"><ins class="diff-new">
+ECMA-262
+</ins></a></cite>
+]
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">WebIDL
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-WEBIDL"><ins class="diff-new">
+WEBIDL
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-new">
+].
+To
+understand
+how
+JSON-LD
+maps
+to
+RDF,
+it
+is
+helpful
+to
+be
+familiar
+with
+the
+basic
+</ins>
+RDF
+<del class="diff-old">as
+described
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">concepts
+</ins>
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">
+RDF-CONCEPTS
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Examples
+may
+contain
+references
+to
+existing
+vocabularies
+and
+use
+abbreviations
+in
+CURIEs
+and
+source
+code.
+The
+following
+is
+a
+list
+of
+all
+vocabularies
+and
+their
+abbreviations,
+as
+used
+in
+this
+document:
+</ins></p><ul><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><ins class="diff-new">
+Dublin
+Core
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+dc
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+e.g.,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+dc:title
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+)
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"><ins class="diff-new">
+Friend
+of
+a
+Friend
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+foaf
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+e.g.,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+foaf:knows
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+)
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><ins class="diff-new">
+RDF
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+rdf
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+e.g.,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+rdf:type
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+)
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"><ins class="diff-new">
+XSD
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+vocabulary
+(abbreviation:
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+xsd
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-new">
+e.g.,
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+xsd:integer
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+)
+</ins></li></ul>
+</div>
+<div id="contributing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+1.2
+</span>
+Contributing
+</h3>
+<p>
+There
+are
+a
+number
+of
+ways
+that
+one
+may
+participate
+in
+the
+development
+of
+this
+specification:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">All
+comments
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Technical
+</ins>
+discussion
+<del class="diff-old">takes
+place
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">typically
+occurs
+</ins>
+on
+the
+public
+mailing
+list:
+<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-linked-json/">
[email protected]
+</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://json-ld.org/minutes/">
+<ins class="diff-new">Public
+teleconferences
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+are
+held
+on
+Tuesdays
+at
+1500UTC
+on
+the
+second
+and
+fourth
+week
+of
+each
+month.
+</ins></li><li>
+Specification
+bugs
+and
+issues
+should
+be
+reported
+in
+the
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/issues">
+issue
+tracker
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="https://github.com/json-ld/json-ld.org/tree/master/spec">
+Source
+code
+</a>
+for
+the
+specification
+can
+be
+found
+on
+Github.
+</li>
+<li>
+The
+<a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#json-ld">
+#json-ld
+</a>
+IRC
+channel
+is
+available
+for
+real-time
+discussion
+on
+irc.freenode.net.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="design" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+2.
+</span>
+Design
+<del class="diff-old">Goals
+and
+Rationale
+</del>
+</h2>
+<p>
+The
+following
+section
+outlines
+the
+design
+goals
+and
+rationale
+behind
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+language.
+</p>
+<div id="goals-and-rationale" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.1
+</span>
+Goals
+<ins class="diff-new">and
+Rationale
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+number
+of
+design
+considerations
+were
+explored
+during
+the
+creation
+of
+this
+markup
+language:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+Simplicity
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Developers
+<del class="diff-old">don't
+</del>
+need
+<del class="diff-old">to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">only
+</ins>
+know
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+in
+order
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+and
+three
+keywords
+</ins>
+to
+use
+the
+basic
+functionality
+<del class="diff-old">provided
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+</ins>
+JSON-LD.
+<ins class="diff-new">No
+extra
+processors
+or
+software
+libraries
+are
+necessary
+to
+use
+JSON-LD
+in
+its
+most
+basic
+form.
+The
+language
+attempts
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+have
+an
+easy
+learning
+curve.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Compatibility
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+<del class="diff-old">should
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">must
+</ins>
+be
+100%
+compatible
+with
+JSON.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+ensures
+that
+all
+of
+the
+standard
+JSON
+libraries
+work
+seamlessly
+with
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Expressiveness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<del class="diff-old">All
+major
+RDF
+concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+syntax
+</ins>
+must
+be
+<del class="diff-old">expressible
+via
+the
+JSON-LD
+syntax.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">able
+to
+express
+directed
+graphs,
+which
+have
+been
+proven
+to
+be
+able
+to
+simply
+express
+almost
+every
+real
+world
+data
+model.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Terseness
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+JSON-LD
+syntax
+must
+be
+very
+terse
+and
+human
+<del class="diff-old">readable.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">readable,
+requiring
+as
+little
+as
+possible
+from
+the
+developer.
+</ins></dd><dt><ins class="diff-chg">
+Pragmatism
+</ins></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+Mixing
+the
+expression
+of
+pure
+Linked
+Data
+with
+data
+that
+is
+not
+linked
+was
+an
+approach
+that
+was
+driven
+by
+pragmatism.
+JSON-LD
+attempts
+to
+be
+more
+practical
+than
+theoretical
+in
+its
+approach
+to
+Linked
+Data.
+</ins>
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Zero
+Edits,
+most
+of
+the
+time
+</dt>
+<dd>
+JSON-LD
+provides
+a
+mechanism
+that
+allows
+developers
+to
+specify
+context
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+out-of-band.
+This
+allows
+organizations
+that
+have
+already
+deployed
+large
+JSON-based
+infrastructure
+to
+add
+meaning
+to
+their
+JSON
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+not
+disruptive
+to
+their
+day-to-day
+operations
+and
+is
+transparent
+to
+their
+current
+customers.
+At
+times,
+mapping
+JSON
+to
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+graph
+representation
+</ins>
+can
+become
+<del class="diff-old">difficult
+-
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">difficult.
+In
+</ins>
+these
+instances,
+rather
+than
+having
+JSON-LD
+support
+esoteric
+markup,
+we
+chose
+not
+to
+support
+the
+use
+case
+and
+support
+a
+simplified
+syntax
+instead.
+So,
+while
+<del class="diff-old">we
+strive
+for
+</del>
+Zero
+<del class="diff-old">Edits,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Edits
+was
+a
+goal,
+</ins>
+it
+was
+not
+always
+possible
+without
+adding
+great
+complexity
+to
+the
+language.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+Streaming
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+format
+supports
+both
+document-based
+and
+stream-based
+processing.
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div id="linked-data" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+2.2
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Map
+Terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+Data
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+following
+definition
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+the
+one
+that
+will
+be
+used
+for
+this
+specification.
+</ins></p><ol><li><dfn title="Linked_Data" id="dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+set
+of
+documents,
+each
+containing
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+linked
+data
+graph.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="linked_data_graph" id="dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+labeled
+directed
+graph,
+where
+nodes
+are
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s,
+and
+edges
+are
+properties.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="subject" id="dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+any
+node
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+outgoing
+edge.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+labeled
+with
+a
+IRI.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="property" id="dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+an
+edge
+of
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+IRI.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><dfn title="object" id="dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+a
+node
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+at
+least
+one
+incoming
+edge.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+labeled
+with
+an
+IRI.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+IRI
+that
+is
+a
+label
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="linked_data_graph" href="#dfn-linked_data_graph"><ins class="diff-chg">
+linked
+data
+graph
+</ins></a><em class="rfc2119" title="should"><ins class="diff-chg">
+should
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+dereferencable
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+document
+describing
+the
+labeled
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a>,<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+</ins><dfn title="literal" id="dfn-literal"><ins class="diff-chg">
+literal
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+a
+label
+that
+is
+not
+an
+IRI
+</ins></li></ol><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Note
+that
+the
+definition
+for
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+above
+is
+silent
+on
+the
+topic
+of
+unlabeled
+nodes.
+Unlabeled
+nodes
+are
+not
+considered
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linked
+Data
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+However,
+this
+specification
+allows
+for
+the
+expression
+of
+unlabled
+nodes,
+as
+most
+graph-based
+data
+sets
+on
+the
+Web
+contain
+a
+number
+of
+associated
+nodes
+that
+are
+not
+named
+and
+thus
+are
+not
+directly
+de-referenceable.
+</ins></p></div><div id="linking-data" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+2.3
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Linking
+Data
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+An
+Internationalized
+Resource
+Identifier
+(
+<dfn title="IRI" id="dfn-iri">
+<abbr title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">
+IRI
+</abbr>
+</dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">)
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">),
+</ins>
+as
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3987">
+RFC3987
+</a>
+</cite>
+],
+is
+a
+mechanism
+for
+representing
+unique
+identifiers
+on
+the
+web.
+In
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Linked_Data" href="#dfn-linked_data">
+Linked
+<del class="diff-old">Data,
+IRIs
+(or
+URI
+references)
+are
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Data
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+an
+IRI
+is
+</ins>
+commonly
+used
+for
+<del class="diff-old">describing
+entities
+and
+properties.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expressing
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+or
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+object
+</ins></a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Establishing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+defines
+</ins>
+a
+mechanism
+to
+map
+JSON
+values
+to
+<del class="diff-old">IRIs
+will
+help
+in
+the
+mapping
+of
+JSON
+objects
+to
+RDF.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs.
+</ins>
+This
+does
+not
+mean
+that
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">must
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">requires
+every
+key
+or
+value
+to
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">restrictive
+in
+declaring
+a
+set
+of
+terms,
+rather,
+experimentation
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+IRI,
+but
+rather
+ensures
+that
+keys
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">innovation
+should
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+can
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">supported
+as
+part
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">mapped
+to
+IRIs
+if
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">core
+design
+of
+JSON-LD.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+so
+desires
+to
+transform
+their
+data
+into
+Linked
+Data.
+</ins>
+There
+<del class="diff-old">are,
+however,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">number
+of
+very
+small
+design
+criteria
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">few
+techniques
+</ins>
+that
+can
+ensure
+that
+developers
+will
+generate
+good
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+data
+that
+will
+create
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Linked
+Data
+</ins>
+for
+the
+<del class="diff-old">greater
+semantic
+web
+community
+and
+JSON/REST-based
+Web
+Services
+community.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Web.
+JSON-LD
+formalizes
+those
+techniques.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+We
+will
+be
+using
+the
+following
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">object
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">markup
+</ins>
+as
+the
+example
+for
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+rest
+of
+</ins>
+this
+section:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">  "a": "Person",
+</del>
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+<del class="diff-old">  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</ins>
+  "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="the-context" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+</del>
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">In
+JSON-LD,
+a
+</ins>
+context
+is
+used
+to
+allow
+developers
+to
+<del class="diff-old">use
+aliases
+for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">map
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+to
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri">
+IRI
+</a>
+s.
+<ins class="diff-new">A
+</ins><dfn title="term" id="dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+short
+word
+that
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-new">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-new">
+be
+expanded
+to
+an
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+</ins></a>.
+The
+semantic
+web,
+just
+like
+the
+document-based
+web,
+uses
+IRIs
+for
+unambiguous
+identification.
+The
+idea
+is
+that
+these
+<del class="diff-old">terms
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+mean
+<del class="diff-old">something,
+which
+you
+will
+eventually
+want
+to
+query.
+A
+context
+allows
+the
+expression
+of
+a
+number
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">something
+that
+may
+be
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">terms
+which
+map
+directly
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">use
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+s.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">other
+developers.
+</ins>
+For
+example,
+the
+term
+<code>
+name
+</code>
+may
+map
+directly
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+allows
+JSON-LD
+documents
+to
+be
+constructed
+using
+<ins class="diff-new">the
+</ins>
+common
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">syntax
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">practice
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">using
+</del>
+simple
+name/value
+<del class="diff-old">pairs.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pairs
+while
+ensuring
+that
+the
+data
+is
+useful
+outside
+of
+the
+database
+or
+page
+in
+which
+it
+resides.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">To
+reduce
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">These
+Linked
+Data
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+are
+typically
+collected
+in
+a
+context
+and
+then
+used
+by
+adding
+a
+single
+line
+to
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">number
+of
+different
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+markup
+above:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+</ins>  <span class="diff">"@context": "http://example.org/json-ld-contexts/person",</span><ins class="diff-chg">
+  "name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+addition
+above
+transforms
+the
+previous
+JSON
+document
+into
+a
+JSON
+document
+with
+added
+semantics
+because
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+specifies
+how
+the
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+name
+</ins></strong>,<strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+homepage
+</ins></strong>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+avatar
+</ins></strong>
+terms
+<del class="diff-old">that
+must
+be
+defined,
+JSON-LD
+also
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">map
+to
+IRIs.
+Mapping
+those
+keys
+to
+IRIs
+gives
+the
+data
+global
+context.
+If
+two
+developers
+use
+the
+same
+IRI
+to
+describe
+a
+property,
+they
+are
+more
+than
+likely
+expressing
+the
+same
+concept.
+This
+</ins>
+allows
+<del class="diff-old">terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">both
+developers
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">be
+used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">re-use
+each
+others
+data
+without
+having
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">expand
+Compact
+URIs
+(
+CURIE
+).
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">agree
+to
+how
+their
+data
+will
+inter-operate
+on
+a
+site-by-site
+basis.
+</ins></p><p>
+The
+semantic
+web
+<del class="diff-old">specifies
+this
+via
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">uses
+a
+special
+type
+of
+document
+called
+a
+</ins>
+<em>
+<ins class="diff-new">Web
+</ins>
+Vocabulary
+<del class="diff-old">Documents
+,
+in
+which
+</del>
+</em>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+define
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+A
+context
+is
+</ins>
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">type
+of
+Web
+vocabulary.
+Typically,
+these
+Web
+Vocabulary
+documents
+have
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+prefix
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">es
+</ins>
+associated
+with
+<del class="diff-old">a
+document,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">them
+</ins>
+and
+<ins class="diff-new">contain
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">suffix
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">number
+of
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+declarations.
+A
+</ins><dfn title="prefix" id="dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins></dfn>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+like
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins></a>,
+is
+<del class="diff-old">used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+short
+word
+that
+expands
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">create
+an
+IRI
+based
+on
+this
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+Web
+Vocabulary
+IRI.
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="Prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+es
+are
+helpful
+when
+a
+developer
+wants
+to
+mix
+multiple
+vocabularies
+together
+in
+a
+context,
+but
+does
+not
+want
+to
+go
+to
+the
+trouble
+of
+defining
+every
+single
+term
+in
+every
+single
+</ins>
+vocabulary.
+<ins class="diff-new">Some
+Web
+Vocabularies
+may
+have
+10-20
+terms
+defined.
+If
+a
+developer
+wants
+to
+use
+3-4
+different
+vocabularies,
+the
+number
+of
+terms
+that
+would
+have
+to
+be
+declared
+in
+a
+single
+context
+would
+become
+quite
+large.
+To
+reduce
+the
+number
+of
+different
+terms
+that
+must
+be
+defined,
+JSON-LD
+also
+allows
+prefixes
+to
+be
+used
+to
+compact
+IRIs.
+</ins></p><p></p><p>
+For
+example,
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
+</code>
+specifies
+a
+<ins class="diff-new">Web
+</ins>
+Vocabulary
+<del class="diff-old">Document,
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">which
+may
+be
+represented
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+Web
+Vocabulary
+contains
+a
+term
+called
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+name
+</ins></strong>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+you
+join
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+foaf
+</ins></code><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+with
+the
+</ins>
+<strong>
+name
+</strong>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">suffix,
+you
+can
+build
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">term
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">compact
+IRI
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">vocabulary.
+Join
+the
+two
+items
+together
+and
+you
+have
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">will
+expand
+out
+into
+</ins>
+an
+<del class="diff-old">unambiguous
+identifier
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">absolute
+IRI
+</ins>
+for
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></code>
+vocabulary
+term.
+<del class="diff-old">The
+Compact
+URI
+Expression,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">That
+is,
+the
+compact
+IRI,
+</ins>
+or
+short-form,
+is
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+and
+the
+expanded-form
+is
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+This
+vocabulary
+term
+<del class="diff-old">identifies
+the
+given
+name
+for
+something,
+for
+example
+-
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+used
+to
+specify
+</ins>
+a
+person's
+name.
+</p>
+<p>
+Developers,
+and
+machines,
+<del class="diff-old">would
+be
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+</ins>
+able
+to
+use
+this
+IRI
+(plugging
+it
+directly
+into
+a
+web
+browser,
+for
+instance)
+to
+go
+to
+the
+term
+and
+get
+a
+definition
+of
+what
+the
+term
+means.
+Much
+like
+we
+can
+use
+WordNet
+today
+to
+see
+the
+<a href="http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=definition">
+definition
+</a>
+of
+words
+in
+the
+English
+language.
+<del class="diff-old">Machines
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Developers
+and
+machines
+</ins>
+need
+the
+same
+sort
+of
+dictionary
+of
+<del class="diff-old">terms,
+and
+URIs
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">terms.
+IRIs
+</ins>
+provide
+a
+way
+to
+ensure
+that
+these
+terms
+are
+unambiguous.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+context
+provides
+a
+collection
+of
+vocabulary
+<del class="diff-old">terms
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+and
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+es
+</ins>
+that
+can
+be
+used
+<del class="diff-old">for
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+expand
+</ins>
+JSON
+<del class="diff-old">object.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keys
+and
+values
+into
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="IRI" href="#dfn-iri"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<div id="inside-a-context" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">2.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.4.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Unambiguous
+Identifiers
+for
+JSON
+If
+a
+set
+of
+terms,
+like
+Person
+,
+name
+,
+and
+homepage
+,
+are
+defined
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Inside
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context,
+and
+that
+context
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Context
+</ins></h4><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+In
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">names
+in
+JSON
+objects,
+machines
+could
+automatically
+expand
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">previous
+section,
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+used
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">pull
+in
+an
+external
+context.
+That
+context
+document,
+if
+de-referenced,
+would
+look
+</ins>
+something
+<del class="diff-old">meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+</del>
+like
+this:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">  "",
+  "": "Manu Sporny",
+  "": "http://manu.sporny.org"
+  "": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+    "avatar": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/avatar"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Doing
+this
+would
+mean
+that
+JSON
+would
+start
+to
+become
+unambiguously
+machine-readable,
+play
+well
+with
+the
+semantic
+web,
+and
+basic
+markup
+wouldn't
+be
+that
+much
+more
+complex
+than
+basic
+JSON
+markup.
+</del>
+A
+<del class="diff-old">win,
+all
+around.
+2.5
+Mashing
+Up
+Vocabularies
+Developers
+would
+also
+benefit
+by
+allowing
+other
+vocabularies
+to
+be
+used
+automatically
+with
+their
+JSON
+API.
+There
+are
+over
+200
+Vocabulary
+Documents
+that
+are
+available
+for
+use
+on
+the
+Web
+today.
+Some
+of
+these
+vocabularies
+are:
+RDF
+-
+for
+describing
+information
+about
+objects
+on
+the
+semantic
+web.
+RDFS
+-
+for
+expressing
+things
+like
+labels
+and
+comments.
+XSD
+-
+for
+specifying
+basic
+types
+like
+strings,
+integers,
+dates
+and
+times.
+Dublin
+Core
+-
+for
+describing
+creative
+works.
+FOAF
+-
+for
+describing
+social
+networks.
+Calendar
+-
+for
+specifying
+events.
+SIOC
+-
+for
+describing
+discussions
+on
+blogs
+and
+websites.
+CCrel
+-
+for
+describing
+Creative
+Commons
+and
+other
+types
+of
+licenses.
+GEO
+-
+for
+describing
+geographic
+location.
+VCard
+-
+for
+describing
+organizations
+and
+people.
+DOAP
+-
+for
+describing
+projects.
+Since
+these
+vocabularies
+are
+very
+popular,
+they
+are
+pre-defined
+in
+something
+called
+the
+default
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+</ins>
+context
+<del class="diff-old">,
+which
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document
+</ins>
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">set
+of
+vocabulary
+prefixes
+that
+are
+pre-loaded
+in
+all
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+The
+contents
+of
+the
+default
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">simple
+mapping
+from
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">are
+provided
+later
+in
+this
+document.
+Using
+the
+default
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s
+and
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-chg">
+prefix
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">allows
+developers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">es
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+data
+unambiguously,
+like
+so:
+{
+  "",
+  "": "Manu Sporny",
+  "": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+}
+Developers
+can
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expanded
+values
+such
+as
+IRIs
+or
+keywords.
+Contexts
+may
+</ins>
+also
+<del class="diff-old">specify
+their
+own
+Vocabulary
+documents
+by
+modifying
+the
+active
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">contain
+datatype
+information
+for
+certain
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-chg">
+term
+</ins>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">in-line
+using
+the
[email protected]
+keyword,
+like
+so:
+{
+  ,
+  "a": "foaf:Person",
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "foaf:homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+  "sioc:avatar": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny",
+  "myvocab:personality": "friendly"
+}
+The
[email protected]
+keyword
+is
+used
+to
+change
+how
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+evaluates
+key-value
+pairs.
+In
+this
+case,
+it
+was
+used
+to
+map
+one
+string
+('myvocab')
+to
+another
+string,
+which
+is
+interpreted
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">a
+IRI
+.
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+myvocab
+string
+is
+replaced
+with
+"
+http://example.org/myvocab#
+"
+when
+it
+is
+detected.
+In
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">well
+as
+other
+processing
+instructions
+for
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">example
+above,
+"
+myvocab:personality
+"
+would
+expand
+to
+"
+http://example.org/myvocab#personality
+".
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+processor.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Contexts
+may
+be
+specified
+in-line.
+</ins>
+This
+<del class="diff-old">mechanism
+is
+a
+short-hand
+for
+RDF,
+called
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">ensures
+that
+JSON-LD
+documents
+can
+be
+processed
+when
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">CURIE,
+and
+provides
+developers
+an
+unambiguous
+way
+to
+map
+any
+JSON
+value
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+processor
+does
+not
+have
+access
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">RDF.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+Web.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">2.6
+An
+Example
+of
+a
+Context
+</del>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+strives
+to
+ensure
+that
+developers
+don't
+have
+to
+change
+the
+JSON
+that
+is
+going
+into
+and
+being
+returned
+from
+their
+Web
+applications.
+<ins class="diff-new">This
+means
+that
+developers
+can
+also
+specify
+a
+context
+for
+JSON
+data
+in
+an
+out-of-band
+fashion
+via
+the
+API.
+The
+API
+is
+described
+later
+in
+this
+document.
+</ins>
+A
+JSON-LD
+aware
+Web
+Service
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+<ins class="diff-new">also
+</ins>
+define
+a
+<del class="diff-old">known
+context.
+For
+example,
+the
+following
+default
+</del>
+context
+<del class="diff-old">could
+apply
+to
+all
+incoming
+Web
+Service
+calls
+previously
+accepting
+only
+JSON
+data:
+{
+  "@context": 
+  {
+    "@vocab": "http://example.org/default-vocab#",
+    "@base": "http://example.org/baseurl/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+    "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/",
+    "sioc": "http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#",
+    "cc": "http://creativecommons.org/ns#",
+    "geo": "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#",
+    "vcard": "http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#",
+    "cal": "http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#",
+    "doap": "http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#",
+    "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person",
+    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+    "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage"
+    "@coerce": 
+    {
+      "xsd:anyURI": ["rdf:type", "rdf:rest", "foaf:homepage", "foaf:member"],
+      "xsd:integer": "foaf:age"
+    }
+  }
+}
+The
[email protected]
+string
+is
+a
+special
+keyword
+that
+states
+</del>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">any
+term
+that
+doesn't
+resolve
+to
+a
+term
+or
+a
+prefix
+should
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">will
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">appended
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">pre-loaded
+for
+all
+calls
+</ins>
+to
+the
+<del class="diff-old">@vocab
+IRI.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">service.
+</ins>
+This
+<del class="diff-old">is
+done
+to
+ensure
+that
+terms
+can
+be
+transformed
+to
+an
+IRI
+at
+all
+times.
+The
[email protected]
+string
+is
+a
+special
+keyword
+that
+states
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allows
+services
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">any
+relative
+IRI
+must
+be
+appended
+to
+the
+string
+specified
+by
[email protected]
+.
+The
[email protected]
+keyword
+is
+used
+to
+specify
+type
+coercion
+rules
+for
+the
+data.
+For
+each
+key
+in
+the
+map,
+the
+key
+is
+the
+type
+to
+be
+coerced
+to
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">have
+previously
+been
+publishing
+</ins>
+and
+<del class="diff-old">the
+value
+is
+the
+vocabulary
+term
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">receiving
+JSON
+data
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">be
+coerced.
+Type
+coercion
+for
+the
+key
+xsd:anyURI
+asserts
+that
+all
+vocabulary
+terms
+listed
+should
+undergo
+coercion
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">accept
+JSON-LD
+data
+without
+requiring
+client
+software
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">an
+IRI,
+including
[email protected]
+processing
+for
+relative
+IRIs
+and
+CURIE
+processing
+for
+compact
+URI
+Expressions
+such
+as
+foaf:homepage
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">change.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="from-json-to-json-ld" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">3.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">2.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Markup
+Examples
+The
+JSON-LD
+markup
+examples
+below
+demonstrate
+how
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+used
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">From
+JSON
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+semantic
+data
+marked
+up
+in
+other
+languages
+such
+as
+RDFa,
+Microformats,
+and
+Microdata.
+These
+sections
+are
+merely
+provided
+as
+proof
+that
+</del>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">is
+very
+flexible
+in
+what
+it
+can
+express
+across
+different
+Linked
+Data
+approaches.
+3.1
+RDFa
+</del>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+following
+example
+describes
+three
+people
+with
+their
+respective
+names
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+a
+set
+of
+terms
+such
+as,
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+name
+</ins></strong>,<strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+homepage
+</ins></strong>,
+and
+<del class="diff-old">homepages.
+&lt;div &gt;
+   &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Bob&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Eve&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li &gt;
+        &lt;a &gt;Manu&lt;/a&gt;
+      &lt;/li&gt;
+   &lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+An
+example
+JSON-LD
+implementation
+is
+described
+below,
+however,
+there
+</del>
+<strong>
+<ins class="diff-chg">avatar
+</ins></strong>,
+are
+<del class="diff-old">other
+ways
+to
+mark-up
+this
+information
+such
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">defined
+in
+a
+context,
+and
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">the
+</del>
+context
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+repeated.
+[
+ {
+   "@": "_:bnode1",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/bob/",
+   "foaf:name": "Bob"
+ },
+ {
+   "@": "_:bnode2",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/eve/",
+   "foaf:name": "Eve"
+ },
+ {
+   "@": "_:bnode3",
+   "a": "foaf:Person",
+   "foaf:homepage": "http://example.com/manu/",
+   "foaf:name": "Manu"
+ }
+]
+3.2
+Microformats
+The
+following
+example
+uses
+a
+simple
+Microformats
+hCard
+example
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">express
+how
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">resolve
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">Microformat
+is
+represented
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">names
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD.
+&lt;div class="vcard"&gt;
+ &lt;a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/"&gt;Tantek Çelik&lt;/a&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+The
+representation
+of
+the
+hCard
+expresses
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+objects,
+machines
+are
+able
+to
+automatically
+expand
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">Microformat
+</del>
+terms
+<del class="diff-old">in
+the
+context
+and
+uses
+them
+directly
+for
+the
+url
+and
+fn
+properties.
+Also
+note
+that
+the
+Microformat
+</del>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+processor
+has
+generated
+the
+proper
+URL
+type
+for
+http://tantek.com
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">something
+meaningful
+and
+unambiguous,
+like
+this:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">  "@context": 
+  {
+    "vcard": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#vcard",
+    "url": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#url",
+    "fn": "http://microformats.org/profile/hcard#fn",
+    "@coerce": { "xsd:anyURI": "url" }
+  },
+  "@": "_:bnode1",
+  "a": "vcard",
+  "url": "http://tantek.com/",
+  "fn": "Tantek Çelik"
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org"
+  "<span class="diff">http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#avatar</span>": "http://twitter.com/account/profile_image/manusporny"
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">3.3
+Microdata
+The
+Microdata
+example
+below
+expresses
+book
+information
+as
+a
+Microdata
+Work
+item.
+&lt;dl itemscope
+    itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work"
+    itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N"&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Title&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;cite itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/title"&gt;Just a Geek&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;By&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd&gt;&lt;span itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator"&gt;Wil Wheaton&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dt&gt;Format&lt;/dt&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"&gt;
+  Print
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+ &lt;dd itemprop="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization"
+     itemscope
+     itemtype="http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression"
+     itemid="http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"&gt;
+  &lt;link itemprop="http://purl.org/dc/terms/type" href="http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"&gt;
+  Ebook
+ &lt;/dd&gt;
+&lt;/dl&gt;
+</del>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Note
+that
+the
+JSON-LD
+representation
+of
+the
+Microdata
+information
+stays
+true
+to
+the
+desires
+of
+the
+Microdata
+community
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Doing
+this
+allows
+JSON
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">avoid
+contexts
+and
+instead
+refer
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+unambiguously
+machine-readable
+without
+requiring
+developers
+that
+use
+JSON
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">items
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">drastically
+change
+</ins>
+their
+<del class="diff-old">full
+IRI.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">workflow.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">[
+  {
+    "@": "http://purl.oreilly.com/works/45U8QJGZSQKDH8N",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Work",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title": "Just a Geek",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator": "Whil Wheaton",
+    "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#realization": 
+      ["http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK", "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK"]
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596007683.BOOK",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/BOOK"
+  },
+  {
+    "@": "http://purl.oreilly.com/products/9780596802189.EBOOK",
+    "a": "http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#Expression",
+    "http://purl.org/dc/terms/type": "http://purl.oreilly.com/product-types/EBOOK"
+  }
+]
+</del>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="basic-concepts" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Markup
+of
+RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Basic
+</ins>
+Concepts
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+is
+designed
+to
+ensure
+that
+<del class="diff-old">most
+</del>
+Linked
+Data
+concepts
+can
+be
+marked
+up
+in
+a
+way
+that
+is
+simple
+to
+understand
+and
+author
+by
+Web
+developers.
+In
+many
+cases,
+<del class="diff-old">Javascript
+objects
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">regular
+JSON
+markup
+</ins>
+can
+become
+Linked
+Data
+with
+the
+simple
+addition
+of
+a
+context.
+<del class="diff-old">Since
+RDF
+is
+also
+an
+important
+sub-community
+of
+the
+Linked
+Data
+movement,
+it
+is
+important
+that
+all
+RDF
+concepts
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">As
+more
+JSON-LD
+features
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">well-represented
+in
+this
+specification.
+This
+section
+details
+how
+each
+RDF
+concept
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used,
+more
+semantics
+are
+added
+to
+the
+JSON
+markup.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<div id="iris" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRIs
+</h3>
+<p>
+Expressing
+IRIs
+are
+fundamental
+to
+Linked
+Data
+as
+that
+is
+how
+most
+<del class="diff-old">subjects
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+and
+many
+<del class="diff-old">objects
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="object" href="#dfn-object">
+<ins class="diff-chg">object
+</ins></a>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">identified.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">named.
+</ins>
+IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+variety
+of
+different
+ways
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+In
+general,
+<del class="diff-old">an
+IRI
+is
+generated
+if
+it
+is
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+</ins>
+in
+the
+key
+position
+in
+an
+associative
+<del class="diff-old">array.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">array
+that
+have
+a
+mapping
+to
+an
+IRI
+or
+another
+key
+in
+the
+context
+are
+expanded
+to
+an
+IRI
+by
+JSON-LD
+processors.
+</ins>
+There
+are
+special
+rules
+for
+processing
+keys
+in
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+and
+when
+dealing
+with
+keys
+that
+start
+with
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@subject
+</ins>
+</code>
+character.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@subject
+</ins>
+</code>,
+if
+it
+is
+a
+string.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+value
+specified
+using
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+for
+the
+value
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</li>
+<li>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+when
+there
+are
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+rules
+in
+effect
+for
+<del class="diff-old">xsd:anyURI
+for
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">particular
+vocabulary
+term.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">key
+named
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+example
+of
+IRI
+generation
+for
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRIs
+can
+be
+expressed
+directly
+in
+the
+</ins>
+key
+<del class="diff-old">outside
+of
+a
[email protected]
+:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">position
+like
+so:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+key
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>
+is
+interpreted
+as
+an
+IRI,
+as
+opposed
+to
+being
+interpreted
+as
+a
+string..
+</p>
+<p>
+Term
+expansion
+occurs
+for
+IRIs
+if
+a
+term
+is
+defined
+within
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "<span class="diff">@context</span>": {"<span class="diff">name</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name</span>"},
+...
+  "<span class="diff">name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">CURIE
+expansion
+also
+occurs
+for
+keys
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="Prefix" href="#dfn-prefix">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+es
+are
+expanded
+when
+used
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD:
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keys:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<ins class="diff-new">  "<span class="diff">@context</span>": {"<span class="diff">foaf</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/</span>"},
+</ins>
+...
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>": "Manu Sporny",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<code>
+foaf:name
+</code>
+above
+will
+automatically
+expand
+out
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+An
+IRI
+is
+generated
+when
+a
+value
+is
+associated
+with
+a
+key
+using
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:homepage": { "<span class="diff">@iri</span>": "http://manu.sporny.org" }
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+If
+type
+coercion
+rules
+are
+specified
+in
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+for
+a
+particular
+vocabulary
+term,
+an
+IRI
+is
+generated:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{<span class="diff">
+  "@context": 
+<del class="diff-old">  { 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    ...
+</ins>
+    "@coerce": 
+    {
+<del class="diff-old">      "xsd:anyURI": "foaf:homepage"
+    } 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">      "@iri": "foaf:homepage"
+    }
+</ins>
+  }</span>
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "foaf:homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "foaf:homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">Even
+though
+the
+value
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+http://manu.sporny.org/
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+is
+a
+string,
+the
+type
+coercion
+rules
+will
+transform
+the
+value
+into
+an
+IRI
+when
+processed
+by
+a
+JSON-LD
+Processor
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+<div id="identifying-the-subject" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Identifying
+the
+Subject
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+subject
+is
+declared
+using
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@subject
+</ins>
+</code>
+key.
+The
+subject
+is
+the
+first
+piece
+of
+information
+needed
+by
+the
+JSON-LD
+processor
+in
+order
+to
+create
+the
+(subject,
+property,
+object)
+tuple,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+triple.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "<span class="diff">@subject</span>": "<span class="diff">http://example.org/people#joebob</span>",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+the
+IRI
+<code>
+http://example.org/people#joebob
+</code>.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="specifying-the-type" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Specifying
+the
+Type
+</h3>
+<p>
+The
+type
+of
+a
+particular
+subject
+can
+be
+specified
+using
+the
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+key.
+Specifying
+the
+type
+in
+this
+way
+will
+generate
+a
+triple
+of
+the
+form
+(subject,
+type,
+type-url).
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "@": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@subject": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person</span>",
+</ins>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triple
+<ins class="diff-new">if
+the
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+mapped
+to
+RDF
+</ins>
+(in
+N-Triples
+notation):
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type&gt;
+&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="strings" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Plain
+Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Strings
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+Regular
+text
+<del class="diff-old">strings
+are
+called
+a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">strings,
+also
+refered
+to
+as
+</ins>
+<dfn title="plain_literal" id="dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</dfn>
+<del class="diff-old">in
+RDF
+and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">s,
+</ins>
+are
+easily
+expressed
+using
+regular
+JSON
+strings.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "<span class="diff">Mark Birbeck</span>",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="string-internationalization" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.5
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Language
+Specification
+in
+Plain
+Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">String
+Internationalization
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+makes
+an
+assumption
+that
+<del class="diff-old">plain
+literal
+s
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">strings
+</ins>
+with
+associated
+language
+encoding
+information
+<del class="diff-old">is
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">are
+</ins>
+not
+very
+common
+when
+used
+in
+JavaScript
+and
+Web
+Services.
+Thus,
+it
+takes
+a
+little
+more
+effort
+to
+express
+<del class="diff-old">plain
+literals
+in
+a
+specified
+language.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">strings
+with
+associated
+language
+information.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": <span class="diff">
+  {
+    "@literal": "花澄",
+    "@language": "ja"
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</a>
+for
+<em>
+花澄
+</em>
+and
+associate
+the
+<code>
+ja
+</code>
+language
+<del class="diff-old">tag
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">code
+</ins>
+with
+the
+triple
+that
+is
+generated.
+Languages
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+be
+expressed
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-BCP47">
+BCP47
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+format.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="datatypes" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Typed
+Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Datatypes
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+<ins class="diff-new">value
+with
+an
+associated
+datatype,
+also
+known
+as
+a
+</ins>
+<dfn title="typed_literal" id="dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</dfn>,
+is
+indicated
+by
+<del class="diff-old">attaching
+a
+IRI
+to
+the
+end
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">associating
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">plain
+</del>
+literal
+<del class="diff-old">,
+and
+this
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">with
+an
+</ins>
+IRI
+<ins class="diff-new">which
+</ins>
+indicates
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">typed
+</ins>
+literal's
+datatype.
+<del class="diff-old">Literals
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Typed
+literals
+</ins>
+may
+be
+<del class="diff-old">typed
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">expressed
+</ins>
+in
+JSON-LD
+in
+three
+ways:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+utilizing
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects.
+</li>
+<li>
+By
+using
+a
+native
+JSON
+datatype.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+The
+first
+example
+uses
+the
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+keyword
+to
+express
+a
+typed
+literal:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{<span class="diff">
+  "@context": 
+<del class="diff-old">  { 
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  {
+    "dc":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+</ins>
+    "@coerce": 
+    {
+      "xsd:dateTime": "dc:modified"
+    }
+  }</span>
+...
+  "dc:modified": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+second
+example
+uses
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+specifying
+objects:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  "dc:modified": <span class="diff">
+  {
+    "@literal": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+    "@datatype": "xsd:dateTime"
+  }</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+Both
+examples
+above
+would
+generate
+an
+object
+with
+the
+literal
+value
+of
+<code>
+2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00
+</code>
+and
+the
+datatype
+of
+<code>
+http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">The
+third
+example
+uses
+a
+built-in
+native
+JSON
+type,
+a
+number,
+to
+express
+a
+datatype:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+  "foaf:age": <span class="diff">31</span>
+...
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triple:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt; 
+"31"^^&lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer&gt;
+.
+</ins></pre>
+</div>
+<div id="multiple-objects-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.7
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.7
+</ins>
+</span>
+Multiple
+Objects
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+A
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+express
+multiple
+triples
+in
+a
+compact
+way
+by
+using
+arrays.
+If
+a
+subject
+has
+multiple
+values
+for
+the
+same
+property,
+the
+author
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+express
+each
+property
+as
+an
+array.
+</p>
+<p class="note">
+<ins class="diff-new">In
+JSON-LD,
+Multiple
+objects
+on
+a
+property
+are
+not
+ordered.
+This
+is
+because
+typically
+graphs
+are
+not
+inherently
+ordered
+data
+structures.
+To
+see
+more
+on
+creating
+ordered
+collections
+in
+JSON-LD,
+see
+</ins><a href="#lists"><ins class="diff-new">
+Lists
+</ins></a>.</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "@": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@subject": "http://example.org/people#joebob",
+</ins>
+  "foaf:nick": <span class="diff">["joe", "bob", "jaybee"]</span>,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "joe" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+      "bob" .
+&lt;http://example.org/people#joebob&gt; 
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick&gt;
+"jaybee"
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="multiple-typed-literals-for-a-single-property" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.8
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.8
+</ins>
+</span>
+Multiple
+Typed
+Literals
+for
+a
+Single
+Property
+</h3>
+<p>
+Multiple
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+s
+may
+also
+be
+expressed
+using
+the
+expanded
+form
+for
+objects:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+<del class="diff-old">  "@": "http://example.org/articles/8",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">  "@subject": "http://example.org/articles/8",
+</ins>
+  "dcterms:modified": <span class="diff">
+  [
+    {
+      "@literal": "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00",
+      "@datatype": "xsd:dateTime"
+    },
+    {
+      "@literal": "2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00",
+      "@datatype": "xsd:dateTime"
+    }
+  ]</span>
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+markup
+shown
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+      "2010-05-29T14:17:39+02:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime .
+&lt;http://example.org/articles/8&gt; 
+   &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified&gt;
+"2010-05-30T09:21:28-04:00"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">4.9
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">3.9
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Blank
+Nodes
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">At
+times,
+it
+becomes
+necessary
+to
+be
+able
+to
+express
+information
+without
+being
+able
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+all
+IRI,
+datatypes,
+and
+literal
+values
+are
+expanded
+so
+that
+the
+context
+is
+no
+longer
+necessary.
+JSON-LD
+document
+expansion
+is
+typically
+used
+when
+re-mapping
+JSON-LD
+documents
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">specify
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">application-specific
+JSON
+documents
+or
+as
+a
+part
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">subject.
+Typically,
+this
+</del>
+<a href="#normalization">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+process.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+assume
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": "homepage"
+      }
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Expansion
+algorithm
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+above
+would
+result
+in
+the
+following
+output:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": 
+   {
+      "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre></div><div id="compaction" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.10
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compaction
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compaction
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">where
+blank
+nodes
+come
+into
+play.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+blank
+node
+identifiers
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document
+and
+applying
+a
+context
+such
+that
+the
+most
+compact
+form
+of
+the
+document
+is
+generated.
+JSON
+is
+typically
+expressed
+in
+a
+very
+compact,
+key-value
+format.
+That
+is,
+full
+IRIs
+</ins>
+are
+<del class="diff-old">automatically
+created
+if
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">rarely
+used
+as
+keys.
+At
+times,
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+document
+may
+be
+received
+that
+</ins>
+is
+not
+<del class="diff-old">specified
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">in
+its
+most
+compact
+form.
+JSON-LD,
+via
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">@
+keyword.
+However,
+authors
+may
+name
+blank
+nodes
+by
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">API,
+provides
+a
+way
+to
+compact
+a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+For
+example,
+assume
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">special
+_
+CURIE
+prefix.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">following
+JSON-LD
+input
+document:
+</ins>
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">...
+  "@": "",
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": 
+   {
+      "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+   }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+example
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Additionally,
+assume
+the
+following
+developer-supplied
+JSON-LD
+context:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+   "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+   "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+   "@coerce": 
+   {
+      "@iri": ["homepage"]
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Running
+the
+JSON-LD
+Compaction
+algorithm
+given
+the
+context
+supplied
+above
+against
+the
+JSON-LD
+input
+document
+provided
+</ins>
+above
+would
+<del class="diff-old">set
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">result
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">following
+output:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": "homepage"
+      }
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+compaction
+algorithm
+also
+enables
+the
+developer
+</ins>
+to
+<ins class="diff-new">map
+any
+expanded
+format
+into
+an
+application-specific
+compacted
+format.
+While
+the
+context
+provided
+above
+mapped
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">_:foo
+,
+which
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+name
+</ins></strong>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+it
+could
+have
+also
+mapped
+it
+to
+any
+arbitrary
+string
+provided
+by
+the
+developer.
+</ins></p></div><div id="framing" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+3.11
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Framing
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+A
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+a
+representation
+of
+a
+directed
+graph.
+A
+single
+directed
+graph
+can
+have
+many
+different
+serializations,
+each
+expressing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information.
+Developers
+typically
+work
+with
+trees,
+also
+called
+associative
+arrays,
+when
+dealing
+with
+JSON.
+While
+mapping
+a
+graph
+to
+a
+tree
+can
+be
+done,
+the
+layout
+of
+the
+end
+result
+must
+be
+specified
+in
+advance.
+A
+</ins><dfn title="Frame" id="dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Frame
+</ins></dfn>
+can
+<del class="diff-old">then
+</del>
+be
+used
+<del class="diff-old">later
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">by
+a
+developer
+</ins>
+on
+<ins class="diff-new">a
+JSON-LD
+document
+to
+specify
+a
+deterministic
+layout
+for
+a
+graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Framing
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+document,
+which
+expresses
+a
+graph
+of
+information,
+and
+applying
+a
+specific
+graph
+layout
+(called
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="Frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-new">
+Frame
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+).
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+JSON-LD
+document
+below
+expresses
+a
+library,
+a
+book
+and
+a
+chapter:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+   "@coerce": {
+    "dc":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+    "ex":  "http://example.org/"
+   },
+   "@subject": 
+   [{
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+      "@type": "ex:Library",
+      "ex:contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic"
+   }, 
+   {
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+      "@type": "ex:Book",
+      "dc:creator": "Plato",
+      "dc:title": "The Republic",
+      "ex:contains": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction"
+   }, 
+   {
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+      "@type": "ex:Chapter",
+      "dc:description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+      "dc:title": "The Introduction"
+   }],
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": "ex:contains"
+      },
+      "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",
+      "ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Developers
+typically
+like
+to
+operate
+on
+items
+in
+a
+hierarchical,
+tree-based
+fashion.
+Ideally,
+a
+developer
+would
+want
+the
+data
+above
+sorted
+into
+top-level
+libraries,
+then
+the
+books
+that
+are
+contained
+in
+each
+library,
+and
+then
+the
+chapters
+contained
+</ins>
+in
+<ins class="diff-new">each
+book.
+To
+achieve
+that
+layout,
+the
+developer
+can
+define
+the
+following
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-new">
+frame
+</ins></a>:</p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+   "@context": {
+      "dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",
+      "ex": "http://example.org/vocab#"
+   },
+   "@type": "ex:Library",
+   "ex:contains": {
+      "@type": "ex:Book",
+      "ex:contains": {
+         "@type": "ex:Chapter"
+      }
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+When
+the
+framing
+algorithm
+is
+run
+against
+</ins>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">previously
+defined
+</ins>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">markup
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">document,
+paired
+with
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="frame" href="#dfn-frame"><ins class="diff-chg">
+frame
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+above,
+the
+following
+JSON-LD
+document
+is
+the
+end
+result:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "ex": "http://example.org/vocab#",
+      "dc":  "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
+   }
+   "@subject": "http://example.org/library",
+   "@type": "ex:Library",
+   "ex:contains": 
+   {
+      "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic",
+      "@type": "ex:Book",
+      "dc:creator": "Plato",
+      "dc:title": "The Republic",
+      "ex:contains": 
+      {
+         "@subject": "http://example.org/library/the-republic#introduction",
+         "@type": "ex:Chapter",
+         "dc:description": "An introductory chapter on The Republic.",
+         "dc:title": "The Introduction"
+      },
+   },
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+framing
+algorithm
+allows
+developers
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">refer
+back
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">query
+by
+example
+and
+force
+a
+specific
+tree
+layout
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">the
+named
+blank
+node.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+JSON-LD
+document.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="advanced-concepts" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.
+</ins>
+</span>
+Advanced
+<del class="diff-old">Features
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Concepts
+</ins>
+</h2>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+has
+a
+number
+of
+features
+that
+provide
+functionality
+above
+and
+beyond
+the
+core
+functionality
+<del class="diff-old">provided
+by
+RDF.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">described
+above.
+</ins>
+The
+following
+sections
+outline
+the
+features
+that
+are
+specific
+to
+JSON-LD.
+</p>
+<div id="automatic-typing" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Automatic
+Typing
+</h3>
+<p>
+Since
+JSON
+is
+capable
+of
+expressing
+typed
+information
+such
+as
+doubles,
+integers,
+and
+boolean
+values.
+As
+demonstrated
+below,
+JSON-LD
+utilizes
+that
+information
+to
+create
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+s:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+...
+  // The following two values are automatically converted to a type of xsd:double
+  // and both values are equivalent to each other.
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3</span>,
+  "measure:cups": <span class="diff">5.3e0</span>,
+  // The following value is automatically converted to a type of xsd:double as well
+  "space:astronomicUnits": <span class="diff">6.5e73</span>,
+  // The following value should never be converted to a language-native type
+  "measure:stones": <span class="diff">{ "@literal": "4.8", "@datatype": "xsd:decimal" }</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:integer
+  "chem:protons": <span class="diff">12</span>,
+  // This value is automatically converted to having a type of xsd:boolean
+  "sensor:active": <span class="diff">true</span>,
+...
+}
+</pre>
+<p class="note">
+When
+dealing
+with
+a
+number
+of
+modern
+programming
+languages,
+including
+JavaScript
+ECMA-262,
+there
+is
+no
+distinction
+between
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+values.
+That
+is,
+the
+number
+<code>
+5.3
+</code>
+and
+the
+number
+<code>
+5.3e0
+</code>
+are
+treated
+as
+if
+they
+were
+the
+same.
+When
+converting
+from
+JSON-LD
+to
+a
+language-native
+format
+and
+back,
+datatype
+information
+is
+lost
+in
+a
+number
+of
+these
+languages.
+Thus,
+one
+could
+say
+that
+<code>
+5.3
+</code>
+is
+a
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<code>
+5.3e0
+</code>
+is
+an
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>
+in
+JSON-LD,
+but
+when
+both
+values
+are
+converted
+to
+a
+language-native
+format
+the
+datatype
+difference
+between
+the
+two
+is
+lost
+because
+the
+machine-level
+representation
+will
+almost
+always
+be
+a
+<strong>
+double
+</strong>.
+Implementers
+should
+be
+aware
+of
+this
+potential
+round-tripping
+issue
+between
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+and
+<strong>
+xsd:double
+</strong>.
+Specifically
+objects
+with
+a
+datatype
+of
+<strong>
+xsd:decimal
+</strong>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">
+must
+not
+</em>
+be
+converted
+to
+a
+language
+native
+type.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="type-coercion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">5.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+Type
+Coercion
+</h3>
+<p>
+JSON-LD
+supports
+the
+coercion
+of
+<del class="diff-old">types
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">values
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">ensure
+that
+the
+zero-edit
+goal
+of
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+accomplished.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">particular
+data
+types.
+</ins>
+Type
+coercion
+allows
+someone
+deploying
+JSON-LD
+to
+coerce
+<del class="diff-old">and
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+incoming
+or
+outgoing
+types
+to
+the
+proper
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">data
+</ins>
+type
+based
+on
+a
+mapping
+of
+<ins class="diff-new">data
+</ins>
+type
+IRIs
+to
+<del class="diff-old">RDF
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+</ins>
+types.
+Using
+type
+<del class="diff-old">conversion,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">coercion,
+</ins>
+one
+may
+convert
+simple
+JSON
+data
+to
+properly
+typed
+RDF
+data.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+example
+below
+demonstrates
+how
+a
+JSON-LD
+author
+can
+coerce
+values
+to
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="plain_literal" href="#dfn-plain_literal">
+plain
+literal
+</a>
+s,
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="typed_literal" href="#dfn-typed_literal">
+typed
+literal
+</a>
+s
+and
+IRIs.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+{
+  "@context": 
+  {  
+     "rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
+     "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+     "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+     "age": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age",
+     "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+<span class="diff">     "@coerce":
+     {
+        "xsd:integer": "age",
+<del class="diff-old">        "xsd:anyURI": "homepage",
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">        "@iri": "homepage"
+</ins>
+     }</span>
+  },
+  "name": "John Smith",
+  "age": <span class="diff">"41"</span>,
+  "homepage": <span class="diff">"http://example.org/home/"</span>
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+The
+example
+above
+would
+generate
+the
+following
+triples:
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&gt;
+      "John Smith" .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age&gt;
+      "41"^^http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer .
+_:bnode1
+   &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage&gt;
+&lt;http://example.org/home/&gt;
+.
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div id="chaining" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+Algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Chaining
+</ins></h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+JSON-LD
+Processing
+Model
+describes
+processing
+rules
+for
+extracting
+RDF
+from
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Object
+</ins><dfn title="chaining" id="dfn-chaining"><ins class="diff-chg">
+chaining
+</ins></dfn><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+</ins>
+a
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">document.
+Note
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">feature
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">many
+uses
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allows
+an
+author
+to
+use
+the
+definition
+</ins>
+of
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">may
+not
+require
+generation
+of
+RDF.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">objects
+as
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="property" href="#dfn-property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+property
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+values.
+This
+is
+a
+commonly
+used
+mechanism
+for
+creating
+a
+parent-child
+relationship
+between
+two
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+subject
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s.
+</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">processing
+algorithm
+described
+in
+this
+section
+is
+provided
+in
+order
+to
+demonstrate
+how
+one
+might
+implement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+shows
+an
+two
+subjects
+related
+by
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">JSON-LD
+processor.
+Conformant
+implementations
+are
+only
+required
+to
+produce
+the
+same
+type
+and
+number
+of
+triples
+during
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">property
+from
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">output
+process
+and
+are
+not
+required
+to
+implement
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">first
+subject:
+</ins></p>  <pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+...
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "<span class="diff">foaf:knows</span>": {
+    "<span class="diff">@type</span>": "<span class="diff">foaf:Person</span>",
+    "<span class="diff">foaf:name</span>": "<span class="diff">Gregg Kellogg</span>",
+  }
+...
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+An
+object
+definition,
+like
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">algorithm
+exactly
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">one
+used
+above,
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+used
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">described.
+The
+Processing
+Algorithm
+is
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">work
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON
+value
+at
+any
+point
+</ins>
+in
+<del class="diff-old">progress.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="identifying-unlabeled-nodes" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Overview
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Identifying
+Unlabeled
+Nodes
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">This
+section
+is
+non-normative.
+JSON-LD
+is
+intended
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">At
+times,
+it
+becomes
+necessary
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">have
+an
+easy
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+able
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">parse
+grammar
+that
+closely
+models
+existing
+practice
+in
+using
+JSON
+for
+describing
+object
+representations.
+This
+allows
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">express
+information
+without
+being
+able
+to
+specify
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject.
+Typically,
+this
+type
+</ins>
+of
+<del class="diff-old">existing
+libraries
+for
+parsing
+JSON
+in
+a
+document-oriented
+fashion,
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">node
+is
+called
+an
+unlabeled
+node
+</ins>
+or
+<del class="diff-old">can
+allow
+for
+stream-based
+parsing
+similar
+to
+SAX.
+As
+with
+other
+grammars
+used
+for
+describing
+linked
+data,
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">key
+concept
+is
+that
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">blank
+node.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+unlabeled
+node
+identifiers
+are
+automatically
+created
+if
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">resource
+.
+Resources
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">subject
+is
+not
+specified
+using
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+keyword.
+However,
+authors
+</ins>
+may
+<del class="diff-old">be
+of
+three
+basic
+types:
+IRI
+s,
+for
+describing
+externally
+named
+entities,
+BNodes
+,
+resources
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">provide
+identifiers
+</ins>
+for
+<ins class="diff-new">unlabeled
+nodes
+by
+using
+the
+special
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+_
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-new">
+(underscore)
+CURIE
+prefix.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-new">
+{
+...
+  "@subject": "<span class="diff">_:foo</span>",
+...
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+example
+above
+would
+set
+the
+subject
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-new">
+_:foo
+</ins></code>,
+which
+<del class="diff-old">an
+external
+name
+does
+not
+exist,
+or
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">can
+then
+be
+used
+later
+on
+in
+the
+JSON-LD
+markup
+to
+refer
+back
+to
+the
+unlabeled
+node.
+This
+practice,
+however,
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">not
+known,
+and
+Literals,
+which
+describe
+terminal
+entities
+such
+as
+strings,
+dates
+and
+other
+representations
+having
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">usually
+frowned
+upon
+when
+generating
+Linked
+Data.
+If
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">lexical
+representation
+possibly
+including
+an
+explicit
+language
+or
+datatype.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">developer
+finds
+that
+they
+refer
+to
+the
+unlabeled
+node
+more
+than
+once,
+they
+should
+consider
+naming
+the
+node
+using
+a
+resolve-able
+IRI.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="overriding-keywords" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">4.5
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+Overriding
+Keywords
+</ins></h3>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Data
+described
+with
+</del>
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">may
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">allows
+all
+of
+the
+syntax
+keywords,
+except
+for
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins>
+be
+<del class="diff-old">considered
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">overridden.
+This
+feature
+allows
+more
+legacy
+JSON
+content
+</ins>
+to
+be
+<del class="diff-old">the
+representation
+of
+a
+graph
+made
+up
+of
+subject
+and
+object
+resources
+related
+via
+a
+predicate
+resource.
+However,
+specific
+implementations
+may
+choose
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">supported
+by
+JSON-LD.
+It
+also
+allows
+developers
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">operate
+on
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">design
+domain-specific
+implementations
+using
+only
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">document
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+context.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+  "@context": 
+  {  
+</ins>     <span class="diff">"url": "@subject"</span>,     <span class="diff">"a": "@type"</span>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+     "name": "http://schema.org/name"
+  },
+  "url": "http://example.com/about#gregg",
+  "a": "http://schema.org/Person",
+  "name": "Gregg Kellogg"
+}
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+In
+the
+example
+above,
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+keywords
+have
+been
+overridden
+by
+</ins><strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+url
+</ins></strong><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><strong>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">normal
+JSON
+description
+of
+objects
+having
+attributes.
+</del>
+</strong>,
+<ins class="diff-chg">respectively.
+</ins>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="normalization" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.2
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">4.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<del class="diff-old">default
+context
+a
+context
+that
+</del>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Normalization
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">specified
+to
+</del>
+the
+<ins class="diff-new">process
+of
+taking
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input">
+JSON-LD
+<del class="diff-old">processing
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+default
+graph
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">input
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+performing
+a
+deterministic
+transformation
+on
+that
+input
+that
+results
+in
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_output" href="#dfn-json-ld_output"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+that
+any
+conforming
+JSON-LD
+processor
+would
+have
+generated
+given
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">destination
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">same
+input.
+The
+problem
+is
+a
+fairly
+difficult
+technical
+problem
+to
+solve
+because
+it
+requires
+a
+directed
+</ins>
+graph
+<del class="diff-old">for
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">to
+be
+ordered
+into
+a
+set
+of
+nodes
+and
+edges
+in
+a
+deterministic
+way.
+This
+is
+easy
+to
+do
+when
+</ins>
+all
+<del class="diff-old">triples
+generated
+by
+JSON-LD
+markup.
+active
+subject
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">currently
+active
+subject
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+have
+unique
+names,
+but
+very
+difficult
+to
+do
+when
+some
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">processor
+should
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">nodes
+are
+not
+labeled.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+is
+useful
+when
+comparing
+two
+graphs
+against
+one
+another,
+</ins>
+when
+generating
+<del class="diff-old">triples.
+active
+property
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+detailed
+list
+of
+differences
+between
+two
+graphs,
+and
+</ins>
+when
+generating
+<del class="diff-old">triples.
+active
+object
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">a
+cryptographic
+digital
+signature
+for
+information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph
+or
+</ins>
+when
+generating
+<del class="diff-old">triples.
+active
+context
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+CURIEs
+while
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">hash
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">processing
+algorithm
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">information
+contained
+in
+a
+graph.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+example
+below
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">running.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+un-normalized
+JSON-LD
+document:
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+{
+   "name": "Manu Sporny",
+   "homepage": "http://manu.sporny.org/",
+   "@context": 
+   {
+      "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
+      "homepage": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage",
+      "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
+      "@coerce": 
+      {
+         "@iri": ["homepage"]
+      }
+   }
+}
+</ins></pre><p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">active
+context
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">example
+below
+</ins>
+is
+the
+<del class="diff-old">context
+contained
+within
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">normalized
+form
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">processor
+state
+.
+local
+context
+a
+context
+that
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">JSON-LD
+document
+above:
+</ins></p><p class="note"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Whitespace
+</ins>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">specified
+at
+the
+JSON
+associative-array
+level,
+specified
+via
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">used
+below
+to
+aid
+readability.
+The
+normalization
+algorithm
+for
+JSON-LD
+remove
+all
+unnecessary
+whitespace
+in
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">@context
+keyword.
+processor
+state
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">fully
+normalized
+form.
+</ins></p><pre class="example"><ins class="diff-chg">
+[{
+    "@subject": 
+    {
+        "@iri": "_:c14n0"
+    },
+    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage": 
+    {
+        "@iri": "http://manu.sporny.org/"
+    },
+    "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name": "Manu Sporny"
+}]
+</ins></pre><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Notice
+how
+all
+of
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">processor
+state
+,
+which
+includes
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term">
+<ins class="diff-chg">term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+s
+have
+been
+expanded
+and
+sorted
+in
+alphabetical
+order.
+Also,
+notice
+how
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">active
+context
+,
+current
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="subject" href="#dfn-subject">
+subject
+<del class="diff-old">,
+and
+current
+property
+.
+The
+processor
+state
+</del>
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">is
+managed
+as
+a
+stack
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">has
+been
+labeled
+</ins>
+with
+<del class="diff-old">elements
+from
+the
+previous
+processor
+state
+copied
+into
+</del>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">new
+processor
+state
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+associative
+array.
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="blank_node_identifier" href="#dfn-blank_node_identifier-7">
+<ins class="diff-chg">blank
+node
+identifier
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+Normalization
+ensures
+that
+any
+arbitrary
+graph
+containing
+exactly
+the
+same
+information
+would
+be
+normalized
+to
+exactly
+the
+same
+form
+shown
+above.
+</ins></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithms" class="section">
+<h2>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Algorithms
+</ins></h2><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+All
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section
+are
+intended
+to
+operate
+on
+language-native
+data
+structures.
+That
+is,
+the
+serialization
+to
+a
+text-based
+JSON
+document
+isn't
+required
+as
+input
+or
+output
+to
+any
+of
+these
+algorithms
+and
+language-native
+data
+structures
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+be
+used
+where
+applicable.
+</ins></p><div id="syntax-tokens-and-keywords" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.3
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Syntax
+</ins>
+Tokens
+and
+Keywords
+</h3>
+<p>
+<ins class="diff-new">JSON-LD
+specifies
+a
+number
+of
+syntax
+tokens
+and
+keywords
+that
+are
+using
+in
+all
+algorithms
+described
+in
+this
+section:
+</ins></p>
+<dl>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+object
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@profile
+A
+reference
+to
+a
+remote
+context
+description
+used
+to
+set
+the
+local
+context
+.
+</del>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+base
+IRI
+for
+all
+property
+IRIs
+affected
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+type
+coercion
+rules.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+a
+literal
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+an
+IRI
+value.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+language
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+specify
+the
+datatype
+for
+a
+literal.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>:
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+The
+separator
+for
+CURIEs
+when
+used
+in
+JSON
+keys
+or
+JSON
+values.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@subject
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Sets
+the
+active
+subjects.
+</dd>
+<dt>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@type
+</ins>
+</code>
+</dt>
+<dd>
+Used
+to
+set
+the
+<del class="diff-old">rdf:type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">type
+</ins>
+of
+the
+active
+subjects.
+<del class="diff-old">This
+token
+may
+be
+conferred
+as
+syntactic
+sugar
+for
+rdf:type.
+</del>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<del class="diff-old">Use
[email protected]
+instead
+of
[email protected]
+?
+Use
+</del>
+</div>
+<div id="algorithm-terms" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.2
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Algorithm
+Terms
+</ins></h3><dl><dt><dfn title="initial_context" id="dfn-initial_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+initial
+context
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+to
+the
+algorithm
+before
+processing
+begins.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="active_subject" id="dfn-active_subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+subject
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+currently
+active
+subject
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="active_property" id="dfn-active_property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+property
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+currently
+active
+property
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="active_object" id="dfn-active_object"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+object
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+currently
+active
+object
+that
+the
+processor
+should
+use
+when
+processing.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="active_context" id="dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+context
+that
+is
+used
+to
+resolve
+CURIEs
+while
+the
+processing
+algorithm
+is
+running.
+The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+the
+context
+contained
+within
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state"><ins class="diff-chg">
+processor
+state
+</ins></a>.</dd><dt><dfn title="local_context" id="dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+a
+context
+that
+is
+specified
+at
+the
+JSON
+associative-array
+level,
+specified
+via
+the
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@type
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@context
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">instead
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">keyword.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="processor_state" id="dfn-processor_state"><ins class="diff-chg">
+processor
+state
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state"><ins class="diff-chg">
+processor
+state
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+which
+includes
+the
+</ins><a class="tref" title="active__context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>,<a class="tref" title="current_subject"><ins class="diff-chg">
+current
+subject
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+</ins><a class="tref" title="current_property"><ins class="diff-chg">
+current
+property
+</ins></a>.<ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state"><ins class="diff-chg">
+processor
+state
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+managed
+as
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">?
+Note
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">stack
+with
+elements
+from
+the
+previous
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state"><ins class="diff-chg">
+processor
+state
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+copied
+into
+a
+new
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state"><ins class="diff-chg">
+processor
+state
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+when
+entering
+a
+new
+associative
+array.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="JSON-LD_input" id="dfn-json-ld_input"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+</ins>
+that
+<del class="diff-old">both
+are
+just
+semantic
+sugar
+for
+rdf:type
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">is
+provided
+as
+input
+to
+the
+algorithm.
+</ins></dd><dt><dfn title="JSON-LD_output" id="dfn-json-ld_output"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+output
+</ins></dfn></dt><dd><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+JSON-LD
+data
+structure
+that
+is
+produced
+as
+output
+by
+the
+algorithm.
+</ins></dd></dl>
+</div>
+<div id="context-1" class="section">
+<h3 id="context">
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.4
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3
+</ins>
+</span>
+Context
+</h3>
+<p>
+Processing
+of
+JSON-LD
+<ins class="diff-new">data
+structure
+</ins>
+is
+managed
+<del class="diff-old">recursively
+using
+a
+process
+described
+in
+Sequence
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">recursively.
+</ins>
+During
+processing,
+each
+rule
+is
+applied
+using
+information
+provided
+by
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+Processing
+begins
+by
+pushing
+a
+new
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+onto
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="processor_state" href="#dfn-processor_state">
+processor
+state
+</a>
+stack
+and
+initializing
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+with
+the
+<del class="diff-old">default
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">initial
+</ins>
+context
+</a>.
+If
+a
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+encountered,
+information
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+merged
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+</p>
+<del class="diff-old">Should
+the
+document
+URL
+be
+used
+as
+the
+default
+for
[email protected]
+in
+the
+default
+context
+?
+</del>
+<p>
+The
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+is
+used
+for
+expanding
+keys
+and
+values
+of
+an
+associative
+array
+(or
+elements
+of
+a
+list
+(see
+<span a="#list-processing">
+List
+Processing
+</span>
+)).
+</p>
+<p>
+A
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+is
+identified
+within
+an
+associative
+array
+having
+a
+key
+of
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+with
+<ins class="diff-new">string
+or
+</ins>
+an
+associative
+array
+value.
+When
+processing
+a
+<a class="tref" title="local__context">
+local
+context
+</a>,
+special
+<ins class="diff-new">processing
+</ins>
+rules
+apply:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Create
+a
+new,
+empty
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+a
+simple
+string,
+it
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="must"><ins class="diff-chg">
+must
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+have
+a
+lexical
+form
+of
+IRI
+and
+used
+to
+initialize
+a
+new
+JSON
+document
+which
+replaces
+the
+value
+for
+subsequent
+processing.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+associative
+array,
+perform
+the
+following
+steps:
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+associative
+array
+has
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">key,
+it
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+and
+is
+saved
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+absolute
+IRI.
+Add
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">active
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">base
+mapping
+to
+the
+</ins><a class="tref" title="local__context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+</ins>
+context
+</a>.
+<p class="issue">
+<ins class="diff-chg">Turtle
+allows
[email protected]
+</ins>
+to
+<del class="diff-old">perform
+term
+mapping
+as
+described
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">be
+relative.
+If
+we
+did
+this,
+we
+would
+have
+to
+add
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+the
+associative
+array
+has
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">key,
+it
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+<del class="diff-old">IRI
+and
+is
+saved
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">an
+absolute
+IRI.
+Add
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">active
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">vocabulary
+mapping
+to
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+</ins>
+context
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">to
+perform
+term
+mapping
+as
+described
+in
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">after
+performing
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion">
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+on
+the
+associated
+value.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+<del class="diff-old">The
+key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">If
+the
+associative
+array
+has
+a
+</ins>
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+<ins class="diff-new">key,
+it
+</ins>
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+a
+value
+of
+an
+associative
+array.
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+of
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Add
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">associative
+array
+is
+described
+below
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@coerce
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+mapping
+to
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins>
+</a>
+<ins class="diff-chg">performing
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+on
+the
+associated
+value(s).
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+the
+key
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-xml-names-20091208/#NT-NCName">
+NCName
+</a>
+</cite>
+and
+<em class="rfc2119" title="must">
+must
+</em>
+have
+the
+value
+of
+a
+simple
+string
+with
+the
+lexical
+form
+of
+IRI.
+Merge
+<del class="diff-old">each
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">the
+</ins>
+key-value
+pair
+into
+the
+<del class="diff-old">active
+</del>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+<ins class="diff-chg">local
+</ins>
+context
+<del class="diff-old">,
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values.
+</del>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<del class="diff-old">A
+</del>
+</ol>
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Merge
+the
+of
+</ins>
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+<del class="diff-old">may
+also
+be
+loaded
+from
+an
+external
+document
+using
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">'s
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+mapping
+into
+</ins>
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+<ins class="diff-new">active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+'s
+</ins>
+<code>
+<del class="diff-old">@profile
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@coerce
+</ins>
+</code>
+<del class="diff-old">key
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">mapping
+</ins>
+as
+described
+<del class="diff-old">in
+Vocabulary
+Profiles
+</del>
+<a href="#coerce">
+<ins class="diff-chg">below
+</ins>
+</a>.
+</li>
+<li>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Merge
+all
+entries
+other
+than
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+mapping
+from
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values.
+</ins></li></ol>
+<div id="coerce" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.4.1
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3.1
+</ins>
+</span>
+Coerce
+</h4>
+<p>
+Map
+each
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+into
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+overwriting
+any
+duplicate
+values
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+'s
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping.
+The
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping
+has
+<del class="diff-old">a
+</del>
+either
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+a
+single
+CURIE
+or
+<del class="diff-old">of
+</del>
+an
+array
+of
+CURIEs.
+When
+merging
+with
+an
+existing
+mapping
+in
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>,
+map
+all
+CURIE
+values
+to
+array
+form
+and
+replace
+with
+the
+union
+of
+the
+value
+from
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context">
+local
+context
+</a>
+and
+the
+value
+of
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>.
+If
+the
+result
+is
+an
+array
+with
+a
+single
+CURIE,
+the
+processor
+<em class="rfc2119" title="may">
+may
+</em>
+represent
+this
+as
+a
+string
+value.
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="initial-context" class="section">
+<h4>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.5
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.3.2
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Chaining
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Initial
+Context
+</ins></h4>
+<p>
+<del class="diff-old">Object
+chaining
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">The
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="initial_context" href="#dfn-initial_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+initial
+context
+</ins></a>
+is
+<del class="diff-old">a
+JSON-LD
+feature
+that
+allows
+an
+author
+to
+use
+the
+definition
+of
+JSON-LD
+objects
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">initialized
+</ins>
+as
+<del class="diff-old">property
+values.
+This
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">follows:
+</ins></p><ul><li><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>
+is
+<ins class="diff-new">set
+using
+</ins><cite><href="http: www.ietf.org="" rfc="" rfc2396.txt"=""><ins class="diff-new">
+section
+5.1
+Establishing
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">commonly
+used
+mechanism
+for
+creating
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Base
+URI
+</ins></href="http:></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+of
+[
+</ins><cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986"><ins class="diff-chg">
+RFC3986
+</ins></a></cite><ins class="diff-chg">
+].
+Processors
+</ins><em class="rfc2119" title="may"><ins class="diff-chg">
+may
+</ins></em><ins class="diff-chg">
+provide
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">parent-child
+relationship
+between
+objects.
+The
+example
+shows
+an
+two
+objects
+related
+by
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">means
+of
+setting
+the
+base
+IRI
+programatically.
+</ins></li><li><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+set
+with
+</ins>
+a
+<del class="diff-old">property
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">single
+mapping
+</ins>
+from
+<del class="diff-old">the
+first
+object:
+  
+</del>
+<code>
+<ins class="diff-chg">@iri
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+to
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>.</li></ul>    <pre class="example">
+{
+<del class="diff-old">...
+  "foaf:name": "Manu Sporny",
+  "": {
+    "",
+    "",
+  }
+...
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">    "@base": <span class="diff">document-location</span>,
+    "@context": {
+      "@iri": "@type"
+    }
+</ins>
+}
+</pre>
+<del class="diff-old">An
+object
+definition
+may
+be
+used
+anyplace
+a
+value
+is
+legal
+in
+JSON-LD.
+</del>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">6.6
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.4
+</ins>
+</span>
+IRI
+<del class="diff-old">Processing
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Expansion
+</ins>
+</h3>
+<p>
+Keys
+and
+some
+values
+are
+evaluated
+to
+produce
+an
+IRI.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+a
+value
+representing
+an
+IRI
+into
+an
+actual
+IRI.
+</p>
+<p>
+IRIs
+may
+be
+represented
+as
+an
+explicit
+string,
+or
+as
+a
+CURIE,
+as
+a
+value
+relative
+to
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+or
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>.
+</p>
+<p>
+CURIEs
+are
+defined
+more
+formally
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDFA-CORE">
+RDFA-CORE
+</a>
+</cite>
+]
+<cite>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/#s_curies">
+section
+6
+"CURIE
+Syntax
+Definition"
+</a>
+</cite>.
+Generally,
+a
+CURIE
+is
+composed
+of
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+a
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+separated
+by
+a
+':'.
+In
+JSON-LD,
+either
+the
+prefix
+may
+be
+the
+empty
+string,
+denoting
+the
+<dfn title="default_prefix" id="dfn-default_prefix">
+default
+prefix
+</dfn>.
+</p>
+<p>
+The
+<del class="diff-old">procedure
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">algorithm
+</ins>
+for
+generating
+an
+IRI
+is:
+</p>
+<ol class="algorithm">
+<li>
+Split
+the
+value
+into
+a
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>
+and
+<em>
+suffix
+</em>
+from
+the
+first
+occurrence
+of
+':'.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+prefix
+is
+a
+<del class="diff-old">'_',
+generate
+a
+named
+BNode
+using
+the
+suffix
+as
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">'_'
+(underscore),
+</ins>
+the
+<del class="diff-old">name.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">IRI
+is
+unchanged.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+<a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context">
+active
+context
+</a>
+contains
+a
+mapping
+for
+<em>
+prefix
+</em>,
+generate
+an
+IRI
+by
+prepending
+the
+mapped
+prefix
+to
+the
+(possibly
+empty)
+<del class="diff-old">suffix.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">suffix
+using
+textual
+concatenation.
+</ins>
+Note
+that
+an
+empty
+suffix
+and
+no
+suffix
+(meaning
+the
+value
+contains
+no
+':'
+string
+at
+all)
+are
+treated
+equivalently.
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+IRI
+being
+processed
+is
+for
+a
+property
+(i.e.,
+a
+key
+value
+in
+an
+associative
+array,
+or
+a
+value
+in
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping)
+and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+to
+the
+suffix
+using
+<del class="diff-old">the
+method
+described
+in
+[
+RFC3987
+].
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">textual
+concatenation.
+</ins>
+</li>
+<li>
+If
+the
+IRI
+being
+processed
+is
+for
+a
+subject
+or
+object
+(i.e.,
+not
+a
+property)
+and
+the
+active
+context
+has
+a
+<code>
[email protected]
+</code>
+mapping,
+join
+the
+mapped
+value
+to
+the
+suffix
+using
+the
+method
+described
+in
+[
+<cite>
+<del class="diff-old">RFC3987
+</del>
+<a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC3986">
+<ins class="diff-chg">RFC3986
+</ins>
+</a>
+</cite>
+].
+</li>
+<li>
+Otherwise,
+use
+the
+value
+directly
+as
+an
+IRI.
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+</p>
+</div>
+<div id="iri-compaction" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<ins class="diff-new">5.5
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-new">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-new">
+Some
+keys
+and
+values
+are
+expressed
+using
+IRIs.
+This
+section
+defines
+an
+algorithm
+for
+transforming
+an
+IRI
+to
+a
+compact
+IRI
+using
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+s
+and
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+es
+specified
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+local
+context
+</ins></a>.</p><p><ins class="diff-new">
+The
+algorithm
+for
+generating
+a
+compacted
+IRI
+is:
+</ins></p><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-new">
+Search
+every
+key-value
+pair
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+for
+a
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+that
+is
+a
+complete
+match
+against
+the
+IRI.
+If
+a
+complete
+match
+is
+found,
+the
+resulting
+compacted
+IRI
+is
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="term" href="#dfn-term"><ins class="diff-new">
+term
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+associated
+with
+the
+IRI
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a>.</li><li><ins class="diff-new">
+If
+a
+complete
+match
+is
+not
+found,
+search
+for
+a
+partial
+match
+from
+the
+beginning
+of
+the
+IRI.
+For
+all
+matches
+that
+are
+found,
+the
+resulting
+compacted
+IRI
+is
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="prefix" href="#dfn-prefix"><ins class="diff-new">
+prefix
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+associated
+with
+the
+partially
+matched
+IRI
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="active_context" href="#dfn-active_context"><ins class="diff-new">
+active
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-new">
+concatenated
+with
+a
+colon
+(:)
+character
+and
+the
+unmatched
+part
+of
+the
+string.
+If
+there
+is
+more
+than
+one
+compacted
+IRI
+produced,
+the
+final
+value
+is
+the
+lexicographically
+least
+value
+of
+the
+entire
+set
+of
+compacted
+IRIs.
+</ins></li></ol><p></p>
+</div>
+<div id="value-expansion" class="section">
+<h3>
+<span class="secno">
+<del class="diff-old">7.
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">5.6
+</ins>
+</span>
+<del class="diff-old">Sequence
+</del>
+<ins class="diff-chg">Value
+Expansion
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Some
+values
+in
+JSON-LD
+can
+be
+expressed
+in
+a
+compact
+form.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+expanded
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+algorithm
+for
+expanding
+a
+value
+is:
+</ins></p><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+value
+has
+an
+associated
+coercion
+entry
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins></a>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+resulting
+expansion
+is
+an
+object
+populated
+according
+to
+the
+following
+steps:
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+adding
+a
+new
+key-value
+pair
+where
+the
+key
+is
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+the
+value
+is
+the
+expanded
+IRI
+according
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+rules.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+typed
+literal,
+expand
+the
+value
+by
+adding
+two
+new
+key-value
+pairs.
+The
+first
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+the
+unexpanded
+value.
+The
+second
+key-value
+pair
+will
+be
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+and
+the
+associated
+coercion
+datatype
+expanded
+according
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+rules.
+</ins></li></ol></li></ol><p></p></div><div id="value-compaction" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.7
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+Compaction
+</ins></h3><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+Some
+values,
+such
+as
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals,
+may
+be
+expressed
+in
+an
+expanded
+form
+in
+JSON-LD.
+These
+values
+are
+required
+to
+be
+compacted
+at
+times
+when
+processing
+JSON-LD
+documents.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+The
+algorithm
+for
+compacting
+a
+value
+is:
+</ins></p><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+contains
+a
+coercion
+target
+for
+the
+key
+that
+is
+associated
+with
+the
+value,
+compact
+the
+value
+using
+the
+following
+steps:
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+an
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code>,<ins class="diff-chg">
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key,
+processed
+according
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#iri-compaction"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+Compaction
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+steps.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+coercion
+target
+is
+a
+typed
+literal,
+the
+compacted
+value
+is
+the
+value
+associated
+with
+the
+</ins><code><ins class="diff-chg">
[email protected]
+</ins></code><ins class="diff-chg">
+key.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Otherwise,
+the
+value
+is
+not
+modified.
+</ins></li></ol></li></ol><p></p></div><div id="expansion-1" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.8
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expansion
+</ins></h3><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-chg">
+This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+As
+stated
+previously,
+expansion
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a
+JSON-LD
+input
+and
+expanding
+all
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals
+to
+their
+fully-expanded
+form.
+The
+output
+will
+not
+contain
+a
+single
+context
+declaration
+and
+will
+have
+all
+IRIs
+and
+typed
+literals
+fully
+expanded.
+</ins></p><div id="expansion-algorithm" class="section"><h4><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.8.1
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Expansion
+Algorithm
+</ins></h4><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+an
+array,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+array
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+top-level
+item
+in
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="JSON-LD_input" href="#dfn-json-ld_input"><ins class="diff-chg">
+JSON-LD
+input
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+is
+an
+object,
+update
+the
+</ins><a class="tref internalDFN" title="local_context" href="#dfn-local_context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+local
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+according
+to
+the
+steps
+outlined
+in
+the
+</ins><a href="#context"><ins class="diff-chg">
+context
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+section.
+Process
+each
+key,
+expanding
+the
+key
+according
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#iri-expansion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+IRI
+Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+rules.
+</ins></li><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Process
+each
+value
+associated
+with
+each
+key
+</ins><ol class="algorithm"><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+array,
+process
+each
+item
+in
+the
+array
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+If
+the
+value
+is
+an
+object,
+process
+the
+object
+recursively
+using
+this
+algorithm.
+</ins></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Otherwise,
+check
+to
+see
+the
+associated
+key
+has
+an
+associated
+coercion
+rule.
+If
+the
+value
+should
+be
+coerced,
+expand
+the
+value
+according
+to
+the
+</ins><a href="#value-expansion"><ins class="diff-chg">
+Value
+Expansion
+</ins></a><ins class="diff-chg">
+rules.
+If
+the
+value
+does
+not
+need
+to
+be
+coerced,
+leave
+the
+value
+as-is.
+</ins></li></ol></li><li><ins class="diff-chg">
+Remove
+the
+context
+from
+the
+object
+</ins></li></ol></ol></div></div><div id="compaction-1" class="section"><h3><span class="secno"><ins class="diff-chg">
+5.9
+</ins></span><ins class="diff-chg">
+Compaction
+</ins></h3><p class="issue"><ins class="diff-chg">
+This
+algorithm
+is
+a
+work
+in
+progress,
+do
+not
+implement
+it.
+</ins></p><p><ins class="diff-chg">
+As
+stated
+previously,
+compaction
+is
+the
+process
+of
+taking
+a