Add very early start of a JSON-LD primer.
authorDavid I. Lehn <dlehn@digitalbazaar.com>
Thu, 15 Dec 2011 16:42:00 -0500
changeset 297 088a319ca900
parent 296 e994be052519
child 298 4e36cba4fc71
Add very early start of a JSON-LD primer.
index.html
primer/index.php
primer/latest/index.html
primer/latest/lang-jsonld.js
primer/latest/prettify.css
primer/latest/prettify.js
--- a/index.html	Thu Dec 15 15:44:26 2011 -0500
+++ b/index.html	Thu Dec 15 16:42:00 2011 -0500
@@ -78,6 +78,17 @@
                own JSON-LD markup.</p>
             </div>
 
+            <!--
+            <div id="primer">
+               <h1>The Primer</h1>
+               <p>An introduction to the principles of JSON-LD and examples of
+               how it can be used is available in the
+               <a href="primer/latest/">latest JSON-LD primer</a>.
+               <a href="primer/">Previous primer versions</a> are also
+               available.</p>
+            </div>
+            -->
+
             <div id="spec">
                <h1>The Specifications</h1>
                <p>Specifications and requirements are available for the JSON-LD Syntax, JSON-LD API, and RDF Graph Normalization. The latest drafts previous versions are available.</p>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/index.php	Thu Dec 15 16:42:00 2011 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,72 @@
+<?php
+print <<< htmlcode
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> 
+<html version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
+   xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#"
+   xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
+   xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
+   xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
+   xmlns:vcard="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#"
+   xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"
+   > 
+   <head> 
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> 
+      <title>JSON-LD - Primer</title> 
+      <link href="../site.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> 
+      <link rel="shortcut icon" href="favicon.ico" /> 
+   </head> 
+ 
+   <body> 
+      <div id="container"> 
+         <div id="header"> 
+            <span class="col"> 
+               <img class="banner" src="../images/json-ld-logo-1.png" />
+               <img class="banner" src="../images/json-ld-logo-2.png" />
+               <img class="banner" src="../images/json-ld-logo-3.png" />
+               <h1>Primers</h1>
+            </span> 
+         </div> 
+
+         <div id="content"> 
+            <div class="breadcrumbs"><a href="../">JSON-LD</a> &gt; Primers</div>
+            <div id="info"> 
+               <h1>Primers</h1> 
+               <p>The following primers are sorted in most recent to
+               least recent order:</p>
+               <ul>
+                 <li><a href="latest/">latest</a></li>
+
+htmlcode;
+
+$editorsDrafts = scandir('ED', 1);
+
+foreach($editorsDrafts as $draft)
+{
+   if($draft != "." and $draft != "..")
+   {
+     print("                 <li><a href=\"ED/$draft/\">$draft</a></li>");
+   }
+}
+
+print <<< htmlcode
+               </ul>
+            </div>
+         </div>
+ 
+         <div id="footer"> 
+            <p id="copyright"> 
+               Website content released under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license</a> except where an alternate is specified.
+            </p> 
+            <p id="legal"> 
+               Part of the <a href="http://payswarm.com/">payswarm.com</a> initiative.
+            </p>
+         </div> 
+      </div> 
+   </body> 
+</html>
+
+htmlcode;
+
+?>
+
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/latest/index.html	Thu Dec 15 16:42:00 2011 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,636 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>JSON-LD Primer</title>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+<!-- 
+  === NOTA BENE ===
+  For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
+  out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
+  -->
+<script type="text/javascript"
+  src="http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/js/respec.js" class="remove">
+ </script>
+<script type="text/javascript" class="remove">
+
+    var preProc = {
+          apply:  function(c) {
+                    // extend the bibliography entries
+                    berjon.biblio["LINKED-DATA"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData\">Linked Data</a></cite>, T. Berners-Lee. World Wide Web Consortium, 18 June 2009. W3C Note. URL: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.";
+                    berjon.biblio["JSON-LD"] = "Manu Sporny; et al. <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/\"><cite>JSON-LD</cite></a> 06 September 2011. Unofficial Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/\">http://json-ld.org/spec/latest/</a> ";
+                    berjon.biblio["JSON-LD-REQUIREMENTS"] = "Gregg Kellogg; et al. <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/requirements/latest/\"><cite>JSON-LD Requirements</cite></a> 23 August 2011. Unofficial Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://json-ld.org/requirements/latest/\">http://json-ld.org/requirements/latest/</a> ";
+                    berjon.biblio["MICRODATA"] = "Ian Hickson; et al. <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\"><cite>Microdata</cite></a> 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/</a> ";
+
+                    // process the document before anything else is done
+                    var refs = document.querySelectorAll('adef') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'dfn' ) ;
+                        var tit = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!tit) {
+                            tit = con;
+                        }
+                        sp.className = 'adef' ;
+                        sp.title=tit ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('aref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        sp.className = 'aref' ;
+                        sp.setAttribute('title', con);
+                        sp.innerHTML = '@'+con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // local datatype references
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('ldtref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        sp.className = 'datatype';
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // external datatype references
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('dtref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        sp.className = 'externalDFN';
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // now do terms
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('tdef') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'dfn' ) ;
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                    // now term references
+                    refs = document.querySelectorAll('tref') ;
+                    for (var i = 0; i < refs.length; i++) {
+                        var item = refs[i];
+                        if (!item) continue ;
+                        var p = item.parentNode ;
+                        var con = item.innerHTML ;
+                        var ref = item.getAttribute('title') ;
+                        if (!ref) {
+                            ref = item.textContent ;
+                        }
+                        if (ref) {
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\n/g, '_') ;
+                            ref = ref.replace(/\s+/g, '_') ;
+                        }
+
+                        var sp = document.createElement( 'a' ) ;
+                        var id = item.textContent ;
+                        sp.className = 'tref' ;
+                        sp.title = ref ;
+                        sp.innerHTML = con ;
+                        p.replaceChild(sp, item) ;
+                    }
+                }
+        };
+
+
+      var respecConfig = {
+          // specification status (e.g. WD, LCWD, NOTE, etc.). If in doubt use ED.
+          specStatus:           "unofficial",
+          //publishDate:          "2011-07-13",
+          
+          // the specification's short name, as in http://www.w3.org/TR/short-name/
+          shortName:            "json-ld-primer",
+          subtitle:             "A Context-based JSON Serialization for Linked Data",
+          // if you wish the publication date to be other than today, set this
+          // publishDate:  "2009-08-06",
+
+          // if there is a previously published draft, uncomment this and set its YYYY-MM-DD date
+          // and its maturity status
+          //previousPublishDate:  "2011-07-13",
+          //previousMaturity:     "ED",
+          //previousDiffURI:      "http://json-ld.org/requirements/ED/20110713/index.html",
+          //diffTool:             "http://www.aptest.com/standards/htmldiff/htmldiff.pl",
+
+          // if there a publicly available Editor's Draft, this is the link
+          edDraftURI:           "http://json-ld.org/requirements/latest/",
+
+          // if this is a LCWD, uncomment and set the end of its review period
+          // lcEnd: "2009-08-05",
+
+          // if you want to have extra CSS, append them to this list
+          // it is recommended that the respec.css stylesheet be kept
+          extraCSS:             [
+              "http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/css/respec.css"
+          ],
+
+          // editors, add as many as you like
+          // only "name" is required
+          editors:  [
+              { name: "David I. Lehn", url: "http://dil.lehn.org/",
+                company: "Digital Bazaar", companyURL: "http://digitalbazaar.com/" }
+          ],
+
+          // authors, add as many as you like. 
+          // This is optional, uncomment if you have authors as well as editors.
+          // only "name" is required. Same format as editors.
+
+          // name of the WG
+          wg:           "Linked Data in JSON Interest Group",
+          
+          // URI of the public WG page
+          wgURI:        "",
+          
+          // name (with the @w3c.org) of the public mailing to which comments are due
+          wgPublicList: "",
+          
+          // URI of the patent status for this WG, for Rec-track documents
+          // !!!! IMPORTANT !!!!
+          // This is important for Rec-track documents, do not copy a patent URI from a random
+          // document unless you know what you're doing. If in doubt ask your friendly neighbourhood
+          // Team Contact.
+          wgPatentURI:  "",
+          maxTocLevel: 3,
+          preProcess: [ preProc ]
+          //alternateFormats: [ {uri: "diff-20110507.html", label: "diff to previous version"} ],
+      };
+
+      function updateLiveExampleOLD(doc, content) {
+        // perform transformations to make it render and prettier
+        content = content.replace(/<!--/, '');
+        content = content.replace(/-->/, '');
+        //content = doc._esc(content);
+        content = content.replace(/\*\*\*\*([^*]*)\*\*\*\*/g, '<span class="diff">$1</span>') ;
+        content = content +
+          "\n<a href=\"http://json-ld.org/playground/?json-ld=" +
+          encodeURIComponent(content) +
+          "\">View in Playground</a>\n\n";
+        return content;
+      }
+
+      // Respec has a data-transform signature of (doc, content) but we want
+      // the div too so we can append the playground link after the code block.
+      // Respec uses eval so we use a fragile hack here to get the div too.
+      // Use this in markup as:
+      //   <TAG data-transform="updateLiveExample(div)">...</TAG>
+      function updateLiveExample(div) {
+        return function(doc, content) {
+          var pgLink = document.createElement("a");
+          // Using div.innerText to avoid using prettyprint processed markup
+          pgLink.setAttribute("href",
+            "http://json-ld.org/playground/?json-ld=" +
+            encodeURIComponent(div.innerText));
+          var txt = document.createTextNode("View in Playground");
+          pgLink.appendChild(txt);
+          div.parentNode.insertBefore(pgLink, div.nextSibling);
+          return content;
+        }
+      }
+  </script>
+  <link href="prettify.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" />
+  <script type="text/javascript" src="prettify.js" class="remove"></script>
+  <script type="text/javascript" src="lang-jsonld.js" class="remove"></script>
+  <script type="text/javascript" class="remove">
+    var oldonload = window.onload;
+    window.onload = function() {
+    if (oldonload) oldonload();
+      prettyPrint();
+    };
+  </script>
+<style>
+.diff { font-weight:bold; color:#0a3; }
+</style>
+</head>
+
+<body>
+<section id="abstract">
+
+<p>This document attempts to provide a gentle introduction and examples of
+<a href="/">JSON-LD</a> and to be a companion to the
+<a href="/spec/latest/">JSON-LD specification</a>.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section id='sotd'>
+<p>This document is an experimental work in progress.</p>
+<div class="note">
+This document is a very early attempt at a primer. It is very incomplete and should not be relied upon. Any comments and suggestions are welcome and can be sent to the <a href="http://json-ld.org/">JSON-LD</a> mailing list.
+</div>
+<!-- <p>
+This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software
+developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is
+endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable
+document and may be used as reference material or cited from another
+document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention
+to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This
+enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.
+</p> -->
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Introduction</h1>
+
+<p>JSON-LD [[!JSON-LD]] combines the simplicity, power, and web ubiquity of
+JSON [[!RFC4627]] with the concepts of Linked Data [[LINKED-DATA]]
+[[JSON-LD-REQUIREMENTS]]. This document attempts to provide an introduction to
+the concepts and usage of JSON-LD as well as some examples of how it can be
+utilized in practice.</p>
+
+<p>The requirements for JSON-LD can be found in [[JSON-LD-REQUIREMENTS]]
+document and provide some basic definitions for concepts and terms used here.
+The full specification for JSON-LD can be found in [[JSON-LD]] and is the basis
+for the examples given here. Please refer to these documents as needed.</p>
+
+<p>The semantic web and linked data are a foundation of knowledge
+representation. What follows is a high-level view for the purposes of this
+document. A full discussion of these concepts is out of the scope of this
+document but see [[JSON-LD-REQUIREMENTS]] for a better description of these
+concepts. Linked data systems are most often built using the concept of
+&quot;triples&quot;. A single triple is built from a subject, a property, and a
+value. A collection of these triples can form a graph of data.</p>
+
+<p>Applications processing linked data can do so in a number of ways. One is to
+access the raw triples. This is very flexible but often is cumbersome. Another
+is to use some form of graph processing API, of which many variations exist.
+Another is to create a tree view from a portion of the graph.</p>
+
+<p>JSON-LD combines these features. At a low-level it provides a standardized
+way to represent linked data in JSON. However, it has been found that much of
+the lined data that is practically processed in JSON can be converted into tree
+structures that are more natural to handle. Many programming languages even
+offer native natural access to tree-like structures and no special APIs are
+required.</p>
+
+<p>Converting linked data graphs to easily accessible tree structures solves
+one problem of linked data processing. Another is that in many cases the
+components of a triple are represented as IRIs. Using long IRIs everywhere to
+access data is very flexible and has many benefits but from a programming view
+point is rather unwieldy.</p>
+
+<p>JSON-LD provides the ability to add "context" to the data and "coerce"
+values into forms that are easier to process. In fact, the end result of good
+JSON-LD usage is data structures that look like simple JSON but are in fact
+full linked data graphs. This provides a good deal of power for application
+developers to convert linked data the are processing into easily manipulatable
+JSON data.</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Examples Theme</h2>
+
+<p>Throughout this document the examples are based on a theme of processing
+data for a online store. Linked data uses IRIs to represent types and
+properties. The examples here will use two root URLs as well as a few simple
+types and properties. A real linked data system should use a common standard
+such as the
+<a href="http://www.heppnetz.de/projects/goodrelations/">GoodRelations</a>
+vocabulary.</p>
+
+<dl>
+
+<dt><code>http://ns.example.com/store#</code></dt>
+<dd>The URL of the vocabulary. Abbreviated as <code>store</code> in CURIES.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>http://store.example.com/</code></dt>
+<dd>The fictitious &quot;Links Bike Shop&quot;. Abbreviated as <code>links</code> in CURIES.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:Store</code></dt>
+<dd>A store type. Instances have descriptive and product properties.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:Product</code></dt>
+<dd>A product for sale. Instances have descriptive, category, price, and availability properties.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:Category</code></dt>
+<dd>A product category type. Instances have descriptive properties.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:product</code></dt>
+<dd>A <code>store:Store</code> property linking to a <code>store:Product</code>.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:category</code></dt>
+<dd>A <code>store:Product</code> property linking to a <code>store:Category</code>.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:price</code></dt>
+<dd>A <code>store:Product</code> property linking to a price.</dd>
+
+<dt><code>store:stock</code></dt>
+<dd>A <code>store:Product</code> property linking to the quantity of the product in stock.</dd>
+
+</dl>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: &quot;Links Bike Shop&quot;</h2>
+
+<p class="note">FIXME: How should this be organized? Start with basic JSON, add LD? Start with pieces, combine into full doc? Something else?</p>
+
+<p>Let's start by building up a fictitious bike store called &quot;Links Bike Shop&quot;.
+We've already got our bike store setup at
+<code>http://store.example.com/</code> and are using linked data principles.
+Here's some of the URLs:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li><code>http://store.example.com/</code>: The home page of the store.</li>
+<li><code>http://store.example.com/products/links-swift-chain</code>: A chain product.</li>
+<li><code>http://store.example.com/products/links-speedy-lube</code>: A chain lube product.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>We want to start creating some linked data for this fictitious store and
+start with rough JSON data on the store itself.</p>
+
+<pre id="p1" class="example prettyprint lang-jsonld" data-transform="updateLiveExample(div)">
+{
+    "@subject": "http://store.example.com/",
+    "@type": "Store",
+    "name": "Links Bike Shop",
+    "description": "The most \"linked\" bike store on earth!"
+}
+</pre>
+
+<p>That was easy, right? Next let's create some rough data for our two premier
+products.</p>
+
+<pre class="example prettyprint lang-jsonld" data-transform="updateLiveExample(div)">
+{
+    "@subject": "http://store.example.com/products/links-swift-chain",
+    "@type": "Product",
+    "name": "Links Swift Chain",
+    "description": "A fine chain with many links.",
+    "category": [
+        "http://store.example.com/categories/parts",
+        "http://store.example.com/categories/chains"
+    ],
+    "price": "10.00",
+    "stock": 10
+}
+</pre>
+
+<pre class="example prettyprint lang-jsonld" data-transform="updateLiveExample(div)">
+{
+    "@subject": "http://store.example.com/products/links-speedy-lube",
+    "@type": "Product",
+    "name": "Links Speedy Lube",
+    "description": "Lubricant for your chain links.",
+    "category": [
+        "http://store.example.com/categories/lubes",
+        "http://store.example.com/categories/chains"
+    ],
+    "price": "5.00",
+    "stock": 20
+}
+</pre>
+
+<p>To make this into a full JSON-LD document we combine the data, add a
+<code>@conext</code>, and adjust some values.</p>
+
+<pre class="example prettyprint lang-jsonld" data-transform="updateLiveExample(div)">
+{
+    "@subject": "http://store.example.com/",
+    "@type": "Store",
+    "name": "Links Bike Shop",
+    "description": "The most \"linked\" bike store on earth!",
+    "product": [
+        {
+            "@subject": "p:links-swift-chain",
+            "@type": "Product",
+            "name": "Links Swift Chain",
+            "description": "A fine chain with many links.",
+            "category": ["cat:parts", "cat:chains"],
+            "price": "10.00",
+            "stock": 10
+        },
+        {
+            "@subject": "p:links-speedy-lube",
+            "@type": "Product",
+            "name": "Links Speedy Lube",
+            "description": "Lubricant for your chain links.",
+            "category": ["cat:lube", "cat:chains"],
+            "price": "5.00",
+            "stock": 20
+        }
+    ],
+    "@context": {
+        "Store": "http://ns.example.com/store#Store",
+        "Product": "http://ns.example.com/store#Product",
+        "product": "http://ns.example.com/store#product",
+        "category": "http://ns.example.com/store#category",
+        "price": "http://ns.example.com/store#price",
+        "stock": "http://ns.example.com/store#stock",
+        "name": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/title",
+        "description": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/description",
+        "p": "http://store.example.com/products/",
+        "cat": "http://store.example.com/category/",
+        "@coerce": {
+            "@iri": "category"
+        }
+    }
+}
+</pre>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Use Cases</h1>
+
+<p>The following use cases are motivating in the design of JSON-LD.</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Linked Data Processing</h2>
+
+<p>JSON-LD provides the ability to take linked data from many different sources
+and present it to an application in an easy to process JSON format. In many
+cases the transformation from a linked data graph to a JSON tree makes the data
+appear to just be a simple JSON structure.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Conversion to Known Format</h2>
+
+<p>Linked data may be input in a form that an application is not prepared to
+handle. JSON-LD offers the ability to convert linked data into a form that each
+application can specify on its own.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Normalization</h2>
+
+<p>There are cases such as graph comparison, hashing, and cryptographic digital
+signatures that require that linked data be converted into a normalized form.
+JSON-LD provides the ability to do so at a data structure level. Applications
+can extend this to serialized JSON. The serialized JSON conversion results in
+data that can be compared, hashed, and signed in a standardized way across
+JSON-LD implementations.</p>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Data Sources</h1>
+
+<p>JSON-LD is not dependent on any particular source of data. It is possible to
+convert many types of semantic web formats into JSON-LD. This is one of the
+classic benefits of the semantic web and its foundation of triples. Depending
+on the application and where it is used, a source of data may come from many
+places:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>JSON-LD (native data) [[JSON-LD]]</li>
+<li>RDFa [[RDFA-CORE]]</li>
+<li>Microdata [[MICRODATA]]</li>
+<li>Microformats [[MICROFORMATS]]</li>
+<li>RDF</li>
+<li>various other triples formats (N-Triples, Turtle, etc)</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>A source-specific processor must convert the data into JSON-LD. In most
+cases if you can convert a data format into a form of triples, then the
+conversion into an expanded form of JSON-LD is trivial. Once this has taken
+place, it is possible to use framing and other JSON-LD processing concepts to
+convert the data into a form which is easier to process at the application
+level. This ability allows you process linked data provided in many formats in
+a standardized way.</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Linked Data Format Independence</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: same triples in JSON-LD, RDFa, Microdata, triples</p>
+
+</section>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Framing</h1>
+
+<p>Many applications wish to access data as if it is a simple tree structure.
+This is natural in many programming languages and often comes for free without
+a specialized API. The flexibility of the JSON-LD format and linked data it
+represents does come with a problem.</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Basic Framing</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: ex of simple frame features</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Alternate Views</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: multiple ex of different views into the same source data</p>
+
+</section>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Normalization</h1>
+
+<p>Normalization is the process of converting a data structure into a standard
+format using a common algorithm. Any implementation of a normalization
+algorithm should produce the exact same output for the same input. The
+normalized form has a number of uses:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>regular structure for simple applications</li>
+<li>graph comparison</li>
+<li>hashing</li>
+<li>cryptographic digital signatures</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>The JSON-LD normalization process will convert an arbitrary JSON-LD data
+structure to a standard normalized JSON-LD data structure. The structure is
+only normalized at the data structure level. Many applications that use
+normalization will also have the need to serialize the output. This step will
+often also add the step of lexicographically sorting the JSON members by name.
+Serialized output will then be exactly the same across implementations for a
+given input.</p>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Regular Structure</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: regular structure</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Comparison</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: graph comparison</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Hashing</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: graph hash</p>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: Cryptographic Digital Signatures</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: graph signature</p>
+
+</section>
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h1>Putting It All Together</h1>
+
+<section>
+<h2>Example: ?</h2>
+
+<p>FIXME: more complex example</p>
+
+</section>
+</section>
+
+</body>
+</html>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/latest/lang-jsonld.js	Thu Dec 15 16:42:00 2011 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,86 @@
+/**
+ * @fileoverview
+ * Registers a language handler for prettify.js for JSON-LD.
+ *
+ * @author David I. Lehn <[email protected]>
+ */
+
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_KEYWORD, /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-keyword']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_ATTRIB_NAME + " jsonld-curie", /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-property']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_TAG + " jsonld-uri", /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-uri']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_TAG + " jsonld-curie", /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-curie']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_STRING, /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-string']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_LITERAL, /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-typed-literal-value']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      [PR.PR_TYPE + " jsonld-curie", /^.*/]
+    ]), ['jsonld-typed-literal-type']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [], [
+      // FIXME: use RE that excludes ^^ from the value
+      ["lang-jsonld-typed-literal-value", /^(.*\^\^)/],
+      ["lang-jsonld-typed-literal-type", /^(.*)/],
+    ]), ['jsonld-typed-literal']);
+PR.registerLangHandler(
+  PR.createSimpleLexer(
+    [
+      //[PR.PR_PUNCTUATION, /^[:|>?]+/, null, ':|>?'],
+      //[PR.PR_PLAIN, /^\s+/, null, ' \t\r\n']
+    ],
+    [
+      // common "keywords"
+      ["lang-jsonld-keyword", /^"(@iri|@coerce|@context|@subject|@type|@vocab|@base|@literal|@language|@datatype)"\s*:/],
+      // empty string
+      //[PR.PR_LITERAL, /^""/],
+      ["lang-jsonld-string", /^""/],
+      // other properties
+      ["lang-jsonld-property", /^"(.*)"\s*:/],
+      // "<...>"
+      ["lang-jsonld-uri", /^"(http:\/\/.*|https:\/\/.*)"/],
+      // typed literals
+      ["lang-jsonld-typed-literal", /^"([^^"]+\^\^[^"]+)"/],
+      // "foo:bar"
+      ["lang-jsonld-curie", /^"([^":]*:[^"]*)"/],
+      // literal strings
+      ["lang-jsonld-string", /^"([^"]*)"/],
+      // constants and native types
+      [PR.PR_LITERAL, /^(?:true|false|null)/],
+      [PR.PR_LITERAL,
+       new RegExp(
+           '^(?:'
+           // A hex number
+           + '0x[a-f0-9]+'
+           // or an octal or decimal number,
+           + '|(?:\\d(?:_\\d+)*\\d*(?:\\.\\d*)?|\\.\\d\\+)'
+           // possibly in scientific notation
+           + '(?:e[+\\-]?\\d+)?'
+           + ')', 'i'),
+       null, '0123456789'],
+      [PR.PR_PLAIN, /^\w+/]
+    ]), ['jsonld']);
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/latest/prettify.css	Thu Dec 15 16:42:00 2011 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,143 @@
+/*
+ * Derived from einaros's Sons of Obsidian theme at
+ * http://studiostyl.es/schemes/son-of-obsidian by
+ * and Alex Ford of CodeTunnel
+ * http://CodeTunnel.com/blog/post/71/google-code-prettify-obsidian-theme
+ */
+
+.str
+{
+    color: #93C763;
+}
+.kwd
+{
+    color: #EC7600;
+}
+.com
+{
+    color: #66747B;
+}
+.typ
+{
+    color: #678CB1;
+}
+.lit
+{
+    color: #FACD22;
+}
+.pun
+{
+    color: #F1F2F3;
+}
+.pln
+{
+    color: #F1F2F3;
+}
+.tag
+{
+    color: #8AC763;
+}
+.tag.jsonld-uri
+{
+    color: #8A93CD;
+}
+.tag.turtle-uri
+{
+    color: #8A93CD;
+}
+.tag.turtle-curie
+{
+    color: #AC84CB;
+}
+.atn
+{
+    color: #E0E2E4;
+}
+.atn.jsonld-curie
+{
+    color: #AC84CB;
+}
+.atn.turtle-curie
+{
+    color: #FACD22;
+}
+.atv
+{
+    color: #EC7600;
+}
+.dec
+{
+    color: purple;
+}
+pre.prettyprint
+{
+    border: 0px solid #888;
+}
+ol.linenums
+{
+    margin-top: 0;
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.prettyprint {
+    font: monospace;
+    /*font-size: 0.8em;*/
+    font-weight: bold;
+    background: #000;
+    color: #ddd;
+    /*overflow: auto;*/
+}
+li.L0, li.L1, li.L2, li.L3, li.L4, li.L5, li.L6, li.L7, li.L8, li.L9
+{
+    color: #555;
+}
+li.L1, li.L3, li.L5, li.L7, li.L9 {
+    background: #111;
+}
[email protected] print
+{
+    .str
+    {
+        color: #060;
+    }
+    .kwd
+    {
+        color: #006;
+        font-weight: bold;
+    }
+    .com
+    {
+        color: #600;
+        font-style: italic;
+    }
+    .typ
+    {
+        color: #404;
+        font-weight: bold;
+    }
+    .lit
+    {
+        color: #044;
+    }
+    .pun
+    {
+        color: #440;
+    }
+    .pln
+    {
+        color: #000;
+    }
+    .tag
+    {
+        color: #006;
+        font-weight: bold;
+    }
+    .atn
+    {
+        color: #404;
+    }
+    .atv
+    {
+        color: #060;
+    }
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/primer/latest/prettify.js	Thu Dec 15 16:42:00 2011 -0500
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
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