merge
authorDave Reynolds <dave@epimorphics.com>
Thu, 15 Mar 2012 12:03:20 +0000
changeset 126 f47d05c47208
parent 121 fc8699cdf6c4 (current diff)
parent 125 cbe0413e7670 (diff)
child 127 36313126624d
merge
--- a/glossary/index.html	Mon Mar 12 10:42:38 2012 +0000
+++ b/glossary/index.html	Thu Mar 15 12:03:20 2012 +0000
@@ -3,8 +3,8 @@
                       "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-2.dtd">
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
 <head>
-	<title>Government Linked Data Glossary</title>
-	<meta name="description" content="Government Linked Data Glossary" />
+	<title>Linked Data Glossary</title>
+	<meta name="description" content="Linked Data Glossary" />
 	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
 	<script type="text/javascript"src="http://dev.w3.org/2009/dap/ReSpec.js/js/respec.js" class="remove"></script>
 	<script src="respec-ref.js"></script>
@@ -35,239 +35,422 @@
 Readers of this document are expected to be familiar with delivery of content via the Web, and to have a general familiarity with the technologies involved, but are not required to have a background in semantic technologies or previous experience with Linked Data. Data stewards, curators, database administrators and other personnel involved in Open Government initiatives are encouraged to read this Linked Open Data Best Practices document. 
 </section>
 
-<section id="definitions">
-<h2> Definition </h2>
-<p class="todo"> @@TODO: add links to W3C documents, and new terms to the actual glossary @@</p>
-<h4 id="abox"> Abox </h4>
-One of two types of statements in an <a href="#ontology">ontology</a> (the other being <a href="#tbox">Tbox</a>).  Abox statements represent facts (or "assertions", hence the "A"), e.g. John is a Person (where Person is a defined class).
-
-<h4>Application Programmer Interface(API)</h4>
-An abstraction implemented in software that defines how others should make use of a software package such as a library or other reusable program.
 
 
-<h4>Closed world</h4>
-The presumption that what is not known to be true must be false.  The assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming, OWL DL and OWL Lite.
+<section id="abox">
+<h4> Abox </h4>
+One of two types of statements in an <a href="#ontology">ontology</a> (the other being <a href="#tbox">Tbox</a>).  Abox statements represent facts (or "assertions", hence the "A"), e.g. John is a Person (where Person is a defined class).
+</section>
 
-<h4>Controlled vocabularies</h4>
+<section id="api">
+<h4>Application Programmer Interface(API)</h4>
+<p>An abstraction implemented in software that defines how others should make use of a software package such as a library or other reusable program.
+</p>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>Application Interface</h4>
+The part if the application that uses the content of an RDF store in an interaction with some user.
+</section>
+
+<section >
+<h4>Blank Nodes</h4>
+RDF nodes that have no URI and thus cannot be referenced globally. They are used to stand in for anonymous entities.
+</section >
+
+<section id="close">
+<h4>Closed World</h4>
+The presumption that what is not known to be true must be false.  The assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming, OWL DL and OWL Lite.
+</section>
+
+<section >
+<h4>Controlled Vocabularies</h4>
 Carefully selected sets of terms that are used to describe units of information; used to create thesauri,  taxonomies and ontologies.
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>Converter</h4>
+A tool that can converts data from some form (e.g., spreadsheet) into RDF.
+</section>
+
+<section >
 <h4>Database to RDF Queueing</h4>
 A mechanism to query information in traditional management systems such as relational databases via the SPARQL query language.  D2RQ may refer to the language definition or the Open Source Software project.
+</section >
 
-
+<section >
 <h4>Data Cloud</h4>
 <p class="todo">@@TODO: [email protected]@</p>
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Data Hub</h4>
 The <a href="http://thedatahub.org/">Data Hub</a> is a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet, powered using an open-source data cataloguing software called <a href="http://ckan.org/">CKAN</a>. It is an openly editable open data catalogue, in the style of Wikipedia.
+</section >
+
+<section >
+<h4>Data Market</h4>
+<p class="todo">@@TODO: [email protected]@</p>
+</section >
 
 
-<h4>Data Market</h4>
-<p class="todo">@@TODO: [email protected]@</p>
-
-
-
+<section >
 <h4>DBpedia</h4>
 An RDF representation of the metadata held in Wikipedia and made available for SPARQL query on the World Wide Web.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Directed Acyclic Graph</h4>
-
 A directed graph (like RDF) with the additional restriction that no loops or cycles are permitted.  A cycle is a path from a given node that would allow one to find their way back to the starting node.
+</section >
 
-<h4 id="dgraph">Directed Graph</h4>
+<section>
+<h4>Directed Graph</h4>
+A graph in which the links between nodes are directional (they only go from one node to another).  RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph.  In RDF, the links are differentiated by being assigned URIs.
+</section>
 
-A graph in which the links between nodes are directional (they only go from one node to another).  RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph.  In RDF, the links are differentiated by being assigned URIs.
-
+<section>
 <h4>Document Type Definition</h4>
 A type of schema for defining a markup language, such as in XML or HTML (or their predecessor SGML).
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Domain Name System</h4> The Internet's mechanism for mapping between a human-readable host name (e.g. www.example.com) and an Internet Protocol (IP) Address (e.g. 203.20.51.10).
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Dublin Core Element Set</h4>
  A vocabulary of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (author, publisher, etc).  The most commonly used vocabulary for Semantic Web applications.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</h4> 
 An open international organization engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards, including the Dublin Core Element Set.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Free/Libre/Open Source Software</h4>
  A generic and internationalized term for software released under an Open Source license.
-
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Graph</h4>
-A collection of objects (represented by "nodes") any of which may be connected by links between them.  See also<a href="#dgraph">Directed Graph</a>.
+A collection of objects (represented by "nodes") any of which may be connected by links between them.  See also<a href="#directed-graph"> Directed Graph</a>.
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>Hash URI Strategy</h4>
+The hash URI strategy builds on the characteristic that URIs may contain a special part that is separated from the base part of the URI by a hash symbol (#). This special part is called the fragment identifier.
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Hypertext Markup Language</h4> 
 The predominant markup language for hypertext pages on the Web.  HTML defines the structure of Web pages. A family of W3C standards.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Hypertext Transfer Protocol</h4> 
 The standard transmission protocol used on the World Wide Web to transfer hypertext requests and information between Web servers and Web clients (such as browsers). An IETF standard.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>International Standards Organization</h4> 
 A network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries that cooperate to define international standards.  It Defines many standards including in the context  formats for dates and currency.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Internet Engineering Task Force</h4>
  An open international community concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the operation of the Internet. Defines standards such as HTTP and DNS.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Jena</h4>
  An Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework.  Jena supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. 
-
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>Linked Data</h4>
+It refers to a set of best practices for publishing and interlinking structured data on the Web.
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>Knowledge Extraction</h4>
+It is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing.
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>Knowledge Discovery</h4>
+It describes the process of automatically searching large volumes of data for patterns that can be considered knowledge about the data.
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Linked Open Data</h4>
-Linked Open Data: A pattern for hyper-linking machine-readable data sets to each other using Semantic Web techniques, especially via the use of RDF and URIs. Enables distributed SPAQL queries of the data sets and a “browsing” or “discovery” approach to finding information (as compared to a search strategy. 
+ A pattern for hyper-linking machine-readable data sets to each other using Semantic Web techniques, especially via the use of RDF and URIs. Enables distributed SPAQL queries of the data sets and a “browsing” or “discovery” approach to finding information (as compared to a search strategy. 
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Linking Government Data</h4> 
 The use of tools and techniques of the Semantic Web to connect, expose and use data from government systems.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Linked Open Data Cloud</h4>
 Linked Open Data that has been published is depicted in a LOD cloud diagram. The diagram shows connections between linked data sets and color codes them based on data type (e.g., government, media, life sciences, etc.). The diagram can be viewed at: <a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/" target="blank">Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.</a>
+</section>
 
-
+<section>
 <h4>Machine-Readable Cataloging system</h4> 
 A family of formats for the representation of bibliographic information in libraries (ISO 2709, ANSI/NISO Z39.2).
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Management, Resources and Results Structure</h4> 
 Government of Canada policy linking the management of government resources and program results to their organizational structures. It provides a representation of how a department is managed through a)  strategic outcomes; b) program activity architecture (PAA); and c)  governance structure. 
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Metadata</h4> 
 Information used to administer, describe, preserve, present, use or link other information held in resources, especially knowledge resources, be they physical or virtual.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Metadata Object Description Schema</h4>
  A bibliographic description system intended to be a compromise between MARC and DC metadata.  Implemented in XML Schema (see DC, MARC, XSD).
-
-
-<h4 id="n3">Notation 3</h4> An RDF syntax intended to be readable by humans.  See also <a href="#ttl">Turtle</a>.
-
-
+</section>
 
-<h4 id="ontology"> Ontology</h4>
-A formal representation of relationships between items in a directed graph structure.  See <a href="#taxonomy">taxonomy</a>.
+<section>
+<h4>Namespace</h4>
+A set of names that belongs to a single authority. Namespaces allow different agents to use the same word in different ways.
+</section>
 
-<h4> Ontology matching</h4>
+<section>
+<h4>Notation 3</h4>
+ An RDF syntax intended to be readable by humans.  See also <a href="#turtle">Turtle</a>.
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4 > Ontology</h4>
+A formal representation of relationships between items in a directed graph structure.  See <a href="#taxonomy">taxonomy</a>.
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4> Ontology Matching</h4>
+It is a process of finding correspondences between semantically related entities of the ontologies, which 
+can be used for various tasks, such as ontology merging, query answering, data translation, or for navigation on the semantic web. 
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Open World</h4>
  The presumption that what is not known to be true may yet be true if additional information is later obtained.  The assumption underlying RDF and OWL Full.
+</section>
 
-<h4>protocol</h4>
+<section>
+<h4>Provenance</h4>
+Provenance refers to the sources of information, such as entities and processes, involved in producing or delivering an artifact[[PROV]].
+
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>Protocol</h4>
  A set of instructions for transferring data from one computer to another over a network.  A protocol standard defines both message formats and the rules for sending and receiving those messages.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Public Sector Information</h4>
  Information created by a government in the course of governing.
+</section>
 
-
+<section>
 <h4>Quad Store</h4>
  A colloquial phrase for an RDF database that stores RDF triples plus an additional element of information, often used to collect statements into groups.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Raw Data</h4>
-<p class="todo">@@TODO: [email protected]@</p>
+Machine-readable files from tje wilderness released without any specific effort to make them applicable to a particular application.  The advantage of "raw" data is that it can be reused in multiple applications created by multiple communities; but this requires some means of processing it.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>RDF (Resource Description Framework)</h4>
  A language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. RDF is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers (called Uniform Resource Identifiers, or URIs), and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values. This enables RDF to represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values [[!RDF-Primer]].
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>RDFa</h4>
+A system for embedding RDF data in a web page.
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>RDF Database</h4>
  A type of database designed specifically to store and retrieve RDF information.
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>RDFS</h4>
+RDFS is the schema language for RDF; it describes constructs for types of objects (Classes), relating 
+types to one another (subClasses), properties that describe objects (Properties), and relationships
+between them (subProperty).
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Schema</h4>
  A data model that represents the relationships between a set of concepts.  Some types of schemas include relational database schemas (which define how data is stored and retrieved), taxonomies and ontologies. 
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Semantic Technologies</h4>
  The broad set of technologies that related to the extraction, representation, storage, retrieval and analysis of machine-readable information. The Semantic Web standards are a subset of semantic technologies and techniques. 
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4> Semantic Web</h4>
  An evolution or part of the World Wide Web that consists of machine-readable data in RDF and an ability to query that information in standard ways (e.g. via SPARQL)
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Semantic Web Standards</h4>
  Standards of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) relating to the Semantic Web, including RDF, RDFa, SKOS and OWL. 
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Semantic Web Search Engine</h4>
 <p class="todo">@@TODO: [email protected]@</p>
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Service Oriented Architecture</h4> 
 A set of architectural design guidelines used to expose services, often as Web Services.
-
-<h4>Sesame</h4> An Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework.  Supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. <a href="http://www.openrdf.org">See</a>
+</section>
 
-<h4>Silk</h4>
+<section>
+<h4>Sesame</h4> An Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework.  Supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. <a href="http://www.openrdf.org">See</a>
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>Silk</h4>
 Silk(Silk Link Discovery Framework) is a tool for discovering relationships between data items within different Linked Data sources.
+</section>
 
+<section>
 <h4>Simple Knowledge Organisation System</h4> 
 A vocabulary description language for RDF designed for representing traditional knowledge organization systems such as enterprise taxonomies in RDF. A W3C standard.
+</section>
 
-
+<section>
 <h4>SPARQL</h4>
  Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) defines a standard query language and data access protocol for use with the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model.Just as SQL is used to query relational data, SPARQL is used to query graph, or linked, data.
+</section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>SPARQL endpoint</h4>
+An application that can answer a SPARQL query, including one where the native encoding of information is not in RDF.
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Structured Query Language</h4> 
 A query language standard for relational databases.
+</section>
 
-
+<section >
 <h4>Taxonomy</h4>
  A formal representation of relationships between items in a hierarchical structure.  See <a href="#ontology">ontology</a>.
+</section >
 
-<h4 id="tbox">Tbox</h4>
+<section >
+<h4 >Tbox</h4>
 One of two types of statements in an ontology (the other being <a href="#abox">Abox</a>).  Tbox statements describe a knowledge system in terms of controlled vocabularies (or "terminology", hence the "T"), e.g. A Person is a Mammal.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Term</h4>
  A term is an entry in a controlled vocabulary, schema, taxonomy or ontology.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Triple</h4>
  An RDF statement, consisting of two things (a "subject" and an "object") and a relationship between them (a verb, or "predicate").  This subject-predicate-object triple forms the smallest possible RDF graph (although most RDF graphs consist of many statements).
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Triple store</h4>
  A colloquial phrase for an RDF database that stores RDF triples.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Tuple</h4>
  An ordered list of elements.  RDF statements are 3-tuples; an ordered list of three elements.
+</section >
 
-<h4 id="ttl">Turtle</h4>
- An RDF serialization format, designed to be easier to read than others such as RDF/XML.  It is also a subset of <a href="#n3">N3</a>.
+<section >
+<h4>Turtle</h4>
+ An RDF serialization format, designed to be easier to read than others such as RDF/XML.  It is also a subset of <a href="#notation-3">N3</a>.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Uniform Resource Indicator</h4>
- A global identifier for the Web standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  A URI may or may not be resolvable on the Web (see <a href="#url">URL</a>).
+ A global identifier for the Web standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  A URI may or may not be resolvable on the Web (see <a href="#uniform-resource-locator">URL</a>).
+</section >
 
+<section>
 <h4>Universally Unique Identifier</h4>
  A large hexadecimal number that may be calculated by anyone without significant central coordination and used to uniquely identify a resource.  A standard of the Open Software Foundation.
+</section>
 
+<section >
 <h4>Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)</h4>
  URI’s play a key role in enabling linked data. To publish data on the Web, the items in a domain of interest must first be identified. These are the things whose properties and relationships will be described in the data, and may include Web documents as well as real-world entities and abstract concepts. As Linked Data builds directly on Web architecture [[!WEBARCH]], the Web architecture term resource is used to refer to these things of interest, which are, in turn, identified by HTTP URIs. 
+</section >
+
+<section >
+<h4>URIs dereferenceable</h4>
+It means that HTTP clients can look up the URI using the HTTP protocol and retrieve a description of the resource that is identified by the URI. This
+applies to URIs that are used to identify classic HTML documents, as well as URIs that are used in the Linked Data context to identify real-world objects and abstract concepts.
+</section>
+
+<section >
+<h4>Uniform Resource Locator</h4>
+ A global identifier for Web resources standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  A URL is resolvable on the Web and is commonly called a "Web address".
+</section >
 
 
-<h4 id="url">Uniform Resource Locator</h4>
- A global identifier for Web resources standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  A URL is resolvable on the Web and is commonly called a "Web address".
-
-
-<h4>Virtuoso</h4>
-<p class="todo">@@TODO: [email protected]@</p>
-
+<section >
 <h4>Web 2.0</h4>
  A colloquial description of the part of the World Wide Web that implements social networking, blogs, user comments and ratings and related human-centered activities.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Web 3.0</h4>
  A colloquial description of the part of the World Wide Web that implements machine-readable data and the ability to perform distributed queries and analysis on that data.  Considered synonymous with the phrases "Semantic Web" and "The Web of Data".
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>Web Ontology Language</h4>
  A family of knowledge representation and vocabulary description languages for authoring ontologies, based on RDF and standardized by the W3C.  Standardized variants include OWL Full, OWL DL (for "description logic") and OWL Lite.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>World Wide Web Consortium</h4> 
 An international community that develops standards for the World Wide Web. Defines standards such as HTML, XML and RDF.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language</h4> 
  A family of versions of HTML based on XML and standardized by the W3C.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>eXtensible Markup Language</h4> 
  A specification for creating structured textual computer documents.  Many thousands of XML formats exist, including XHTML.  A family of standards from the W3C.
+</section >
 
+<section >
 <h4>XML Schema</h4> 
 Limitations on the content of an XML document that defines what structural elements are allowed.
-
+</section >
+<section >
 <h4>eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations</h4> 
  Declarative programs to transform one XML document into another XML document.
 
-
-
-
 </section>
 
 
--- a/glossary/respec-config.js	Mon Mar 12 10:42:38 2012 +0000
+++ b/glossary/respec-config.js	Thu Mar 15 12:03:20 2012 +0000
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
     // editors, add as many as you like
     // only "name" is required
     editors:  [
+			{ name: "David Wood", url: "http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/david-wood/",  company: "3 Round Stones", companyURL: "http://3roundstones.com/"},
         		{ name: "Bernadette Hyland", url: "https://twitter.com/bernhyland",  company: "3 Round Stones", companyURL: "http://3roundstones.com/"},
 		{ name: "Ghislain Atemezing", url: "http://www.eurecom.fr/~atemezin",  company: "INSTITUT TELECOM, Eurecom", companyURL: "http://www.eurecom.fr"}
     ],
--- a/glossary/respec-ref.js	Mon Mar 12 10:42:38 2012 +0000
+++ b/glossary/respec-ref.js	Thu Mar 15 12:03:20 2012 +0000
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 var preProc = {
       apply:  function(c) {
                 // extend the bibliography entries
+		berjon.biblio["PROV"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/\">Provenance Final Report</a></cite> Yolanda Gil; et al.  08 December 2010. W3C Incubator Group Report. URL: http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/prov/XGR-prov-20101214/ ";
 		berjon.biblio["WEBARCH"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/\">Web architecture</a></cite> Ian Jacobs, Norman Walsh (Editors). 15 December 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/webarch/ ";
 		berjon.biblio["RDF-Primer"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/\">RDF-Primer</a></cite> Frank Manola, Eric Miller (Editors). 10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ ";
                 berjon.biblio["MICRODATA"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\">Microdata</a></cite> Ian Hickson; et al. 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/ ";