generated diff
authorSandro Hawke <sandro@hawke.org>
Wed, 08 May 2013 19:35:01 -0400
changeset 509 e73115d595ce
parent 508 757ab56f1e1d
child 510 7f1127a7eb5a
generated diff
glossary/diff.apr11-may7.nonrespec.html
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+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
+<head>
+	<title>Linked Data Glossary</title>
+	<meta name="description" content="Linked Data Glossary">
+	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
+	
+	
+	
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+<style>/*****************************************************************
+ * ReSpec 3 CSS
+ * Robin Berjon - http://berjon.com/
+ *****************************************************************/
+
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+ol.algorithm li { margin: 0.5em 0; }
+ol.algorithm li:before { font-weight: bold; counter-increment: numsection; content: counters(numsection, ".") ") "; }
+
+/* --- TOC --- */
+.toc a, .tof a {
+    text-decoration:    none;
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+
+a .secno, a .figno {
+    color:  #000;
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+
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+</style><link rel="stylesheet" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-WD"></head>
+<body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">Linked Data Glossary</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-working-draft-07-may-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Draft 07 May 2013</h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-ld-glossary-20130507/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-ld-glossary-20130507/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/">http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/ld-glossary/">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/ld-glossary/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href=""></a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd><a href="http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/bernadette-hyland/">Bernadette Hyland</a>, <a href="http://3roundstones.com/">3 Round Stones</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.eurecom.fr/~atemezin">Ghislain Atemezing</a>, <a href="http://www.eurecom.fr">EURECOM</a></dd>
+<dd><span>Biplav Srivastava</span>, <a href="http://www.ibm.com/in/research/">IBM</a></dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
+        2013
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div>
+
+<section id="abstract" class="introductory"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+
+<p> This document is a glossary of terms defined and used to describe Linked Data, and its associated vocabularies and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/raw-file/default/bp/index.html" target="_blank">Best Practices</a>.  This document published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter" target="_blank"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Government Linked Data Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note, is intended to help information management professionals, Web developers, scientists and the general public better understand publishing structured data using <a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data Principles</a>.
+</p></section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/">Government Linked Data Working Group</a> as a Working Draft.
+          
+            This document is intended to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
+          
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-gld-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          
+          
+        All comments are welcome.
+        
+        
+          </p><p>
+            Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#x5-star-linked-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>5 Star Linked Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#apache-license" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Apache License</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#api" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>API</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#creative-commons-licenses" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span> <del style="background:#F00">Authoritative</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">5.</del>Creative Commons Licenses</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cc-by-sa-license" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">6.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">5.</ins> </span>CC-BY-SA License</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#closed-world" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">7.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">6.</ins> </span>Closed World</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#connection" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">8.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">7.</ins> </span>Connection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#conneg" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">9.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">8.</ins> </span>Conneg</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#content-negotiation" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">10.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">9.</ins> </span>Content Negotiation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#controlled-vocabulary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">11.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">10.</ins> </span>Controlled Vocabulary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#csv" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">11.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">CSV</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#curl" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">12. </span> <del style="background:#F00">Converter</del><ins style="background:#0F0">cURL</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#curies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">13. </span> <del style="background:#F00">CSV</del><ins style="background:#0F0">CURIEs</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#fragment-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">14. </span> <del style="background:#F00">curl</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Fragment</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-cloud" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">15. </span>Data Cloud</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-hub-the" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">16. </span>Data Hub, The</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-market" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">17. </span>Data Market</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-modeling" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">18. </span>Data Modeling</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dataset-rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">19. </span> <del style="background:#F00">Dataset</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Dataset,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#data-warehouse" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">20. </span>Data Warehouse</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dbpedia" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">21. </span>DBpedia</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dereferenceable-uris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">22. </span>Dereferenceable URIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-logic" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">23. </span>Description Logic</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dcat" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">24. </span>DCAT</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dcmi" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">25. </span>DCMI</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#directed-graph" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">26. </span>Directed Graph</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#document-type-definition" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">27. </span>Document Type Definition</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#domain-name-system-dns" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">28. </span>Domain Name System (DNS)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dublin-core-metadata-element-set" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">29. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Element Set</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">30. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#dublin-core-metadata-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">31. </span> <del style="background:#F00">Entity</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Dublin</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Core</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Terms</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#entity" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">32. </span> <del style="background:#F00">ETL</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Entity</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#etl" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">33. </span><ins style="background:#0F0">ETL</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#foaf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">34.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">FOAF</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#friend-of-a-friend" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">35.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Friend</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Friend</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#free-libre-open-source-software" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">36.</ins> </span>Free/Libre/Open Source Software</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#government-open-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">34.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">37.</ins> </span>Government Open Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#hypertext-markup-language" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">35.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Graph</del> <del style="background:#F00">36.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">38.</ins> </span>HyperText Markup Language</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#hypertext-transfer-protocol" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">(HTML)</del> <del style="background:#F00">37.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">39.</ins> </span>HyperText Transfer Protocol</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#http-uris" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">38.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">40.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URIs</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#international-standards-organization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">41.</ins> </span>International Standards Organization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#internet-engineering-task-force" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">(ISO)</del> <del style="background:#F00">39.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">42.</ins> </span>Internet Engineering Task Force</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#inference" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">(IETF)</del> <del style="background:#F00">40.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">43.</ins> </span>Inference</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#internationalized-resource-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">41.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">44.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Internationalized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#json" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">45.</ins> </span>JSON</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#json-ld" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">42.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">46.</ins> </span>JSON-LD</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">43.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Jena</del> <del style="background:#F00">44.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">47.</ins> </span>Linked Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data-api" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">45.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">48.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data-client" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">49.</ins> </span>Linked Data client</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data-platform" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">46.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">50.</ins> </span>Linked Data Platform</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-data-principles" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">1.0</del> <del style="background:#F00">47.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">51.</ins> </span>Linked Data Principles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-open-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">48.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">52.</ins> </span>Linked Open Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-open-data-cloud" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">49.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">53.</ins> </span>Linked Open Data Cloud</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linked-open-data-cloud-diagram" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">50.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">54.</ins> </span> Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linking-open-data-project" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">51.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linking</del> <del style="background:#F00">Government</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">52.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">55.</ins> </span>Linking Open Data Project</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#linkset" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">53.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">56.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Linkset</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#machine-readable-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">57.</ins> </span>Machine Readable Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#message" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">54.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">58.</ins> </span>Message</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#metadata" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">55.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">59.</ins> </span>Metadata</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#metadata-object-description-schema" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">56.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">60.</ins> </span>Metadata Object Description Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#modeling-process" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">57.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">61.</ins> </span>Modeling Process</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#n3" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">58.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">62.</ins> </span>N3</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespace-iri" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">59.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">63.</ins> </span>Namespace  <del style="background:#F00">60.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">IRI</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#natural-keys" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">64.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Natural</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Keys</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#neutral-uri" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">65.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Neutral</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#n-triples" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">66.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">N-Triples</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#object" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">67.</ins> </span>Object</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#ontology" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">61.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">62.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">68.</ins> </span>Ontology</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#open-government-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">Matching</del> <del style="background:#F00">63.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">69.</ins> </span>Open Government Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#org-ontology" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">64.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">World</del> <del style="background:#F00">65.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">70.</ins> </span>ORG Ontology</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#persistent-identifier-scheme" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">66.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">71.</ins> </span>Persistent Identifier Scheme</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#persistent-uniform-resource-locator" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">67.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">72.</ins> </span>Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#predicate" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">68.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">73.</ins> </span>Predicate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#provenance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">69.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">74.</ins> </span>Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#protocol" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">70.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">75.</ins> </span>Protocol</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#purl" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">71.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Public</del> <del style="background:#F00">Sector</del> <del style="background:#F00">Information</del> <del style="background:#F00">72.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">76.</ins> </span>PURL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#quad-store" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">73.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">77.</ins> </span>Quad Store</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#query" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">74.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">78.</ins> </span>Query</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#r2rml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">75.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">79.</ins> </span>R2RML</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#raw-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">76.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">80.</ins> </span>Raw Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">77.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">81.</ins> </span>RDF</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">78.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">82.</ins> </span>RDFa</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-database" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">79.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">83.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">database</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-json" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">84.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF-JSON</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-schema" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">85.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Schema</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rdf-xml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">86.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF/XML</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#representational-state-transfer-rest" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">87.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Representational</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">State</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Transfer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(REST)</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#request" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">88.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Request</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#resource" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">89.</ins> </span>Resource</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#resource-description-framework-rdf" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">80.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">90.</ins> </span>Resource Description Framework  <del style="background:#F00">81.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">(RDF)</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#resource-description-framework-in-attributes-rdfa" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">91.</ins> </span>Resource Description Framework in attributes  <del style="background:#F00">82.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">Database</del> <del style="background:#F00">83.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF-JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">84.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">Schema</del> <del style="background:#F00">85.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Request</del> <del style="background:#F00">86.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">87.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">(RDFa)</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#response" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">92.</ins> </span>Response</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rest" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">88.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">93.</ins> </span>REST</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#rest-api" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">89.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">94.</ins> </span>REST API</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#schema" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">90.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">95.</ins> </span>Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#semantic-technologies" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">91.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">96.</ins> </span>Semantic Technologies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#semantic-web" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">92.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">93.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">97.</ins> </span>Semantic Web</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#semantic-web-standards" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">Stack</del> <del style="background:#F00">94.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">98.</ins> </span>Semantic Web Standards</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#semantic-web-search-engine" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">95.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">99.</ins> </span>Semantic Web Search Engine</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sesame" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">96.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Service</del> <del style="background:#F00">Oriented</del> <del style="background:#F00">Architecture</del> <del style="background:#F00">(SOA)</del> <del style="background:#F00">97.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">100.</ins> </span>Sesame</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#skolemization" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">98.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">101.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Skolemization</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#simple-knowledge-organisation-system" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">102.</ins> </span>Simple Knowledge Organisation System</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sindice" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">99.</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">100.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">103.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Sindice</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sparql" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">104.</ins> </span>SPARQL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sparql-endpoint" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">client</del> <del style="background:#F00">101.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">105.</ins> </span>SPARQL endpoint</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#subject" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">102.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Structured</del> <del style="background:#F00">Query</del> <del style="background:#F00">Language</del> <del style="background:#F00">(SQL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">103.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">106.</ins> </span>Subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#taxonomy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">104.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">107.</ins> </span>Taxonomy</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#term" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">105.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">108.</ins> </span>Term</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#triple" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">106.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">109.</ins> </span>Triple</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#triple-store" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">107.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">110.</ins> </span>Triple store</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#tuple" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">108.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">111.</ins> </span>Tuple</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#turtle" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">109.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">112.</ins> </span>Turtle</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#uniform-resource-identifier" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">110.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">113.</ins> </span>Uniform Resource Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#uniform-resource-locator" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">111.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">114.</ins> </span>Uniform Resource Locator</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#uri" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">112.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">115.</ins> </span>URI</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#url" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">113.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">116.</ins> </span>URL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#validation-service" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">114.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">117.</ins> </span>Validation Service</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#vocabulary" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">115.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">118.</ins> </span>Vocabulary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#vocabulary-alignment" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">116.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">119.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">alignment</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#void" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">120.</ins> </span>VoID</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#web-2.0" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">117.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">121.</ins> </span>Web 2.0</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#web-3.0" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">118.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">122.</ins> </span>Web 3.0</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#web-of-data" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">119.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">123.</ins> </span>Web of Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#web-of-documents" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">120.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">124.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Documents</ins></a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#web-ontology-language-owl" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">125.</ins> </span>Web Ontology Language (OWL)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#world-wide-web-consortium-w3c" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">121.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">126.</ins> </span>World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensible-hypertext-markup-language-xhtml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">122.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">127.</ins> </span>eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensible-markup-language-xml" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">123.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">128.</ins> </span>eXtensible Markup Language (XML)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#xml-schema" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">124.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">129.</ins> </span>XML Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#extensible-stylesheet-language-transformations-xslt" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">125.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">130.</ins> </span>eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgments" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+
+
+
+<section class="introductory">
+<h2 id="scope">Scope</h2>
+<p>
+This glossary lists terms related to publishing and consuming either Linked Data in the enterprise or Linked Open Data on the public Web.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section id="x5-star-linked-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>5 Star Linked Data</h2>
+5 Star Linked Data refers to an incremental framework for deploying data.  Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and initiator of the <a href="http://linkeddata.org" target="_blank">Linked Data project</a>, suggested a 5 star deployment scheme for Linked Data.  The 5 Star Linked Data system is cumulative.  Each additional star presumes the data meets the criteria of the previous step(s).  
+
+<p class="highlight">☆&nbsp;<b>Data is available on the Web, in whatever format.</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆&nbsp;<b>Available as machine-readable structured data, (i.e., not a scanned image).</b>
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆☆&nbsp;<b>Available in a non-proprietary format, (i.e, CSV, not Microsoft Excel).</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆☆☆&nbsp;<b>Published using open standards from the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> (RDF and SPARQL).</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆☆☆☆&nbsp;<b>All of the above and links to other Linked Open Data.</b>
+</p>
+<p>
+An easy to read graphic for explaining the 5 Star Linked Data model may be seen on the <a href="http://www.cafepress.com/w3c_shop" target="_blank">5 Star Linked Open Data mug</a>.  One reads both green labels for <a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a>, or neither green label for <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>.  The <a href="http://5stardata.info/" target="_blank">5 Open Data diagram</a> is a graphical representation of each of the 5 Star techniques as described by Tim Berners-Lee.
+</p></section>
+
+<section id="apache-license">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Apache License</h2>
+<a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html" target="_blank"> Apache License, version 2.0</a> is used for many Linked Data tools and projects. It is a popular Open Source license published by the Apache Software Foundation.  
+</section>
+
+<section id="api">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>API</h2>
+An Application Programming Interface (API) is an abstraction implemented in software that defines how others should make use of a software package such as a library or other reusable program.  APIs are used to provide developers access to data and functionality from a given system.
+</section>
+
+<section id="creative-commons-licenses">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span> <del style="background:#F00">Authoritative</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Authoritative</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">conforms</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">Best</del> <del style="background:#F00">Practices</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">Publishing</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">published</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">other</del> <del style="background:#F00">responsible</del> <del style="background:#F00">agencies.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Government</del> <del style="background:#F00">agencies</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">often</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">unique</del> <del style="background:#F00">position</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">able</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">collect</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">no</del> <del style="background:#F00">other</del> <del style="background:#F00">entity</del> <del style="background:#F00">can.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">nearly</del> <del style="background:#F00">always</del> <del style="background:#F00">collected</del> <del style="background:#F00">at</del> <del style="background:#F00">tax-payers</del> <del style="background:#F00">expense</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">viewed</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">public</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">government,</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">valuable</del> <del style="background:#F00">if</del> <del style="background:#F00">made</del> <del style="background:#F00">available</del> <del style="background:#F00">with</del> <del style="background:#F00">proper</del> <del style="background:#F00">context</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">license.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">seen</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">many</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">useful</del> <del style="background:#F00">approach</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">publish</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">consume</del> <del style="background:#F00">authoritative</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">An</del> <del style="background:#F00">authoritative</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">often</del> <del style="background:#F00">published</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">governments</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">form</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">enjoys</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">greater</del> <del style="background:#F00">chance</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">being</del> <del style="background:#F00">discovered</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">re-used</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">others.</del> <del style="background:#F00">See</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">[Government</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data].</del> <del style="background:#F00">5.</del>Creative Commons Licenses</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">Creative</del> <del style="background:#F00">Commons</del> <del style="background:#F00">copyright</del> <del style="background:#F00">licenses</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">tools</del> <del style="background:#F00">aim</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">forge</del>A  <del style="background:#F00">balance</del> <del style="background:#F00">inside</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">traditional</del> <del style="background:#F00">“all</del> <del style="background:#F00">rights</del> <del style="background:#F00">reserved”</del> <del style="background:#F00">setting</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">copyright</del> <del style="background:#F00">law</del> <del style="background:#F00">creates.</del>Creative Commons licenses  <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">tools</del> <del style="background:#F00">provide</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">simple,</del> <del style="background:#F00">standardized</del> <del style="background:#F00">way</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">grant</del> <del style="background:#F00">copyright</del> <del style="background:#F00">permissions</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">their</del> <del style="background:#F00">creative</del> <del style="background:#F00">work.</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">combination</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">our</del> <del style="background:#F00">tools</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">our</del> <del style="background:#F00">users</del>is a  <del style="background:#F00">vast</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">growing</del> <del style="background:#F00">digital</del> <del style="background:#F00">commons,</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">pool</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">content</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">copied,</del> <del style="background:#F00">distributed,</del> <del style="background:#F00">edited,</del> <del style="background:#F00">remixed,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">built</del> <del style="background:#F00">upon,</del> <del style="background:#F00">all</del> <del style="background:#F00">within</del><ins style="background:#0F0">legal</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">statement</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">boundaries</del><ins style="background:#0F0">owner</ins> of copyright  <del style="background:#F00">law.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">intellectual</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">property</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">specifically</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">allowing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">people</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">use</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">redistribute</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">copyrighted</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">work</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">accordance</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">with</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">conditions</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">specified</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">therein.</ins>  See also <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/" target="_blank">About Creative Commons Licenses</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="cc-by-sa-license">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">6.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">5.</ins> </span>CC-BY-SA License</h2>
+CC-BY-SA is a form of Creative Commons license for resources released online. Work available under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" target="_blank">CC-BY-SA license</a> means you can include it in any other work under the condition that you give proper attribution. If you create derivative works (such as modified or extended versions), then you must also license them as CC-BY-SA. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="closed-world">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">7.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">6.</ins> </span>Closed World</h2>
+Closed world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external world. In a closed world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true must be false. This is a common assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming. See also <a href="#open-world">Open World</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="connection">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">8.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">7.</ins> </span>Connection</h2>
+Connection is a concept from computer networking. It refers to a transport layer virtual circuit established between two programs for the purpose of communication. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="conneg">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">9.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">8.</ins> </span>Conneg</h2>
+Abbreviated term for content negotiation. See also <a href="#content-negotiation">Content Negotiation</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="content-negotiation">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">10.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">9.</ins> </span>Content Negotiation</h2>
+Content negotiation, often called "conneg", refers to a phase in establishing a network connection.  <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">mechanism</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">selecting</del><ins style="background:#0F0">In</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">appropriate</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation</del> <del style="background:#F00">when</del> <del style="background:#F00">servicing</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">request.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Protocol,</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">representation</del><ins style="background:#0F0">use</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">message</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">header</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">indicate</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">which</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">response</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">formats</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">client</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">will</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">accept.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Content</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">negotiation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">allows</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">servers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">provide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">different</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">versions</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">entities</del><ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">representation</ins> in  <del style="background:#F00">any</del>response  <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">negotiated</del> <del style="background:#F00">(including</del> <del style="background:#F00">error</del> <del style="background:#F00">responses).</del><ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">any</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">given</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">request.</ins> See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#content.negotiation" target="_blank">HTTP Protocol 1.1</a>]. See also <a href="#connection">Connection</a>. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="controlled-vocabulary">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">11.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Controlled</del> <del style="background:#F00">Vocabulary</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del><ins style="background:#0F0">10.</ins> </span>Controlled Vocabulary</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Carefully</ins> selected  <del style="background:#F00">set</del><ins style="background:#0F0">sets</ins> of terms that  <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del><ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> used to  <del style="background:#F00">index,</del> <del style="background:#F00">tag</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del>describe units of  <del style="background:#F00">information.</del> <del style="background:#F00">By</del> <del style="background:#F00">providing</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">restricted</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">managed</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">terms</del> <del style="background:#F00">they</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del><ins style="background:#0F0">information;</ins> used to  <del style="background:#F00">reduce</del> <del style="background:#F00">ambiguity</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">systems.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Such</del> <del style="background:#F00">vocabularies</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">unstructured</del> <del style="background:#F00">(e.g.</del> <del style="background:#F00">code</del> <del style="background:#F00">lists)</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">organized</del> <del style="background:#F00">into</del> <del style="background:#F00">increasingly</del> <del style="background:#F00">complex</del> <del style="background:#F00">knowledge</del> <del style="background:#F00">organization</del> <del style="background:#F00">schemes</del> <del style="background:#F00">(</del> <del style="background:#F00">taxonomies</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">thesauri,</del> <del style="background:#F00">ontologies</del> <del style="background:#F00">).</del><ins style="background:#0F0">create</ins> <a href="#taxonomy"><ins style="background:#0F0">taxonomies</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">thesauri</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <a href="#ontology"><ins style="background:#0F0">ontologies</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins> In traditional settings the terms in the controlled vocabularies are words or phrases, in a linked data setting then they are normally assigned unique identifiers (URIs) which in turn link to descriptive phrases.
+</section>
+
+<section id="csv">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">12.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Converter</del> <del style="background:#F00">Converter</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">tool</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">script</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">converts</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">one</del> <del style="background:#F00">form</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">another,</del> <del style="background:#F00">e.g.,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">11.</ins> </span>CSV</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">into</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Publishing</del> <del style="background:#F00">good</del> <del style="background:#F00">quality,</del> <del style="background:#F00">useful</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del><ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">tabular</ins> data  <del style="background:#F00">requires</del> <del style="background:#F00">expression</del><ins style="background:#0F0">format</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">which</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">columns</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">resources</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">how</del> <del style="background:#F00">they</del><ins style="background:#0F0">information</ins> are  <del style="background:#F00">related.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">modelers</del> <del style="background:#F00">work</del> <del style="background:#F00">with</del> <del style="background:#F00">subject</del> <del style="background:#F00">domain</del> <del style="background:#F00">experts</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">make</del> <del style="background:#F00">explicit</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationships</del> <del style="background:#F00">between</del> <del style="background:#F00">resources</del> <del style="background:#F00">before</del> <del style="background:#F00">converting</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF.</del> <del style="background:#F00">13.</del> <del style="background:#F00">CSV</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">CSV</del> <del style="background:#F00">(comma</del> <del style="background:#F00">separated</del> <del style="background:#F00">value)</del> <del style="background:#F00">file</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">plain</del> <del style="background:#F00">text</del> <del style="background:#F00">file</del> <del style="background:#F00">usually</del> <del style="background:#F00">generated</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">spreadsheet</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">database</del> <del style="background:#F00">dump.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Each</del> <del style="background:#F00">line</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">record</del> <del style="background:#F00">contains</del> <del style="background:#F00">fields</del>separated by  <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">comma.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">comma</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">characters.</ins>  CSV files  <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">not</del> <del style="background:#F00">contain</del> <del style="background:#F00">column</del> <del style="background:#F00">header</del> <del style="background:#F00">names</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">provide</del> <del style="background:#F00">some</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">about</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">From</del><ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">perspective,</del> <del style="background:#F00">CSV</del> <del style="background:#F00">files</del><ins style="background:#0F0">non-proprietary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">format</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> are considered 3-star data on the 5-star scale.
+</section>
+
+<section id="curl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">14.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">12.</ins> </span>cURL</h2>
+cURL is a command line <ins style="background:#0F0">Open</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Source/Free</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Software</ins> client  <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">retrieve</del> <del style="background:#F00">any</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">over</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">wide</del> <del style="background:#F00">variety</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">protocols,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">can</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">transfer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data,</ins> including machine readable  <del style="background:#F00">RDF.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">from</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">server</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">using</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">one</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">its</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">many</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">supported</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">protocols.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="curies">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">13.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">CURIEs</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">CURIEs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">stands</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">"compact</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">expressions"</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDFa</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">approach</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">shortening</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URIs.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="fragment-identifier">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">14.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Fragment</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">The</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">part</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">follows</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">hash</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">symbol</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(‘#’).</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Fragment</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">identifiers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">not</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">passed</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">servers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">clients</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">such</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">browsers.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-cloud">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">15. </span>Data Cloud</h2>
+Data cloud, also called the <a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/" target="_blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>, is a visual representation of datasets published as Linked Data.  <del style="background:#F00">Using</del> <del style="background:#F00">metadata</del> <del style="background:#F00">generated</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">directories,</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del> <del style="background:#F00">CKAN,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">project</del> <del style="background:#F00">records</del> <del style="background:#F00">datasets</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">domain.</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Cloud</del> <del style="background:#F00">has</del> <del style="background:#F00">doubled</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">size</del> <del style="background:#F00">every</del> <del style="background:#F00">10</del> <del style="background:#F00">months</del> <del style="background:#F00">since</del> <del style="background:#F00">2007</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">late</del> <del style="background:#F00">2012</del> <del style="background:#F00">consists</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">more</del> <del style="background:#F00">than</del> <del style="background:#F00">300</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">sets</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">various</del> <del style="background:#F00">domains,</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del> <del style="background:#F00">geography,</del> <del style="background:#F00">media,</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">life</del> <del style="background:#F00">sciences,</del> <del style="background:#F00">according</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">State</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">LOD</del> <del style="background:#F00">Cloud</del> <del style="background:#F00">],</del> <del style="background:#F00">website</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">visualizations</del> <del style="background:#F00">maintained</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">C.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Bizer,</del> <del style="background:#F00">A.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Jentzsch,</del> <del style="background:#F00">R.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Cyganiak.</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">original</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">owners/stewards</del> <del style="background:#F00">publish</del> <del style="background:#F00">one</del> <del style="background:#F00">third</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">contained</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Cloud,</del> <del style="background:#F00">while</del> <del style="background:#F00">third</del> <del style="background:#F00">parties</del> <del style="background:#F00">publish</del> <del style="background:#F00">67%.</del>Many academic institutions republish data from their respective governments as <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>, often enhancing the representation in the process.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-hub-the">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">16. </span>Data Hub, The</h2>
+<a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">The Data Hub</a> is a specific site offering a community-run catalogue of data sets of data on the Internet, powered by the open-source data portal platform CKAN. <a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">The Data Hub</a> is an openly editable open data catalogue in the style of Wikipedia.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-market">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">17. </span>Data Market</h2>
+A data market, also called a Data Marketplace, is an online (broker) service to enable discovery and access to a large collection of datasets offered by a range of data providers. Examples include Infochimps, Azure Marketplace and Factual.  Data Markets may include open as well as paid-for data, and may offer value added services such as <a href="#API">APIs</a> and visualizations and programmatic data access.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-modeling">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">18. </span>Data Modeling</h2>
+Data modeling is a process  <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">define</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">analyze</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">requirements</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">system.</del> <del style="background:#F00">In</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">context</del>of  <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del><ins style="background:#0F0">organizing</ins> data  <del style="background:#F00">Modeling,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">information</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describing</ins> it  <del style="background:#F00">is</del><ins style="background:#0F0">into</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">process</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">involves</del> <del style="background:#F00">professional</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">modelers</del> <del style="background:#F00">working</del> <del style="background:#F00">closely</del> <del style="background:#F00">with</del> <del style="background:#F00">business</del> <del style="background:#F00">stakeholders</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">define</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">document</del> <del style="background:#F00">implicit</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">explicit</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationships.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del><ins style="background:#0F0">faithful</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">representation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">specific</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">domain</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">knowledge.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> data modeling applies  <del style="background:#F00">formal</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del>modeling techniques based on <a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data Principles</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dataset-rdf">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">19. </span> <del style="background:#F00">Dataset</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Dataset,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins></h2>
+A collection of <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> data,  <del style="background:#F00">published</del><ins style="background:#0F0">comprising</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">one</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">more</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">graphs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">published,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">maintained,</ins> or  <del style="background:#F00">curated</del><ins style="background:#0F0">aggregated</ins> by a single  <del style="background:#F00">agent,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">available</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">access</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">download</del><ins style="background:#0F0">provider.</ins>  In  <del style="background:#F00">one</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">more</del> <del style="background:#F00">formats.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">SPARQL,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Dataset</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">represents</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">collection</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">graphs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">over</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">which</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">query</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">performed.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-warehouse">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">20. </span>Data Warehouse</h2>
+A data warehouse is one approach to data integration in which data from various operational data systems is extracted, cleaned, transformed and copied to a centralized repository. The centralized repository can then be used for data mining or answering analytical queries.  By contrast, Linked Data assumes  <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">accounts</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del>a <em>distributed approach </em><ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">management</ins> using HTTP URIs to describe and access information resources.  A Linked Data approach is seen as an valid alternative to the centralized data warehouse approach especially when integrating  <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">datasets.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">datasets</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">available</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">public</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="dbpedia">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">21. </span>DBpedia</h2>
+DBpedia is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and make it available on the Web. DBpedia is often depicted as a hub for the <a href="#data-cloud">Data Cloud</a>.  An RDF representation of the metadata  <del style="background:#F00">derived</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del><ins style="background:#0F0">held</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> Wikipedia  <del style="background:#F00">is</del><ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> made available for SPARQL  <del style="background:#F00">queries</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">linking</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">other</del> <del style="background:#F00">datasets</del><ins style="background:#0F0">query</ins> on the <ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> Web. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="dereferenceable-uris">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">DBpedia</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">provides</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">human</del> <del style="background:#F00">readable</del> <del style="background:#F00">version</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">structured</del> <del style="background:#F00">content.</del> <del style="background:#F00">For</del> <del style="background:#F00">example,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">human</del> <del style="background:#F00">readable</del> <del style="background:#F00">version</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">color</del> <del style="background:#F00">"Red"</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">found</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">DBpedia</del> <del style="background:#F00">at</del> <del style="background:#F00">http://dbpedia.org/page/Red</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">See</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">curl</del> <del style="background:#F00">].</del>22. </span>Dereferenceable URIs</h2>
+When an HTTP client can look up a <a href="#uri">URI</a> using the HTTP protocol and retrieve a description of the resource, it is called a  dereferenceable URI.   <del style="background:#F00">Per</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Principles,</del> <del style="background:#F00">we</del> <del style="background:#F00">identify</del> <del style="background:#F00">things</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">URIs</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">provide</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">about</del> <del style="background:#F00">them</del> <del style="background:#F00">when</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">resolved</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">dereferenced.</del>Dereferenceable URIs applies to URIs that are used to identify classic HTML documents and URIs that are used in the Linked Data context [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-COOL-SWURIS">COOL-SWURIS</a></cite>] to identify real-world objects and abstract concepts.
+</section>
+
+<section id="description-logic">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">23. </span>Description Logic</h2>
+Description Logic (DL) is a family of knowledge representation languages with varying and adjustable expressivity.  DL is used in artificial intelligence for formal reasoning on the concepts of an application domain.  The Web Ontology Language (OWL) provides a standards-based way to exchange ontologies and includes a Description Logic semantics as well as an RDF based semantics.  Biomedical informatics applications often use DL for codification of healthcare and life sciences knowledge.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dcat">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">24. </span>DCAT</h2>
+Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) is an RDF vocabulary. It is designed to facilitate interoperability between data catalogs published on the Web. See also <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/" target="_blank">Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT)</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dcmi">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">25. </span>DCMI</h2>
+See <a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative" target="_blank">Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="directed-graph">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">26. </span>Directed Graph</h2>
+A directed graph is a graph in which the links between nodes are directional, i.e., they only go from one node to another. RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph. In <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, links are labelled by being assigned unique <a href="#uri">URIs</a>. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="document-type-definition">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">27. </span>Document Type Definition</h2>
+Document Type Definition (DTD) refers to a type of schema for defining a markup language, such as in XML or HTML (or their predecessor SGML). 
+</section>
+
+<section id="domain-name-system-dns">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">28. </span>Domain Name System (DNS)</h2> 
+Domain Name System (DNS) refers to the Internet's mechanism for mapping between a human-readable host name (e.g. <a href="http://www.example.com" target="_blank">www.example.com</a>) and an Internet Protocol (IP) Address (e.g. 203.20.51.10).
+</section>
+
+<section id="dublin-core-metadata-element-set">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">29. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Element Set</h2>
+Dublin Core Metadata Element Set refers to a <a href="#vocabulary">vocabulary</a> of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (creator, publisher, etc).  The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, also known as "DC Elements", is the most commonly used vocabulary for Linked Data applications. See also <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/" target="_blank"> Dublin Core Element Set, Version 1.1 Specification.</a> [<a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative" target="_blank">DCMI</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="dublin-core-metadata-initiative">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">30. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</h2> 
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">public,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">not-for-profit</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">organization</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">with</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">mission</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">promote</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">interoperable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">design</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">innovative</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">practice.</ins>  <a href="http://dublincore.org/about-us/" target="_blank">The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)</a>  <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">international</del> <del style="background:#F00">organization</del> <del style="background:#F00">engaged</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del><ins style="background:#0F0">manages</ins> the <ins style="background:#0F0">long-term</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">curation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> development of  <del style="background:#F00">interoperable</del>metadata  <del style="background:#F00">standards,</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del><ins style="background:#0F0">standards</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">such</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> the Dublin Core Element  <del style="background:#F00">Set.</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">DCMI</del> <del style="background:#F00">manages</del> <del style="background:#F00">long</del> <del style="background:#F00">term</del> <del style="background:#F00">curation</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Set</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">development</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del>DCMI  <del style="background:#F00">specifications</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Terms.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="dublin-core-metadata-terms">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">31.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Dublin</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Core</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Terms</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">bibliographic</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">used</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describe</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">both</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">physical</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">publications</ins> and <ins style="background:#0F0">those</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">extended</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">set</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">beyond</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">those</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">basic</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">found</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Dublin</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Core</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Element</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Set.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/" target="_blank"><ins style="background:#0F0">Dublin</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Core</ins> Metadata Terms</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="entity">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">namespaces</del> <del style="background:#F00">31.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">32.</ins> </span>Entity</h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">In</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">term</del> <del style="background:#F00">entity</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">anything</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">named</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del><ins style="background:#0F0">sense</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> an  <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">URL.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">serves</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del><ins style="background:#0F0">entity-attribute-value</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">model,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">entity</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">synonymous</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">with</ins> the <a href="#subject">Subject</a> of  <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">description.</del> <del style="background:#F00">32.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Triple.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="etl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">33.</ins> </span>ETL</h2>
+ETL is an abbreviation for  <del style="background:#F00">extact,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">extract,</ins> transform, load.  Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">modelers</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del>developers <ins style="background:#0F0">routinely</ins> extract data from a relational database, transform  <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del>data  <del style="background:#F00">serialization,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Triples,</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">then</del>load it into an RDF database.
+</section>
+
+<section id="foaf">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">33.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Free/Libre/Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Source</del> <del style="background:#F00">Software</del> <del style="background:#F00">Free,</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">known</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">Libre</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Source,</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del><ins style="background:#0F0">34.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">FOAF</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Friend</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">generic</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">internationalized</del> <del style="background:#F00">term</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Friend.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="friend-of-a-friend">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">35.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Friend</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Friend</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Semantic</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">people</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">their</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">relationships</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">use</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">descriptions.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Commonly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">called</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">"FOAF".</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="free-libre-open-source-software">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">36.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Free/Libre/Open</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Source</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Software</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">Free,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">known</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Libre</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Open</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Source,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">generic</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">internationalized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">term</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> software released under an Open Source license.
+</section>
+
+<section id="government-open-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">34.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">37.</ins> </span>Government Open Data</h2>
+Many government authorities have mandated publication of data to the public Web. The broad intention is to facilitate the maintenance of open societies and support governmental accountability and transparency initiatives.  <del style="background:#F00">However,</del> <del style="background:#F00">publication</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">unstructured</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">World</del> <del style="background:#F00">Wide</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">itself</del> <del style="background:#F00">insufficient;</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">order</del>To realize the goals of <ins style="background:#0F0">improved</ins> efficiency, transparency and accountability, re-use of  <del style="background:#F00">published</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">means</del> <del style="background:#F00">members</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del><ins style="background:#0F0">structured</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">content</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">available</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">public</del> <del style="background:#F00">must</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">able</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">absorb</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">ways</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">readily</del> <del style="background:#F00">found</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">absorbed</del> <del style="background:#F00">programmatically</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">machines,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">visualized</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">enhanced</ins> by  <del style="background:#F00">humans.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">following</ins> <a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">Principles</del> <del style="background:#F00">address</del> <del style="background:#F00">many</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">modeling</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">format</del> <del style="background:#F00">requirements</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">realize</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">goals</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Government</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">35.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Graph</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Principles.</ins> 
+</a></section><a href="#linked-data-principles">
+
+</a><section><a href="#linked-data-principles">
+<h2 id="graph">Graph</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">mathematical</del> <del style="background:#F00">structure</del> <del style="background:#F00">consisting</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del>A collection of  <del style="background:#F00">objects,</del> <del style="background:#F00">represented</del><ins style="background:#0F0">objects</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(represented</ins> by  <del style="background:#F00">"nodes",</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del><ins style="background:#0F0">"nodes")</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">any</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">which</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> connected by  <del style="background:#F00">“edges”</del> <del style="background:#F00">(also</del> <del style="background:#F00">called</del> <del style="background:#F00">links),</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">denote</del> <del style="background:#F00">inter-relationships</del><ins style="background:#0F0">links</ins> between them.   <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">well</del> <del style="background:#F00">established</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">field</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Graph</del> <del style="background:#F00">Theory.</del>See also </a><a href="#directed-graph">Directed Graph</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="hypertext-markup-language">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">36.</del> <del style="background:#F00">HyperText</del> <del style="background:#F00">Markup</del> <del style="background:#F00">Language</del> <del style="background:#F00">(HTML)</del><ins style="background:#0F0">38.</ins> </span>HyperText Markup Language</h2> 
+ <del style="background:#F00">(HTML)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>The predominant markup language for hypertext pages on the Web.  <del style="background:#F00">HTML</del><ins style="background:#0F0">HyperText</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Markup</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Language</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(HTML)</ins> defines the structure of Web pages and  <del style="background:#F00">it</del>is a family of <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> standards.
+</section>
+
+<section id="hypertext-transfer-protocol">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">37.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">39.</ins> </span>HyperText Transfer Protocol</h2> 
+HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the standard transmission protocol [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2616">RFC2616</a></cite>] used on the World Wide Web to transfer hypertext requests and information between Web servers and Web clients (such as browsers). It is an IETF standard.  
+</section>
+
+<section id="http-uris">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">40.</ins> </span>HTTP URIs</h2>
+See <a href="uniform-resource-identifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a> <del style="background:#F00">(URI)</del>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="international-standards-organization">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">38.</del> <del style="background:#F00">International</del> <del style="background:#F00">Standards</del> <del style="background:#F00">Organization</del> <del style="background:#F00">(ISO)</del><ins style="background:#0F0">41.</ins> </span>International Standards Organization</h2> 
+ <del style="background:#F00">(ISO)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A network of the national standards institutes of  <del style="background:#F00">162</del><ins style="background:#0F0">over</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">160</ins> countries that cooperate to define international standards.  It defines many standards including in the context formats for dates and currency.  <del style="background:#F00">39.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Internet</del> <del style="background:#F00">Engineering</del> <del style="background:#F00">Task</del> <del style="background:#F00">Force</del> <del style="background:#F00">(IETF)</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Also</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">called</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">ISO.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="internet-engineering-task-force">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">42.</ins> </span>Internet Engineering Task Force</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">(IETF)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>An open international community concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the operation of the Internet. It has defined standards such as HTTP and DNS.  <del style="background:#F00">40.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Also</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">called</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">IETF.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="inference">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">43.</ins> </span>Inference</h2>
+Inference is the process of deriving logical conclusions from a set of starting assumptions. Using Linked Data, existing relationships are modeled as a set of (named) relationships between resources.  Linked Data helps humans and machines to find new relationships through automatic procedures that generate new relationships based on the data and based on some additional information in the form of a vocabulary.
+</section>
+
+<section id="internationalized-resource-identifier">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">41.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">44.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Internationalized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">global</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">identifier</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">standardized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">joint</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">action</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Consortium</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Internet</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Engineering</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Task</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Force.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">IRI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">not</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resolvable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">generalization</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URIs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">allow</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">characters</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">from</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Universal</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Character</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Set</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(Unicode).</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Slowly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">replacing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URIs.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="#uniform-resource-identifier"><ins style="background:#0F0">Uniform</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(URI)</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">,</ins> <a href="#uniform-resource-locator"><ins style="background:#0F0">Uniform</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Locator</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(URL)</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Also</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">called</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">IRI.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="json">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">45.</ins> </span>JSON</h2>
+JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is syntax for storing and exchanging text based information. JSON has proven to be a highly useful and popular object serialization and messaging format for the Web. See [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] for details. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="json-ld">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">42.</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON-LD</del><ins style="background:#0F0">46.</ins> </span>JSON-LD</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">(JavaScript</del><ins style="background:#0F0">JavaScript</ins> Object Notation for Linking  <del style="background:#F00">Data)</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(JSON-LD)</ins> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>] is  <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">attempt</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">harmonize</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON.</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON-LD</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">specification</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">outlines</del>a  <del style="background:#F00">common</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation</del><ins style="background:#0F0">language-independent</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> format for  <del style="background:#F00">expressing</del> <del style="background:#F00">directed</del> <del style="background:#F00">graphs,</del> <del style="background:#F00">mixing</del> <del style="background:#F00">both</del><ins style="background:#0F0">representing</ins> Linked  <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">non-Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">single</del> <del style="background:#F00">document.</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON-LD</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Data,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">based</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">JSON.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">JSON-LD</ins> is  <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">lightweight</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">format</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">provides</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">context.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">capable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">serializing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">any</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">graph</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">dataset</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">most,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">but</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">not</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">all,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">JSON-LD</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">documents</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">can</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">directly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">transformed</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF.</ins>  <a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20120626/" target="_blank"> JSON-LD Syntax</a> is easy for humans to read and write as well as, easy for machines to parse and generate. JSON-LD is  <del style="background:#F00">based</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">format</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">provides</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">way</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">allow</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">interoperate</del> <del style="background:#F00">at</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web-scale.</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON-LD</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>an appropriate Linked Data interchange language for JavaScript environments, Web service and NoSQL databases. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">43.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Jena</del> <del style="background:#F00">Jena</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Source</del> <del style="background:#F00">Software</del> <del style="background:#F00">implementation</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del><ins style="background:#0F0">47.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins></h2>
+A <ins style="background:#0F0">pattern</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">hyperlinking</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">machine-readable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">sets</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">each</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">other</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">using</ins> Semantic Web  <del style="background:#F00">development</del> <del style="background:#F00">framework.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">supports</del><ins style="background:#0F0">techniques,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">especially</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">via</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">storage,</del> <del style="background:#F00">retrieval</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">analysis</del><ins style="background:#0F0">use</ins> of RDF  <del style="background:#F00">information.</del> <del style="background:#F00">44.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">best</del> <del style="background:#F00">practices</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">creating,</del> <del style="background:#F00">publishing</del>and  <del style="background:#F00">announcing</del> <del style="background:#F00">structured</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del><ins style="background:#0F0">URIs.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Enables</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">distributed</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">SPARQL</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">queries</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">Web.</del> <del style="background:#F00">See</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del>data  <del style="background:#F00">Principles</del> <del style="background:#F00">]</del><ins style="background:#0F0">sets</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">browsing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">discovery</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">approach</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">finding</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">information</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">compared</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">search</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">strategy).</ins>  Linked Data is intended for access by both humans and machines. Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">not</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">same</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">rather</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del>uses the RDF family of standards for data interchange  <del style="background:#F00">(</del><ins style="background:#0F0">(e.g.,</ins> RDF/XML, RDFa, Turtle) and query (SPARQL).  <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">published</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">person</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">organization</del> <del style="background:#F00">behind</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">firewall</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">public</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web.</del>If Linked Data is published on the public Web, it is generally called <em><a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a></em>.  <del style="background:#F00">45.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">[</ins><a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">Client</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">client</del> <del style="background:#F00">side</del> <del style="background:#F00">application</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">consumes</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Principles</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">].</ins>  
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-api">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">48.</ins> </span>Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">using</del> <del style="background:#F00">standard</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">techniques.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins></h2>
+A  <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del><ins style="background:#0F0">REST</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">allows</ins> data  <del style="background:#F00">Client</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">resolve</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI's</del><ins style="background:#0F0">publishers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">provide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URLs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">lists</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">things</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">clients</ins> to retrieve <ins style="background:#0F0">machine-readable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">from</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">those</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URLs.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-client">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">49.</ins> </span>Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">serializations,</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del> <del style="background:#F00">appropriate</del><ins style="background:#0F0">client</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">client</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">supports</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP</ins> content  <del style="background:#F00">negotiation,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">understands</del> <del style="background:#F00">how</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">make</del> <del style="background:#F00">use</del><ins style="background:#0F0">negotiation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">retrieval</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">those</del> <del style="background:#F00">representations</del> <del style="background:#F00">once</del> <del style="background:#F00">it</del> <del style="background:#F00">receives</del> <del style="background:#F00">them.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">from</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URLs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and/or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">SPARQL</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">endpoints.</ins>  A Linked Data client understands standard REST API, for example the Linked Data REST API.   <del style="background:#F00">There</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">many</del>Examples of Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">clients,</del> <del style="background:#F00">several</del><ins style="background:#0F0">clients</ins> include: Tim Berners-Lee's early <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/ajar/tab.html" target="_blank"> Tabulator browser</a>, <a href="http://www.visualdataweb.org/gfacet.php" target="_blank"> gFacet</a>, and the <a href="http://callimachusproject.org" target="_blank">Callimachus Shell (CaSH)</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-platform">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">46.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">50.</ins> </span>Linked Data Platform</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">1.0</del>A  <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">best</del> <del style="background:#F00">practices</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">simple</del> <del style="background:#F00">approach</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del><ins style="background:#0F0">specification</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">defines</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">read-write</del><ins style="background:#0F0">REST</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">read</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">write</ins> Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">architecture,</del> <del style="background:#F00">based</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">access</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">web</del> <del style="background:#F00">resources</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">describe</del> <del style="background:#F00">their</del> <del style="background:#F00">state</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del><ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">model.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">purposes</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">enterprise</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">application</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">integration.</ins> The Linked Data Platform describes the use of  <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del><ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">REST</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins> for accessing, updating, creating and deleting resources from  <del style="background:#F00">servers</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">expose</del> <del style="background:#F00">their</del> <del style="background:#F00">resources</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">provides</del> <del style="background:#F00">some</del> <del style="background:#F00">new</del> <del style="background:#F00">rules</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">well</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">clarifications</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">extensions</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">four</del> <del style="background:#F00">rules</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">LINKED-DATA</del> <del style="background:#F00">].</del><ins style="background:#0F0">servers.</ins> See also [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-LDP-ONE">LDP-ONE</a></cite>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-principles">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">47.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Principles</del><ins style="background:#0F0">51.</ins> </span>Linked Data Principles</h2>
+Provide a common <a href="#api">API</a> for data on the Web which is more convenient than many separately and differently designed APIs published by individual data suppliers.  Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and initiator of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html" target="_blank"> Linked Data</a> project, proposed the following principles upon which Linked Data is based:
+<ol>
+<li>Use URIs to name things;</li> 
+<li>Use HTTP URIs so that things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents;</li>
+<li>When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the open Web standards such as RDF, SPARQL;</li>
+<li>Include links to other related things using their URIs when publishing on the Web.</li>
+</ol>
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-open-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">48.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del><ins style="background:#0F0">52.</ins> </span>Linked Open Data</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del>Linked Data published on the public Web  <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">often</del> <del style="background:#F00">abbreviated</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">"LOD".</del><ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">licensed</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">under</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">one</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">several</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">open</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">content</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">licenses</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">permitting</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">reuse.</ins>
+Publishing Linked Open Data enables distributed <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries of the data sets and a "browsing" or "discovery" approach to finding information, as compared to a search strategy.  See also: [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS">LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS</a></cite>], [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-HOWTO-LODP">HOWTO-LODP</a></cite>] 
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-open-data-cloud">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">49.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">53.</ins> </span>Linked Open Data Cloud</h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">colloquial</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">phrase</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> the <ins style="background:#0F0">total</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">collection</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> Linked Data  <del style="background:#F00">Cloud</del> <del style="background:#F00">represents</del> <del style="background:#F00">interconnected</del> <del style="background:#F00">datasets</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">have</del> <del style="background:#F00">been</del>published  <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del>on the  <del style="background:#F00">public</del>Web.  See also: <a href="#data-cloud">Data Cloud</a>, <a href="#linked-open-data-cloud-diagram">Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-open-data-cloud-diagram">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">50.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">54.</ins> </span> Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">pictoral</del> <del style="background:#F00">depiction</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Cloud</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">There</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">various</del> <del style="background:#F00">depictions</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del><ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">diagram</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">representing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">datasets</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">published</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Linking</ins> Open Data  <del style="background:#F00">Cloud</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del> <del style="background:#F00">color-by-theme</del> <del style="background:#F00">describing</del><ins style="background:#0F0">project</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">from</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">2007-2011.</ins>  The  <del style="background:#F00">various</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">domains</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del> <del style="background:#F00">government,</del> <del style="background:#F00">geographic,</del> <del style="background:#F00">publications,</del> <del style="background:#F00">life</del> <del style="background:#F00">sciences</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">media</del> <del style="background:#F00">content.</del> <del style="background:#F00">51.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linking</del> <del style="background:#F00">Government</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linking</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del><ins style="background:#0F0">diagram</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">stopped</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">being</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">updated</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">when</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">individual</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">datasets</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">could</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">no</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">longer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">meaningfully</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">represented</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">single</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">diagram</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">due</ins> to the  <del style="background:#F00">use</del><ins style="background:#0F0">number</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">tools</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">techniques</del><ins style="background:#0F0">total</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">datasets.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">pictoral</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">depiction</ins> of the <a href=" http://lod-cloud.net/" target="blank"> <del style="background:#F00">Semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">connect,</del> <del style="background:#F00">expose</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">use</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">systems.</del> <del style="background:#F00">52.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linking</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> Data  <del style="background:#F00">Project</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Cloud</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="linking-open-data-project">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">55.</ins> </span>Linking Open Data Project</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A community activity started in 2007 by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>'s <a href="http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData" target="_blank">Semantic Web Education and Outreach (SWEO) Interest Group</a>.  The project's stated goal is to "make data freely available to everyone".
+</section>
+
+<section id="linkset">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">53.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Machine</del> <del style="background:#F00">Readable</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del><ins style="background:#0F0">56.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Linkset</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">collection</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">links</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">between</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">two</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">datasets.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="machine-readable-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">57.</ins> </span>Machine Readable Data</h2>
+<p> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del>Data  <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del><ins style="background:#0F0">formats</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> be  <del style="background:#F00">seamlessly</del> <del style="background:#F00">processed</del><ins style="background:#0F0">readily</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">parsed</ins> by  <del style="background:#F00">programs.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">often</del> <del style="background:#F00">means</del> <del style="background:#F00">non-graphics</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">gets</del> <del style="background:#F00">2-stars</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">5-star</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">scale</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">While</del> <del style="background:#F00">some</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">developers</del> <del style="background:#F00">use</del> <del style="background:#F00">screen-scrapping</del> <del style="background:#F00">techniques</del><ins style="background:#0F0">computer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">programs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">without</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">access</ins> to  <del style="background:#F00">parse</del> <del style="background:#F00">machine</del> <del style="background:#F00">readable</del> <del style="background:#F00">content,</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del> <del style="background:#F00">4-star</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">5-star</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">preferable</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">terms</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">provenance</del><ins style="background:#0F0">proprietary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">libraries.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">For</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">example,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">CSV,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">TSV</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">ease</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">reuse.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Anything</del> <del style="background:#F00">less</del> <del style="background:#F00">than</del> <del style="background:#F00">4-star</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">gives</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">developers</del> <del style="background:#F00">more</del> <del style="background:#F00">work</del> <del style="background:#F00">modeling</del><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">formats</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">machine</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">readable,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">but</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">PDF</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">transforming</del> <del style="background:#F00">data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">By</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Microsoft</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Excel</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">not.</ins>  Creating and publishing <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">following</ins> Linked  <del style="background:#F00">Data,</del> <del style="background:#F00">you</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">increasing</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">ability</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">principles</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">helps</ins> search  <del style="background:#F00">engines,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">engines</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">thus</del> <del style="background:#F00">humans,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">humans</ins> to find, access and re-use  <del style="background:#F00">information.</del> <del style="background:#F00">To</del> <del style="background:#F00">see</del> <del style="background:#F00">how</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation</del> <del style="background:#F00">yields</del> <del style="background:#F00">both</del><ins style="background:#0F0">data.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Once</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">information</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">found,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">computer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">programs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">can</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">re-use</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">without</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">need</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">custom</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">scripts</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">manipulate</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">content.</ins>
+</p>
+<p>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">Publishing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">machine</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">readable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">using</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">principles</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">provides</ins> a human and machine readable  <del style="background:#F00">version</del> <del style="background:#F00">simultaneously,</del> <del style="background:#F00">try</del> <del style="background:#F00">this</del> <del style="background:#F00">exercise.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">version.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">For</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">example,</ins> Wikipedia  <del style="background:#F00">has</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">interesting</del><ins style="background:#0F0">includes</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> page about the color <a href="http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red" target="_blank">Red</a>.   <del style="background:#F00">DBpedia</del> <del style="background:#F00">allows</del> <del style="background:#F00">you</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">get</del><ins style="background:#0F0">DBpedia,</ins> the <ins style="background:#0F0">database</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">containing</ins> structured content  <del style="background:#F00">listed</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Wikipedia</del> <del style="background:#F00">page</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del><ins style="background:#0F0">contained</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wikipedia,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">allows</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">client</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">look</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">up</ins> "Red" [<a href="http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red" target="_blank">http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red</a>] by changing "wiki" to "data" and appending the appropriate file extension.
+</p>
+<pre>$ curl -L http://dbpedia.org/data/Red.ttl</pre> 
+</section>
+
+<section id="message">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">Thus,</del> <del style="background:#F00">you've</del> <del style="background:#F00">seen</del> <del style="background:#F00">how</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">same</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">viewed</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">human</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">machine</del> <del style="background:#F00">readable</del> <del style="background:#F00">format</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">same</del> <del style="background:#F00">page.</del> <del style="background:#F00">54.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">58.</ins> </span>Message</h2> 
+The basic unit of HTTP communication. It consists of a structured sequence of octets matching the syntax defined as an <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#httpmessage" target="blank">HTTP Message</a> and transmitted via the connection.
+</section>
+
+<section id="metadata">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">55.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Metadata</del><ins style="background:#0F0">59.</ins> </span>Metadata</h2> 
+ <del style="background:#F00">literally</del> <del style="background:#F00">means</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">about</del> <del style="background:#F00">data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del>Information used to administer, describe, preserve, present, use or link other information held in resources, especially knowledge resources, be they physical or virtual.  <ins style="background:#0F0">Metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">further</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">subcategorized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">into</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">several</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">types</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(including</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">general,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">access</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">structural</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">metadata).</ins>  Linked Data incorporates human and machine readable metadata along with it, making it self describing.
+</section>
+
+<section id="metadata-object-description-schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">56.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">60.</ins> </span>Metadata Object Description Schema</h2>
+It is a bibliographic description system intended to be a compromise between <a href="http://www.loc.gov/marc" target="_blank">MARC</a> and <a href="http://dublincore.org/" target="_blank">DC metadata</a>. It is implemented in <a href="#xml-schema">XML Schema</a>. See DC, MARC, XSD. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="modeling-process">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">57.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">61.</ins> </span>Modeling Process</h2>
+Modeling process in the context of RDF refers to the act by subject matter experts to work with developers to capture the context of data and define the relationships of the data.  By doing so, high quality of Linked Data is obtained since capturing organizational knowledge about the meaning of the data within the RDF data model means the data is more likely to be reused correctly. Well defined context ensures better understanding, proper reuse, and is critical when establishing linkages to other data sets. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="n3">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">58.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">62.</ins> </span>N3</h2>
+N3 is an abbreviation for Notation3. It has a readable <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> syntax used for expressing assertion and logic. N3 [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N3">N3</a></cite>] is a superset of RDF, extending the RDF model by adding formulae (literals which are graphs themselves), variables, logical implication, and functional predicates. See also [<a href="#turtle">Turtle</a>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="namespace-iri">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">59.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">63.</ins> </span>Namespace <ins style="background:#0F0">IRI</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> namespace  <del style="background:#F00">refers</del><ins style="background:#0F0">IRI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">base</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">IRI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">shared</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">all</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">given</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">ontology.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="natural-keys">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">64.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Natural</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Keys</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">Human-readable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">categories</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">sub-identifiers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">within</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">reflect</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">what</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">identifier</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describes.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">They</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">recommended</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">when</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">creating</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URIs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">so</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">people</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">reading</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">its</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">source</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">format</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(mostly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">developers)</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">will</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">able</ins> to <ins style="background:#0F0">more</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">quickly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">understand</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">it.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="neutral-uri">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">65.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Neutral</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins></h2>
+A  <del style="background:#F00">container</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del><ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">avoids</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">exposure</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">implementation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">details</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">within</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URI</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">itself.</ins> 
+</section>
+
+<section id="n-triples">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">66.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">N-Triples</ins></h2>
+A  <del style="background:#F00">set</del><ins style="background:#0F0">subset</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">names</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Turtle</ins> that  <del style="background:#F00">belong</del><ins style="background:#0F0">defines</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">line-based</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">format</ins> to <ins style="background:#0F0">encode</ins> a single  <del style="background:#F00">authority.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Namespaces</del> <del style="background:#F00">allow</del> <del style="background:#F00">different</del> <del style="background:#F00">agents</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">use</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">same</del> <del style="background:#F00">word</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">different</del> <del style="background:#F00">ways.</del> <del style="background:#F00">60.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">graph.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Used</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">primarily</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">exchange</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">format</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/"><ins style="background:#0F0">N-triples</ins></a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="object">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">67.</ins> </span>Object</h2>
+In the context of <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, the object is the  <del style="background:#F00">third</del><ins style="background:#0F0">final</ins> part of an RDF statement.   <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">property</del> <del style="background:#F00">value</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">mapped</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">subject</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">predicate.</del>See also [<a href="#subject">Subject</a>] [<a href="#predicate">Predicate</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="ontology">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">61.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">An</del><ins style="background:#0F0">68.</ins> </span>Ontology</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A formal model  <del style="background:#F00">of</del><ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">allows</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">knowledge</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">represented</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> a <ins style="background:#0F0">specific</ins> domain.   <del style="background:#F00">It</del><ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">ontology</ins> describes the types of things that exist (classes), the relationships between them (properties) and the logical ways those classes and properties can be used together (axioms).
+</section>
+
+<section id="open-government-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">69.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Open</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Government</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">Refers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">content</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">published</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">OWL</del> <del style="background:#F00">(Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">Ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">Language)</del> <del style="background:#F00">family</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">languages</del> <del style="background:#F00">provide</del><ins style="background:#0F0">public</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">government</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">authorities</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">standardized-means</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">expressing</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">exchanging</del> <del style="background:#F00">ontologies.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">builds</del> <del style="background:#F00">upon,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del><ins style="background:#0F0">variety</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">non-proprietary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">formats.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="org-ontology">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">70.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">ORG</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Ontology</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">ORG</ins> is  <del style="background:#F00">compatible</del> <del style="background:#F00">with,</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">62.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">Matching</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">process</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">finding</del> <del style="background:#F00">correspondences</del> <del style="background:#F00">between</del> <del style="background:#F00">semantically</del> <del style="background:#F00">related</del> <del style="background:#F00">entities</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">ontologies,</del> <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">various</del> <del style="background:#F00">tasks,</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">merging,</del> <del style="background:#F00">reconciliation,</del> <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">answering,</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">translation,</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">navigation</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">web.</del> <del style="background:#F00">63.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">Government</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">broadly</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">content</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">published</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">public</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">authorities</del> <del style="background:#F00">at</del> <del style="background:#F00">national,</del> <del style="background:#F00">regional</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">local</del> <del style="background:#F00">levels,</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">variety</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">non-proprietary</del> <del style="background:#F00">formats</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">XML,</del> <del style="background:#F00">CSV,</del> <del style="background:#F00">SHP</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">PDF.</del> <del style="background:#F00">64.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">World</del> <del style="background:#F00">Open</del> <del style="background:#F00">world</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">concept</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">Artificial</del> <del style="background:#F00">Intelligence</del> <del style="background:#F00">(AI)</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">model</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">uncertainty</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">agent</del> <del style="background:#F00">assumes</del> <del style="background:#F00">about</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">external</del> <del style="background:#F00">world.</del> <del style="background:#F00">In</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">open</del> <del style="background:#F00">world,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">agent</del> <del style="background:#F00">presumes</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">what</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">not</del> <del style="background:#F00">known</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">true</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">yet</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">true</del> <del style="background:#F00">if</del> <del style="background:#F00">additional</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">later</del> <del style="background:#F00">obtained.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">assumption</del> <del style="background:#F00">underlying</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">OWL</del> <del style="background:#F00">Full,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">often</del> <del style="background:#F00">opposed</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">"Closed</del> <del style="background:#F00">World".</del> <del style="background:#F00">65.</del> <del style="background:#F00">ORG</del> <del style="background:#F00">Ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">ORG</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del><ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> RDF vocabulary to enable publication of information about organizations and organizational structures, even at governmental level. See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/" target="_blank">http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="persistent-identifier-scheme">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">66.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">71.</ins> </span>Persistent Identifier Scheme</h2>
+A persistent identifier scheme is a mechanmism for resolution of virtual resources.  <a href="#persistent-uniform-resource-locator">Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURLs)</a> implement one form of persistent identifier for virtual resources. PURLs are valid URLs and their components must map to the URL specification. The scheme part tells a computer program, such as a Web browser, which protocol to use when resolving the address. The scheme used for PURLs is generally HTTP.  Other persistent identifier schemes include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" target="_blank">Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LSID" target="_blank">Life Sciences Identifiers (LSIDs)</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Info:" target="_blank">INFO URIs</a>. All persistent identification schemes provide unique identifiers for (possibly changing) virtual resources, but not all schemes provide curation opportunities.
+</section>
+
+<section id="persistent-uniform-resource-locator">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">67.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">72.</ins> </span>Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">URLs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">act</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">permanent</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">identifiers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">face</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> a <ins style="background:#0F0">dynamic</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">changing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">infrastructure.</ins>  Persistent Uniform Resource  <del style="background:#F00">locator</del> <del style="background:#F00">(PURL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">locator</del> <del style="background:#F00">(URL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">intended</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">remain</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">same</del> <del style="background:#F00">over</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">course</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">time,</del> <del style="background:#F00">regardless</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">changes</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Locators</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(PURLs)</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">redirect</ins> to the  <del style="background:#F00">implementing</del> <del style="background:#F00">technology,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">ownership</del><ins style="background:#0F0">current</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">location</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">resource</del>or  <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">contents</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation.</del> <del style="background:#F00">There</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">several</del> <del style="background:#F00">types</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">PURLs,</del> <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">differentiated</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">status</del> <del style="background:#F00">code</del> <del style="background:#F00">they</del> <del style="background:#F00">return.</del> <del style="background:#F00">PURLs</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">curate</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">URL</del> <del style="background:#F00">resolution</del> <del style="background:#F00">process,</del> <del style="background:#F00">thus</del> <del style="background:#F00">solving</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">problem</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">transitory</del> <del style="background:#F00">URIs</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">location-based</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI</del> <del style="background:#F00">schemes</del> <del style="background:#F00">like</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Thus,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">proxy</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">specific</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">content.</ins>  A user of a PURL always uses the same Web address, even though the resource in question may have moved or changed ownership.
+</section>
+
+<section id="predicate">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">PURL</del> <del style="background:#F00">might</del> <del style="background:#F00">redirect</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">new</del> <del style="background:#F00">location</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">return</del> <del style="background:#F00">content</del> <del style="background:#F00">proxied</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">new</del> <del style="background:#F00">location.</del> <del style="background:#F00">68.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Predicate</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del><ins style="background:#0F0">73.</ins> </span>Predicate</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>The  <del style="background:#F00">second</del> <del style="background:#F00">part</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del><ins style="background:#0F0">middle</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">term</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">linkage,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">"verb")</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> an RDF  <del style="background:#F00">statement</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">gives</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">property</del> <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">connects</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">subject</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">statement</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">object</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del>statement.   <del style="background:#F00">Thus</del><ins style="background:#0F0">For</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">example,</ins> in the  <del style="background:#F00">informal</del>statement <em>"Alice knows Bob"</em> then <em>"knows"</em> is the predicate which connects "Alice" (the subject of the statement) to "Bob" (the object of the statement).
+</section>
+
+<section id="provenance">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">term</del> <del style="background:#F00">predicate</del> <del style="background:#F00">derives</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">predicate</del> <del style="background:#F00">calculus.</del> <del style="background:#F00">In</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">we</del> <del style="background:#F00">use</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">terms</del> <del style="background:#F00">predicate</del> <del style="background:#F00">(for</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">role)</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">property</del> <del style="background:#F00">(for</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">thing</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">plays</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">role)</del> <del style="background:#F00">regardless</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">whether</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">value</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">property</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">simple</del> <del style="background:#F00">literal</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">some</del> <del style="background:#F00">other</del> <del style="background:#F00">resource.</del> <del style="background:#F00">69.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Provenance</del> <del style="background:#F00">Provenance</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">sources</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">information,</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">entities</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">processes,</del> <del style="background:#F00">involved</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">producing</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">delivering</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">artifact.</del> <del style="background:#F00">An</del> <del style="background:#F00">ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">expressing</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del><ins style="background:#0F0">74.</ins> </span>Provenance</h2>
+Data  <del style="background:#F00">model</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">OWL2</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">PROV-O</del> <del style="background:#F00">]</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del><ins style="background:#0F0">related</ins> to  <del style="background:#F00">represent</del><ins style="background:#0F0">where,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">when</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">interchange</del> <del style="background:#F00">provenance</del><ins style="background:#0F0">how</ins> information  <del style="background:#F00">generated</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">different</del> <del style="background:#F00">systems</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">under</del> <del style="background:#F00">different</del> <del style="background:#F00">contexts.</del> <del style="background:#F00">70.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">was</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">acquired.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="protocol">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">75.</ins> </span>Protocol</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">Protocol,</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">context</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">computing,</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del>A set of instructions for transferring data from one computer to another over a network.  A protocol standard defines both message formats and the rules for sending and receiving those messages.   <del style="background:#F00">71.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Public</del> <del style="background:#F00">Sector</del> <del style="background:#F00">Information</del> <del style="background:#F00">Public</del> <del style="background:#F00">Sector</del> <del style="background:#F00">Information,</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">called</del> <del style="background:#F00">public</del> <del style="background:#F00">information,</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">created</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">course</del><ins style="background:#0F0">One</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">governing.</del> <del style="background:#F00">In</del><ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> most  <del style="background:#F00">democracies,</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">made</del> <del style="background:#F00">available</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">people</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">due</del> <del style="background:#F00">course</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">time.</del> <del style="background:#F00">72.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">common</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Internet</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">protocols</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Hypertext</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Transfer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Protocol</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(HTTP).</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="purl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">76.</ins> </span>PURL</h2>
+See <a href="#persistent-uniform-resource-locator">Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="quad-store">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">73.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Quad</del> <del style="background:#F00">Store</del><ins style="background:#0F0">77.</ins> </span>Quad Store</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A colloquial phrase for an RDF database that stores RDF triples plus an additional element of information, often used to collect statements into groups.
+</section>
+
+<section id="query">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">This</del> <del style="background:#F00">notion</del> <del style="background:#F00">has</del> <del style="background:#F00">been</del> <del style="background:#F00">clarified</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">standardized</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">form</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">Datasets</del> <del style="background:#F00">74.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Query</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del><ins style="background:#0F0">78.</ins> </span>Query</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">context</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">implies</del>Programmatic retrieval of resources and their  <del style="background:#F00">relationships</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">relationships.</ins>  Using the SPARQL language, developers issue queries based on (triple) patterns.
+</section> 
+
+<section id="r2rml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">queries</del> <del style="background:#F00">provide</del> <del style="background:#F00">one</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">more</del> <del style="background:#F00">patterns</del> <del style="background:#F00">against</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationships.</del> <del style="background:#F00">To</del> <del style="background:#F00">get</del> <del style="background:#F00">results,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">engine</del> <del style="background:#F00">retrieves</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">response</del> <del style="background:#F00">matching</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">requested</del> <del style="background:#F00">query,</del> <del style="background:#F00">returning</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">result</del> <del style="background:#F00">set.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Results</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">returned</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">table</del> <del style="background:#F00">format</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">example,</del> <del style="background:#F00">which</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">build</del> <del style="background:#F00">complex</del> <del style="background:#F00">mashups</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">visualizations.</del> <del style="background:#F00">75.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">79.</ins> </span>R2RML</h2>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/" target="_blank">R2RML</a> (RDB to RDF Mapping Language) is a language for expressing customized mappings from relational databases to RDF datasets. Such mappings provide the ability to view existing relational data in the RDF data model, expressed in a structure and target vocabulary of the mapping author's choice.
+</section>
+
+<section id="raw-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">76.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">80.</ins> </span>Raw Data</h2>
+Raw data refers to machine-readable files from the wilderness released without any specific effort to make them applicable to a particular application.  <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">advantage</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">"raw"</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Raw</ins> data  <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">it</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">reused</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">multiple</del> <del style="background:#F00">applications</del> <del style="background:#F00">created</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">multiple</del> <del style="background:#F00">communities;</del> <del style="background:#F00">but</del> <del style="background:#F00">this</del><ins style="background:#0F0">typically</ins> requires  <del style="background:#F00">some</del> <del style="background:#F00">means</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">processing</del> <del style="background:#F00">it.</del> <del style="background:#F00">77.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">additional</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">scripts</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">programs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">process</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">81.</ins> </span>RDF</h2>
+See <a href="#resource-description-framework">Resource Description Framework</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdfa">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">78.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">82.</ins> </span>RDFa</h2>
+See <a href="#resource-description-framework-attributes">Resource Description Framework Attributes</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-database">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">79.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del><ins style="background:#0F0">83.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">database</ins></h2>
+A  <del style="background:#F00">resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">anything</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del><ins style="background:#0F0">type</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">database</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">designed</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">specifically</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">store</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">retrieve</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">information.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">May</ins> be  <del style="background:#F00">addressed</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del><ins style="background:#0F0">implemented</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">Unified</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Identifier</del> <del style="background:#F00">(URI)</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">80.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Description</del> <del style="background:#F00">Framework</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Description</del> <del style="background:#F00">Framework</del> <del style="background:#F00">(RDF),</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del><ins style="background:#0F0">triple</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">store,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">quad</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">store</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">other</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">type.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-json">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">84.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF-JSON</ins></h2>
+<p class="todo"><ins style="background:#0F0">Confirm</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">rewording</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">acceptable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">DaveR.</ins></p>
+A  <del style="background:#F00">general-purpose</del> <del style="background:#F00">language</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">representing</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">provides</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">common</del> <del style="background:#F00">model</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">well</del> <del style="background:#F00">suited</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">not</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">format,</del> <del style="background:#F00">rather</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">model</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">expressing</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationships</del> <del style="background:#F00">between</del> <del style="background:#F00">arbitrary</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">elements</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">represented</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">variety</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">standard</del> <del style="background:#F00">formats.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">based</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">idea</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">identifying</del> <del style="background:#F00">things</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">identifiers</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">URIs</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">describing</del> <del style="background:#F00">resources</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">terms</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del>simple  <del style="background:#F00">properties</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">property</del> <del style="background:#F00">values.</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">single</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">statement</del> <del style="background:#F00">describes</del> <del style="background:#F00">two</del> <del style="background:#F00">things</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationship</del> <del style="background:#F00">between</del> <del style="background:#F00">them.</del> <del style="background:#F00">This</del> <del style="background:#F00">enables</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">represent</del> <del style="background:#F00">simple</del> <del style="background:#F00">statements</del> <del style="background:#F00">about</del> <del style="background:#F00">resources</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">graph</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">nodes</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">arcs</del> <del style="background:#F00">representing</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">resources,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">their</del> <del style="background:#F00">properties</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">values.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">developers</del> <del style="background:#F00">call</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">three</del> <del style="background:#F00">elements</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">statement</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">subject</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">predicate</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">object</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">See</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">1.1</del> <del style="background:#F00">Concepts</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">Abstract</del> <del style="background:#F00">Syntax</del> <del style="background:#F00">81.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Description</del> <del style="background:#F00">Framework</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">Attributes</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Description</del> <del style="background:#F00">Framework</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">Attributes</del> <del style="background:#F00">(RDFa)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">key</del> <del style="background:#F00">enabling</del> <del style="background:#F00">technology</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">add</del> <del style="background:#F00">structured</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTML</del> <del style="background:#F00">pages</del> <del style="background:#F00">directly.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDFa</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">technique</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">provides</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">markup</del> <del style="background:#F00">attributes</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">augment</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">visual</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">with</del> <del style="background:#F00">machine-readable</del> <del style="background:#F00">hints.</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDFa-PRIMER</del> <del style="background:#F00">]</del> <del style="background:#F00">82.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">Database</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">type</del><ins style="background:#0F0">serialization</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">database</del> <del style="background:#F00">designed</del> <del style="background:#F00">specifically</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">store</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">retrieve</del>RDF  <del style="background:#F00">information.</del> <del style="background:#F00">83.</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF-JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">In</del> <del style="background:#F00">favor</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">removing</del> <del style="background:#F00">this</del> <del style="background:#F00">item:</del> <del style="background:#F00">DaveR.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Triples</ins> in  <del style="background:#F00">favor</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">keeping:</del> <del style="background:#F00">Bhyland.</del> <del style="background:#F00">To</del> <del style="background:#F00">discuss</del><ins style="background:#0F0">JSON.</ins>  A concrete syntax in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC4627">RFC4627</a></cite>] for RDF as defined in the RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>] <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.   <del style="background:#F00">An</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF-JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">document</del> <del style="background:#F00">serializes</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">triples</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">series</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">nested</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">structures.</del>See also <a href="#json-ld"> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">1.1</del> <del style="background:#F00">JSON</del> <del style="background:#F00">Serialization</del> <del style="background:#F00">document</del> <del style="background:#F00">draft</del> <del style="background:#F00">]</del> <del style="background:#F00">84.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">JSON-LD</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">85.</ins> </span>RDF Schema</h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">The</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">simplest</ins> RDF  <del style="background:#F00">Schema</del> <del style="background:#F00">(RDFS)</del><ins style="background:#0F0">vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">description</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">language.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">It</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">provides</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">much</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">less</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">descriptive</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">capability</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">than</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Simple</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Knowledge</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Organization</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">System</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(SKOS)</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Ontology</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Language</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(OWL).</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">standard</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins style="background:#0F0">W3C</ins></abbr> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFS">RDFS</a></cite>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-xml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">is</del><ins style="background:#0F0">86.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF/XML</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">syntax</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">encoded</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">XML.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">standard</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"> <del style="background:#F00">vocabulary</del> <del style="background:#F00">language</del><ins style="background:#0F0">W3C</ins></abbr><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">[[!RDFXML]</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="representational-state-transfer-rest">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">87.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Representational</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">State</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Transfer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(REST)</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">architectural</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">style</ins> for  <del style="background:#F00">RDF;</del><ins style="background:#0F0">information</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">systems</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">used</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web.</ins> It  <del style="background:#F00">describes</del> <del style="background:#F00">constructs</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">types</del><ins style="background:#0F0">explains</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">some</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">objects</del> <del style="background:#F00">(Classes),</del> <del style="background:#F00">relating</del> <del style="background:#F00">types</del><ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web's</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">key</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">features,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">such</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">extreme</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">scalability</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">robustness</ins> to  <del style="background:#F00">one</del> <del style="background:#F00">another</del> <del style="background:#F00">(subClasses),</del> <del style="background:#F00">properties</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">describe</del> <del style="background:#F00">objects</del> <del style="background:#F00">(Properties),</del><ins style="background:#0F0">change.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">REST</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">foundation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">relationships</del> <del style="background:#F00">between</del> <del style="background:#F00">them</del> <del style="background:#F00">(subProperty).</del> <del style="background:#F00">85.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">dominant</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">service</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">design</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">model.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="request">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">88.</ins> </span>Request</h2>
+Request refers to a stage in the HTTP protocol. A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="resource">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">See</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">RFC</del> <del style="background:#F00">2616bis</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del><ins style="background:#0F0">89.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">In</ins> an  <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">Request.</del> <del style="background:#F00">86.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">context,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> resource <ins style="background:#0F0">can</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">anything</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">an</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">graph</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describes.</ins>  A resource <ins style="background:#0F0">can</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">addressed</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <a href="#uniform-resource-identifier"><ins style="background:#0F0">Unified</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(URI)</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="resource-description-framework-rdf">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">90.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Description</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Framework</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(RDF)</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">family</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">international</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">standards</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">interchange</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">produced</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins style="background:#0F0">W3C</ins></abbr><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Description</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Framework</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(RDF)</ins> is  <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">network</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">object</del><ins style="background:#0F0">based</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">idea</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">identifying</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">things</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">using</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">identifiers</ins> or <a href="#uris"> <del style="background:#F00">service</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">identified</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del>HTTP  <del style="background:#F00">URI.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">URIs</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describing</ins> resources  <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">available</del>in  <del style="background:#F00">multiple</del> <del style="background:#F00">representations</del> <del style="background:#F00">(e.g.</del> <del style="background:#F00">multiple</del> <del style="background:#F00">languages,</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">formats,</del> <del style="background:#F00">size,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">simple</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">properties</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">resolutions)</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">vary</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">other</del> <del style="background:#F00">ways.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">property</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">values.</ins> See  <del style="background:#F00">details</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">RFC</del> <del style="background:#F00">2616bis</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">details</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del><ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">[</ins><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/"><ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">1.1</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Concepts</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Abstract</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Syntax</ins></a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="resource-description-framework-in-attributes-rdfa">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">91.</ins> </span>Resource  <del style="background:#F00">Identifiers.</del> <del style="background:#F00">See</del> <del style="background:#F00">details</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">RFC</del> <del style="background:#F00">2616bis</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">details</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Description</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Framework</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">attributes</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(RDFa)</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">syntax</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">encoded</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">HTML</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">documents.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">RDFa</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">provides</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">set</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">markup</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">attributes</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">augment</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">visual</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">information</ins> on  <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Identifiers</del> <del style="background:#F00">.</del> <del style="background:#F00">87.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Response</del><ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">with</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">machine-readable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">hints.</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">It</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">standard</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Consortium.</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">[</ins><cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFa-PRIMER"><ins style="background:#0F0">RDFa-PRIMER</ins></a></cite><ins style="background:#0F0">]</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="response">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">92.</ins> </span>Response</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del><ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">action</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">stage</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del><ins style="background:#0F0">server</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">taken</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> the  <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">protocol.</del> <del style="background:#F00">After</del> <del style="background:#F00">receiving</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">interpreting</del><ins style="background:#0F0">result</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> a request  <del style="background:#F00">message,</del><ins style="background:#0F0">by</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">client.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">In</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP,</ins> a  <del style="background:#F00">server</del> <del style="background:#F00">responds</del> <del style="background:#F00">with</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del>response  <del style="background:#F00">message.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">provides</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">representation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">calling</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">client.</ins>  See also [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC2616">RFC2616</a></cite>] bis for an <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#response" target="blank">HTTP Response</a> message.
+</section>
+
+<section id="rest">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">88.</del> <del style="background:#F00">REST</del><ins style="background:#0F0">93.</ins> </span>REST</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">(Representational</del><ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <a href="#representational-state-transfer"><ins style="background:#0F0">Representational</ins> State  <del style="background:#F00">Transfer)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">style</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">software</del> <del style="background:#F00">architecture</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">distributed</del> <del style="background:#F00">systems</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">describes</del> <del style="background:#F00">six</del> <del style="background:#F00">constraints:</del> <del style="background:#F00">uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">interface,</del> <del style="background:#F00">stateless,</del> <del style="background:#F00">cacheable,</del> <del style="background:#F00">client-server,</del> <del style="background:#F00">layered</del> <del style="background:#F00">system,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">code</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">demand</del> <del style="background:#F00">(optional).</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Transfer</ins></a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rest-api">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">94.</ins> </span>REST  <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">foundation</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">World</del> <del style="background:#F00">Wide</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del><ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">API</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">implemented</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">using</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">HTTP</ins> and the  <del style="background:#F00">dominant</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">service</del> <del style="background:#F00">design</del> <del style="background:#F00">model.</del> <del style="background:#F00">89.</del> <del style="background:#F00">REST</del> <del style="background:#F00">API</del><ins style="background:#0F0">principles</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> REST  <del style="background:#F00">API</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del>to  <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">application</del> <del style="background:#F00">program</del> <del style="background:#F00">interface</del> <del style="background:#F00">based</del><ins style="background:#0F0">allow</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">actions</ins> on <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resources.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">The</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">most</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">common</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">actions</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">create,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">retrieve,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">update</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">delete</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resources.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="#representational-state-transfer">Representational State Transfer</a> <del style="background:#F00">(</del> <del style="background:#F00">REST</del> <del style="background:#F00">).</del> <del style="background:#F00">90.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+  
+</section>
+
+<section id="schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">95.</ins> </span>Schema</h2>
+Schema refers to a data model that represents the relationships between a set of concepts. Some types of schemas include relational database schemas (which define how data is stored and retrieved), taxonomies and ontologies. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-technologies">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">91.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">96.</ins> </span>Semantic Technologies</h2>
+The broad set of technologies that related to the extraction, representation, storage, retrieval and analysis of machine-readable information. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">Semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">standards</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">subset</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">technologies</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">techniques.</del> <del style="background:#F00">92.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">97.</ins> </span>Semantic Web</h2>
+An evolution or part of the World Wide Web that consists of machine-readable data in RDF and an ability to query that information in standard ways (e.g. via SPARQL)
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web-standards">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">93.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">Stack</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">Semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">Stack</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">layered</del> <del style="background:#F00">representation</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">architecture</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">semantic</del> <del style="background:#F00">web,</del> <del style="background:#F00">constituting</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">standardized</del> <del style="background:#F00">languages</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">technologies.</del> <del style="background:#F00">94.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">98.</ins> </span>Semantic Web Standards</h2>
+Standards of the World Wide Web Consortium  <del style="background:#F00">(</del> <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del> <del style="background:#F00">)</del>relating to the Semantic Web, including RDF [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF">RDF</a></cite>], RDFa [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDFa-PRIMER">RDFa-PRIMER</a></cite>], SKOS [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SKOS-REFERENCE">SKOS-REFERENCE</a></cite>], OWL [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2">OWL2</a></cite>] and SPARQL [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SPARQL">SPARQL</a></cite>]. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web-search-engine">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">95.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">99.</ins> </span>Semantic Web Search Engine</h2>
+A search engine capable of making use of semantic technologies  <del style="background:#F00">both</del>to model its knowledge base and  <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">content</del> <del style="background:#F00">delivered</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">users.</del> <del style="background:#F00">96.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Service</del> <del style="background:#F00">Oriented</del> <del style="background:#F00">Architecture</del> <del style="background:#F00">(SOA)</del> <del style="background:#F00">Service</del> <del style="background:#F00">Oriented</del> <del style="background:#F00">Architecture</del> <del style="background:#F00">(SOA)</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">architectural</del> <del style="background:#F00">design</del> <del style="background:#F00">guidelines</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">expose</del> <del style="background:#F00">IT</del> <del style="background:#F00">systems</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">services.</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">functionality</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">service</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">published</del>to  <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">registry,</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">discovered</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">potential</del> <del style="background:#F00">new</del> <del style="background:#F00">users,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">directly</del> <del style="background:#F00">invoked</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del> <del style="background:#F00">published</del> <del style="background:#F00">standards.</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">Services</del> <del style="background:#F00">based</del> <del style="background:#F00">system</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">example</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">SOA.</del> <del style="background:#F00">97.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">deliver</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">content.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="sesame">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">100.</ins> </span>Sesame</h2> 
+Sesame is an Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework. It supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. See also [<a href="http://www.openrdf.org" target="_blank">Open RDF</a>]. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="skolemization">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">98.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">101.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Skolemization</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">Skolemization</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">process</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">whereby</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">some</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">databases</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">other</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">systems</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">implementing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">SPARQL</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">query</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">language</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">automatically</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">assign</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URIs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">blank</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">nodes</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">so</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">they</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">are</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">more</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">easily</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">operated</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">upon.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="simple-knowledge-organisation-system">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">102.</ins> </span>Simple Knowledge Organisation System</h2> 
+Simple Knowledge Organisation System  (SKOS) [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SKOS-REFERENCE">SKOS-REFERENCE</a></cite>] is a vocabulary description language for RDF designed for representing traditional knowledge organization systems such as enterprise taxonomies in RDF. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="sindice">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">99.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">103.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Sindice</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">Sindice</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">search</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">engine</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">It</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">offers</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">search</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">querying</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">capabilities</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">across</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">it</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">knows</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">about,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">well</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">specialized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">APIs</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">tools</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">presenting</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Linked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Data</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">summaries.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="http://sindice.com" target="_blank"><ins style="background:#0F0">http://sindice.com</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="sparql">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">104.</ins> </span>SPARQL</h2>
+Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) defines a  <del style="background:#F00">standard</del>query language  <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">access</del> <del style="background:#F00">protocol</del>for  <del style="background:#F00">use</del> <del style="background:#F00">with</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del>RDF  <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">].</del> <del style="background:#F00">Just</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">SQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">relational</del>data,   <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del><ins style="background:#0F0">analogous</ins> to  <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">database.</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">1.1</del> <del style="background:#F00">[</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL-11</del> <del style="background:#F00">]</del> <del style="background:#F00">specification</del> <del style="background:#F00">allows</del> <del style="background:#F00">more</del> <del style="background:#F00">set</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">operations</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">queries</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">graph</del> <del style="background:#F00">content</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del>the  <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">store.</del> <del style="background:#F00">100.</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">client</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">client</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">application</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">construct</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">issue</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Structured</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Query</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Language</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(SQL)</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">relational</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">databases.</ins>  A  <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">query.</del> <del style="background:#F00">An</del> <del style="background:#F00">example</del><ins style="background:#0F0">family</ins> of  <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">client</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">ARQ</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">part</del><ins style="background:#0F0">standards</ins> of the  <del style="background:#F00">Apache</del> <del style="background:#F00">Jena</del> <del style="background:#F00">Project.</del> <del style="background:#F00">ARQ</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">engine</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">Jena</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">supports</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF</del> <del style="background:#F00">Query</del> <del style="background:#F00">Language.</del> <del style="background:#F00">101.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Consortium.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-overview/" target="_blank"><ins style="background:#0F0">http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-overview/</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="sparql-endpoint">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">105.</ins> </span>SPARQL endpoint</h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">service</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">accepts</ins> SPARQL  <del style="background:#F00">endpoint</del> <del style="background:#F00">refers</del><ins style="background:#0F0">queries</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">returns</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">answers</ins> to  <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">application</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del> <del style="background:#F00">answer</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del><ins style="background:#0F0">them</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> SPARQL  <del style="background:#F00">query,</del> <del style="background:#F00">including</del> <del style="background:#F00">one</del> <del style="background:#F00">where</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">native</del> <del style="background:#F00">encoding</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">not</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">RDF.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">result</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">sets.</ins>  It is a best practice for datasets providers to give the URL of their SPARQL endpoint to  <del style="background:#F00">get</del><ins style="background:#0F0">allow</ins> access to their data  <del style="background:#F00">both</del>programmatically or through  <del style="background:#F00">the</del><ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> Web interface. A list of some endpoints status is available  <del style="background:#F00">at</del> <del style="background:#F00">http://labs.mondeca.com/sparqlEndpointsStatus/</del> <del style="background:#F00">102.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Structured</del> <del style="background:#F00">Query</del> <del style="background:#F00">Language</del> <del style="background:#F00">(SQL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">Structured</del> <del style="background:#F00">Query</del> <del style="background:#F00">Language</del> <del style="background:#F00">(SQL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">query</del> <del style="background:#F00">language</del> <del style="background:#F00">standard</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">relational</del> <del style="background:#F00">databases.</del> <del style="background:#F00">103.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">at</ins> <a href="http://labs.mondeca.com/sparqlEndpointsStatus/" target="_blank"><ins style="background:#0F0">http://labs.mondeca.com/sparqlEndpointsStatus/</ins></a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="subject">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">106.</ins> </span>Subject</h2>
+The subject is the first part of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> statement.  A subject in the context of a <a href="#triple" target="_blank">triple</a> &lt;?s ?p ?o&gt; refers to who or what the RDF statement is about.
+</section>
+
+<section id="taxonomy">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">104.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">107.</ins> </span>Taxonomy</h2>
+ Taxonomy is a formal representation of relationships between items in a hierarchical structure. Also see <a href="#ontology">Ontology</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="term">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">105.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Term</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del><ins style="background:#0F0">108.</ins> </span>Term</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>An entry in a controlled vocabulary, schema, <a href="#taxonomy">Taxonomy</a> or <a href="#ontology">Ontology</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="triple">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">106.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Triple</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del><ins style="background:#0F0">109.</ins> </span>Triple</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">refers</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del><ins style="background:#0F0">An</ins> RDF statement, consisting of two things (a "subject" and an "object") and a relationship between them  <del style="background:#F00">("Predicate").</del><ins style="background:#0F0">(a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">verb,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">"predicate").</ins>  This subject-predicate-object triple forms the smallest possible RDF graph (although most RDF graphs consist of many <ins style="background:#0F0">such</ins> statements).
+</section>
+
+<section id="triple-store">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">107.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Triple</del> <del style="background:#F00">store</del><ins style="background:#0F0">110.</ins> </span>Triple store</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A colloquial phrase for an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> database that stores RDF triples. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="tuple">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">108.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Tuple</del><ins style="background:#0F0">111.</ins> </span>Tuple</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">mathematical</del> <del style="background:#F00">term</del> <del style="background:#F00">referring</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">ordered</del> <del style="background:#F00">list</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">elements.</del>RDF statements are 3-tuples; an ordered list of three elements. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="turtle">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">109.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Turtle</del><ins style="background:#0F0">112.</ins> </span>Turtle</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del>An RDF serialization format designed to be easier to read than others such as RDF/XML. <ins style="background:#0F0">The</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">term</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">"Turtle"</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">was</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">derived</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">from</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Terse</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Triple</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Language.</ins>  Turtle allows an RDF graph to be written in a compact and natural text form, with abbreviations for common usage patterns and datatypes. Turtle [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE-TR">TURTLE-TR</a></cite>] provides levels of compatibility with the existing N-Triples  <del style="background:#F00">format</del><ins style="background:#0F0">format,</ins> as well as the triple pattern syntax of the SPARQL <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="uniform-resource-identifier">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">110.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Identifier</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del><ins style="background:#0F0">113.</ins> </span>Uniform Resource Identifier</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">(URI)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A global identifier  <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">uniquely</del> <del style="background:#F00">identifies</del> <del style="background:#F00">an</del> <del style="background:#F00">abstract</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">physical</del> <del style="background:#F00">resource.</del> <del style="background:#F00">URIs</del> <del style="background:#F00">were</del>standardized by joint action of the  <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">IETF.</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI’s</del> <del style="background:#F00">provide</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">simple</del><ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Consortium</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">extensible</del> <del style="background:#F00">means</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">identifying</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Internet</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Engineering</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Task</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Force.</ins>  A  <del style="background:#F00">resource.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Uniform</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">(URI)</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">may</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">not</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">be</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resolvable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web.</ins> URIs play a key role in enabling Linked Data. URIs can be used to uniquely identify virtually anything including a physical building or more abstract concepts  <del style="background:#F00">like</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">color</del> <del style="background:#F00">red.</del> <del style="background:#F00">If</del> <del style="background:#F00">you</del> <del style="background:#F00">would</del> <del style="background:#F00">like</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del><ins style="background:#0F0">such</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">as</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">colors.</ins>  See  <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">color</del> <del style="background:#F00">red</del> <del style="background:#F00">for</del> <del style="background:#F00">example,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">DBpedia</del> <del style="background:#F00">project</del> <del style="background:#F00">has</del> <del style="background:#F00">modified</del> <del style="background:#F00">URLs</del> <del style="background:#F00">from</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Wikipedia</del> <del style="background:#F00">entry</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">create</del> <del style="background:#F00">http://dbpedia.org/page/red</del><ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="#information-resource-identifier"><ins style="background:#0F0">Information</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></a> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <a href="#uniform-resource-locator"><ins style="background:#0F0">Uniform</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Locator</ins></a>.   <del style="background:#F00">URIs</del> <del style="background:#F00">can</del><ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> also <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986" target="_blank"> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">refer</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">other</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">representations</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">row</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">CSV</del> <del style="background:#F00">file</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">specific</del> <del style="background:#F00">table</del> <del style="background:#F00">in</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">relational</del> <del style="background:#F00">database.</del> <del style="background:#F00">As</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">builds</del> <del style="background:#F00">directly</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">architecture,</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">term</del> <del style="background:#F00">"resource"</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">refer</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">things</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">interest</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">identified</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">URIs.</del> <del style="background:#F00">An</del> <del style="background:#F00">HTTP</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">or</del> <del style="background:#F00">may</del> <del style="background:#F00">not</del> <del style="background:#F00">be</del> <del style="background:#F00">resolvable</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986</ins></a> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Architecture.html" target="_blank"><ins style="background:#0F0">http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Architecture.html</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+<p></p>
+<p>
+URIs have been known by many names: Web addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource  <del style="background:#F00">Identifiers,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">finally</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">combination</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Identifier.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Identifiers.</ins>  If you are interested in the history of the many names, read Tim Berners-Lee's design document <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Architecture.html" target="_blank">Web Architecture from 50,000 feet</a>.  <del style="background:#F00">For</del> <del style="background:#F00">definitive</del> <del style="background:#F00">information</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Identifiers</del> <del style="background:#F00">(URI),</del>See <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax," [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RFC3986">RFC3986</a></cite>]
+</p>
+</section>
+
+<section id="uniform-resource-locator">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">111.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Locator</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">Uniform</del> <del style="background:#F00">Resource</del> <del style="background:#F00">Locator</del> <del style="background:#F00">(URL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">special</del> <del style="background:#F00">type</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">URI</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">resolves</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">commonly</del> <del style="background:#F00">called</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">"Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">address."</del><ins style="background:#0F0">114.</ins> </span>Uniform Resource Locator</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">(URL)</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>A global identifier for Web resources standardized by joint action of the  <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del><ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Consortium</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">IETF.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Internet</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Engineering</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Task</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Force.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">A</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">URL</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resolvable</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">on</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">is</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">commonly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">called</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">"Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">address".</ins>  All HTTP URLs are URIs however, not all URIs are URLs.   <del style="background:#F00">112.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">See</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">also</ins> <a href="#internationalized-resource-identifier"><ins style="background:#0F0">Internationalized</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></a> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <a href="#uniform-resource-identifier"><ins style="background:#0F0">Uniform</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Resource</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Identifier</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>  
+</section>
+
+<section id="uri">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">115.</ins> </span>URI</h2>
+See <a href="#uniform-resource-identifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="url">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">113.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">116.</ins> </span>URL</h2>
+See <a href="#uniform-resource-locator">Uniform Resource Locator</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="validation-service">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">114.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">117.</ins> </span>Validation Service</h2>
+The <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> offers an RDF validation service to check and validate RDF files.  It is considered a best practice to validate RDF files prior to publishing them on the Web.  See <a href="http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/" target="_blank"> <del style="background:#F00">http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>  There are other RDF parsers available, see <a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Barstow/" target="_blank"> <del style="background:#F00">http://www.w3.org/People/Barstow/#online_parsers.</del> <del style="background:#F00">115.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">http://www.w3.org/People/Barstow/#online_parsers</ins></a><ins style="background:#0F0">.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="vocabulary">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">118.</ins> </span>Vocabulary</h2>
+A  <del style="background:#F00">vocabulary</del> <del style="background:#F00">defines</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">concepts</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationships</del> <del style="background:#F00">(also</del> <del style="background:#F00">referred</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del><ins style="background:#0F0">collection</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <a href="#term">"terms"</a>  <del style="background:#F00">)</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">describe</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">represent</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">given</del> <del style="background:#F00">topic.</del> <del style="background:#F00">A</del> <del style="background:#F00">vocabulary</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">classify</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">terms</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">are</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del>for a particular  <del style="background:#F00">application,</del> <del style="background:#F00">characterize</del> <del style="background:#F00">relationships,</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">define</del> <del style="background:#F00">possible</del> <del style="background:#F00">constraints</del> <del style="background:#F00">on</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">use</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">terms.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">purpose.</ins>  Vocabularies can range from simple such as the widely used <ins style="background:#0F0">RDF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Schema,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">FOAF</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> Dublin Core  <del style="background:#F00">Vocabulary</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Metadata</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Element</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Set</ins> to  <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">very</del>complex <ins style="background:#0F0">vocabularies</ins> with thousands of terms, such as those used in healthcare to describe symptoms, diseases and treatments.  Vocabularies play a very important role in Linked Data, specifically to help with data integration.  <ins style="background:#0F0">The</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">use</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">this</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">term</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">overlaps</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">with</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Ontology.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="vocabulary-alignment">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">119.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">alignment</ins></h2>
+<ins style="background:#0F0">The</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">process</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">analyzing</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">multiple</ins> vocabularies  <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">help</del>to  <del style="background:#F00">organize</del> <del style="background:#F00">knowledge</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del><ins style="background:#0F0">determine</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">that</ins> are  <del style="background:#F00">extensively</del> <del style="background:#F00">used</del> <del style="background:#F00">by</del> <del style="background:#F00">libraries,</del> <del style="background:#F00">museums,</del> <del style="background:#F00">newspapers</del><ins style="background:#0F0">common</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">across</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">them</ins> and  <del style="background:#F00">government</del> <del style="background:#F00">agencies</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">manage</del> <del style="background:#F00">large</del> <del style="background:#F00">collections</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">data.</del> <del style="background:#F00">116.</del> <del style="background:#F00">VoID</del><ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">record</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">those</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">relationships.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="void">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">120.</ins> </span>VoID</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Vocabulary</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Interlinked</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Datasets,</ins> an <a href="#rdf-schema" target="_blank">RDF Schema</a> vocabulary for expressing metadata about RDF  <del style="background:#F00">datasets.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del><ins style="background:#0F0">datasets</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">standard</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Consortium.</ins>  <ins style="background:#0F0">VoID</ins> is intended as a bridge between the publishers and users of RDF data, with applications ranging from data discovery to cataloging and archiving of datasets.  VoID can be used to express general metadata based on Dublin Core, access metadata, structural metadata, and links between datasets. [VOID-GUIDE]
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-2.0">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">117.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">121.</ins> </span>Web 2.0</h2>
+Web 2.0 is a colloquial description of the part of the World Wide Web that implements social networking, blogs, user comments and ratings and related human-centered activities. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-3.0">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">118.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">122.</ins> </span>Web 3.0</h2>
+Web 3.0 is a colloquial description of the part of the World Wide Web that implements machine-readable data and the ability to perform distributed queries and analysis on that data. It is considered synonymous with the phrases "Semantic Web" and "The Web of Data". 
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-of-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">119.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">of</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del><ins style="background:#0F0">123.</ins> </span>Web of Data</h2>
+ <del style="background:#F00">is</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">phrase</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">describe</del> <del style="background:#F00">publishing</del> <del style="background:#F00">data</del> <del style="background:#F00">sets</del> <del style="background:#F00">using</del>A <ins style="background:#0F0">subset</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">World</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Wide</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">which</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">contains</ins> Linked  <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Principles</del> <del style="background:#F00">thereby</del> <del style="background:#F00">making</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Data.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-of-documents">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">124.</ins> </span><ins style="background:#0F0">Web</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">Documents</ins></h2>
+The <ins style="background:#0F0">original,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">or</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">traditional,</ins> World Wide Web  <del style="background:#F00">into</del> <del style="background:#F00">a</del> <del style="background:#F00">global</del> <del style="background:#F00">database.</del> <del style="background:#F00">120.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">which</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">published</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">resources</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">were</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">nearly</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">always</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">documents.</ins>
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-ontology-language-owl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"><ins style="background:#0F0">125.</ins> </span>Web Ontology Language (OWL)</h2>
+OWL is a family of knowledge representation and vocabulary description languages for authoring ontologies, based on RDF and standardized by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-OWL2">OWL2</a></cite>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="world-wide-web-consortium-w3c">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">Standardized</del> <del style="background:#F00">variants</del> <del style="background:#F00">include</del> <del style="background:#F00">OWL</del> <del style="background:#F00">Full,</del> <del style="background:#F00">OWL</del> <del style="background:#F00">DL</del> <del style="background:#F00">(for</del> <del style="background:#F00">"description</del> <del style="background:#F00">logic")</del> <del style="background:#F00">and</del> <del style="background:#F00">OWL</del> <del style="background:#F00">Lite.</del> <del style="background:#F00">121.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">126.</ins> </span>World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>)</h2> 
+ <del style="background:#F00">World</del> <del style="background:#F00">Wide</del> <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">Consortium</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">also</del> <del style="background:#F00">known</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del> <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">is</del>An international community that develops and promotes protocols and guidelines  <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">ensure</del><ins style="background:#0F0">for</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> long-term growth for the Web.  <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>'s standards define key parts of  <del style="background:#F00">what</del> <del style="background:#F00">makes</del>the World Wide  <del style="background:#F00">Web</del> <del style="background:#F00">wrok.</del> <del style="background:#F00">It</del> <del style="background:#F00">defined</del> <del style="background:#F00">standards</del> <del style="background:#F00">such</del> <del style="background:#F00">as</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Web,</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">including</ins> <a href="http://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/" target="_blank">Web Design</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/standards/webarch/" target="_blank">Web Architecture</a> and the <a href="http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/" target="_blank">Semantic Web</a>. See also <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission" target="_blank"> <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Mission</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="extensible-hypertext-markup-language-xhtml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">122.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">127.</ins> </span>eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML)</h2> 
+eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is a family of versions of HTML based on XML and standardized by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XHTML1">XHTML1</a></cite>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="extensible-markup-language-xml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">123.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">128.</ins> </span>eXtensible Markup Language (XML)</h2> 
+ XML [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XML">XML</a></cite>] is a specification for creating structured textual computer documents, subset of SGML enabling such documents to be served, received and process on the Web in the same way as HTML documents . There are many thousands of XML formats, including XHTML.  It is part of a family of standards from the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="xml-schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">124.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">129.</ins> </span>XML Schema</h2> 
+XML Schemas provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents as defined in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-XMLS-SCHEMA0">XMLS-SCHEMA0</a></cite>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="extensible-stylesheet-language-transformations-xslt">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno"> <del style="background:#F00">125.</del><ins style="background:#0F0">130.</ins> </span>eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)</h2> 
+eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) is a declarative program to transform one XML document into another XML document. 
+</section>
+
+
+<!--    ACK   -->
+<section class="appendix" id="acknowledgments">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgments</h2>
+<p>The editors are grateful to <a href="http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/david-wood/" target="_blank">David Wood</a> for contributing the initial glossary terms from <a href="http://www.springer.com/computer/database+management+%26+information+retrieval/book/978-1-4614-1766-8" target="_blank">Linking Government Data</a>,  <del style="background:#F00">(</del> <del style="background:#F00">Springer</del> <del style="background:#F00">2011</del> <del style="background:#F00">).</del><ins style="background:#0F0">(Springer</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">2011).</ins>  The editors wish to also thank  <del style="background:#F00">the</del> <del style="background:#F00">active</del>members of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/" target="_blank">Government Linked Data Working Group</a> with special thanks to the reviewers and contributors: Thomas Baker, Hadley Beeman, Richard Cyganiak, Michael Hausenblas, Benedikt Kaempgen, James McKinney, Marios Meimaris, Jindrich Mynarz, Michael Pendleton and Dave Reynolds who  <del style="background:#F00">all</del> <del style="background:#F00">worked</del> <del style="background:#F00">hard</del> <del style="background:#F00">to</del> <del style="background:#F00">iterate</del> <del style="background:#F00">this</del><ins style="background:#0F0">diligently</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">iterated</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">the</ins> <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium"><ins style="background:#0F0">W3C</ins></abbr> Linked Data Glossary  <del style="background:#F00">so</del> <del style="background:#F00">that</del> <del style="background:#F00">everyone</del> <del style="background:#F00">has</del> <del style="background:#F00">some</del> <del style="background:#F00">common</del> <del style="background:#F00">ground</del><ins style="background:#0F0">in</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">order</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">to</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">create</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">a</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">foundation</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">of</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">terms</ins> upon which to  <del style="background:#F00">grow</del><ins style="background:#0F0">discuss</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">and</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">better</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">describe</ins> the Web of Data.   <del style="background:#F00">Mille</del> <del style="background:#F00">grazie!</del><ins style="background:#0F0">Thank</ins> <ins style="background:#0F0">you!</ins>
+</p>
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-OWL2">[OWL2]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview</a></cite>, W3C OWL Working Group,  27 October 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF"> <del style="background:#F00">[PROV-O]</del> <del style="background:#F00">PROV-O:</del> <del style="background:#F00">The</del> <del style="background:#F00">PROV</del> <del style="background:#F00">Ontology</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">Timothy</del> <del style="background:#F00">Lebo,</del> <del style="background:#F00">Sathya</del> <del style="background:#F00">Sahoo,</del> <del style="background:#F00">Deborah</del> <del style="background:#F00">McGuinness</del> <del style="background:#F00">(eds),</del> <del style="background:#F00">11</del> <del style="background:#F00">December</del> <del style="background:#F00">2012,</del> <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del> <del style="background:#F00">Candidate</del> <del style="background:#F00">Recommendation.</del> <del style="background:#F00">URL:</del> <del style="background:#F00">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</del>[RDF]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/">RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)</a></cite>, Dave Beckett (eds),   10 February 2004, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax</a></cite>, Graham Klyne, Jeremy J. Carroll,  10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFS">[RDFS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema</a></cite>,ed. Dan Brickley, R.V. Guha,  10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFa-PRIMER">[RDFa-PRIMER]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-rdfa-primer-20120607/">RDFa Primer</a></cite>, Ben Adida, Ivan Herman, Manu Sporny,  07 June 2012. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-rdfa-primer-20120607/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-rdfa-primer-20120607/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2616">[RFC2616]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a></cite>, R. Fielding; et al. June 1999. Internet RFC 2616. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html">http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a></cite>, Berners-Lee, et al. January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd><cite><a http:="" www.ietf.org="" rfc="" rfc4627.txt"="">The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</a></cite>, D. Crockford,   July 2006. Network Working Group. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-SKOS-REFERENCE">[SKOS-REFERENCE]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/">SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference</a></cite>, Sean Bechhofer, Alistair Miles (eds),   18 August 2009, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-SPARQL">[SPARQL]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">SPARQL Query Language for RDF</a></cite>,Eric Prud'hommeaux, Andy Seaborne,  15 January 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE-TR"> <del style="background:#F00">[SPARQL-11]</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">1.1</del> <del style="background:#F00">Overview</del> <del style="background:#F00">,The</del> <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del> <del style="background:#F00">SPARQL</del> <del style="background:#F00">Working</del> <del style="background:#F00">Group,</del> <del style="background:#F00">8</del> <del style="background:#F00">November</del> <del style="background:#F00">2012.</del> <del style="background:#F00">W3C</del> <del style="background:#F00">Proposed</del> <del style="background:#F00">Recommendation.</del> <del style="background:#F00">URL:</del> <del style="background:#F00">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/PR-sparql11-overview-20121108/</del>[TURTLE-TR]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language</a></cite>,Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers,  19 February 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XHTML1">[XHTML1]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/">XHTML 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)</a></cite>, Steven Pemberton, Daniel Auster, et al.,  26 January 2000. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML">[XML]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)</a></cite>, Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C.M. Sperberg-McQueen, Eve Maler, François Yergeau,  26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLS-SCHEMA0">[XMLS-SCHEMA0]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/">XML Schema Part 0: Primer Second Edition</a></cite>, David C. Fallside, Priscilla Walmsley (eds),   28 October 2004, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/</a>
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-COOL-SWURIS">[COOL-SWURIS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">Cool URIs for the Semantic Web</a></cite>, L. Sauermann and R. Cyganiak, W3C Interest Group Note 03 December 2008. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-HOWTO-LODP">[HOWTO-LODP]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/">Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space.</a> 2011, Chris Bizer, Tom Health URL: <a href="http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/">http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/</a>
+</cite></dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/">JSON-LD Syntax 1.0</a></cite>, Many Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler (eds),   12 July 2012, W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS">[LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://manning.com/dwood/">Linked Data: Structured Data on the Web.</a> David Wood, Marsh Zaidman, Luke Ruth, with Michael Hausenblas</cite>; 2013 URL: <a href="http://www.manning.com/dwood">http://www.manning.com/dwood/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-LDP-ONE">[LDP-ONE]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-ldp-20130307/">Linked Data Platform 1.0.</a></cite> Steve Speicher, John Arwe. 07 March 2013. W3C Working Draft, Linked Data Platform Working Group. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ldp/">http://www.w3.org/TR/ldp/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-N3"> <del style="background:#F00">[LINKED-DATA]</del> <del style="background:#F00">LINKED-DATA</del> <del style="background:#F00">,</del> <del style="background:#F00">Tim</del> <del style="background:#F00">Berners-Lee.</del> <del style="background:#F00">Linked</del> <del style="background:#F00">Data</del> <del style="background:#F00">Design</del> <del style="background:#F00">Issues.</del> <del style="background:#F00">27</del> <del style="background:#F00">July</del> <del style="background:#F00">2006.</del> <del style="background:#F00">W3C-Internal</del> <del style="background:#F00">Document.</del> <del style="background:#F00">URL:</del> <del style="background:#F00">http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html</del>[N3]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/n3/">Notation3 (N3): A readable RDF syntax</a></cite>, Tim Berners-Lee, Dan Connolly,  28 March 2011. W3C Team Submission. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/n3/">http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/n3/</a>
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>
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