Added Drafts directory
authorbhyland
Tue, 07 May 2013 14:55:42 -0400
changeset 489 e16200f926a6
parent 488 0450abc04399
child 490 5aca1db807f9
Added Drafts directory
drafts/ld-glossary/Overview.html
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+<head>
+	<title>Linked Data Glossary</title>
+	<meta name="description" content="Linked Data Glossary">
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+<body><div class="head">
+  <p>
+    
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" height="48" width="72"></a>
+    
+  </p>
+  <h1 class="title" id="title">Linked Data Glossary</h1>
+  
+  <h2 id="w3c-working-draft-07-may-2013"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Draft 07 May 2013</h2>
+  <dl>
+    
+      <dt>This version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-ld-glossary-20130507/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-ld-glossary-20130507/</a></dd>
+      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/">http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-glossary/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
+      <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/gld-glossary/">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/gld-glossary/</a></dd>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    
+      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
+      <dd><a href=""></a></dd>
+    
+    
+    <dt>Editors:</dt>
+    <dd><a href="http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/bernadette-hyland/">Bernadette Hyland</a>, <a href="http://3roundstones.com/">3 Round Stones</a></dd>
+<dd><a href="http://www.eurecom.fr/~atemezin">Ghislain Atemezing</a>, <a href="http://www.eurecom.fr">EURECOM</a></dd>
+<dd><span>Biplav Srivastava</span>, <a href="http://www.ibm.com/in/research/">IBM</a></dd>
+
+    
+  </dl>
+  
+  
+  
+  
+    
+      <p class="copyright">
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 
+        2013
+        
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved.
+        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.
+      </p>
+    
+  
+  <hr>
+</div>
+
+<section class="introductory" id="abstract"><h2>Abstract</h2>
+
+<p> This document is a glossary of terms defined and used to describe Linked Data, and its associated vocabularies and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/raw-file/default/bp/index.html" target="_blank">Best Practices</a>.  This document published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter" target="_blank"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Government Linked Data Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note, is intended to help information management professionals, Web developers, scientists and the general public better understand publishing structured data using <a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data Principles</a>.
+</p></section><section id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2>Status of This Document</h2>
+  
+    
+      
+        <p>
+          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other
+          documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the latest revision
+          of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports
+          index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
+        </p>
+        
+
+        <p>
+          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/">Government Linked Data Working Group</a> as a Working Draft.
+          
+            This document is intended to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
+          
+          
+          If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
+          <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> 
+          (<a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
+          <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-gld-comments/">archives</a>).
+          
+          
+          
+          
+        All comments are welcome.
+        
+        
+          </p><p>
+            Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
+            This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at 
+            any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
+          </p>
+        
+        
+        <p>
+          
+            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+          
+            
+              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> 
+            
+            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for 
+            disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
+            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the
+            information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
+          
+          
+        </p>
+        
+      
+    
+  
+</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#x5-star-linked-data"><span class="secno">1. </span>5 Star Linked Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#apache-license"><span class="secno">2. </span>Apache License</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#api"><span class="secno">3. </span>API</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#authoritative-open-data"><span class="secno">4. </span>Authoritative Open Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#creative-commons-licenses"><span class="secno">5. </span>Creative Commons Licenses</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#cc-by-sa-license"><span class="secno">6. </span>CC-BY-SA License</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#closed-world"><span class="secno">7. </span>Closed World</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#connection"><span class="secno">8. </span>Connection</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#conneg"><span class="secno">9. </span>Conneg</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#content-negotiation"><span class="secno">10. </span>Content Negotiation</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#controlled-vocabulary"><span class="secno">11. </span>Controlled Vocabulary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#converter"><span class="secno">12. </span>Converter</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#csv"><span class="secno">13. </span>CSV</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#curl"><span class="secno">14. </span>curl</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#curies"><span class="secno">15. </span>CURIEs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#fragment-identifier"><span class="secno">16. </span>Fragment Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#data-cloud"><span class="secno">17. </span>Data Cloud</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#data-hub-the"><span class="secno">18. </span>Data Hub, The</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#data-market"><span class="secno">19. </span>Data Market</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#data-modeling"><span class="secno">20. </span>Data Modeling</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dataset"><span class="secno">21. </span>Dataset</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#data-warehouse"><span class="secno">22. </span>Data Warehouse</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dbpedia"><span class="secno">23. </span>DBpedia</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dereferenceable-uris"><span class="secno">24. </span>Dereferenceable URIs</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#description-logic"><span class="secno">25. </span>Description Logic</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dcat"><span class="secno">26. </span>DCAT</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dcmi"><span class="secno">27. </span>DCMI</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#directed-graph"><span class="secno">28. </span>Directed Graph</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#document-type-definition"><span class="secno">29. </span>Document Type Definition</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#domain-name-system-dns"><span class="secno">30. </span>Domain Name System (DNS)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dublin-core-metadata-element-set"><span class="secno">31. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Element Set</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative"><span class="secno">32. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#entity"><span class="secno">33. </span>Entity</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#etl"><span class="secno">34. </span>ETL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#free-libre-open-source-software"><span class="secno">35. </span>Free/Libre/Open Source Software</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#government-open-data"><span class="secno">36. </span>Government Open Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#graph"><span class="secno">37. </span>Graph</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#hypertext-markup-language-html"><span class="secno">38. </span>HyperText Markup Language (HTML)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#hypertext-transfer-protocol"><span class="secno">39. </span>HyperText Transfer Protocol</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#international-standards-organization-iso"><span class="secno">40. </span>International Standards Organization (ISO)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#internet-engineering-task-force-ietf"><span class="secno">41. </span>Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#inference"><span class="secno">42. </span>Inference</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#json"><span class="secno">43. </span>JSON</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#json-ld"><span class="secno">44. </span>JSON-LD</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#jena"><span class="secno">45. </span>Jena</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-data"><span class="secno">46. </span>Linked Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-data-client"><span class="secno">47. </span>Linked Data Client</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-data-platform-1.0"><span class="secno">48. </span>Linked Data Platform 1.0</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-data-principles"><span class="secno">49. </span>Linked Data Principles</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-open-data"><span class="secno">50. </span>Linked Open Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-open-data-cloud"><span class="secno">51. </span>Linked Open Data Cloud</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linked-open-data-cloud-diagram"><span class="secno">52. </span> Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linking-government-data"><span class="secno">53. </span>Linking Government Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linking-open-data-project"><span class="secno">54. </span>Linking Open Data Project</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#linkset"><span class="secno">55. </span>Linkset</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#machine-readable-data"><span class="secno">56. </span>Machine Readable Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#message"><span class="secno">57. </span>Message</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#metadata"><span class="secno">58. </span>Metadata</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#metadata-object-description-schema"><span class="secno">59. </span>Metadata Object Description Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#modeling-process"><span class="secno">60. </span>Modeling Process</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#n3"><span class="secno">61. </span>N3</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#namespace"><span class="secno">62. </span>Namespace</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#natural-keys"><span class="secno">63. </span>Natural Keys</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#neutral-uri"><span class="secno">64. </span>Neutral URI</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#object"><span class="secno">65. </span>Object</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#ontology"><span class="secno">66. </span>Ontology</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#ontology-matching"><span class="secno">67. </span>Ontology Matching</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#open-government-data"><span class="secno">68. </span>Open Government Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#open-world"><span class="secno">69. </span>Open World</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#org-ontology"><span class="secno">70. </span>ORG Ontology</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#persistent-identifier-scheme"><span class="secno">71. </span>Persistent Identifier Scheme</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#persistent-uniform-resource-locator"><span class="secno">72. </span>Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#predicate"><span class="secno">73. </span>Predicate</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#provenance"><span class="secno">74. </span>Provenance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#protocol"><span class="secno">75. </span>Protocol</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#public-sector-information"><span class="secno">76. </span>Public Sector Information</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#purl"><span class="secno">77. </span>PURL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#quad-store"><span class="secno">78. </span>Quad Store</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#query"><span class="secno">79. </span>Query</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#r2rml"><span class="secno">80. </span>R2RML</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#raw-data"><span class="secno">81. </span>Raw Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdf"><span class="secno">82. </span>RDF</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdfa"><span class="secno">83. </span>RDFa</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdf-link"><span class="secno">84. </span>RDF link</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#reasoner"><span class="secno">85. </span>Reasoner</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#resource"><span class="secno">86. </span>Resource</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#resource-description-framework"><span class="secno">87. </span>Resource Description Framework</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#resource-description-framework-in-attributes"><span class="secno">88. </span>Resource Description Framework in Attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdf-database"><span class="secno">89. </span>RDF Database</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdf-json"><span class="secno">90. </span>RDF-JSON</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rdf-schema"><span class="secno">91. </span>RDF Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#request"><span class="secno">92. </span>Request</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#resource-1"><span class="secno">93. </span>Resource</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#response"><span class="secno">94. </span>Response</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rest"><span class="secno">95. </span>REST</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#rest-api"><span class="secno">96. </span>REST API</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#schema"><span class="secno">97. </span>Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#semantic-technologies"><span class="secno">98. </span>Semantic Technologies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#semantic-web"><span class="secno">99. </span>Semantic Web</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#semantic-web-stack"><span class="secno">100. </span>Semantic Web Stack </a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#semantic-web-standards"><span class="secno">101. </span>Semantic Web Standards</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#semantic-web-search-engine"><span class="secno">102. </span>Semantic Web Search Engine</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#service-oriented-architecture-soa"><span class="secno">103. </span>Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#sesame"><span class="secno">104. </span>Sesame</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#skolemization"><span class="secno">105. </span>Skolemization</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#simple-knowledge-organisation-system"><span class="secno">106. </span>Simple Knowledge Organisation System</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#sparql"><span class="secno">107. </span>SPARQL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#sparql-client"><span class="secno">108. </span>SPARQL client</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#sparql-endpoint"><span class="secno">109. </span>SPARQL endpoint</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#structured-query-language-sql"><span class="secno">110. </span>Structured Query Language (SQL)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#subject"><span class="secno">111. </span>Subject</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#taxonomy"><span class="secno">112. </span>Taxonomy</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#term"><span class="secno">113. </span>Term</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#triple"><span class="secno">114. </span>Triple</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#triple-store"><span class="secno">115. </span>Triple store</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#tuple"><span class="secno">116. </span>Tuple</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#turtle"><span class="secno">117. </span>Turtle</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#uniform-resource-identifier"><span class="secno">118. </span>Uniform Resource Identifier</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#uniform-resource-locator"><span class="secno">119. </span>Uniform Resource Locator</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#uri"><span class="secno">120. </span>URI</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#url"><span class="secno">121. </span>URL</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#validation-service"><span class="secno">122. </span>Validation Service</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#vocabulary"><span class="secno">123. </span>Vocabulary</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#void"><span class="secno">124. </span>VoID</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#web-2.0"><span class="secno">125. </span>Web 2.0</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#web-3.0"><span class="secno">126. </span>Web 3.0</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#web-of-data"><span class="secno">127. </span>Web of Data</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#web-ontology-language-owl"><span class="secno">128. </span>Web Ontology Language (OWL)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#world-wide-web-consortium-w3c"><span class="secno">129. </span>World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#extensible-hypertext-markup-language-xhtml"><span class="secno">130. </span>eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#extensible-markup-language-xml"><span class="secno">131. </span>eXtensible Markup Language (XML)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#xml-schema"><span class="secno">132. </span>XML Schema</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#extensible-stylesheet-language-transformations-xslt"><span class="secno">133. </span>eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#acknowledgments"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgments</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#references"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#normative-references"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#informative-references"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>
+
+
+
+<section class="introductory">
+<h2 id="scope">Scope</h2>
+<p>
+This glossary lists terms related to publishing and consuming either Linked Data in the enterprise or Linked Open Data on the public Web.</p>
+</section>
+
+<section id="x5-star-linked-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>5 Star Linked Data</h2>
+5 Star Linked Data refers to an incremental framework for deploying data.  Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and initiator of the <a href="http://linkeddata.org" target="_blank">Linked Data project</a>, suggested a 5 star deployment scheme for Linked Data.  The 5 Star Linked Data system is cumulative.  Each additional star presumes the data meets the criteria of the previous step(s).  
+
+<p class="highlight">☆&nbsp;<b>Data is available on the Web, in whatever format.</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆&nbsp;<b>Available as machine-readable structured data, (i.e., not a scanned image).</b>
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆☆&nbsp;<b>Available in a non-proprietary format, (i.e, CSV, not Microsoft Excel).</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆☆☆&nbsp;<b>Published using open standards from the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> (RDF and SPARQL).</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">☆☆☆☆☆&nbsp;<b>All of the above and links to other Linked Open Data.</b>
+</p>
+<p>
+An easy to read graphic for explaining the 5 Star Linked Data model may be seen on the <a href="http://www.cafepress.com/w3c_shop" target="_blank">5 Star Linked Open Data mug</a>.  One reads both green labels for <a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a>, or neither green label for <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>.  The <a href="http://5stardata.info/" target="_blank">5 Open Data diagram</a> is a graphical representation of each of the 5 Star techniques as described by Tim Berners-Lee.
+</p></section>
+
+<section id="apache-license">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>Apache License</h2>
+<a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html" target="_blank"> Apache License, version 2.0</a> is used for many Linked Data tools and projects. It is a popular Open Source license published by the Apache Software Foundation.  
+</section>
+
+<section id="api">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>API</h2>
+An Application Programming Interface (API) is an abstraction implemented in software that defines how others should make use of a software package such as a library or other reusable program.  APIs are used to provide developers access to data and functionality from a given system.
+</section>
+
+<section id="authoritative-open-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Authoritative Open Data</h2>
+Authoritative open data refers to open data that conforms to <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/raw-file/default/bp/index.html" target="_blank">Best Practices for Publishing Linked Data</a> and which may be published by government and other responsible agencies.   Government agencies are often in a unique position and able to collect data that no other entity can. Open government data is nearly always collected at tax-payers expense and is viewed by the public and government, as valuable if made available with proper context and an open license. Linked Data is seen by many to be a useful approach to publish and consume authoritative open data.  An authoritative open data is often published by governments in linked data form and enjoys a greater chance of being discovered and re-used by others. See also [Government Open Data]. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="creative-commons-licenses">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">5. </span>Creative Commons Licenses</h2>
+Creative Commons copyright licenses and tools aim to forge a balance inside the traditional “all rights reserved” setting that copyright law creates. Creative Commons licenses and tools provide a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. The combination of our tools and our users is a vast and growing digital commons, a pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law. See also <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/" target="_blank">About Creative Commons Licenses</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="cc-by-sa-license">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">6. </span>CC-BY-SA License</h2>
+CC-BY-SA is a form of Creative Commons license for resources released online. Work available under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" target="_blank">CC-BY-SA license</a> means you can include it in any other work under the condition that you give proper attribution. If you create derivative works (such as modified or extended versions), then you must also license them as CC-BY-SA. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="closed-world">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">7. </span>Closed World</h2>
+Closed world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external world. In a closed world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true must be false. This is a common assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming. See also <a href="#open-world">Open World</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="connection">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">8. </span>Connection</h2>
+Connection is a concept from computer networking. It refers to a transport layer virtual circuit established between two programs for the purpose of communication. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="conneg">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">9. </span>Conneg</h2>
+Abbreviated term for content negotiation. See also <a href="#content-negotiation">Content Negotiation</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="content-negotiation">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">10. </span>Content Negotiation</h2>
+Content negotiation, often called "conneg", refers to a phase in establishing a network connection. It is a mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses). See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#content.negotiation" target="_blank">HTTP Protocol 1.1</a>]. See also <a href="#connection">Connection</a>. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="controlled-vocabulary">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">11. </span>Controlled Vocabulary</h2>
+A controlled vocabulary is a selected set of terms that can be used to index, tag or describe units of information. By providing a restricted and managed set of terms they can be used to reduce ambiguity in information systems. Such vocabularies may be unstructured (e.g. code lists) or may be organized into increasingly complex knowledge organization schemes (<a href="#taxonomy">taxonomies</a>, thesauri, <a href="#ontology">ontologies</a>). In traditional settings the terms in the controlled vocabularies are words or phrases, in a linked data setting then they are normally assigned unique identifiers (URIs) which in turn link to descriptive phrases.
+</section>
+
+<section id="converter">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">12. </span>Converter</h2>
+Converter refers to a tool or script that converts data from one form to another, e.g., CSV into <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>. Publishing good quality, useful Linked Data requires expression of resources and how they are related. Linked Data modelers work with subject domain experts to make explicit the relationships between resources before converting a data set to RDF. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="csv">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">13. </span>CSV</h2>
+A CSV (comma separated value) file is a plain text file usually generated from a spreadsheet or database dump.  Each line or record contains fields separated by a comma.  CSV files may or may not contain column header names that may provide some information about the data.  From a Linked Data perspective, CSV files are considered 3-star data on the 5-star scale.
+</section>
+
+<section id="curl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">14. </span>curl</h2>
+Curl is a command line client to retrieve any data over a wide variety of protocols, including machine readable RDF. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="curies">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">15. </span>CURIEs</h2>
+CURIEs stands for "compact URI expressions" and is an RDFa approach for shortening URIs.
+</section>
+
+<section id="fragment-identifier">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">16. </span>Fragment Identifier</h2>
+The part of an HTTP URI that follows a hash symbol (‘#’).  Fragment identifiers are not passed to Web servers by Web clients such as Web browsers.
+</section>
+
+
+<section id="data-cloud">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">17. </span>Data Cloud</h2>
+Data cloud, also called the <a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/" target="_blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>, is a visual representation of datasets published as Linked Data.  Using metadata generated by directories, including CKAN, the project records datasets by domain.  The Linked Data Cloud has doubled in size every 10 months since 2007 and as of late 2012 consists of more than 300 data sets from various domains, including geography, media, government and life sciences, according the [<a href="http://lod-cloud.net/state/" target="_blank">State of the LOD Cloud</a>], website and visualizations maintained by C. Bizer, A. Jentzsch, R. Cyganiak.  The original data owners/stewards publish one third of the data contained in the Linked Open Data Cloud, while third parties publish 67%.  Many academic institutions republish data from their respective governments as <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>, often enhancing the representation in the process.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-hub-the">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">18. </span>Data Hub, The</h2>
+<a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">The Data Hub</a> is a specific site offering a community-run catalogue of data sets of data on the Internet, powered by the open-source data portal platform CKAN. <a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">The Data Hub</a> is an openly editable open data catalogue in the style of Wikipedia.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-market">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">19. </span>Data Market</h2>
+A data market, also called a Data Marketplace, is an online (broker) service to enable discovery and access to a large collection of datasets offered by a range of data providers. Examples include Infochimps, Azure Marketplace and Factual.  Data Markets may include open as well as paid-for data, and may offer value added services such as <a href="#API">APIs</a> and visualizations and programmatic data access.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-modeling">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">20. </span>Data Modeling</h2>
+Data modeling is a process used to define and analyze data requirements for an information system.  In the context of Linked Data Modeling, it is a process that involves professional data modelers working closely with business stakeholders to define and document implicit and explicit  relationships.  Linked Data modeling applies formal Linked Data modeling techniques based on <a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data Principles</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dataset">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">21. </span>Dataset</h2>
+A collection of data, published or curated by a single agent, and available for access or download in one or more formats.
+</section>
+
+<section id="data-warehouse">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">22. </span>Data Warehouse</h2>
+A data warehouse is one approach to data integration in which data from various operational data systems is extracted, cleaned, transformed and copied to a centralized repository. The centralized repository can then be used for data mining or answering analytical queries.  By contrast, Linked Data <em>assumes and accounts</em> for a <em>distributed approach</em> using HTTP URIs to describe and access information resources.  A Linked Data approach is seen as an valid alternative to the centralized data warehouse approach especially when integrating open government datasets.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dbpedia">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">23. </span>DBpedia</h2>
+DBpedia is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and make it available on the Web. DBpedia is often depicted as a hub for the <a href="#data-cloud">Data Cloud</a>.  An RDF representation of the metadata derived from Wikipedia is made available for SPARQL queries and linking to other datasets on the Web.  DBpedia also provides a human readable version of the structured content.  For example, the human readable version of Linked Data for the color "Red" is found on DBpedia at <a href="http://dbpedia.org/page/Red" target="_blank">http://dbpedia.org/page/Red</a>.  See also [<a href="#curl">curl</a>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="dereferenceable-uris">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">24. </span>Dereferenceable URIs</h2>
+When an HTTP client can look up a <a href="#uri">URI</a> using the HTTP protocol and retrieve a description of the resource, it is called a  dereferenceable URI.  Per Linked Data Principles, we identify things using HTTP URIs and provide information about them when an HTTP URI is resolved or dereferenced.  Dereferenceable URIs applies to URIs that are used to identify classic HTML documents and URIs that are used in the Linked Data context [<cite><a href="#bib-COOL-SWURIS" class="bibref">COOL-SWURIS</a></cite>] to identify real-world objects and abstract concepts.
+</section>
+
+<section id="description-logic">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">25. </span>Description Logic</h2>
+Description Logic (DL) is a family of knowledge representation languages with varying and adjustable expressivity.  DL is used in artificial intelligence for formal reasoning on the concepts of an application domain.  The Web Ontology Language (OWL) provides a standards-based way to exchange ontologies and includes a Description Logic semantics as well as an RDF based semantics.  Biomedical informatics applications often use DL for codification of healthcare and life sciences knowledge.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dcat">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">26. </span>DCAT</h2>
+Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) is an RDF vocabulary. It is designed to facilitate interoperability between data catalogs published on the Web. See also <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/" target="_blank">Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT)</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="dcmi">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">27. </span>DCMI</h2>
+See <a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative" target="_blank">Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="directed-graph">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">28. </span>Directed Graph</h2>
+A directed graph is a graph in which the links between nodes are directional, i.e., they only go from one node to another. RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph. In <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, links are labelled by being assigned unique <a href="#uri">URIs</a>. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="document-type-definition">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">29. </span>Document Type Definition</h2>
+Document Type Definition (DTD) refers to a type of schema for defining a markup language, such as in XML or HTML (or their predecessor SGML). 
+</section>
+
+<section id="domain-name-system-dns">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">30. </span>Domain Name System (DNS)</h2> 
+Domain Name System (DNS) refers to the Internet's mechanism for mapping between a human-readable host name (e.g. <a href="http://www.example.com" target="_blank">www.example.com</a>) and an Internet Protocol (IP) Address (e.g. 203.20.51.10).
+</section>
+
+<section id="dublin-core-metadata-element-set">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">31. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Element Set</h2>
+Dublin Core Metadata Element Set refers to a <a href="#vocabulary">vocabulary</a> of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (creator, publisher, etc).  The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, also known as "DC Elements", is the most commonly used vocabulary for Linked Data applications. See also <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/" target="_blank"> Dublin Core Element Set, Version 1.1 Specification.</a> [<a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative" target="_blank">DCMI</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="dublin-core-metadata-initiative">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">32. </span>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</h2> 
+<a href="http://dublincore.org/about-us/" target="_blank">The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)</a> is an open international organization engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards, including the Dublin Core Element Set. The DCMI manages long term curation and development of DCMI <a href="http://dublincore.org/specifications/" target="_blank"> specifications and metadata terms namespaces</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="entity">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">33. </span>Entity</h2>
+The term entity refers to anything that can be named using an HTTP URL. It serves as the <a href="#subject">Subject</a> of a description. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="etl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">34. </span>ETL</h2>
+ETL is an abbreviation for extact, transform, load.  Linked Data modelers and developers extract data from a relational database, transform to a Linked Data serialization, and then load it into an RDF database.
+</section>
+
+<section id="free-libre-open-source-software">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">35. </span>Free/Libre/Open Source Software</h2>
+Free, also known as Libre or Open Source, is a generic and internationalized term for software released under an Open Source license.
+</section>
+
+<section id="government-open-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">36. </span>Government Open Data</h2>
+Many government authorities have mandated publication of data to the public Web. The broad intention is to facilitate the maintenance of open societies and support governmental accountability and transparency initiatives. However, publication of unstructured data on the World Wide Web is in itself insufficient; in order to realize the goals of efficiency, transparency and accountability, re-use of published data means members of the public must be able to absorb data in ways that can be readily found and absorbed programmatically by machines, and visualized by humans.  <a href="#linked-data-principals">Linked Data Principles</a> address many of the data modeling and format requirements to realize the goals of Open Government Data. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="graph">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">37. </span>Graph</h2>
+Graph refers to a mathematical structure consisting of a collection of objects, represented by "nodes", and connected by “edges” (also called links), to denote inter-relationships between them. It is well established as the field of Graph Theory.  See also <a href="#directed-graph">Directed Graph</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="hypertext-markup-language-html">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">38. </span>HyperText Markup Language (HTML)</h2> 
+HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the predominant markup language for hypertext pages on the Web. HTML defines the structure of Web pages and it is a family of <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> standards.
+</section>
+
+<section id="hypertext-transfer-protocol">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">39. </span>HyperText Transfer Protocol</h2> 
+HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the standard transmission protocol [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC2616" class="bibref">RFC2616</a></cite>] used on the World Wide Web to transfer hypertext requests and information between Web servers and Web clients (such as browsers). It is an IETF standard.  
+</section>
+
+<section>
+HTTP URIs
+See <a href="uniform-resource-identifier">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="international-standards-organization-iso">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">40. </span>International Standards Organization (ISO)</h2> 
+International Standards Organization (ISO) is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries that cooperate to define international standards.  It Defines many standards including in the context formats for dates and currency.
+</section>
+
+<section id="internet-engineering-task-force-ietf">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">41. </span>Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)</h2>
+ Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open international community concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the operation of the Internet. It has defined standards such as HTTP and DNS. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="inference">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">42. </span>Inference</h2>
+Inference is the process of deriving logical conclusions from a set of starting assumptions. Using Linked Data, existing relationships are modeled as a set of (named) relationships between resources.  Linked Data helps humans and machines to find new relationships through automatic procedures that generate new relationships based on the data and based on some additional information in the form of a vocabulary.
+</section>
+
+<section id="json">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">43. </span>JSON</h2>
+JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is syntax for storing and exchanging text based information. JSON has proven to be a highly useful and popular object serialization and messaging format for the Web. See [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC4627" class="bibref">RFC4627</a></cite>] for details. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="json-ld">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">44. </span>JSON-LD</h2>
+JSON-LD (JavaScript Object Notation for Linking Data) [<cite><a href="#bib-JSON-LD" class="bibref">JSON-LD</a></cite>] is an attempt to harmonize the representation of Linked Data in JSON.  JSON-LD is a specification that outlines a common JSON representation format for expressing directed graphs, mixing both Linked Data and non-Linked Data in a single document.  JSON-LD is a lightweight Linked Data format that provides data context. <a href="http://json-ld.org/spec/FCGS/json-ld-syntax/20120626/" target="_blank"> JSON-LD Syntax</a> is easy for humans to read and write as well as, easy for machines to parse and generate. JSON-LD is based on the JSON format and provides a way to allow JSON data interoperate at Web-scale.  JSON-LD is an appropriate Linked Data interchange language for JavaScript environments, Web service and NoSQL databases. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="jena">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">45. </span>Jena</h2>
+<a ="http:="" jena.apache.org"="">Jena</a> is an Open Source Software implementation of a <a href="#semantic-web">Semantic Web</a> development framework. It supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> information. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">46. </span>Linked Data</h2>
+Linked data refers to a set of best practices for creating, publishing and announcing structured data on the Web. See [<a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data Principles</a>] Linked Data is intended for access by both humans and machines.  Linked Data is not the same as <a href="rdf">RDF</a>, rather Linked Data uses the RDF family of standards for data interchange ( RDF/XML, RDFa, Turtle) and query (SPARQL). Linked Data can be published by an person or organization behind the firewall or on the public Web.  If Linked Data is published on the public Web, it is generally called <em><a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a></em>. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-client">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">47. </span>Linked Data Client</h2>
+A client side application that consumes Linked Data using standard Web techniques.  A Linked Data Client may resolve URI's to retrieve Linked Data serializations, using appropriate content negotiation, and understands how to make use of those representations once it receives them.  A Linked Data client understands standard REST API, for example the Linked Data REST API.  There are many examples of Linked Data clients, several include: Tim Berners-Lee's early <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/ajar/tab.html" target="_blank"> Tabulator browser</a>, <a href="http://www.visualdataweb.org/gfacet.php" target="_blank"> gFacet</a>, and the <a href="http://callimachusproject.org" target="_blank">Callimachus Shell (CaSH)</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-platform-1.0">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">48. </span>Linked Data Platform 1.0</h2>
+A set of best practices and simple approach for a read-write Linked Data architecture, based on HTTP access to web resources that describe their state using the RDF data model. The Linked Data Platform describes the use of HTTP for accessing, updating, creating and deleting resources from servers that expose their resources as Linked Data. It provides some new rules as well as clarifications and extensions of the four rules of Linked Data [<cite><a href="#bib-LINKED-DATA" class="bibref">LINKED-DATA</a></cite>].  See also [<cite><a href="#bib-LDP-ONE" class="bibref">LDP-ONE</a></cite>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-data-principles">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">49. </span>Linked Data Principles</h2>
+Linked Data Principles provide a common <a href="#api">API</a> for data on the Web which is more convenient than many separately and differently designed APIs published by individual data suppliers.  Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and initiator of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html" target="_blank"> Linked Data</a> project, proposed the following principles upon which Linked Data is based:
+<ol>
+<li>Use URIs to name things;</li> 
+<li>Use HTTP URIs so that things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents;</li>
+<li>When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the open Web standards such as RDF, SPARQL;</li>
+<li>Include links to other related things using their URIs when publishing on the Web.</li>
+</ol>
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-open-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">50. </span>Linked Open Data</h2>
+Linked Open Data refers to Linked Data published on the <em>public Web</em>, often abbreviated as "LOD".  Publishing Linked Open Data enables distributed <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries of the data sets and a "browsing" or "discovery" approach to finding information, as compared to a search strategy.  See also: [<cite><a href="#bib-LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS" class="bibref">LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS</a></cite>], [<cite><a href="#bib-HOWTO-LODP" class="bibref">HOWTO-LODP</a></cite>] 
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-open-data-cloud">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">51. </span>Linked Open Data Cloud</h2>
+The Linked Data Cloud represents interconnected datasets that have been published as Linked Data on the public Web.  See also: <a href="#data-cloud">Data Cloud</a>, <a href="#linked-open-data-cloud-diagram">Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="linked-open-data-cloud-diagram">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">52. </span> Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</h2>
+It refers to the pictoral depiction of the <a href=" http://lod-cloud.net/" target="blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>.  There are various depictions of the Linked Open Data Cloud including color-by-theme describing the various data domains including government, geographic, publications, life sciences and media content.  
+</section>
+
+<section id="linking-government-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">53. </span>Linking Government Data</h2> 
+Linking government data refers to the use of tools and techniques of the Semantic Web to connect, expose and use data from government systems. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="linking-open-data-project">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">54. </span>Linking Open Data Project</h2>
+The Linking Open Data project is a community activity started in 2007 by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>'s <a href="http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData" target="_blank">Semantic Web Education and Outreach (SWEO) Interest Group</a>.  The project's stated goal is to "make data freely available to everyone".
+</section>
+
+<section id="linkset">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">55. </span>Linkset</h2>
+A linkset is a collection of RDF links between two datasets.
+</section>
+
+<section id="machine-readable-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">56. </span>Machine Readable Data</h2> 
+Machine readable data refers to data which can be seamlessly processed by programs. It often means non-graphics data which gets 2-stars on the  <a href="#5-star-linked-data">5-star Linked Data scale</a>. While some open data developers use screen-scrapping techniques to parse machine readable content, using 4-star or 5-star Linked Data is preferable in terms of provenance and ease of reuse. Anything less than 4-star data gives Web developers more work modeling and transforming data. By creating and publishing Linked Data, you are increasing the ability of search engines, and thus humans, to find, access and re-use information.  
+<p></p>
+<p>
+To see how a Linked Data representation yields both a human and machine readable version simultaneously, try this exercise. Wikipedia has an interesting page about the color <a href="http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red" target="_blank">Red</a>.  DBpedia allows you to get the structured content listed on the Wikipedia page for "Red" [<a href="http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red" target="_blank">http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red</a>] by changing "wiki" to "data" and appending the appropriate file extension.  
+</p><pre>$ curl -L http://dbpedia.org/data/Red.ttl</pre>
+Thus, you've seen how the same data can be viewed in human and machine readable format from the same page.
+<p></p>
+</section>
+
+<section id="message">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">57. </span>Message</h2> 
+The basic unit of HTTP communication. It consists of a structured sequence of octets matching the syntax defined as an <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#httpmessage" target="blank">HTTP Message</a> and transmitted via the connection.
+</section>
+
+<section id="metadata">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">58. </span>Metadata</h2> 
+Metadata literally means data about data. It refers to the information used to administer, describe, preserve, present, use or link other information held in resources, especially knowledge resources, be they physical or virtual. Linked Data incorporates human and machine readable metadata along with it, making it self describing.
+</section>
+
+<section id="metadata-object-description-schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">59. </span>Metadata Object Description Schema</h2>
+It is a bibliographic description system intended to be a compromise between <a href="http://www.loc.gov/marc" target="_blank">MARC</a> and <a href="http://dublincore.org/" target="_blank">DC metadata</a>. It is implemented in <a href="#xml-schema">XML Schema</a>. See DC, MARC, XSD. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="modeling-process">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">60. </span>Modeling Process</h2>
+Modeling process in the context of RDF refers to the act by subject matter experts to work with developers to capture the context of data and define the relationships of the data.  By doing so, high quality of Linked Data is obtained since capturing organizational knowledge about the meaning of the data within the RDF data model means the data is more likely to be reused correctly. Well defined context ensures better understanding, proper reuse, and is critical when establishing linkages to other data sets. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="n3">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">61. </span>N3</h2>
+N3 is an abbreviation for Notation3. It has a readable <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> syntax used for expressing assertion and logic. N3 [<cite><a href="#bib-N3" class="bibref">N3</a></cite>] is a superset of RDF, extending the RDF model by adding formulae (literals which are graphs themselves), variables, logical implication, and functional predicates. See also [<a href="#turtle">Turtle</a>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="namespace">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">62. </span>Namespace</h2>
+Namespace refers to a container for a set of names that belong to a single authority. Namespaces allow different agents to use the same word in different ways. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="natural-keys">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">63. </span>Natural Keys</h2>
+Human-readable categories and sub-identifiers within a URI that reflect what the identifier describes.  They are recommended when creating URIs so that people reading RDF in its source format (mostly developers) will be able to more quickly understand it.
+</section>
+
+<section id="neutral-uri">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">64. </span>Neutral URI</h2>
+A URI that avoids the exposure of implementation details within the URI itself. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="object">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">65. </span>Object</h2>
+In the context of <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, the object is the third part of an RDF statement.  It is the property value that is mapped to a subject by the predicate. See also [<a href="#subject">Subject</a>] [<a href="#predicate">Predicate</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="ontology">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">66. </span>Ontology</h2>
+An ontology is a formal model of a domain. It describes the types of things that exist (classes), the relationships between them (properties) and the logical ways those classes and properties can be used together (axioms). The OWL (Web Ontology Language) family of languages provide a standardized-means for expressing and exchanging ontologies. It builds upon, and is compatible with, <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>.
+
+</section>
+
+<section id="ontology-matching">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">67. </span>Ontology Matching</h2>
+It is a process of finding correspondences between semantically related entities of the ontologies, which 
+can be used for various tasks, such as ontology merging, reconciliation, query answering, data translation, or for navigation on the semantic web. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="open-government-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">68. </span>Open Government Data</h2>
+Open government data broadly refers to content that is published on the public Web by government authorities at national, regional or local levels, in a variety of non-proprietary formats including as XML, CSV, SHP and PDF.
+</section>
+
+<section id="open-world">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">69. </span>Open World</h2>
+ Open world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external world. In an open world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true may yet be true if additional information is later obtained. It is the assumption underlying RDF and OWL Full, and often opposed to <a href="#closed-world">"Closed World".</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="org-ontology">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">70. </span>ORG Ontology</h2>
+ORG is an RDF vocabulary to enable publication of information about organizations and organizational structures, even at governmental level. See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/" target="_blank">http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="persistent-identifier-scheme">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">71. </span>Persistent Identifier Scheme</h2>
+A persistent identifier scheme is a mechanmism for resolution of virtual resources.  <a href="#persistent-uniform-resource-locator">Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURLs)</a> implement one form of persistent identifier for virtual resources. PURLs are valid URLs and their components must map to the URL specification. The scheme part tells a computer program, such as a Web browser, which protocol to use when resolving the address. The scheme used for PURLs is generally HTTP.  Other persistent identifier schemes include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" target="_blank">Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LSID" target="_blank">Life Sciences Identifiers (LSIDs)</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Info:" target="_blank">INFO URIs</a>. All persistent identification schemes provide unique identifiers for (possibly changing) virtual resources, but not all schemes provide curation opportunities.
+</section>
+
+<section id="persistent-uniform-resource-locator">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">72. </span>Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</h2>
+A persistent uniform resource locator (PURL) is a <a href="uniform-resource=locator">uniform resource locator</a> (URL) that is intended to remain the same over the course of time, regardless of changes to the implementing technology, the ownership of the resource or the contents of the representation.  There are several types of PURLs, which are differentiated by the HTTP status code they return.  PURLs are used to curate the URL resolution process, thus solving the problem of transitory URIs in location-based URI schemes like HTTP. Thus, a user of a PURL always uses the same Web address, even though the resource in question may have moved or changed ownership.  A PURL might redirect to the new location or return content proxied from the new location.
+</section>
+
+<section id="predicate">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">73. </span>Predicate</h2>
+The predicate is the second part of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> statement and gives the property which connects the subject of the statement to the object of the statement. Thus in the informal statement <em>"Alice knows Bob"</em> then <em>"knows"</em> is the predicate which connects "Alice" (the subject of the statement) to "Bob" (the object of the statement). The term predicate derives from predicate calculus. In RDF we use the terms predicate (for the role) and property (for the thing that plays that role) regardless of whether the value of the property is a simple literal or some other resource.
+</section>
+
+<section id="provenance">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">74. </span>Provenance</h2>
+Provenance refers to the sources of information, such as entities and processes, involved in producing or delivering an artifact. An ontology expressing the provenance data model in OWL2 [<cite><a href="#bib-PROV-O" class="bibref">PROV-O</a></cite>] is used  to represent and interchange provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="protocol">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">75. </span>Protocol</h2>
+Protocol, in the context of computing, refers to a set of instructions for transferring data from one computer to another over a network. A protocol standard defines both message formats and the rules for sending and receiving those messages. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="public-sector-information">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">76. </span>Public Sector Information</h2>
+Public Sector Information, also called public information, is the information created by a government in the course of governing. In most democracies, such information can be made available to people in due course of time. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="purl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">77. </span>PURL</h2>
+See <a href="#persistent-uniform-resource-locator">Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="quad-store">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">78. </span>Quad Store</h2>
+Quad Store is a colloquial phrase for an RDF database that stores RDF triples plus an additional element of information, often used to collect statements into groups. This notion has been clarified and standardized in <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> in the form of <b>RDF Datasets</b>
+</section>
+
+<section id="query">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">79. </span>Query</h2>
+A query in the context of <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a> implies programmatic retrieval of resources and their relationships from the Web of Data.  Using the SPARQL language, developers issue queries based on (triple) patterns.  <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries provide one or more patterns against such relationships.  To get results, the query engine retrieves a response matching the requested query, returning a query result set.  Results may be returned in a table format for example, which can be used to build complex mashups and visualizations.
+</section> 
+
+<section id="r2rml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">80. </span>R2RML</h2>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/" target="_blank">R2RML</a> (RDB to RDF Mapping Language) is a language for expressing customized mappings from relational databases to RDF datasets. Such mappings provide the ability to view existing relational data in the RDF data model, expressed in a structure and target vocabulary of the mapping author's choice.
+</section>
+
+<section id="raw-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">81. </span>Raw Data</h2>
+Raw data refers to machine-readable files from the wilderness released without any specific effort to make them applicable to a particular application. The advantage of "raw" data is that it can be reused in multiple applications created by multiple communities; but this requires some means of processing it. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">82. </span>RDF</h2>
+See <a href="#resource-description-framework">Resource Description Framework</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdfa">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">83. </span>RDFa</h2>
+See <a href="#resource-description-framework-attributes">Resource Description Framework Attributes</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-link">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">84. </span>RDF link</h2>
+An RDF triple whose subject and object are contained in different datasets.  These datasets may be on different servers. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="reasoner">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">85. </span>Reasoner</h2>
+A program that performs logical operations, such as the operations defined in OWL.
+</section>
+
+<section id="resource">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">86. </span>Resource</h2>
+A resource is anything that can be addressed by a <a href="#uniform-resource-identifiers">Unified Resource Identifier (URI)</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="resource-description-framework">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">87. </span>Resource Description Framework</h2>
+Resource Description Framework (RDF), is a general-purpose language for representing information in the Web.  RDF provides a common model for Linked Data and is well suited for the representation of data on the Web.  RDF is <b>not</b> a data format, rather a model for expressing relationships between arbitrary data elements that may be represented in a variety of standard formats.  RDF is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers or <a href="#uris">HTTP URIs</a>, and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values. A single RDF statement describes two things and a relationship between them. This enables RDF to represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values.  Linked Data developers call the three elements in an RDF statement the <em>subject</em>, the <em>predicate</em> and the <em>object</em>. See also [<h ref="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax
+</h></section>
+
+<section id="resource-description-framework-in-attributes">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">88. </span>Resource Description Framework in Attributes</h2>
+Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa) is a key enabling technology to add structured data to HTML pages directly. RDFa is a technique that provides a set of markup attributes to augment the visual information on the Web with machine-readable hints.  [<cite><a href="#bib-RDFa-PRIMER" class="bibref">RDFa-PRIMER</a></cite>]</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-database">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">89. </span>RDF Database</h2>
+ A type of database designed specifically to store and retrieve RDF information.
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-json">
+
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">90. </span>RDF-JSON</h2>
+<p class="todo">In favor of removing this item: DaveR. In favor of keeping: Bhyland. To discuss</p>
+A concrete syntax in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC4627" class="bibref">RFC4627</a></cite>] for RDF as defined in the RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS" class="bibref">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>] <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.  An RDF-JSON document serializes such a set of RDF triples as a series of nested data structures.  See also [<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-json/index.html" target="_blank"> RDF 1.1  JSON Serialization document draft</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section id="rdf-schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">91. </span>RDF Schema</h2>
+RDF Schema (RDFS) [<cite><a href="#bib-RDFS" class="bibref">RDFS</a></cite>] is the vocabulary language for RDF; it describes constructs for types of objects (Classes), relating types to one another (subClasses), properties that describe objects (Properties), and relationships between them (subProperty).  
+</section>
+
+<section id="request">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">92. </span>Request</h2>
+Request refers to a stage in the HTTP protocol. A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use. See also <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#request" target="blank">RFC 2616bis</a> for an HTTP Request.
+</section>
+
+<section id="resource-1">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">93. </span>Resource</h2>
+A resource is a network data object or service that can be identified by an HTTP URI. Resources may be available in multiple representations (e.g. multiple languages, data formats, size, and resolutions) or vary in other ways. See details from RFC 2616bis for details on Uniform Resource Identifiers. See details from RFC 2616bis for details on <a ref="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#uri.303" target="blank">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="response">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">94. </span>Response</h2>
+Response refers to a stage in the HTTP protocol. After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message.   See also [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC2616" class="bibref">RFC2616</a></cite>] bis for an <a ref="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#response" target="blank">HTTP Response</a> message.
+</section>
+
+<section id="rest">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">95. </span>REST</h2>
+REST (Representational State Transfer) is a style of software architecture for distributed systems that describes six constraints: uniform interface, stateless, cacheable, client-server, layered system, and code on demand (optional).  REST is the foundation of the World Wide Web and the dominant Web service design model.
+</section>
+
+<section id="rest-api">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">96. </span>REST API</h2>
+REST API refers to an application program interface based on Representational State Transfer (<a href="#rest-api"> REST</a>). 
+</section>
+
+<section id="schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">97. </span>Schema</h2>
+Schema refers to a data model that represents the relationships between a set of concepts. Some types of schemas include relational database schemas (which define how data is stored and retrieved), taxonomies and ontologies. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-technologies">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">98. </span>Semantic Technologies</h2>
+ The broad set of technologies that related to the extraction, representation, storage, retrieval and analysis of machine-readable information. The Semantic Web standards are a subset of semantic technologies and techniques. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">99. </span>Semantic Web</h2>
+An evolution or part of the World Wide Web that consists of machine-readable data in RDF and an ability to query that information in standard ways (e.g. via SPARQL)
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web-stack">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">100. </span>Semantic Web Stack </h2>
+The Semantic Web Stack is a layered representation of the architecture of the semantic web, constituting of standardized languages and technologies.
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web-standards">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">101. </span>Semantic Web Standards</h2>
+ Standards of the World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>) relating to the Semantic Web, including RDF [<cite><a href="#bib-RDF" class="bibref">RDF</a></cite>], RDFa [<cite><a href="#bib-RDFa-PRIMER" class="bibref">RDFa-PRIMER</a></cite>], SKOS [<cite><a href="#bib-SKOS-REFERENCE" class="bibref">SKOS-REFERENCE</a></cite>], OWL [<cite><a href="#bib-OWL2" class="bibref">OWL2</a></cite>] and SPARQL [<cite><a href="#bib-SPARQL" class="bibref">SPARQL</a></cite>]. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="semantic-web-search-engine">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">102. </span>Semantic Web Search Engine</h2>
+A search engine capable of making use of semantic technologies both to model its knowledge base and the content delivered to the users.
+</section>
+
+<section id="service-oriented-architecture-soa">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">103. </span>Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)</h2> 
+Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) refers to a set of architectural design guidelines used to expose IT systems as services. The functionality of a service is published to a registry, can be discovered by potential new users, and directly invoked using published standards. A Web Services based system is an example of SOA. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="sesame">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">104. </span>Sesame</h2> 
+Sesame is an Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework. It supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. See also [<a href="http://www.openrdf.org" target="_blank">Open RDF</a>]. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="skolemization">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">105. </span>Skolemization</h2>
+Skolemization is a process whereby some RDF databases and other systems implementing the SPARQL query language automatically assign URIs to blank nodes so that they are more easily operated upon.
+</section>
+
+<section id="simple-knowledge-organisation-system">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">106. </span>Simple Knowledge Organisation System</h2> 
+Simple Knowledge Organisation System  (SKOS) [<cite><a href="#bib-SKOS-REFERENCE" class="bibref">SKOS-REFERENCE</a></cite>] is a vocabulary description language for RDF designed for representing traditional knowledge organization systems such as enterprise taxonomies in RDF. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="sparql">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">107. </span>SPARQL</h2>
+Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) defines a standard query language and data access protocol for use with the RDF [<cite><a href="#bib-SPARQL" class="bibref">SPARQL</a></cite>].  Just as SQL is used to query relational data, SPARQL is used to query an RDF database. SPARQL 1.1 [<cite><a href="#bib-SPARQL-11" class="bibref">SPARQL-11</a></cite>] specification allows more set of operations and queries on a RDF graph content on the Web or in a RDF store.
+</section>
+
+<section id="sparql-client">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">108. </span>SPARQL client</h2>
+A SPARQL client is an application that can construct and issue a SPARQL query.  An example of a SPARQL client is <a href="http://jena.apache.org/documentation/query/index.html" target="_blank">ARQ</a>, part of the Apache Jena Project.  ARQ is a query engine for Jena that supports the SPARQL RDF Query Language.
+</section>
+
+<section id="sparql-endpoint">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">109. </span>SPARQL endpoint</h2>
+SPARQL endpoint refers to an application that can answer a SPARQL query, including one where the native encoding of information is not in RDF. It is a best practice for datasets providers to give the URL of their SPARQL endpoint to get access to their data both programmatically or through the web interface. A list of some endpoints status is available at <a href="http://labs.mondeca.com/sparqlEndpointsStatus/" target="_blank">http://labs.mondeca.com/sparqlEndpointsStatus/</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="structured-query-language-sql">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">110. </span>Structured Query Language (SQL)</h2> 
+Structured Query Language (SQL) is a query language standard for relational databases. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="subject">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">111. </span>Subject</h2>
+The subject is the first part of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> statement.  A subject in the context of a <a href="#triple">triple</a> &lt;?s ?p ?o&gt; refers to who or what the RDF statement is about.
+</section>
+
+<section id="taxonomy">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">112. </span>Taxonomy</h2>
+ Taxonomy is a formal representation of relationships between items in a hierarchical structure. Also see <a href="#ontology">Ontology</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="term">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">113. </span>Term</h2>
+ A term is an entry in a controlled vocabulary, schema, <a href="#taxonomy">Taxonomy</a> or <a href="#ontology">Ontology</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="triple">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">114. </span>Triple</h2>
+ A triple refers to a <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> statement, consisting of two things (a "Subject" and an "Object") and a relationship between them ("Predicate"). This subject-predicate-object triple forms the smallest possible RDF graph (although most RDF graphs consist of many statements). 
+</section>
+
+<section id="triple-store">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">115. </span>Triple store</h2>
+ Triple store is a colloquial phrase for an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> database that stores RDF triples. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="tuple">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">116. </span>Tuple</h2>
+ Tuple is a mathematical term referring to an ordered list of elements. RDF statements are 3-tuples; an ordered list of three elements. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="turtle">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">117. </span>Turtle</h2>
+Turtle is an RDF serialization format designed to be easier to read than others such as RDF/XML. The term "Turtle" was derived from Terse RDF Triple Language.  Turtle allows an RDF graph to be written in a compact and natural text form, with abbreviations for common usage patterns and datatypes. Turtle [<cite><a href="#bib-TURTLE-TR" class="bibref">TURTLE-TR</a></cite>] provides levels of compatibility with the existing N-Triples format, as well as the triple pattern syntax of the SPARQL <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="uniform-resource-identifier">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">118. </span>Uniform Resource Identifier</h2>
+<p>A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a global identifier that uniquely identifies an abstract or physical resource.  URIs were standardized by joint action of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> and IETF.  URI’s provide a simple and extensible means for identifying a resource.  URIs play a key role in enabling Linked Data. URIs can be used to uniquely identify virtually anything including a physical building or more abstract concepts like the color red. If you would like to see the URI for the color red for example, the DBpedia project has modified URLs from the Wikipedia entry to create <a href="http://dbpedia.org/page/red" target="_blank">http://dbpedia.org/page/red</a>.  URIs can also be used to refer to other data representations such as a row in a CSV file or a specific table in a relational database. 
+</p>
+<p></p>
+As Linked Data builds directly on Web architecture, the term "resource" is used to refer to things of interest that are identified by HTTP URIs.  An HTTP URI may or may not be resolvable on the Web.  URIs have been known by many names: Web addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Identifier.  If you are interested in the history of the many names, read Tim Berners-Lee's design document <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Architecture.html" target="_blank">Web Architecture from 50,000 feet</a>. For definitive information on Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), see "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax," [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC3986" class="bibref">RFC3986</a></cite>]
+<p></p>
+</section>
+
+<section id="uniform-resource-locator">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">119. </span>Uniform Resource Locator</h2>
+A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a special type of <a href="#uri">URI</a> that resolves on the Web and is commonly called a "Web address."  Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a global identifier for Web resources standardized by joint action of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> and IETF. All HTTP URLs are URIs however, not all URIs are URLs.  
+</section>
+
+<section id="uri">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">120. </span>URI</h2>
+See <a href="#uniform-resource-identifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="url">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">121. </span>URL</h2>
+See <a href="#uniform-resource-locator">Uniform Resource Locator</a>
+</section>
+
+<section id="validation-service">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">122. </span>Validation Service</h2>
+The <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> offers an RDF validation service to check and validate RDF files.  It is considered a best practice to validate RDF files prior to publishing them on the Web.  See http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/.  There are other RDF parsers available, see http://www.w3.org/People/Barstow/#online_parsers.
+</section>
+
+<section id="vocabulary">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">123. </span>Vocabulary</h2>
+A vocabulary defines the concepts and relationships (also referred to as <a href="#term">"terms"</a>)  to describe and represent a given topic.  A vocabulary is used to classify the terms that are used for a particular application, characterize relationships, and define possible constraints on the use of the terms.  Vocabularies can range from simple such as the widely used Dublin Core Vocabulary to the very complex with thousands of terms, such as those used in healthcare to describe symptoms, diseases and treatments.  Vocabularies play a very important role in Linked Data, specifically to help with data integration.  Vocabularies also help to organize knowledge and are extensively used by libraries, museums, newspapers and government agencies that manage large collections of data.
+</section>
+
+<section id="void">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">124. </span>VoID</h2>
+VoID is an <a href="#rdf-schema">RDF Schema</a> vocabulary for expressing metadata about RDF datasets. It is intended as a bridge between the publishers and users of RDF data, with applications ranging from data discovery to cataloging and archiving of datasets.  VoID can be used to express general metadata based on Dublin Core, access metadata, structural metadata, and links between datasets. [VOID-GUIDE]
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-2.0">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">125. </span>Web 2.0</h2>
+Web 2.0 is a colloquial description of the part of the World Wide Web that implements social networking, blogs, user comments and ratings and related human-centered activities. 
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-3.0">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">126. </span>Web 3.0</h2>
+Web 3.0 is a colloquial description of the part of the World Wide Web that implements machine-readable data and the ability to perform distributed queries and analysis on that data. It is considered synonymous with the phrases "Semantic Web" and "The Web of Data". 
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-of-data">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">127. </span>Web of Data</h2>
+Web of data is a phrase to describe publishing data sets using a Linked Data Principles thereby making the World Wide Web into a global database.
+</section>
+
+<section id="web-ontology-language-owl">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">128. </span>Web Ontology Language (OWL)</h2>
+OWL is a family of knowledge representation and vocabulary description languages for authoring ontologies, based on RDF and standardized by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> [<cite><a href="#bib-OWL2" class="bibref">OWL2</a></cite>].  Standardized variants include OWL Full, OWL DL (for "description logic") and OWL Lite.
+</section>
+
+<section id="world-wide-web-consortium-w3c">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">129. </span>World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>)</h2> 
+<a href="http://www.w3c.org/" target="_blank">World Wide Web Consortium</a>, also known as <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>, is an international community that develops and promotes protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web.  <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>'s standards define key parts of what makes the World Wide Web wrok.  It defined standards such as <a href="http://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/" target="_blank">Web Design</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/standards/webarch/" target="_blank">Web Architecture</a> and the <a href="http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/" target="_blank">Semantic Web</a>. See also <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission" target="_blank"> <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Mission</a>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="extensible-hypertext-markup-language-xhtml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">130. </span>eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML)</h2> 
+eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is a family of versions of HTML based on XML and standardized by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> [<cite><a href="#bib-XHTML1" class="bibref">XHTML1</a></cite>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="extensible-markup-language-xml">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">131. </span>eXtensible Markup Language (XML)</h2> 
+ XML [<cite><a href="#bib-XML" class="bibref">XML</a></cite>] is a specification for creating structured textual computer documents, subset of SGML enabling such documents to be served, received and process on the Web in the same way as HTML documents . There are many thousands of XML formats, including XHTML.  It is part of a family of standards from the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>.
+</section>
+
+<section id="xml-schema">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">132. </span>XML Schema</h2> 
+XML Schemas provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents as defined in [<cite><a href="#bib-XMLS-SCHEMA0" class="bibref">XMLS-SCHEMA0</a></cite>].
+</section>
+
+<section id="extensible-stylesheet-language-transformations-xslt">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">133. </span>eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)</h2> 
+eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) is a declarative program to transform one XML document into another XML document. 
+</section>
+
+
+<!--    ACK   -->
+<section id="acknowledgments" class="appendix">
+<!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgments</h2>
+<p>The editors are grateful to <a href="http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/david-wood/" target="_blank">David Wood</a> for contributing the initial glossary terms from <a href="http://3roundstones.com/linking-government-data/" target="_blank">Linking Government Data</a>, (<a href="http://www.springer.com/computer/database+management+%26+information+retrieval/book/978-1-4614-1766-8" target="_blank">Springer 2011</a>).  The editors wish to also thank the active members of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/" target="_blank">Government Linked Data Working Group</a> with special thanks to the reviewers and contributors: Thomas Baker, Hadley Beeman, Richard Cyganiak, Michael Hausenblas, Benedikt Kaempgen, James McKinney, Marios Meimaris, Jindrich Mynarz, Michael Pendleton and Dave Reynolds who all worked hard to iterate this Linked Data Glossary so that everyone has some common ground upon which to grow the Web of Data.  Mille grazie!
+</p>
+</section>
+
+
+<section class="appendix" id="references"><!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><section id="normative-references"><h3><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-OWL2">[OWL2]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview</a></cite>, W3C OWL Working Group,  27 October 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/">http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-PROV-O">[PROV-O]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/">PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</a></cite>, Timothy Lebo, Sathya Sahoo, Deborah McGuinness (eds),   11 December 2012, W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF">[RDF]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/">RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)</a></cite>, Dave Beckett (eds),   10 February 2004, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">[RDF-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax</a></cite>, Graham Klyne, Jeremy J. Carroll,  10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFS">[RDFS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema</a></cite>,ed. Dan Brickley, R.V. Guha,  10 February 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RDFa-PRIMER">[RDFa-PRIMER]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-rdfa-primer-20120607/">RDFa Primer</a></cite>, Ben Adida, Ivan Herman, Manu Sporny,  07 June 2012. W3C Note. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-rdfa-primer-20120607/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-rdfa-primer-20120607/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2616">[RFC2616]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a></cite>, R. Fielding; et al. June 1999. Internet RFC 2616. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html">http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC3986">[RFC3986]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a></cite>, Berners-Lee, et al. January 2005. Internet RFC 3986. URL: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986</a>.
+</dd><dt id="bib-RFC4627">[RFC4627]</dt><dd><cite><a http:="" www.ietf.org="" rfc="" rfc4627.txt"="">The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)</a></cite>, D. Crockford,   July 2006. Network Working Group. URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-SKOS-REFERENCE">[SKOS-REFERENCE]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/">SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference</a></cite>, Sean Bechhofer, Alistair Miles (eds),   18 August 2009, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-SPARQL">[SPARQL]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">SPARQL Query Language for RDF</a></cite>,Eric Prud'hommeaux, Andy Seaborne,  15 January 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-SPARQL-11">[SPARQL-11]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/PR-sparql11-overview-20121108/">SPARQL 1.1 Overview</a></cite>,The W3C SPARQL Working Group,  8 November 2012. W3C Proposed Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/PR-sparql11-overview-20121108/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/PR-sparql11-overview-20121108/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE-TR">[TURTLE-TR]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language</a></cite>,Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers,  19 February 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-turtle-20130219/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XHTML1">[XHTML1]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/">XHTML 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)</a></cite>, Steven Pemberton, Daniel Auster, et al.,  26 January 2000. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XML">[XML]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)</a></cite>, Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C.M. Sperberg-McQueen, Eve Maler, François Yergeau,  26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-XMLS-SCHEMA0">[XMLS-SCHEMA0]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/">XML Schema Part 0: Primer Second Edition</a></cite>, David C. Fallside, Priscilla Walmsley (eds),   28 October 2004, W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/</a>
+</dd></dl></section><section id="informative-references"><h3><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-COOL-SWURIS">[COOL-SWURIS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">Cool URIs for the Semantic Web</a></cite>, L. Sauermann and R. Cyganiak, W3C Interest Group Note 03 December 2008. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/">http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-HOWTO-LODP">[HOWTO-LODP]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/">Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space.</a> 2011, Chris Bizer, Tom Health URL: <a href="http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/">http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/</a>
+</cite></dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/">JSON-LD Syntax 1.0</a></cite>, Many Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler (eds),   12 July 2012, W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-syntax/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS">[LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://manning.com/dwood/">Linked Data: Structured Data on the Web.</a> David Wood, Marsh Zaidman, Luke Ruth, with Michael Hausenblas</cite>; 2013 URL: <a href="http://www.manning.com/dwood">http://www.manning.com/dwood/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-LDP-ONE">[LDP-ONE]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-ldp-20130307/">Linked Data Platform 1.0.</a></cite> Steve Speicher, John Arwe. 07 March 2013. W3C Working Draft, Linked Data Platform Working Group. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ldp/">http://www.w3.org/TR/ldp/</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-LINKED-DATA">[LINKED-DATA]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">LINKED-DATA</a></cite>, Tim Berners-Lee. Linked Data Design Issues. 27 July 2006. W3C-Internal Document. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html">http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html</a>
+</dd><dt id="bib-N3">[N3]</dt><dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/n3/">Notation3 (N3): A readable RDF syntax</a></cite>, Tim Berners-Lee, Dan Connolly,  28 March 2011. W3C Team Submission. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/n3/">http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/n3/</a>
+</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>