Updated LD glossary with feedback from D. Reynolds, J. Northey
authorbhyland
Tue, 19 Mar 2013 17:25:08 -0400
changeset 420 b3b79fc68e31
parent 419 3a418ef257c4
child 421 2026393669a7
Updated LD glossary with feedback from D. Reynolds, J. Northey
glossary/index.html
glossary/respec-ref.js
--- a/glossary/index.html	Tue Mar 19 14:03:27 2013 -0400
+++ b/glossary/index.html	Tue Mar 19 17:25:08 2013 -0400
@@ -49,9 +49,7 @@
 <p class="highlight">&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&nbsp;<b>All of the above and links to other Linked Open Data.</b>
 </p>
 <p>
-The Linked Data mug can be read with both green labels for <a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a>, or neither label for <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>.  Proceeds of the <a href="http://www.cafepress.com/w3c_shop">Linked Open Data mug</a> benefit the W3C.
-    <img alt="Get a 5* mug" border="none" src="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/diagrams/lod/597992118v2_350x350_Back.jpg" align="right"/>
-</a>
+An easy to read graphic for explaining the 5 Star Linked Data model may be seen on the <a href="http://www.cafepress.com/w3c_shop">5 Star Linked Open Data mug</a>.  One reads both green labels for <a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a>, or neither green label for <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>.  
 </p>
 </section>
 
@@ -86,13 +84,8 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>CKAN</h4>
-<a href="http://datahub.io/" target="_blank">CKAN</a> is a widely used data cataloging site written and maintained by the   <a href="http://okfn.org/" target="_blank"> Open Knowledge Foundation</a>.  The Linking Open Data community collects metadata about Linked Data registered on CKAN.
-</section>
-
-<section>
 <h4>Closed World</h4>
-Closed world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external work. In a closed world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true must be false. This is a common assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming. See also [<a href="#open-world">Open World</a>].
+Closed world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external world. In a closed world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true must be false. This is a common assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming. See also [<a href="#open-world">Open World</a>].
 </section>
 
 <section >
@@ -111,8 +104,8 @@
 </section>
 
 <section >
-<h4>Controlled Vocabularies</h4>
-Controlled vocabularies refer to the practice of using carefully selected sets of terms that are used to describe specific units of information. They are used to create thesauri, <a href="#taxonomy">taxonomies</a> and <a href="#ontology">ontologies</a>. 
+<h4>Controlled Vocabulary</h4>
+A controlled vocabulary is a selected set of terms that can be used to index, tag or describe units of information. By providing a restricted and managed set of terms they can be used to reduce ambiguity in information systems. Such vocabularies may be unstructured (e.g. code lists) or may be organized into increasingly complex knowledge organization schemes (<a href="#taxonomy">taxonomies</a>, thesauri, <a href="#ontology">ontologies</a>). In traditional settings the terms in the controlled vocabularies are words or phrases, in a linked data setting then they are normally assigned unique identifiers (URIs) which in turn link to descriptive phrases.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -130,44 +123,29 @@
 A command line client to retrieve any data over a wide variety of protocols, including machine readable RDF.  
 </section>
 
-<section>
-<h4>D2RQ</h4>
-The term D2RQ may be used to describe a mapping language definition or an Open Source platform project. See also [<a href="#d2rq-platform">D2RQ Platform</a>]  
-</section>
-
-<section>
-<h4>D2RQ Platform</h4>
-Refers to a system for accessing relational databases as virtual, read-only RDF graphs. The <a href="http://d2rq.org/" target="_blank">D2RQ platform</a> offers RDF-based access to the content of relational databases without having to replicate it into an RDF store. The D2RQ Platform allows one to query a non-RDF database using SPARQL, access the content of the database as Linked Data over the Web, create custom dumps in RDF formats for loading into an RDF triplestore, and access information in a non-RDF database using the Apache Jena API. See the D2RQ Open Source Project and also the <a href="#d2rq-mapping-language-description">D2RQ Mapping Language description</a>. 
-</section>
-
-<section>
-<h4>D2RQ Mapping Language</h4>
-D2RQ mapping language refers to a declarative language for mapping relational database schemas to RDF vocabularies and OWL ontologies. The language is implemented in the D2RQ Platform. See also [<a href="#d2rq-platform">D2RQ Platform</a>]. 
-</section>
-
-<section >
-<h4>Database to RDF Queueing</h4>
-Database to RDF queueing refers to a mechanism to query information in traditional management systems such as relational databases via the SPARQL query language. See also [<a href="#d2rq">D2RQ</a>]. 
-</section >
-
 <section >
 <h4>Data Cloud</h4>
 Data cloud, also called the <a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/" target="_blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>, is a visual representation of datasets published as Linked Data.  Using metadata generated by directories, including CKAN, the project records datasets by domain.  The Linked Data Cloud has doubled in size every 10 months since 2007 and as of late 2012 consists of more than 300 data sets from various domains, including geography, media, government and life sciences, according the [<a href="http://lod-cloud.net/state/">State of the LOD Cloud</a>], website and visualizations maintained by C. Bizer, A. Jentzsch, R. Cyganiak.  The original data owners/stewards publish one third of the data contained in the Linked Open Data Cloud, while third parties publish 67%.  Many academic institutions republish data from their respective governments as <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>, often enhancing the representation in the process.
 </section >
 
 <section >
-<h4>Data Hub</h4>
-The <a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">Data Hub</a> is a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet, powered using an open-source data cataloguing software called <a href="http://ckan.org/" target="_blank">CKAN</a>. It is an openly editable open data catalogue, in the style of Wikipedia.
+<h4>Data Hub, The</h4>
+<a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">The Data Hub</a> is a specific site offering a community-run catalogue of data sets of data on the Internet, powered by the open-source data portal platform CKAN. href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">The Data Hub</a> is an openly editable open data catalogue in the style of Wikipedia.
 </section >
 
 <section>
 <h4>Data Market</h4>
-Data warehouse refers to a storage and retrieval system for enterprise information designed to centralize information from other stores to facilitate cross-system querying and reporting. Linked Data is an alternative to data warehouses whereby data consumers (human and machine) assume a distributed information architecture and use HTTP URIs to describe and access resources. 
+A data market, also called a Data Marketplace, is an online (broker) service to enable discovery and access to a large collection of datasets offered by a range of data providers. Examples include Infochimps, Azure Marketplace and Factual.  Data Markets may include open as well as paid-for data, and may offer value added services such as <a href="#API">APIs</a> and visualizations and programmatic data access.
 </section >
 
 <section>
+<h4>Data Modeling</h4>
[email protected]@[email protected]@ 
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Data Warehouse</h4>
-A storage and retrieval system for enterprise information designed to centralize information from other stores to facilitate cross-system querying and reporting.  Linked Data is an alternative to data warehouses whereby data consumers (human and machine) assume a distributed information architecture and use HTTP URIs to describe and access resources.
+A data warehouse is one approach to data integration in which data from various operational data systems is extracted, cleaned, transformed and copied to a centralized repository. The centralized repository can then be used for data mining or answering analytical queries.  By contrast, Linked Data <em>assumes and accounts</em> for a <em>distributed approach</em> using HTTP URIs to describe and access information resources.  A Linked Data approach is seen as an valid alternative to the centralized data warehouse approach especially when integrating open government datasets.
 </section>
 
 <section >
@@ -183,12 +161,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Description Logic</h4>
-Description Logic (DL) is a family of knowledge representation languages with varying and adjustable expressivity.  DL is used in artificial intelligence for formal reasoning on the concepts of an application domain.  Two variants of the Web Ontology Language (OWL), specifically OWL Lite and OWL DL are based on Description Logic.  Biomedical informatics applications often use DL for codification of healthcare and life sciences knowledge.
-</section>
-
-<section>
-<h4>Descriptor Resource</h4> 
-Descriptor resource refers to a type of resource in the context of RDF that bears/carries the description of a Subject. 
+Description Logic (DL) is a family of knowledge representation languages with varying and adjustable expressivity.  DL is used in artificial intelligence for formal reasoning on the concepts of an application domain.  The Web Ontology Language (OWL) provides a standards-based way to exchange ontologies and includes a Description Logic semantics as well as an RDF based semantics.  Biomedical informatics applications often use DL for codification of healthcare and life sciences knowledge.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -197,8 +170,13 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
+<h4>DCMI</h4>
+See <a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative">Dublin Core Metdata Initiative</a>
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Directed Graph</h4>
-A directed graph is a graph in which the links between nodes are directional, i.e., they only go from one node to another. RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph. In <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, links are differentiated by being assigned unique <a href="#uri">URIs</a>. 
+A directed graph is a graph in which the links between nodes are directional, i.e., they only go from one node to another. RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph. In <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, links are labelled by being assigned unique <a href="#uri">URIs</a>. 
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -212,13 +190,13 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Dublin Core Element Set</h4>
- Dublin Core Element Set refers to a <a href="#vocabulary">vocabulary</a> of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (creator, publisher, etc).  The Dublin Core Element Set is the most commonly used vocabulary for Linked Data applications. See also [<a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/"> Dublin Core Element Set, Version 1.1 Specification.</a>]
+<h4>Dublin Core Metadata Element Set</h4>
+Dublin Core Metadata Element Set refers to a <a href="#vocabulary">vocabulary</a> of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (creator, publisher, etc).  The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, also known as "DC Elements", is the most commonly used vocabulary for Linked Data applications. See also [<a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/"> Dublin Core Element Set, Version 1.1 Specification.</a>] [<a href="#dublin-core-metadata-initiative" target="_blank">DCMI</a>]
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)</h4> 
-<a href="http://dublincore.org/about-us/">The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)</a> is an open international organization engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards, including the Dublin Core Element Set. It supports metadata design and best practices across a broad range of purposes and business models.
+<h4>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative</h4> 
+<a href="http://dublincore.org/about-us/" target="_blank">The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)</a> is an open international organization engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards, including the Dublin Core Element Set. The DCMI manages long term curation and development of DCMI <a href="http://dublincore.org/specifications/" target="_blank"> specifications and metadata terms namespaces</a>
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -233,7 +211,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Free/Libre/Open Source Software</h4>
-Free, also known as Libre or Open Sour, is a generic and internationalized term for software released under an Open Source license. <a href="http://www.sourceforge.net/">Sourceforge</a> is a public repository of such software. 
+Free, also known as Libre or Open Source, is a generic and internationalized term for software released under an Open Source license.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -242,11 +220,6 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Hash URI Strategy</h4>
-The hash URI strategy builds on the characteristic that URIs may contain a special part that is separated from the base part of the URI by a hash symbol (#). This special part is called the fragment identifier.
-</section>
-
-<section>
 <h4>HyperText Markup Language (HTML)</h4> 
 HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the predominant markup language for hypertext pages on the Web. HTML defines the structure of Web pages and it is a family of W3C standards.
 </section>
@@ -315,7 +288,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Linked Open Data</h4>
-Linked Open Data refers to Linked Data published on the public Web.  Abbreviated often as "LOD".  Publishing Linked Open Data [[HOWTO-LODP]] enables distributed <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries of the data sets and a "browsing" or "discovery" approach to finding information, as compared to a search strategy.
+Linked Open Data refers to Linked Data published on the <em>public Web</em>, often abbreviated as "LOD".  Publishing Linked Open Data enables distributed <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries of the data sets and a "browsing" or "discovery" approach to finding information, as compared to a search strategy.  See also: [[LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS]], [[HOWTO-LODP]] 
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -410,13 +383,13 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</h4>
-A persistent uniform resource locator (PURL) is a <a href="uniform-resource=locator">uniform resource locator</a> (URL) that is used to redirect to the location of the requested web resource. PURLs redirect HTTP clients using HTTP status codes. PURLs are used to curate the URL resolution process, thus solving the problem of transitory URIs in location-based URI schemes like HTTP.  Thus, a user of a PURL always uses the same Web address, even though the resource in question may have moved.  Note, an expansion of PURL that is sometimes found is "permanent uniform resource locator" however that is incorrect as it does not capture the key concept of <em>persistence</em>.
+<h4>Persistent Identifier Scheme</h4>
+A persistent identifier scheme is a mechanmism for resolution of virtual resources.  <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persistent_uniform_resource_locator">Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURLs)</a> implement one form of persistent identifier for virtual resources. PURLs are valid URLs and their components must map to the URL specification. The scheme part tells a computer program, such as a Web browser, which protocol to use when resolving the address. The scheme used for PURLs is generally HTTP.  Other persistent identifier schemes include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" target="_blank">Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LSID" target="_blank">Life Sciences Identifiers (LSIDs)</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Info:" target="_blank">INFO URIs</a>. All persistent identification schemes provide unique identifiers for (possibly changing) virtual resources, but not all schemes provide curation opportunities.
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Persistent Identifier Scheme</h4>
-A persistent identifier scheme is a mechanmism for resolution of virtual resources.  <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persistent_uniform_resource_locator">Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURLs)</a> implement one form of persistent identifier for virtual resources. PURLs are valid URLs and their components must map to the URL specification. The scheme part tells a computer program, such as a Web browser, which protocol to use when resolving the address. The scheme used for PURLs is generally HTTP.  Other persistent identifier schemes include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" target="_blank">Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)></a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LSID" target="_blank">Life Sciences Identifiers (LSIDs)</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Info:" target="_blank">INFO URIs</a>. All persistent identification schemes provide unique identifiers for (possibly changing) virtual resources, but not all schemes provide curation opportunities.
+<h4>Persistent Uniform Resource Locator</h4>
+A persistent uniform resource locator (PURL) is a <a href="uniform-resource=locator">uniform resource locator</a> (URL) that is used to redirect to the location of the requested web resource. PURLs redirect HTTP clients using HTTP status codes. PURLs are used to curate the URL resolution process, thus solving the problem of transitory URIs in location-based URI schemes like HTTP.  Thus, a user of a PURL always uses the same Web address, even though the resource in question may have moved.  Note, an expansion of PURL that is sometimes found is "permanent uniform resource locator" however that is incorrect as it does not capture the key concept of <em>persistence</em>.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -450,6 +423,11 @@
 </section> 
 
 <section>
+<h4>R2RML</h4>
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/">R2RML</a> (RDB to RDF Mapping Language) is a language for expressing customized mappings from relational databases to RDF datasets. Such mappings provide the ability to view existing relational data in the RDF data model, expressed in a structure and target vocabulary of the mapping author's choice.
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Raw Data</h4>
 Raw data refers to machine-readable files from the wilderness released without any specific effort to make them applicable to a particular application. The advantage of "raw" data is that it can be reused in multiple applications created by multiple communities; but this requires some means of processing it. 
 </section>
@@ -620,7 +598,7 @@
 
 <section >
 <h4>Uniform Resource Identifier</h4>
-<p>A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a global identifier that uniquely identifies an abstract or physical resource.  URIs were standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  URI’s provide a simple and extensible means for identifying a resource.  URIs play a key role in enabling Linked Data. URIs can be used to uniquely identify virtually anything including a physical building or more abstract concepts like the color red. If you would like to see the URI for the color red for example, the DBpedia project has modified URLs from the Wikipedia entry to create http://dbpedia.org/page/red.  URIs can also be used to refer to other data representatations such as a row in a CSV file or a specific table in a relational database. 
+<p>A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a global identifier that uniquely identifies an abstract or physical resource.  URIs were standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  URI’s provide a simple and extensible means for identifying a resource.  URIs play a key role in enabling Linked Data. URIs can be used to uniquely identify virtually anything including a physical building or more abstract concepts like the color red. If you would like to see the URI for the color red for example, the DBpedia project has modified URLs from the Wikipedia entry to create <a href="http://dbpedia.org/page/red">http://dbpedia.org/page/red</a>.  URIs can also be used to refer to other data representatations such as a row in a CSV file or a specific table in a relational database. 
 </p>
 </p>
 As Linked Data builds directly on Web architecture, the term "resource" is used to refer to things of interest that are identified by HTTP URIs.  An HTTP URI may or may not be resolvable on the Web.  URIs have been known by many names: Web addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Identifier.  If you are interested in the history of the many names, read Tim Berners-Lee's design document <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Architecture.html">Web Architecture from 50,000 feet</a>. For definitive information on Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), see "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax," [[!RFC3986]]
--- a/glossary/respec-ref.js	Tue Mar 19 14:03:27 2013 -0400
+++ b/glossary/respec-ref.js	Tue Mar 19 17:25:08 2013 -0400
@@ -6,7 +6,8 @@
                 berjon.biblio["MICRODATA"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/\">Microdata</a></cite> Ian Hickson; et al. 04 March 2010. W3C Working Draft. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/microdata/ ";
                 berjon.biblio["XHTML-RDFA"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa/\">XHTML+RDFa</a></cite> Manu Sporny; et al. 31 March 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa/ ";
                 berjon.biblio["HTML-RDFA"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://dev.w3.org/html5/rdfa/\">HTML+RDFa</a></cite> Manu Sporny; et al. 24 May 2011. W3C Working Draft. URL: http://dev.w3.org/html5/rdfa/ ";
-                berjon.biblio["HOWTO-LODP"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://linkeddata.org/docs/how-to-publish\">How to Publish Linked Data on the Web</a></cite>, C. Bizer, R. Cyganiak, and Tom Heath, Community Tutorial 17 July 2008. URL: <a href=\"http://linkeddata.org/docs/how-to-publish\">http://linkeddata.org/docs/how-to-publish</a>";
+                berjon.biblio["LD-FOR-DEVELOPERS"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://manning.com/dwood/\">Linked Data: Structured Data on the Web.</a> David Wood, Marsh Zaidman, Luke Ruth, with Michael Hausenblas</cite>; 2013 URL: <a href=\"http://www.manning.com/dwood\">http://www.manning.com/dwood/</a>";
+                berjon.biblio["HOWTO-LODP"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/\">Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space.</a> 2011, Chris Bizer, Tom Health URL: <a href=\"http://linkeddata.org/docs/how-to-publish\">http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/</a>";
                 berjon.biblio["COOL-SWURIS"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/\">Cool URIs for the Semantic Web</a></cite>, L. Sauermann and R. Cyganiak, W3C Interest Group Note 03 December 2008. URL: <a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/\">http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/</a>";
                 berjon.biblio["VOID-GUIDE"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/void/\">Describing Linked Datasets with the VoID Vocabulary</a></cite>, K. Alexander, R. Cyganiak, M. Hausenblas, and J. Zhao, W3C Interest Group Note 03 March 2011. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/void/";
                 berjon.biblio["RDFA-CORE-PROFILE"] = "<cite><a href=\"http://www.w3.org/profile/rdfa-1.1\">RDFa Core Default Profile</a></cite>, I. Herman, W3C RDF Web Applications Working Group 02 June 2011. URL: http://www.w3.org/profile/rdfa-1.1";