Lots of glossary updates, added links, prepared for review as FPWD to authors of LD references
authorbhyland
Thu, 14 Mar 2013 22:07:26 -0400
changeset 412 3c7ba7ccbe16
parent 411 8f23bb651635
child 413 62a3b5f8f96d
Lots of glossary updates, added links, prepared for review as FPWD to authors of LD references
bp/index.html
glossary/index.html
--- a/bp/index.html	Thu Mar 14 10:02:26 2013 -0400
+++ b/bp/index.html	Thu Mar 14 22:07:26 2013 -0400
@@ -803,7 +803,7 @@
 <h2>Acknowledgments</h2>
  This document has been produced by the Government Linked Data Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. 
 <p>
-The editors gratefully acknowledge the many contributors to this Best Practices document including: John Erickson (<a href="http://logd.tw.rpi.edu/">(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)</a>, David Wood <a href="http://3roundstones.com">(3 Round Stones)</a>, Bernard Vatant <a href="http://data.semanticweb.org/person/bernard-vatant/">(Semantic Web - Modeca)</a>, Michael Pendleton <a href="http://www.epa.gov/">(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)</a>, Biplav Srivastava <a href="http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_person_subpage.php?id=3088">(IBM India)</a>, Daniel Vila <a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net">(Ontology Engineering Group)</a>, Martín Álvarez Espinar <a href="http://www.fundacionctic.org/">(CTIC-Centro Tecnológico)</a>, and Hadley Beeman <a href="http://linkedgov.org">(UK LinkedGov)</a>.
+The editors gratefully acknowledge the many contributors to this Best Practices document including: <a href="http://mhausenblas.info/#i">Michael Hausenblas</a> (<a href="http://www.mapr.com/>MapR</a>), <a href="http://logd.tw.rpi.edu/person/john_erickson">John Erickson</a> (<a href="http://logd.tw.rpi.edu/">(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)</a>, <a href="http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/david-wood/">David Wood</a> (3 Round Stones), Bernard Vatant <a href="http://data.semanticweb.org/person/bernard-vatant/">(Semantic Web - Modeca)</a>, Michael Pendleton <a href="http://www.epa.gov/">(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)</a>, Biplav Srivastava <a href="http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_person_subpage.php?id=3088">(IBM India)</a>, Daniel Vila <a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net">(Ontology Engineering Group)</a>, Martín Álvarez Espinar <a href="http://www.fundacionctic.org/">(CTIC-Centro Tecnológico)</a>, and Hadley Beeman <a href="http://linkedgov.org">(UK LinkedGov)</a>.
 
 </p>
 </section>
--- a/glossary/index.html	Thu Mar 14 10:02:26 2013 -0400
+++ b/glossary/index.html	Thu Mar 14 22:07:26 2013 -0400
@@ -16,10 +16,9 @@
 </head>
 <body>
 
-
 <section id="abstract">
 
-<p> This document is a glossary of terms defined and used in the <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/raw-file/default/bp/index.html">Best Practices for Publishing Linked Data</a> document published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter">W3C Government Linked Data Working Group</a>. This glossary is intended for publishers new to publishing data using a Linked Data approach, as well as seasoned information professionals publishing to the Web of Data.  A Linked Data approach involves explicitly defining relationships between data elements.  Linked Data depends on the use of shared or common vocabularies that describe concepts and relationships (also referred to as "terms") to describe and represent a given topic.
+<p> This document is a glossary of terms defined and used to describe Linked Data, and its associated vocabularies and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/raw-file/default/bp/index.html">Best Practices</a>.  This document published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter">W3C Government Linked Data Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note, is intended to help information management professionals, Web developers, scientists and the general public better understand publishing structured data using <a href="#linked-data-principles">Linked Data Principles</a>.
 </section>
 
 <section id="sotd">
@@ -28,22 +27,42 @@
 <section class="introductory">
 <h2>Scope</h2>
 <p>
-This glossary lists terms related to Linked Data.  Linked Open Data is a set of techniques for the publication of structured data on the public Web using standard formats and interfaces.  Linked Open Data also refers to data that conforms to those techniques.  Linked Data is comprised of data described using HTTP URIs (uniform resource identifiers which are the foundation of the Web.  Developers can query Linked Data from multiple sources at once and combine data dynamically on the Web.</p>
+This glossary lists terms related to publishing and consuming either Linked Data in the enterprise or Linked Open Data on the public Web.</p>
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>5 Star Linked Data</h4>
[email protected]@TODO
+Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and initiator of the <a href="linked-data-project">Linked Data project</a>, suggested a 5 star deployment scheme for Linked Data.  The 5 Star Linked Data system is cumulative.  Each additional star presumes the data meets the criteria of the previous step(s).  
+
+<p class="highlight">&#9734;&nbsp;<b>Data is available on the Web, in whatever format.</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">&#9734;&#9734;&nbsp;<b>Available as machine-readable structured data, (i.e., not a scanned image).</b>
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&nbsp;<b>Available in a non-proprietary format, (i.e, CSV, not Microsoft Excel).</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&nbsp;<b>Published using open standards from the W3C (RDF and SPARQL).</b>	
+</p>
+
+<p class="highlight">&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&#9734;&nbsp;<b>All of the above and links to other Linked Open Data.</b>
+</p>
+<p>
+The Linked Data mug can be read with both green labels for <a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a>, or neither label for <a href="#linked-data">Linked Data</a>.  Proceeds of the <a href="http://www.cafepress.com/w3c_shop">Linked Open Data mug</a> benefit the W3C.
+    <img alt="Get a 5* mug" border="none" src="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/diagrams/lod/597992118v2_350x350_Back.jpg" align="right"/>
+</a>
+</p>
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>ABox</h4>
-Assertion Box (ABox) is one of two types of statements in an ontology (the other being <a href="#tbox">TBox</a>). ABox statements cover instantiation and description of individuals (i.e. instances), e.g. John is a Person.
+<h4>5 Star Linked Data Diagram</h4>
+<a href="http://5stardata.info/" target="_blank">5 Open Data diagram</a> is a graphical representation of each of the 5 Star techniques as described by Tim Berners-Lee.
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Apache License</h4>
-<a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html"> Apache License, version 2.0</a> is used for many Linked Data tools and projects. It is a popular Open Source license published by the Apache Software Foundation.  
+<a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html" target="_blank"> Apache License, version 2.0</a> is used for many Linked Data tools and projects. It is a popular Open Source license published by the Apache Software Foundation.  
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -51,20 +70,29 @@
 An Application Programming Interface (API) is an abstraction implemented in software that defines how others should make use of a software package such as a library or other reusable program.  APIs are used to provide developers access to data and functionality from a given system.
 </section>
 
+<section>
+<h4>Authoritative Open Data</h4>
+Government agencies or authorities are often in a unique position and able to collect data that no other entity can. Open government data is nearly always collected at tax-payers expense and is viewed by the public and government, as valuable if made available with proper context and an open license. Linked Data is seen by many to be a useful approach to publish and consume authoritative open data.  Authoritative open data that conforms to <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/gld/raw-file/default/bp/index.html" target="_blank">Best Practices for Publishing Linked Data</a> may enjoy a greater chance of being discovered and re-used by others.
+</section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Blank Nodes</h4>
-Blank nodes in the context of RDF are nodes that have no <a href=#uri">URI</a> and thus cannot be referenced globally. They are used to stand in for anonymous entities. 
-</section >
+<h4>Creative Commons Licenses</h4>
+Creative Commons copyright licenses and tools aim to forge a balance inside the traditional “all rights reserved” setting that copyright law creates. Creative Commons licenses and tools provide a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. The combination of our tools and our users is a vast and growing digital commons, a pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law. See also <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/" taget="blank">About Creative Commons Licenses</a>.
+</section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>CC-BY-SA License</h4>
-CC-BY-SA is a form of license for resources released online. Work available under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" taget="blank">CC-BY-SA license</a> means you can include it in any other work under the condition that you give proper attribution. If you create derivative works (such as modified or extended versions), then you must also license them as CC-BY-SA. 
+CC-BY-SA is a form of Creative Commons license for resources released online. Work available under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" taget="blank">CC-BY-SA license</a> means you can include it in any other work under the condition that you give proper attribution. If you create derivative works (such as modified or extended versions), then you must also license them as CC-BY-SA. 
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>CKAN</h4>
+<a href="http://datahub.io/" target="_blank">CKAN</a> is a widely used data cataloging site written and maintained by the   <a href="http://okfn.org/" target="_blank"> Open Knowledge Foundation</a>.  The Linking Open Data community collects metadata about Linked Data registered on CKAN.
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Closed World</h4>
-Closed world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external work. In a closed world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true must be false. This is a common assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming, OWL DL and OWL Lite. See also [<a href="#open-world">Open World</a>].
+Closed world is a concept from Artificial Intelligence and refers to a model of uncertainty that an agent assumes about the external work. In a closed world, the agent presumes that what is not known to be true must be false. This is a common assumption underlying relational databases, most forms of logical programming. See also [<a href="#open-world">Open World</a>].
 </section>
 
 <section >
@@ -73,8 +101,13 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
+<h4>Conneg</h4>
+Abbreviated term for content negotiation. See also [<a href="#content-negotiation">Content Negotiation</a>].
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Content Negotiation</h4>
-Content negotiation refers to a phase in establishing a network connection. It is a mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses). For details, see <a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#content.negotiation" target="blank">RFC 2616b</a>. Also see [<a href="#connection">Connection</a>]. 
+Content negotiation, often called "conneg", refers to a phase in establishing a network connection. It is a mechanism for selecting the appropriate representation when servicing a request. The representation of entities in any response can be negotiated (including error responses). See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#content.negotiation" target="blank">RFC 2616b</a>]. See also [<a href="#connection">Connection</a>]. 
 </section>
 
 <section >
@@ -84,42 +117,48 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Converter</h4>
-Converter refers to a tool or script that converts data from one form to another, e.g., spreadsheet into <a href="#rdf">Resource Description Framework (RDF)</a>. Publishing good quality, useful RDF requires expression of the relationships using Linked Data modeling subject matter expertise. Thus, modeling about the relationships implicit in the source data must be performed before the data is converted using the RDF model for Linked Data. 
+Converter refers to a tool or script that converts data from one form to another, e.g., CSV into <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>. Publishing good quality, useful Linked Data requires expression of resources and how they are related. Linked Data modelers work with subject domain experts to make explicit the relationships between resources before converting a data set to RDF. 
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>CSV</h4>
-A CSV (comma separated values) file is a plain text file usually generated from a spreadsheet or database dump.  Each line or record contains fields separated by a comma.  CSV files may or may not contain column header names that may provide some information about the data.  From a Linked Data perspective, CSV files are considered "3 star" on the data scale 
+A CSV (comma separated value) file is a plain text file usually generated from a spreadsheet or database dump.  Each line or record contains fields separated by a comma.  CSV files may or may not contain column header names that may provide some information about the data.  From a Linked Data perspective, CSV files are considered 3-star data on the 5-star scale.
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>curl</h4>
+A command line client for retrieving machine readable content.  To see exactly how human and machine readable content works, try this exercise. Wikipedia has an interesting page about the color <a href="http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red" target="_blank">Red</a>.  DBpedia allows you to get the structured content listed on the Wikipedia page for "Red" [http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Red] by changing "wiki" to "data" and appending the appropriate file extension.  
+<pre>$ curl -L http://dbpedia.org/data/Red.ttl</pre>
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>D2RQ</h4>
-The term D2RQ may be used to describe a mapping language definition or an Open Source platform project. See [<a href="#d2rq-platform">D2RQ Platform</a>]  
+The term D2RQ may be used to describe a mapping language definition or an Open Source platform project. See also [<a href="#d2rq-platform">D2RQ Platform</a>]  
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>D2RQ Platform</h4>
-<a href="http://d2rq.org/">D2RQ platform</a> refers to a system for accessing relational databases as virtual, read-only RDF graphs. It offers RDF-based access to the content of relational databases without having to replicate it into an RDF store. The D2RQ Platform allows one to query a non-RDF database using SPARQL, access the content of the database as Linked Data over the Web, create custom dumps in RDF formats for loading into an RDF triplestore, and access information in a non-RDF database using the Apache Jena API. See the D2RQ Open Source Project and also the <a href="#d2rq-mapping-language-description">D2RQ Mapping Language description</a>. 
+Refers to a system for accessing relational databases as virtual, read-only RDF graphs. The <a href="http://d2rq.org/" target="_blank">D2RQ platform</a> offers RDF-based access to the content of relational databases without having to replicate it into an RDF store. The D2RQ Platform allows one to query a non-RDF database using SPARQL, access the content of the database as Linked Data over the Web, create custom dumps in RDF formats for loading into an RDF triplestore, and access information in a non-RDF database using the Apache Jena API. See the D2RQ Open Source Project and also the <a href="#d2rq-mapping-language-description">D2RQ Mapping Language description</a>. 
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>D2RQ Mapping Language</h4>
-D2RQ mapping language refers to a declarative language for mapping relational database schemas to RDF vocabularies and OWL ontologies. The language is implemented in the D2RQ Platform. Also see [<a href="#d2rq-platform">D2RQ Platform</a>]. 
+D2RQ mapping language refers to a declarative language for mapping relational database schemas to RDF vocabularies and OWL ontologies. The language is implemented in the D2RQ Platform. See also [<a href="#d2rq-platform">D2RQ Platform</a>]. 
 </section>
 
 <section >
 <h4>Database to RDF Queueing</h4>
-Database to RDF queueing refers to a mechanism to query information in traditional management systems such as relational databases via the SPARQL query language. An example, see [<a href="#d2rq">D2RQ</a>]. 
+Database to RDF queueing refers to a mechanism to query information in traditional management systems such as relational databases via the SPARQL query language. See also [<a href="#d2rq">D2RQ</a>]. 
 </section >
 
 <section >
 <h4>Data Cloud</h4>
-Data cloud, also called <a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/">Linked Data Cloud</a>, is visual representation of datasets published in Linked Data format using metadata generated by a given directory (e.g., CKAN) where the datasets are organized by domain, with outgoing links to external datasets. 
+Data cloud, also called the <a href="http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/" target="_blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>, is a visual representation of datasets published as Linked Data.  Using metadata generated by directoies, including CKAN, the project records datasets by domain.  The Linked Data Cloud has doubled in size every 10 months since 2007 and as of late 2012 consists of more than 300 data sets from various domains, including geography, media, government and life sciences, according the [<a href="http://lod-cloud.net/state/">State of the LOD Cloud</a>, website and visualizations maintained by C. Bizer, A. Jentzsch, R. Cyganiak.  The original data owners/stewards publish one third of the data contained in the Linked Open Data Cloud, while third parties publish 67%.  Many academic institutions republish data from their respective governments as Linked Data, often enhancing the representation in the process.
 </section >
 
 <section >
 <h4>Data Hub</h4>
-The <a href="http://thedatahub.org/">Data Hub</a> is a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet, powered using an open-source data cataloguing software called <a href="http://ckan.org/">CKAN</a>. It is an openly editable open data catalogue, in the style of Wikipedia.
+The <a href="http://thedatahub.org/" target="_blank">Data Hub</a> is a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet, powered using an open-source data cataloguing software called <a href="http://ckan.org/" target="_blank">CKAN</a>. It is an openly editable open data catalogue, in the style of Wikipedia.
 </section >
 
 <section>
@@ -134,17 +173,18 @@
 
 <section >
 <h4>DBpedia</h4>
-DBpedia is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and make it available on the Web. An RDF representation of the metadata derived from Wikipedia is made available for SPARQL queries and linking to other datasets on the Web.
+DBpedia is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and make it available on the Web. DBpedia is often depicted as a hub for the <a href="#data-cloud">Data Cloud</a>.  An RDF representation of the metadata derived from Wikipedia is made available for SPARQL queries and linking to other datasets on the Web.  DBpedia also provides a human readable version of the structured content.  For example, the human readable version of Linked Data for the color "Red" is found on DBpedia at http://dbpedia.org/page/Red.  See also [<a href="#curl">curl</a>].
+
 </section >
 
 <section>
-<h4>Dereferencing a URI</h4>  
-Dereferencing a URI refers to the act of retrieving a representation of a resource or the semantic description of a resource created by the <a href="#uri">URI</a> owner. A URI is successfully dereferenced when an agent successfully retrieves the representation of the resource or receives the semantic description of a resource via the protocol specified within the URI. 
+<h4>Dereferenceable URIs</h4>
+When an HTTP client can look up a <a href="#uri">URI</a> using the HTTP protocol and retrieve a description of the resource, it is called a  dereferenceable URI.  Per Linked Data Principles, we identify things using HTTP URIs and provide information about them when an HTTP URI is resolved or dereferenced.  Dereferenceable URIs applies to URIs that are used to identify classic HTML documents and URIs that are used in the Linked Data context [[COOL-SWURIS]] to identify real-world objects and abstract concepts.
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Description Logics (DLs)</h4>
-Description Logics are a family of knowledge representation formalisms with varying and adjustable expressivity. Two variants of the Web Ontology Language (OWL), specifically OWL Lite and OWL DL are based on DLs.
+<h4>Description Logic</h4>
+Description Logic (DL) is a family of knowledge representation languages with varying and adjustable expressivity.  DL is used in artificial intelligence for formal reasoning on the concepts of an application domain.  Two variants of the Web Ontology Language (OWL), specifically OWL Lite and OWL DL are based on Description Logic.  Biomedical informatics applications often use DL for codification of healthcare and life sciences knowledge.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -154,12 +194,12 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>DCAT</h4>
-Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) is an RDF vocabulary. It is designed to facilitate interoperability between data catalogs published on the Web. See <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/">Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT)</a> documentation for details.
+Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) is an RDF vocabulary. It is designed to facilitate interoperability between data catalogs published on the Web. See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/" target="_blank">Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT)</a>].
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Directed Graph</h4>
-A directed graph is a graph in which the links between nodes are directional, i.e., they only go from one node to another. RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph. In <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, the links are differentiated by being assigned <a href="#uri">URIs</a>. 
+A directed graph is a graph in which the links between nodes are directional, i.e., they only go from one node to another. RDF represents things (nouns) and the relationships between them (verbs) in a directed graph. In <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, links are differentiated by being assigned unique<a href="#uri">URIs</a>. 
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -174,7 +214,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Dublin Core Element Set</h4>
- Dublin Core Element Set refers to a <a href="#vocabulary">vocabulary</a> of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (creator, publisher, etc).  The Dublin Core Element Set is the most commonly used vocabulary for Linked Data applications. For details, see <a href="See http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/"> Dublin Core Element Set, Version 1.1 Specification.</a>
+ Dublin Core Element Set refers to a <a href="#vocabulary">vocabulary</a> of fifteen properties for use in resource descriptions, such as may be found in a library card catalog (creator, publisher, etc).  The Dublin Core Element Set is the most commonly used vocabulary for Linked Data applications. See also [<a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/"> Dublin Core Element Set, Version 1.1 Specification.</a>]
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -189,7 +229,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>ETL</h4>
-ETL is an abbreviation for extact, transform, load.  Used in the Linked Data context to mean pull data from a database (often a relational database), transform to a Linked Data serialization, and load it into an RDF database.
+ETL is an abbreviation for extact, transform, load.  Linked Data modelers and developers extract data from a relational database, transform to a Linked Data serialization, and then load it into an RDF database.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -213,8 +253,13 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)</h4> 
-HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the standard transmission protocol [[!RFC2616]] used on the World Wide Web to transfer hypertext requests and information between Web servers and Web clients (such as browsers). It is an IETF standard.
+<h4>HyperText Transfer Protocol</h4> 
+HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the standard transmission protocol [[!RFC2616]] used on the World Wide Web to transfer hypertext requests and information between Web servers and Web clients (such as browsers). It is an IETF standard.  
+</section>
+
+<section>
+</h4>HTTP URIs</h4>
+See <a href="uniform-resource-identifiers">Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI)</a>.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -249,38 +294,39 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Linked Data</h4>
-Linked data refers to a set of <a href="http://linkeddata.org/">best practices</a> for publishing and interlinking structured data for access by both humans and machines via the use of the RDF family of syntaxes (e.g., RDF/XML, N3, Turtle and N-Triples) and HTTP URIs. Linked Data and RDF are <b>not</b> the same thing.  RDF provides a common model for for Linked Data and is well suited for the representation of data on the Web.  Linked Data can be published by an person or organization behind the firewall or on the public Web.  If Linked Data is published on the public Web, it is generally called <em><a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a></em>.
+Linked data refers to a set of best practices for creating, publishing and announcing structured data on the Web.  Linked Data is intended for access by both humans and machines.  Linked Data is <b>not</b> the same as <a href="rdf">RDF</a>, rather Linked Data uses the RDF family of standards (e.g., RDF/XML, N3, Turtle and N-Triples) to represent and query data. Linked Data can be published by an person or organization behind the firewall or on the public Web.  If Linked Data is published on the public Web, it is generally called <em><a href="#linked-open-data">Linked Open Data</a></em>.  
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Linked Data client</h4>
-A client side application that consumes Linked Data using standard Web techniques.  A Linked Data Client may resolve URI's to retrieve Linked Data serializations, using appropriate content negotiation, and understands how to make use of those representations once it receives them.  A Linked Data client understands standard REST API, for example the Linked Data REST API.  There are many examples of Linked Data clients, several include: Tim Berners-Lee's early <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/ajar/tab.html"> Tabulator browser</a>, <a href="http://www.visualdataweb.org/gfacet.php"> gFacet</a>, and the <a href="http://callimachusproject.org/docs/1.0/articles/callimachus-shell.docbook?view">Callimachus Shell (CaSH)</a>.
+<h4>Linked Data Client</h4>
+A client side application that consumes Linked Data using standard Web techniques.  A Linked Data Client may resolve URI's to retrieve Linked Data serializations, using appropriate content negotiation, and understands how to make use of those representations once it receives them.  A Linked Data client understands standard REST API, for example the Linked Data REST API.  There are many examples of Linked Data clients, several include: Tim Berners-Lee's early <a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/ajar/tab.html"> Tabulator browser</a>, <a href="http://www.visualdataweb.org/gfacet.php" target="_blank"> gFacet</a>, and the <a href="http://callimachusproject.org" target="_blank">Callimachus Shell (CaSH)</a>.
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Linked Data Principles</h4>
-Linked Data uses the Resource Description Framework (RDF) family of standards to represent and query data.  Linked Data is built on RDF but is not the same as RDF. Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and the <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html"> Linked Data</a> project, proposed these rules. Linked Data is based on the following principles:
+Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web and initiator of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html" target="_blank"> Linked Data</a> project, proposed the following principles upon which Linked Data is based:
 <ol>
-<li>Use HTTP URIs as names for things;</li> 
-<li>Use HTTP URIs so people can look up those names;</li>
-<li>When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the open Web standards, i.e., RDF, SPARQL;</li>
-<li>Include links to other URIs, so that people can discover more things.</li>
+<li>Use URIs to name things;</li> 
+<li>Use HTTP URIs so that things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents;</li>
+<li>When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the open Web standards such as RDF, SPARQL;</li>
+<li>Include links to other related things using their URIs when publishing on the Web.</li>
 </ol>
+Linked Data Principles provide a common <a href="#api">API</a> for data on the Web which is more convenient than many separately and differently designed APIs published by individual data suppliers.
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Linked Open Data (LOD)</h4>
-Linked Open Data refers to Linked Data published on the public Web .  Publishing Linked Open Data [[HOWTO-LODP]] enables distributed <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries of the data sets and a "browsing" or "discovery" approach to finding information, as compared to a search strategy.
+<h4>Linked Open Data</h4>
+Linked Open Data refers to Linked Data published on the public Web.  Abbreviated often as "LOD".  Publishing Linked Open Data [[HOWTO-LODP]] enables distributed <a href="#sparql">SPARQL</a> queries of the data sets and a "browsing" or "discovery" approach to finding information, as compared to a search strategy.
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Linked Open Data Cloud</h4>
-The Linked Data Cloud represents datasets that have been published as Linked Data on the public Web.
+The Linked Data Cloud represents datasets that have been published as Linked Data on the public Web.  See also: <a href="#data-cloud">Data Cloud</a>, <a href="#linked-open-data-cloud-diagram">Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</a>
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4> Linked Open Data Cloud diagram</h4>
-Refers to the pictoral depiction of the <a href=" http://lod-cloud.net/" target="blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>.  There are various depictions of the Linked Open Data Cloud including color-by-theme describing the various data domains including government, geographic, publications, life sciences and media content [[LD-CLOUD]].  
+Refers to the pictoral depiction of the <a href=" http://lod-cloud.net/" target="blank">Linked Data Cloud</a>.  There are various depictions of the Linked Open Data Cloud including color-by-theme describing the various data domains including government, geographic, publications, life sciences and media content.  
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -288,10 +334,13 @@
 Linking government data refers to the use of tools and techniques of the Semantic Web to connect, expose and use data from government systems. 
 </section>
 
+<section>Linking Open Data Project</h4>
+The Linking Open Data project is a community activity started in 2007 by the W3C's <a href="http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData" target="_blank">Semantic Web Education and Outreach (SWEO) Interest Group</a>.  The project's stated goal is to "make data freely available to everyone".
+</section>
+
 <section>
-<h4>Machine-Readable Cataloging system</h4> 
-Machine-Readable Cataloging system is a family of formats for the representation of bibliographic information in libraries (ISO 2709, ANSI/NISO Z39.2).
-</section>
+<h4>Machine Readable Data</h4> 
+Machine readable gets 2-stars on the <a href="#5-star-linked-data">5-star Linked Data scale</a>. Many open data developers routinely use screen-scrapping techniques to parse machine readable content.  Publishing and consuming 4-star and 5-star Linked Data is preferable in terms of access and re-use.  Anything less gives Web developers more work modeling and transforming data.  By creating and publishing 5-star Linked Data, you are increasing the ability of search engines, and thus humans, to find, access and re-use information.</section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Message</h4> 
@@ -324,8 +373,13 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
+<h4>Object</h4>
+In the context of <a href="#rdf">RDF</a>, the object is the third part of an RDF statement.  It is the property value that is mapped to a subject by the predicate. See also [<a href="#subject">Subject</a>] [<a href="#predicate">Predicate</a>]
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4 >Ontology</h4>
-Ontology is a formal representation of relationships between items or concepts in a directed graph structure. Resource Description Format (RDF/XML) and Web Ontology Language (OWL) are popular markup languages for ontologies. See also <a href="#taxonomy">taxonomy</a>.
+Ontology is a formal representation of relationships between items or concepts in a directed graph structure.  An ontology defines the <a href="#predicate">predicates</a> themselves, but also defines the data type of each predicate and the relationship, if any, of one predicate to another.  RDF/XML and Web Ontology Language (OWL) are popular markup languages for ontologies. See also [<a href="#taxonomy">taxonomy</a>].
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -346,12 +400,12 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>ORG Ontology</h4>
-ORG is an RDF vocabulary to enable publication of information about organizations and organizational structures, even at governmental level. The documentation is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/</a>
+ORG is an RDF vocabulary to enable publication of information about organizations and organizational structures, even at governmental level. See also [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/">http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-org/</a>]
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Predicate</h4>
-Predicate refers to a piece of knowledge expressed formally in AI. Inspired from work in predicate calculus, (also called predicate logic, first order logic), the predicate of a sentence can be thought of as the verb. In the context of RDF, a predicate modifies the <a href="#subject">Subject</a> of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> Statement. 
+The predicate is the second part of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> statement and defines the property for the subject of the statement. In the context of RDF, a predicate modifies the <a href="#subject">Subject</a> of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> Statement.  Predicate refers to a piece of knowledge expressed formally in the field of AI. Inspired from work in predicate calculus, (also called predicate logic, first order logic), the predicate of a sentence can be thought of as the verb.  
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -385,19 +439,28 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
+<h4>RDF</h4>
+See <a href="#resource-description-framework">Resource Description Framework</a>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>RDFa</h4>
+See <a href="#resource-description-framework-attributes">Resource Description Framework Attributes</a>
+</section>
+
+<section>
 <h4>Resource</h4>
 A resource is anything that can be addressed by a <a href="#uniform-resource-identifiers">Unified Resource Identifier (URI)</a>.
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>RDF</h4>
-Resource Description Framework (RDF), is a general-purpose language for representing information in the Web. RDF is not a data format, rather a model for expressing relationships between arbitrary data elements that may be represented in a variety of standard formats.  RDF is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers or HTTP URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers), and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values. This enables RDF to represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values [[!RDF-Primer]].
+<h4>Resource Description Framework</h4>
+Resource Description Framework (RDF), is a general-purpose language for representing information in the Web.  RDF provides a common model for Linked Data and is well suited for the representation of data on the Web.  RDF is <b>not</b> a data format, rather a model for expressing relationships between arbitrary data elements that may be represented in a variety of standard formats.  RDF is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers or <a href="#uris>HTTP URIs</a>, and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values. A single RDF statement describes two things and a relationship between them. This enables RDF to represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values.  Linked Data developers call the three elements in an RDF statement the <em>subject</em>, the <em>predicate</em> and the <em>object</em>. See also [<h ref="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/">Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax</a>
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa)</h4>
-RDFa [[!RDFa-PRIMER]] is a way that allows embedding rich structured data like RDF directly in a web page.
-</section>
+<h4>Resource Description Framework in Attributes</h4>
+Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa) is a key enabling technology to add structured data to HTML pages directly. RDFa is a technique that provides a set of markup attributes to augment the visual information on the Web with machine-readable hints.  [[!RDFa-PRIMER]]</section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>RDF Database</h4>
@@ -406,17 +469,17 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>RDF-JSON</h4>
-A concrete syntax in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) ([[RFC4627]]) for RDF as defined in the RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax ([[!RDF-CONCEPTS]]) W3C Recommendation.  An RDF-JSON document serializes such a set of RDF triples as a series of nested data structures.  <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-json/index.html"> RDF 1.1  JSON Serialization W3C Recommendation</a>
+A concrete syntax in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) ([[RFC4627]]) for RDF as defined in the RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax ([[!RDF-CONCEPTS]]) W3C Recommendation.  An RDF-JSON document serializes such a set of RDF triples as a series of nested data structures.  See also [<a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-json/index.html"> RDF 1.1  JSON Serialization W3C Recommendation</a>]
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>RDFS</h4>
-RDFS [[!RDFS]] is the schema language for RDF; it describes constructs for types of objects (Classes), relating types to one another (subClasses), properties that describe objects (Properties), and relationships between them (subProperty).  
+<h4>RDF Schema</h4>
+RDF Schema (RDFS) [[!RDFS]] is the schema language for RDF; it describes constructs for types of objects (Classes), relating types to one another (subClasses), properties that describe objects (Properties), and relationships between them (subProperty).  
 </section>
 
 <section>
 <h4>Request</h4>
-A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use.  See details from RFC 2616bis for a <a ref="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#request" target="blank">HTTP Request</a>.
+A request message from a client to a server includes, within the first line of that message, the method to be applied to the resource, the identifier of the resource, and the protocol version in use.  See also RFC 2616bis for an<a ref="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#request" target="blank">HTTP Request</a>.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -424,13 +487,11 @@
 A network data object or service that can be identified by an HTTP URI. Resources may be available in multiple representations (e.g. multiple languages, data formats, size, and resolutions) or vary in other ways.  See details from RFC 2616bis for details on <a ref="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#uri.303" target="blank">Uniform Resource Identifiers</a>.
 </section>
 
-<!--
 <section>
 <h4>Response</h4>
 After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message.  See details from [[RFC2616]] bis for an <a ref="http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/1.1/rfc2616bis/draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03.html#response" target="blank">HTTP Response</a> message.
 </section>
 
--->
 <section>
 <h4>REST</h4>
 REST (Representational State Transfer) is a style of software architecture for distributed systems that describes six constraints: uniform interface, stateless, cacheable, client-server, layered system, and code on demand (optional).  REST is the foundation of the World Wide Web and the dominant Web service design model.
@@ -452,8 +513,8 @@
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4> Semantic Web</h4>
- An evolution or part of the World Wide Web that consists of machine-readable data in RDF and an ability to query that information in standard ways (e.g. via SPARQL)
+<h4>Semantic Web</h4>
+An evolution or part of the World Wide Web that consists of machine-readable data in RDF and an ability to query that information in standard ways (e.g. via SPARQL)
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -478,7 +539,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Sesame</h4> 
-Sesame is an Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework. It supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. It is available <a href="http://www.openrdf.org">online</a>. 
+Sesame is an Open Source Software implementation of a Semantic Web development framework. It supports the storage, retrieval and analysis of RDF information. See also [<a href="http://www.openrdf.org">Open RDF</a>]. 
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -508,17 +569,12 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Subject</h4>
-A subject in the context of a <a href="#triple">triple</a> <?s ?p ?o> refers to who or what the RDF statement is about.
+The subject is the first part of an <a href="#rdf">RDF</a> statement.  A subject in the context of a <a href="#triple">triple</a> &lt;?s ?p ?o&gt; refers to who or what the RDF statement is about.
 </section>
 
 <section >
 <h4>Taxonomy</h4>
- Taxonomy is a formal representation of relationships between items in a hierarchical structure. Also see <a href="#ontology">Ontology</a>.
-</section >
-
-<section >
-<h4 >Tbox</h4>
-One of two types of statements in an ontology (the other being <a href="#abox">Abox</a>).  Tbox statements describe a knowledge system in terms of controlled vocabularies (or "terminology", hence the "T"), e.g. <em>A Person is a Mammal</em>.
+ Taxonomy is a formal representation of relationships between items in a hierarchical structure. Also see [<a href="#ontology">Ontology</a>].
 </section >
 
 <section >
@@ -547,31 +603,33 @@
 </section >
 
 <section >
-<h4>Uniform Resource Indicator</h4>
- Uniform resource indicator is a global identifier for the Web standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF. A URI may or may not be resolvable on the Web. Also see <a href="#uniform-resource-locator">URL</a>.
+<h4>Uniform Resource Identifier</h4>
+<p>A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a global identifier that uniquely identifies an abstract or physical resource.  URIs were standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF.  URI’s provide a simple and extensible means for identifying a resource.  URIs play a key role in enabling Linked Data. URIs can be used to uniquely identify virtually anything including a physical building or more abstract concepts like the color red. If you would like to see the URI for the color red for example, the DBpedia project has modified URLs from the Wikipedia entry to create http://dbpedia.org/page/red.  URIs can also be used to refer to other data representatations such as a row in a CSV file or a specific table in a relational database. 
+</p>
+</p>
+As Linked Data builds directly on Web architecture, the term "resource" is used to refer to things of interest that are identified by HTTP URIs.  An HTTP URI may or may not be resolvable on the Web.  URIs have been known by many names: Web addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Identifier.  If you are interested in the history of the many names, read Tim Berners-Lee's design document <a href="http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Architecture.html">Web Architecture from 50,000 feet</a>. For definitive information on Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), see "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax," [[!RFC3986]]
+</p>
 </section >
 
 <section>
-<h4>Universally Unique Identifier</h4>
- Universally unique identifier refers to a large hexadecimal number that may be calculated by anyone without significant central coordination and used to uniquely identify a resource. It is a standard of the Open Software Foundation. 
-</section>
-
-<section >
-<h4>Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)</h4>
-URI’s [[!RFC3986]] play a key role in enabling Linked Data. To publish data on the Web, the items in a domain of interest must first be identified. These are the things whose properties and relationships will be described in the data, and may include Web documents as well as real-world entities and abstract concepts. As Linked Data builds directly on Web architecture, the Web architecture term "resource" is used to refer to these things of interest, which are, in turn, identified by HTTP URIs.
-
-URIs have been known by many names: Web addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Indetifiers.  As far as HTTP is concerned, Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI's) are simply formatted strings which identify via name, location, or any other characteristic, a resource.  For definitive information on URL syntax and semantics, see "Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax and Semantics," [[!RFC2396]]
-</section >
-
-<section>
-<h4>URIs dereferenceable</h4>
-It means that HTTP clients can look up the URI using the HTTP protocol and retrieve a description of the resource that is identified by the URI. This
-applies to URIs that are used to identify classic HTML documents, as well as URIs that are used in the Linked Data context [[COOL-SWURIS]] to identify real-world objects and abstract concepts.
+<h4>Uniform Resource Locator</h4>
+A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a special type of <a href="#uri">URI</a> that resolves on the Web and is commonly called a "Web address."  Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a global identifier for Web resources standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF. All HTTP URLs are URIs however, not all URIs are URLs.  
 </section>
 
 <section>
-<h4>Uniform Resource Locator</h4>
-Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a global identifier for Web resources standardized by joint action of the W3C and IETF. A URL is resolvable on the Web and is commonly called a "Web address". 
+<h4>URI</h4>
+See <a href="#uniform-resource-identifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a>
+</section>
+
+<section>
+<h4>URL</h4>
+See <a href="#uniform-resource-locator">Uniform Resource Locator</a>
+</section>
+
+
+<section>
+<h4>Validation Service</h4>
+The W3C offers an RDF validation service to check and validate RDF files.  It is considered a best practice to validate RDF files prior to publishing them on the Web.  See http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/.  There are other RDF parsers available, see http://www.w3.org/People/Barstow/#online_parsers.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -591,7 +649,7 @@
 
 <section>
 <h4>Web of Data</h4>
-A phrase to describe publishing data sets using a Linked Data principles thereby making the World Wide Web into a global database.
+A phrase to describe publishing data sets using a Linked Data Principles thereby making the World Wide Web into a global database.
 </section>
 
 <section>
@@ -619,7 +677,6 @@
 XML Schemas provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents as defined in [[!XMLS-SCHEMA0]].
 </section >
 
-
 <section>
 <h4>eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)</h4> 
 eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) is a declarative program to transform one XML document into another XML document. 
@@ -629,8 +686,7 @@
 <!--    ACK   -->
 <section class="appendix">
 <h2>Acknowledgments</h2>
-<p>The editors are very thankful for the glossary terms contributed from <a href="http://3roundstones.com/linking-government-data/">Linking Government Data</a> book by David Wood, (<a href="http://www.springer.com/computer/database+management+%26+information+retrieval/book/978-1-4614-1766-8">Springer 2011</a>), and all the members of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/">Government Linked Data Working Group</a>.
-
+<p>The editors are grateful to <a href="http://3roundstones.com/about-us/leadership-team/david-wood/">David Wood</a> for the initial glossary terms from the <a href="http://3roundstones.com/linking-government-data/">Linking Government Data</a> book, (<a href="http://www.springer.com/computer/database+management+%26+information+retrieval/book/978-1-4614-1766-8">Springer 2011</a>).  The editors would like to thank the members of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/">Government Linked Data Working Group</a> who helped to iterate Linked Data Glossary so we have common ground upon which to grow the Web of Data with good quality Linked Data!
 </p>
 </section>
 </body>