New draft based on 1 August 2014 (single-page) version - no substantive changes yet.
authorcharles
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 12:23:03 +0200
changeset 110 b2ca8bae369f
parent 109 2ad4ac628dce
child 111 7f2a58b3a715
New draft based on 1 August 2014 (single-page) version - no substantive changes yet.
cover.html
--- a/cover.html	Thu Jul 10 00:52:18 2014 +0200
+++ b/cover.html	Thu Aug 14 12:23:03 2014 +0200
@@ -3,46 +3,41 @@
   <head>
     <meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type">
     <meta name="keywords" content="W3C, World Wide Web, Web, WWW, Consortium, process, Team, Recommendation, Advisory Committee, Advisory Board, Working Group, Coordination Group, Interest Group, W3C Activity, Workshop, Symposium, charter, Activity Proposal, Working Draft, Process Document, Candidate Recommendation, Director, Proposed Recommendation, Last Call, Submission request">
-    <link rel="stylesheet" href="style/default.css" type="text/css">
     <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/base.css">
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      table { margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto }
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-
+      .issue:before {content: "Issue: "}
+      .issue {border: 2px dashed red; background-color: #ffa;}
       .rfc2119 {font-variant:small-caps}
-</style> <link href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-ED" rel="stylesheet">
-    <!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='undefined://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
+</style> <!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='undefined://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
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-    <div class="noprint">
-      <div class="navbar"><map name="navbar-top" title="Navigation Bar" id="navbar-top">
-          <p>[<a accesskey="c" rel="Contents" href="#toc">contents</a>] &nbsp;</p>
-        </map>
-      </div>
-    </div>
     <div class="head"><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img alt="W3C" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home"
           height="48" width="72"></a>
-      <h1>Editor's LAST CALL DRAFT Proposed World Wide Web Consortium Process
-        Document</h1>
-      <h2 class="notoc">10 July 2014</h2>
+      <h1>W3C Draft Process Document</h1>
+      <h2 class="notoc">14 August 2014 Editor's Draft</h2>
       <dl>
         <dt>Latest Editor's version:</dt>
-        <dd> <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/tr.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html</a></dd>
+        <dd> <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html</a></dd>
         <dt>Latest operative version:</dt>
         <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/</a></dd>
+        <dt>Previous operative version:</dt>
+        <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/">14 October
+            2005 Process</a></dd>
         <dt>Editor:</dt>
         <dd>Charles McCathie Nevile, <a style="color:black" href="http://yandex.com"><span
-              style="color: red;">Y</span>andex</a>—<a style="color:black" href="http://randex.ru"><span
+              style="color: red;">Y</span>andex</a>—<a style="color:black" href="http://yandex.ru"><span
               style="color: red;">Я</span>ндекс</a></dd>
         <dt>Previous editor:</dt>
         <dd>Ian Jacobs, <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C</a></dd>
       </dl>
       <p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a>
-        © 1996-2014 <a href="/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup>
-        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>,
-        <a href="http://www.ercim.org/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>,
+        © 1996-2014 <a href="/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
+        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
+        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
         <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>),
         All Rights Reserved. W3C <a href="/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
         <a href="/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a>, <a
@@ -53,9 +48,9 @@
         and <a href="/Consortium/Legal/privacy-statement#Members">Member</a>
         privacy statements.</p>
       <hr></div>
-    <h2 class="notoc"><a name="abstract" id="abstract">Abstract</a></h2>
-    <p>The mission of the World Wide Web Consortium (<acronym>W3C</acronym>) is
-      to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common
+    <h2 class="notoc"><a id="abstract">Abstract</a></h2>
+    <p>The mission of the World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr>W3C</abbr>) is to
+      lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common
       protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability. The
       W3C Process Document describes the organizational structure of the W3C and
       the processes related to the responsibilities and functions they exercise
@@ -63,519 +58,3477 @@
       the internal workings of the Team or W3C's public communication
       mechanisms.</p>
     <p>For more information about the W3C mission and the history of W3C, please
-      refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/">About W3C</a> [<a href="refs.html#ref-mission">PUB15</a>].</p>
-    <h2 class="notoc"><a name="status" id="status">Status of this Document</a></h2>
-    <p>This is the 10 July 2014 Editor's draft of the W3C Process Document. This
-      document has been produced following the May/June 2014 W3C Advisory
-      Committee review of the proposed update to the W3C Process. It
-      incorporates editorial changes to <a href="tr.html">Chapter 7</a>. A <a
-        href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/">Public Issue
-        Tracker</a> and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/">detailed
-        changelogs</a> are available online. This document is proposed to the
-      W3C Advisory Board, for approval to propose it to the Advisory Committee
-      for formal adoption replacing the currently operative process document.</p>
-    <p>The major focus of changes has been to clarify obligations, and who is
-      obliged to meet them, in the process of developing a specification as a
-      W3C Recommendation or Note. A particular change, removing the Last Call
-      phase is intended to clarify that Working Groups are responsible for
-      ensuring that their specification is made available for review and is
-      actively reviewed at appropriate points in its development by appropriate
-      stakeholders. This is particularly intended to stop the cycling of
-      specifications between Last Call (for Patent review) and Candidate
-      Recommendation, as well as to more generally support methodologies such as
-      test-driven standardisation, without enforcing a specific methodology on
-      any group and without losing the overall benefit of W3C's requirement for
-      "horizontal" review.</p>
-    <p>Major changes from the currently operative 14 October 2005 Process
-      Document include</p>
-    <ul>
-      <li>The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> address dissenting AC
-        review comments <strong>publicly</strong>, 2 weeks <em>before</em>
-        publication of a Recommendation.</li>
-      <li>If W3C closes a Working Group, they <em class="rfc2119">must</em>
-        republish its unfinished work as Notes. </li>
-      <li>Errata <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> be made normative except by
-        revising a Recommendation</li>
-      <li>New requirements that Working groups <em class="rfc2119">should</em>
-        document known implementation and <span class="rfc2119">must</span>
-        document expected next steps for all publications </li>
-      <li>New requirement that Working groups <em class="rfc2119">should</em>
-        publish abandoned work as a W3C Note</li>
-      <li>Recognition that Interest Groups <span class="rfc2119">may</span>
-        publish W3C Notes</li>
-      <li>Last Call and Candidate Recommendation have been collapsed together.
-        Some of the requirements are therefore enforced earlier in the process.</li>
-      <li>Advisory Committee review now begins at the same time as Candidate
-        recommendation, but still ends no less than 4 weeks after publication as
-        a Proposed Recommendation. </li>
-      <li>Implementation requirements for passing beyond Candidate
-        Recommendation are not simply listed as "2 interoperable
-        implementations", instead a new sections gives guidance on what is
-        considered when assessing "<a href="#implementation-experience">adequate
-          implementation experience</a>".</li>
-      <li>Instead of relying on a Last Call publication for adequate review
-        Working Groups need to demonstrate "<a href="#wide-review">wide review</a>"
-        as part of the requirements to publish a spec as Candidate
-        Recommendation, while leaving them to achieve this as they see fit.</li>
-      <li>There is a stronger emphasis (without creating new formal
-        requirements) on getting review and testing implementation as early as
-        possible. How to do this is left to Working Groups to determine.</li>
-    </ul>
-    <p>The document has also been converted from XHTML 1.0 to HTML5.</p>
-    <ul>
-    </ul>
+      refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/">About W3C</a> [<a href="#ref-mission">PUB15</a>].</p>
+    <h2 class="notoc"><a id="status">Status of this Document</a></h2>
+    <p>This is the 14 August 2014 Editor's draft for the next version of the W3C
+      Process Document. This document is a copy of the 1 August 2014 Process,
+      developed between the <a href="/2002/ab/">W3C Advisory Board</a> and the
+      <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising W3C Process
+        Community Group</a> and adopted as the currently operative Process.
+      During the rest of 2014 the document will be developed, in preparation for
+      adopting a revised process in 2015.</p>
     <p>W3C, including all existing chartered groups, follows the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">most
         recent operative Process Document</a> announced to the Membership.</p>
-    <p>Please send comments about this document to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Community/w3process">Revising
-        W3C Process Community Group</a> (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-w3process">Mailing
+    <p>Please send comments about this document to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising
+        W3C Process Community Group</a> (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-w3process/">Mailing
         list archive</a>, publicly available) or to [email protected] (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/process-issues">Member-only
-        archive</a>).</p>
+        archive</a>). A <a href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/">Public
+        Issue Tracker</a> and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/">detailed
+        changelogs</a> are available online.</p>
     <p>The terms <em class="rfc2119">must</em>, <em class="rfc2119">must not</em>,
       <em class="rfc2119">should</em>, <em class="rfc2119">should not</em>, <em
         class="rfc2119">required</em>, and <em class="rfc2119">may</em> are
       used in accordance with <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">RFC
-        2119</a> [<a href="refs.html#ref-RFC2119">RFC2119</a>]. The term <dfn><em
-          class="rfc2119">not required</em></dfn> is equivalent to the term <em
-        class="rfc2119">may</em> as defined in RFC 2119.</p>
+        2119</a> [<a href="#ref-RFC2119">RFC2119</a>]. The term <dfn><em class="rfc2119">not
+          required</em></dfn> is equivalent to the term <em class="rfc2119">may</em>
+      as defined in RFC 2119. <span class="issue">move this sentence out of
+        status</span></p>
     <p>Some terms have been capitalized in this document (and in other W3C
       materials) to indicate that they are entities with special relevance to
       the W3C Process. These terms are defined herein, and readers should be
       aware that the ordinary (English) definitions are incomplete for purposes
-      of understanding this document.</p>
-    <h2 class="notoc"><a name="pp" id="pp">Relation of Process Document to
-        Patent Policy</a></h2>
+      of understanding this document. <span class="issue">move this sentence
+        out of status</span></p>
+    <h2 class="notoc"><a id="pp">Relation of Process Document to Patent Policy</a></h2>
     <p>W3C Members' attention is called to the fact that provisions of the
       Process Document are binding on Members per the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
-        Agreement</a> [<a href="refs.html#ref-member-agreement">PUB6</a>]. The
-      Patent Policy <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
-        Patent Policy</a> [<a href="refs.html#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>] is
-      incorporated by normative reference as a part of the Process Document, and
-      is thus equally binding.</p>
+        Agreement</a> [<a href="#ref-member-agreement">PUB6</a>]. The Patent
+      Policy <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C Patent
+        Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>] is incorporated by
+      normative reference as a part of the Process Document, and is thus equally
+      binding.</p>
     <p>The Patent Policy places additional obligations on Members, Team, and
       other participants in W3C. The Process Document does not restate those
       requirements but includes references to them. The Process Document and
       Patent Policy have been designed so that they may evolve independently.</p>
     <p>In the Process Document, the term "participant" refers to an individual,
       not an organization.</p>
-    <!--NewPage-->
-    <!-- this is for html2ps -->
-    <div class="toc">
-      <h2 class="notoc"><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+    <div class="toc" role="navigation">
+      <h2 class="notoc"><a id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
       <div class="noprint">
         <ul class="toc">
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="intro.html#Intro" class="tocxref">1
-              Introduction</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="organization.html#Organization" class="tocxref">2
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Intro" class="tocxref">1 Introduction</a></li>
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Organization" class="tocxref">2
               Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory Board, Technical
               Architecture Group</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="policies.html#Policies" class="tocxref">3
-              General Policies for W3C Groups</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="comm.html#dissemination" class="tocxref">4
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Policies" class="tocxref">3 General
+              Policies for W3C Groups</a></li>
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#dissemination" class="tocxref">4
               Dissemination Policies</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="activities.html#Activities" class="tocxref">5
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Activities" class="tocxref">5
               Activities</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="groups.html#GAGeneral" class="tocxref">6
-              Working Groups, Interest Groups, and Coordination Groups</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="tr.html#Reports" class="tocxref">7 W3C
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAGeneral" class="tocxref">6 Working
+              Groups, Interest Groups, and Coordination Groups</a></li>
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Reports" class="tocxref">7 W3C
               Technical Report Development Process</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="acreview.html#ReviewAppeal" class="tocxref">8
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#ReviewAppeal" class="tocxref">8
               Advisory Committee Reviews, Appeals, and Votes</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="events.html#GAEvents" class="tocxref">9
-              Workshops and Symposia</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="liaisons.html#Liaisons" class="tocxref">10
-              Liaisons</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="submission.html#Submission" class="tocxref">11
-Member
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAEvents" class="tocxref">9 Workshops
+              and Symposia</a></li>
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Liaisons" class="tocxref">10 Liaisons</a></li>
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Submission" class="tocxref">11 Member
               Submission Process</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="processdoc.html#GAProcess" class="tocxref">12
-Process
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAProcess" class="tocxref">12 Process
               Evolution</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="refs.html#references" class="tocxref">13
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#references" class="tocxref">13
               References</a></li>
-          <li class="tocline2"><a href="acks.html#acks" class="tocxref">14
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#acks" class="tocxref">14
               Acknowledgments</a></li>
+          <li class="tocline2"><a href="#changes" class="tocxref">15 Changes</a></li>
         </ul>
       </div>
     </div>
     <div class="longtoc">
       <div class="noprint">
-        <h3 class="notoc"><a name="fulltoc" id="fulltoc">Expanded table of
-            contents</a></h3>
+        <h3 class="notoc"><a id="fulltoc">Expanded table of contents</a></h3>
       </div>
       <ul class="toc">
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="intro.html#Intro" name="Intro" id="Intro">1
-            Introduction</a></li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="organization.html#Organization" name="Organization"
-            id="Organization">2 Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory
-            Board, Technical Architecture Group</a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Intro">1 Introduction</a></li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Organization">2 Members, Advisory
+            Committee, Team, Advisory Board, Technical Architecture Group</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="organization.html#Members" name="Members"
-                id="Members">2.1 Members</a><a name="MemberSubscription" id="MemberSubscription"></a><a
-                name="IndividualParticipation" id="IndividualParticipation"></a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#Members">2.1 Members</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#MemberBenefits"
-                    name="MemberBenefits" id="MemberBenefits">2.1.1 Rights of
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#MemberBenefits">2.1.1 Rights of
                     Members</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#MemberRelated" name="MemberRelated"
-                    id="MemberRelated">2.1.2 Related Members</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#AC" name="AC" id="AC">2.1.3
-Advisory
-                    Committee (AC)</a><a name="ACCommunication" id="ACCommunication"></a><a
-                    name="ACMeetings" id="ACMeetings"></a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#MemberRelated">2.1.2 Related
+                    Members</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#AC">2.1.3 Advisory Committee (AC)</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="organization.html#Team" name="Team" id="Team">2.2
-The
-                W3C Team</a><a name="fellows" id="fellows"></a><a name="def-Director"
-                id="def-Director"></a><a name="DirectorDecision" id="DirectorDecision"></a><a
-                name="def-W3CChair" id="def-W3CChair"></a><a name="def-COO" id="def-COO"></a><a
-                name="hosts" id="hosts"></a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#Team">2.2 The W3C Team</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#TeamSubmission"
-                    name="TeamSubmission" id="TeamSubmission">2.2.1 Team
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#TeamSubmission">2.2.1 Team
                     Submissions</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="organization.html#AB" name="AB" id="AB">2.3
-Advisory
-                Board (AB)</a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#AB">2.3 Advisory Board (AB)</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#ABParticipation"
-                    name="ABParticipation" id="ABParticipation">2.3.1 Advisory
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#ABParticipation">2.3.1 Advisory
                     Board Participation</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="organization.html#TAG" name="TAG" id="TAG">2.4
-Technical
-                Architecture Group (TAG)</a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#TAG">2.4 Technical Architecture Group
+                (TAG)</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#tag-participation"
-                    name="tag-participation" id="tag-participation">2.4.1
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#tag-participation">2.4.1
                     Technical Architecture Group Participation</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="organization.html#AB-TAG-participation"
-                name="AB-TAG-participation" id="AB-TAG-participation">2.5
-                Advisory Board and Technical Architecture Group Participation</a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#AB-TAG-participation">2.5 Advisory
+                Board and Technical Architecture Group Participation</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#AB-TAG-constraints"
-                    name="AB-TAG-constraints" id="AB-TAG-constraints">2.5.1
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#AB-TAG-constraints">2.5.1
                     Advisory Board and Technical Architecture Group
                     Participation Constraints</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#AB-TAG-elections"
-                    name="AB-TAG-elections" id="AB-TAG-elections">2.5.2 Advisory
-                    Board and Technical Architecture Group Elections</a><a name="random"
-                    id="random"></a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="organization.html#AB-TAG-vacated"
-                    name="AB-TAG-vacated" id="AB-TAG-vacated">2.5.3 Advisory
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#AB-TAG-elections">2.5.2 Advisory
+                    Board and Technical Architecture Group Elections</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#AB-TAG-vacated">2.5.3 Advisory
                     Board and Technical Architecture Group Vacated Seats</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="policies.html#Policies" name="Policies" id="Policies">3
-            General Policies for W3C Groups</a><a name="participant" id="participant"></a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Policies">3 General Policies for W3C
+            Groups</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="policies.html#ParticipationCriteria" name="ParticipationCriteria"
-                id="ParticipationCriteria">3.1 Individual Participation Criteria</a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ParticipationCriteria">3.1 Individual
+                Participation Criteria</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="policies.html#coi" name="coi" id="coi">3.1.1
-Conflict
-                    of Interest Policy</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="policies.html#member-rep" name="member-rep"
-                    id="member-rep">3.1.2 Individuals Representing a Member
-                    Organization</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#coi">3.1.1 Conflict of Interest
+                    Policy</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#member-rep">3.1.2 Individuals
+                    Representing a Member Organization</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="policies.html#GeneralMeetings" name="GeneralMeetings"
-                id="GeneralMeetings">3.2 Meetings</a><a name="ftf-meeting" id="ftf-meeting"></a><a
-                name="distributed-meeting" id="distributed-meeting"></a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="policies.html#Consensus" name="Consensus"
-                id="Consensus">3.3 Consensus</a><a name="def-Consensus" id="def-Consensus"></a><a
-                name="def-Unanimity" id="def-Unanimity"></a><a name="def-Dissent"
-                id="def-Dissent"></a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#GeneralMeetings">3.2 Meetings</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#Consensus">3.3 Consensus</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="policies.html#managing-dissent" name="managing-dissent"
-                    id="managing-dissent">3.3.1 Managing Dissent</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="policies.html#WGArchiveMinorityViews"
-                    name="WGArchiveMinorityViews" id="WGArchiveMinorityViews">3.3.2
-                    Recording and Reporting Formal Objections</a><a name="FormalObjection"
-                    id="FormalObjection"></a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="policies.html#formal-address" name="formal-address"
-                    id="formal-address">3.3.3 Formally Addressing an Issue</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="policies.html#WGChairReopen" name="WGChairReopen"
-                    id="WGChairReopen">3.3.4 Reopening a Decision When Presented
-                    With New Information</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#managing-dissent">3.3.1 Managing
+                    Dissent</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGArchiveMinorityViews">3.3.2
+                    Recording and Reporting Formal Objections</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#formal-address">3.3.3 Formally
+                    Addressing an Issue</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGChairReopen">3.3.4 Reopening a
+                    Decision When Presented With New Information</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="policies.html#Votes" name="Votes" id="Votes">3.4
-                Votes</a><a name="proxy" id="proxy"></a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="policies.html#WGAppeals" name="WGAppeals"
-                id="WGAppeals">3.5 Appeal of a Chair's Decision</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="policies.html#resignation" name="resignation"
-                id="resignation">3.6 Resignation from a Group</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#Votes">3.4 Votes</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#WGAppeals">3.5 Appeal of a Chair's
+                Decision</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#resignation">3.6 Resignation from a
+                Group</a></li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="comm.html#dissemination" name="dissemination"
-            id="dissemination">4 Dissemination Policies</a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#dissemination">4 Dissemination Policies</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="comm.html#confidentiality-levels" name="confidentiality-levels"
-                id="confidentiality-levels">4.1 Confidentiality Levels</a><a name="Member-only"
-                id="Member-only"></a><a name="Team-only" id="Team-only"></a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#confidentiality-levels">4.1
+                Confidentiality Levels</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="comm.html#confidentiality-change"
-                    name="confidentiality-change" id="confidentiality-change">4.1.1
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#confidentiality-change">4.1.1
                     Changing Confidentiality Level</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="activities.html#Activities" name="Activities"
-            id="Activities">5 Activities</a><a name="def-Activity" id="def-Activity"></a><a
-            name="ActivityStatement" id="ActivityStatement"></a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Activities">5 Activities</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="activities.html#ActivityDevelopment" name="ActivityDevelopment"
-                id="ActivityDevelopment">5.1 Activity Proposal Development</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="activities.html#ActivityCreation" name="ActivityCreation"
-                id="ActivityCreation">5.2 Advisory Committee Review of an
-                Activity Proposal</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="activities.html#ActivityModification"
-                name="ActivityModification" id="ActivityModification">5.3
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ActivityDevelopment">5.1 Activity
+                Proposal Development</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ActivityCreation">5.2 Advisory
+                Committee Review of an Activity Proposal</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ActivityModification">5.3
                 Modification of an Activity</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="activities.html#ActivityExtension" name="ActivityExtension"
-                id="ActivityExtension">5.4 Extension of an Activity</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="activities.html#ActivityTermination" name="ActivityTermination"
-                id="ActivityTermination">5.5 Activity Closure</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="activities.html#BPCreation" name="BPCreation"
-                id="BPCreation">5.6 Activity Proposals</a><a name="ActivityProposal"
-                id="ActivityProposal"></a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ActivityExtension">5.4 Extension of
+                an Activity</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ActivityTermination">5.5 Activity
+                Closure</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#BPCreation">5.6 Activity Proposals</a></li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="groups.html#GAGeneral" name="GAGeneral" id="GAGeneral">6
-            Working Groups, Interest Groups, and Coordination Groups</a><a name="GAGroups"
-            id="GAGroups"></a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAGeneral">6 Working Groups, Interest
+            Groups, and Coordination Groups</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="groups.html#ReqsAllGroups" name="ReqsAllGroups"
-                id="ReqsAllGroups">6.1 Requirements for All Working, Interest,
-                and Coordination Groups</a><a name="GeneralChairs" id="GeneralChairs"></a><a
-                name="TeamContact" id="TeamContact"></a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="groups.html#GroupsWG" name="GroupsWG"
-                id="GroupsWG">6.2 Working Groups and Interest Groups</a><a name="GroupsIG"
-                id="GroupsIG"></a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ReqsAllGroups">6.1 Requirements for
+                All Working, Interest, and Coordination Groups</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#GroupsWG">6.2 Working Groups and
+                Interest Groups</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#group-participation" name="group-participation"
-                    id="group-participation">6.2.1 Working Group and Interest
-                    Group Participation Requirements</a><a name="wgparticipant"
-                    id="wgparticipant"></a><a name="igparticipant" id="igparticipant"></a><a
-                    name="public-participant-ig" id="public-participant-ig"></a><a
-                    name="mtg-substitute" id="mtg-substitute"></a><a name="member-rep-wg"
-                    id="member-rep-wg"></a><a name="member-rep-info" id="member-rep-info"></a><a
-                    name="member-rep-ig" id="member-rep-ig"></a><a name="invited-expert-wg"
-                    id="invited-expert-wg"></a><a name="inv-expert-info" id="inv-expert-info"></a><a
-                    name="invited-expert-ig" id="invited-expert-ig"></a><a name="team-rep-wg"
-                    id="team-rep-wg"></a><a name="team-rep-ig" id="team-rep-ig"></a><a
-                    name="good-standing" id="good-standing"></a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#WGCharterDevelopment"
-                    name="WGCharterDevelopment" id="WGCharterDevelopment">6.2.2
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#group-participation">6.2.1
+                    Working Group and Interest Group Participation Requirements</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGCharterDevelopment">6.2.2
                     Working Group and Interest Group Charter Development</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#CharterReview" name="CharterReview"
-                    id="CharterReview">6.2.3 Advisory Committee Review of a
-                    Working Group or Interest Group Charter</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#cfp" name="cfp" id="cfp">6.2.4
-                    Call for Participation in a Working Group or Interest Group</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#charter-extension" name="charter-extension"
-                    id="charter-extension">6.2.5 Working Group and Interest
-                    Group Charter Extension</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#WGCharter" name="WGCharter"
-                    id="WGCharter">6.2.6 Working Group and Interest Group
-                    Charters</a><a name="ig-mail-only" id="ig-mail-only"></a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#three-month-rule" name="three-month-rule"
-                    id="three-month-rule">6.2.7 Working Group "Heartbeat"
-                    Requirement</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#GeneralTermination" name="GeneralTermination"
-                    id="GeneralTermination">6.2.8 Working Group and Interest
-                    Group Closure</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#CharterReview">6.2.3 Advisory
+                    Committee Review of a Working Group or Interest Group
+                    Charter</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#cfp">6.2.4 Call for Participation
+                    in a Working Group or Interest Group</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#charter-extension">6.2.5 Working
+                    Group and Interest Group Charter Extension</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGCharter">6.2.6 Working Group
+                    and Interest Group Charters</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#three-month-rule">6.2.7 Working
+                    Group "Heartbeat" Requirement</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#GeneralTermination">6.2.8 Working
+                    Group and Interest Group Closure</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="groups.html#GroupsCG" name="GroupsCG"
-                id="GroupsCG">6.3 Coordination Groups</a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#GroupsCG">6.3 Coordination Groups</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#CGParticipation" name="CGParticipation"
-                    id="CGParticipation">6.3.1 Coordination Group Participation
-                    Requirements</a><a name="cgparticipant" id="cgparticipant"></a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#CGCreation" name="CGCreation"
-                    id="CGCreation">6.3.2 Coordination Group Creation and
-                    Closure</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="groups.html#CGCharter" name="CGCharter"
-                    id="CGCharter">6.3.3 Coordination Group Charters</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#CGParticipation">6.3.1
+                    Coordination Group Participation Requirements</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#CGCreation">6.3.2 Coordination
+                    Group Creation and Closure</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#CGCharter">6.3.3 Coordination
+                    Group Charters</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="tr.html#Reports" name="Reports" id="Reports">7
-            W3C Technical Report Development Process</a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Reports">7 W3C Technical Report
+            Development Process</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li><a href="tr.html#rec-advance">7.1 W3C Technical Reports</a>
+            <li><a href="#rec-advance">7.1 W3C Technical Reports</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li><a href="tr.html#recs-and-notes" id="return-to-wg">7.1.1
+                <li><a href="#recs-and-notes" id="return-to-wg">7.1.1
                     Recommendations and Notes</a></li>
-                <li id="maturity-levels"><a href="tr.html#maturity-levels">7.1.2
-                    Maturity Levels</a><a id="q74"> </a><a id="q78"> </a></li>
+                <li><a href="#maturity-levels">7.1.2 Maturity Levels</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#requirements-and-definitions">7.2 General
-                requirements and definitions</a>
+            <li><a href="#requirements-and-definitions">7.2 General requirements
+                and definitions</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li><a href="tr.html#general-requirements" id="transition-reqs">7.2.1
-                    General requirements for Technical Reports</a></li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#transition-reqs" id="rec-advance">7.2.2
-                    Advancement on the Recommendation Track</a>
+                <li><a href="#general-requirements">7.2.1 General requirements
+                    for Technical Reports</a></li>
+                <li><a href="#transition-reqs">7.2.2 Advancement on the
+                    Recommendation Track</a>
                   <ul class="toc">
-                    <li><a href="tr.html#substantive-change">7.2.2.1 Substantive
-                        Change</a></li>
+                    <li><a href="#substantive-change">7.2.2.1 Substantive Change</a></li>
                   </ul>
                 </li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#doc-reviews" id="doc-reviews">7.2.3 Reviews
-                    and Review Responsibilities</a>
+                <li><a href="#doc-reviews">7.2.3 Reviews and Review
+                    Responsibilities</a>
                   <ul class="toc">
-                    <li><a href="tr.html#wide-review">7.2.3.1 Wide Review</a></li>
+                    <li><a href="#wide-review">7.2.3.1 Wide Review</a></li>
                   </ul>
                 </li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#implementation-experience">7.2.4
-                    Implementation Experience</a> </li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#correction-classes" id="correction-classes">7.2.5
-                    Classes of Changes to a Recommendation</a></li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#working-draft">7.3 Working Draft</a>
-              <ul class="toc">
-                <li><a href="tr.html#first-wd" id="first-wd">7.3.1 First Public
-                    Working Draft</a></li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#revised-wd">7.3.2 Revising Public Working
-                    Drafts</a></li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#tr-end">7.3.3 Stopping work on a
-                    specification</a></li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#candidate-rec" id="cfi">7.4 Candidate
-                Recommendation</a>
-              <ul class="toc">
-                <li><a href="tr.html#revised-cr">7.4.1 Revising a Candidate
+                <li><a href="#implementation-experience">7.2.4 Implementation
+                    Experience</a> </li>
+                <li><a href="#correction-classes">7.2.5 Classes of Changes to a
                     Recommendation</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li> <a href="tr.html#rec-pr" id="cfr">7.5 Proposed Recommendation</a></li>
-            <li> <a href="tr.html#rec-publication" id="rec-publication">7.6 W3C
-                Recommendation</a></li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#rec-modify" id="rec-modify">7.7 Modifying a W3C
-                Recommendation</a>
+            <li><a href="#working-draft">7.3 Working Draft</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li><a href="tr.html#errata" id="errata">7.7.1 Errata Management</a></li>
-                <li><a href="tr.html#revised-rec" id="cfr-edited">7.7.2 Revising
-                    a Recommendation</a></li>
+                <li><a href="#first-wd">7.3.1 First Public Working Draft</a></li>
+                <li><a href="#revised-wd">7.3.2 Revising Public Working Drafts</a></li>
+                <li><a href="#tr-end">7.3.3 Stopping work on a specification</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#Note" id="tr-end">7.8 Publishing a Working
-                Group or Interest Group Note</a></li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#rec-rescind" id="rec-rescind">7.9 Rescinding a
-                W3C Recommendation</a></li>
-            <li><a href="tr.html#further-reading">Further reading</a></li>
-          </ul>
-        </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="acreview.html#ReviewAppeal" name="ReviewAppeal"
-            id="ReviewAppeal">8 Advisory Committee Reviews, Appeals, and Votes</a><a
-            name="def-w3c-decision" id="def-w3c-decision"></a>
-          <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="acreview.html#ACReview" name="ACReview"
-                id="ACReview">8.1 Advisory Committee Reviews</a>
+            <li><a href="#candidate-rec" id="cfi">7.4 Candidate Recommendation</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="acreview.html#ACReviewStart" name="ACReviewStart"
-                    id="ACReviewStart">8.1.1 Start of a Review Period</a><a name="reviewform"
-                    id="reviewform"></a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="acreview.html#ACReviewAfter" name="ACReviewAfter"
-                    id="ACReviewAfter">8.1.2 After the Review Period</a></li>
+                <li><a href="#revised-cr">7.4.1 Revising a Candidate
+                    Recommendation</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="acreview.html#ACAppeal" name="ACAppeal"
-                id="ACAppeal">8.2 Appeal by Advisory Committee Representatives</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="acreview.html#ACVotes" name="ACVotes"
-                id="ACVotes">8.3 Advisory Committee Votes</a></li>
+            <li> <a href="#rec-pr" id="cfr">7.5 Proposed Recommendation</a></li>
+            <li> <a href="#rec-publication">7.6 W3C Recommendation</a></li>
+            <li><a href="#rec-modify">7.7 Modifying a W3C Recommendation</a>
+              <ul class="toc">
+                <li><a href="#errata">7.7.1 Errata Management</a></li>
+                <li><a href="#revised-rec" id="cfr-edited">7.7.2 Revising a
+                    Recommendation</a></li>
+              </ul>
+            </li>
+            <li><a href="#Note">7.8 Publishing a Working Group or Interest Group
+                Note</a></li>
+            <li><a href="#rec-rescind">7.9 Rescinding a W3C Recommendation</a></li>
+            <li><a href="#further-reading">Further reading</a></li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="events.html#GAEvents" name="GAEvents" id="GAEvents">9
-            Workshops and Symposia</a><a name="EventsW" id="EventsW"></a><a name="EventsS"
-            id="EventsS"></a><a name="EventsC" id="EventsC"></a></li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="liaisons.html#Liaisons" name="Liaisons" id="Liaisons">10
-            Liaisons</a><a name="mou" id="mou"></a></li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="submission.html#Submission" name="Submission"
-            id="Submission">11 Member Submission Process</a><a name="MemberSubmission"
-            id="MemberSubmission"></a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#ReviewAppeal">8 Advisory Committee
+            Reviews, Appeals, and Votes</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="submission.html#SubmissionRights" name="SubmissionRights"
-                id="SubmissionRights">11.1 Submitter Rights and Obligations</a>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ACReview">8.1 Advisory Committee
+                Reviews</a>
               <ul class="toc">
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="submission.html#SubmissionScope" name="SubmissionScope"
-                    id="SubmissionScope">11.1.1 Scope of Member Submissions</a></li>
-                <li class="tocline4"><a href="submission.html#SubmissionReqs" name="SubmissionReqs"
-                    id="SubmissionReqs">11.1.2 Information Required in a
-                    Submission Request</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#ACReviewStart">8.1.1 Start of a
+                    Review Period</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#ACReviewAfter">8.1.2 After the
+                    Review Period</a></li>
               </ul>
             </li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="submission.html#TeamSubmissionRights"
-                name="TeamSubmissionRights" id="TeamSubmissionRights">11.2 Team
-                Rights and Obligations</a><a name="validation-notice" id="validation-notice"></a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="submission.html#SubmissionYes" name="SubmissionYes"
-                id="SubmissionYes">11.3 Acknowledgment of a Submission Request</a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="submission.html#SubmissionNo" name="SubmissionNo"
-                id="SubmissionNo">11.4 Rejection of a Submission Request</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ACAppeal">8.2 Appeal by Advisory
+                Committee Representatives</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#ACVotes">8.3 Advisory Committee Votes</a></li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="processdoc.html#GAProcess" name="GAProcess"
-            id="GAProcess">12 Process Evolution</a><a name="ProcessDoc" id="ProcessDoc"></a></li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="refs.html#references" name="references" id="references">13
-            References</a>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAEvents">9 Workshops and Symposia</a></li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Liaisons">10 Liaisons</a></li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#Submission">11 Member Submission Process</a>
           <ul class="toc">
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="refs.html#public-refs" name="public-refs"
-                id="public-refs">13.1 Public Resources</a><a name="ref-join-w3c"
-                id="ref-join-w3c"></a><a name="ref-member-agreement" id="ref-member-agreement"></a><a
-                name="ref-current-mem" id="ref-current-mem"></a><a name="ref-activity-list"
-                id="ref-activity-list"></a><a name="ref-submission-list" id="ref-submission-list"></a><a
-                name="ref-doc-list" id="ref-doc-list"></a><a name="ref-submission-overview"
-                id="ref-submission-overview"></a><a name="ref-people" id="ref-people"></a><a
-                name="ref-mission" id="ref-mission"></a><a name="ref-team-submission-list"
-                id="ref-team-submission-list"></a><a name="ref-invited-expert" id="ref-invited-expert"></a><a
-                name="ref-doc-license" id="ref-doc-license"></a><a name="ref-software-license"
-                id="ref-software-license"></a><a name="ref-translations" id="ref-translations"></a><a
-                name="ref-pub-mailing-lists" id="ref-pub-mailing-lists"></a><a name="ref-coi"
-                id="ref-coi"></a><a name="ref-tag-charter" id="ref-tag-charter"></a><a
-                name="ref-tag-home" id="ref-tag-home"></a><a name="ref-rec-tips"
-                id="ref-rec-tips"></a><a name="ref-liaison-list" id="ref-liaison-list"></a><a
-                name="ref-ab-home" id="ref-ab-home"></a><a name="ref-pubrules" id="ref-pubrules"></a><a
-                name="ref-fellows" id="ref-fellows"></a><a name="ref-patentpolicy"
-                id="ref-patentpolicy"></a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="refs.html#member-refs" name="member-refs"
-                id="member-refs">13.2 Member-only Resources</a><a name="ref-current-ac"
-                id="ref-current-ac"></a><a name="ref-mailing-lists" id="ref-mailing-lists"></a><a
-                name="ref-calendar" id="ref-calendar"></a><a name="ref-new-member"
-                id="ref-new-member"></a><a name="ref-ac-meetings" id="ref-ac-meetings"></a><a
-                name="ref-member-web" id="ref-member-web"></a><a name="ref-member-sub"
-                id="ref-member-sub"></a><a name="ref-guide" id="ref-guide"></a><a
-                name="ref-discipline-gl" id="ref-discipline-gl"></a><a name="ref-election-howto"
-                id="ref-election-howto"></a></li>
-            <li class="tocline3"><a href="refs.html#other-refs" name="other-refs"
-                id="other-refs">13.3 Other References</a><a name="ref-RFC2119" id="ref-RFC2119"></a><a
-                name="ref-RFC2777" id="ref-RFC2777"></a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#SubmissionRights">11.1 Submitter
+                Rights and Obligations</a>
+              <ul class="toc">
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#SubmissionScope">11.1.1 Scope of
+                    Member Submissions</a></li>
+                <li class="tocline4"><a href="#SubmissionReqs">11.1.2
+                    Information Required in a Submission Request</a></li>
+              </ul>
+            </li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#TeamSubmissionRights">11.2 Team
+                Rights and Obligations</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#SubmissionYes">11.3 Acknowledgment of
+                a Submission Request</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#SubmissionNo">11.4 Rejection of a
+                Submission Request</a></li>
           </ul>
         </li>
-        <li class="tocline2"><a href="acks.html#acks" name="acks" id="acks">14
-            Acknowledgments</a></li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAProcess">12 Process Evolution</a></li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#references">13 References</a>
+          <ul class="toc">
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#public-refs">13.1 Public Resources</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#member-refs">13.2 Member-only
+                Resources</a></li>
+            <li class="tocline3"><a href="#other-refs">13.3 Other References</a></li>
+          </ul>
+        </li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#acks">14 Acknowledgments</a></li>
+        <li class="tocline2"><a href="#changes">15 Changes</a></li>
       </ul>
     </div>
-    <div class="noprint">
-      <div class="navbar"><map name="navbar-bottom" title="Navigation Bar" id="navbar-bottom">
-          <p>[<a accesskey="c" rel="Contents" href="#toc">contents</a>] &nbsp;</p>
-        </map>
-      </div>
+    <div role="main">
+      <h2>1 <a id="Intro">Introduction</a></h2>
+      <p>Most W3C work revolves around the standardization of Web technologies.
+        To accomplish this work, W3C follows processes that promote the
+        development of high-quality standards based on the <a href="#Consensus">consensus</a>
+        of the Membership, Team, and public. W3C processes promote fairness,
+        responsiveness, and progress: all facets of the W3C mission. This
+        document describes the processes W3C follows in pursuit of its mission.</p>
+      <p>Here is a general overview of how W3C standardizes a Web technology. In
+        many cases, the goal of this work is a <a href="#RecsW3C">W3C
+          Recommendation</a>, the W3C equivalent of a Web standard.</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>People generate interest in a particular topic (e.g., Web services).
+          For instance, Members express interest in the form of <a href="#Submission">Member
+            Submissions</a>, and the <a href="#Team">Team</a> monitors work
+          inside and outside of W3C for signs of interest. Also, W3C is likely
+          to organize a <a href="#GAEvents">Workshop</a> to bring people
+          together to discuss topics that interest the W3C community. This was
+          the case, for example, with Web services.</li>
+        <li>When there is enough interest in a topic (e.g., after a successful
+          Workshop and/or discussion on an <a href="#ACCommunication">Advisory
+            Committee mailing list</a>), the Director announces the <a href="#ActivityDevelopment">development
+            of a proposal for a new Activity</a> or <a href="#WGCharterDevelopment">Working
+            Group charter</a>, depending on the breadth of the topic of
+          interest. An <a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity Proposal</a>
+          describes the scope, duration, and other characteristics of the
+          intended work, and includes the charters of one or more <a href="#GAGeneral">Working
+            Groups, Interest Groups, and possibly Coordination Groups</a> to
+          carry out the work. W3C Members <a href="#ActivityCreation">review
+            each Activity Proposal</a> and the associated Working Group
+          charters. When there is support within W3C for investing resources in
+          the topic of interest, the Director approves the new Activity and
+          groups get down to work. For the Web Services Activity, the initial
+          Activity Proposal called for one Working Group to work on Web Services
+          Architecture and one to work on a language for Web Services
+          Description. The Activity Proposal also incorporated an existing
+          Working Group (from another Activity) working on XML Protocols.</li>
+        <li>There are three types of Working Group participants: <a href="#member-rep">Member
+            representatives</a>, <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited Experts</a>,
+          and <a href="#Team">Team representatives</a>. Team representatives
+          both contribute to the technical work and help ensure the group's
+          proper integration with the rest of W3C. The <a href="#WGCharter">Working
+            Group charter</a> sets expectations about each group's deliverables
+          (e.g., <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>, test suites, and
+          tutorials).</li>
+        <li>Working Groups generally create specifications and guidelines that
+          undergo cycles of revision and review as they <a href="#rec-advance">advance
+            to W3C Recommendation</a> status. The W3C process for producing
+          these technical reports includes significant review by the Members and
+          public, and requirements that the Working Group be able to show
+          implementation and interoperability experience. At the end of the
+          process, the Advisory Committee reviews the mature technical report,
+          and if there is support, W3C publishes it as a <a href="#RecsW3C">Recommendation</a>.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>The Process Document promotes the goals of quality and fairness in
+        technical decisions by encouraging <a href="#Consensus">consensus</a>,
+        requiring reviews (by both Members and public) as part of the <a href="#Reports">technical
+          report development process</a>, and through an <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal
+          process</a> for the Advisory Committee.</p>
+      <p>The other sections of the Process Document:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>set forth <a href="#Policies">policies</a> for participation in W3C
+          groups,</li>
+        <li>establish two permanent groups within W3C: the <a href="#TAG">Technical
+            Architecture Group (TAG)</a>, to help resolve Consortium-wide
+          technical issues; and the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board (AB)</a>, to
+          help resolve Consortium-wide non-technical issues, and to manage the <a
+            href="#GAProcess">evolution of the W3C process</a>, and</li>
+        <li>describe other interactions between the <a href="#Members">Members</a>
+          (as represented by the <a href="#AC">W3C Advisory Committee</a>), the
+          Team, and the general public.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <h2>2 <a id="Organization">Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory
+          Board, Technical Architecture Group</a></h2>
+      <p>W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential. W3C <a href="#Members">Member</a>
+        organizations provide resources to this end, and the W3C <a href="#Team">Team</a>
+        provides the technical leadership and organization to coordinate the
+        effort.</p>
+      <h3>2.1 <a id="Members">Members</a></h3>
+      <p>W3C Members are primarily represented in W3C processes as follows:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>The <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a> is composed of one
+          representative from each Member organization (refer to the <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a>
+          list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/ACList">current Advisory
+            Committee representatives</a> [<a href="#ref-current-ac">MEM1</a>]).
+          The Advisory Committee:
+          <ul>
+            <li>reviews plans for W3C at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory
+                Committee meeting</a>;</li>
+            <li>reviews formal proposals from the W3C Director: <a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity
+                Proposals</a>, <a href="#RecsPR">Proposed Recommendations</a>,
+              and <a href="#GAProcess">Proposed Process Documents</a>.</li>
+            <li>elects the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a> participants other
+              than the Advisory Board Chair.</li>
+            <li>elects 5 of the 9 participants on the <a href="#TAG">Technical
+                Architecture Group</a>.</li>
+          </ul>
+          Advisory Committee representatives have <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a>
+          powers for some processes described in this document.</li>
+        <li>Representatives of Member organizations participate in <a href="#GAGeneral">Working
+            Groups, Interest Groups, and Coordination Groups</a> and author and
+          review <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p><a id="MemberSubscription">W3C membership</a> is open to all entities,
+        as described in "<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How to Join
+          W3C</a>" [<a href="#ref-join-w3c">PUB5</a>]; (refer to the public list
+        of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List">current W3C
+          Members</a> [<a href="#ref-current-mem">PUB8</a>]). Organizations
+        subscribe according to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
+          Agreement</a> [<a href="#ref-member-agreement">PUB6</a>]. The <a href="#Team">Team</a>
+        <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> ensure that Member participation
+        agreements remain <a href="#Team-only">Team-only</a> and that no Member
+        receives preferential treatment within W3C.</p>
+      <p><a id="IndividualParticipation">W3C does not have a class of membership
+          tailored to, or priced for individuals</a>. However, an individual <span
+          class="rfc2119">MAY</span> join W3C as an Affiliate Member. In this
+        case the same restrictions pertaining to <a href="#MemberRelated">related
+          Members</a> apply when the individual also <a href="#member-rep">represents</a>
+        another W3C Member.</p>
+      <h4>2.1.1 <a id="MemberBenefits">Rights of Members</a></h4>
+      <p>Each Member organization enjoys the following rights and benefits:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>A seat on the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>;</li>
+        <li>Access to <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> information;</li>
+        <li>The <a href="#Submission">Member Submission</a> process;</li>
+        <li>Use of the W3C Member logo on promotional material and to publicize
+          the Member's participation in W3C. For more information, please refer
+          to the Member logo usage policy described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New
+Member
+            Orientation</a> [<a href="#ref-new-member">MEM4</a>].</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Furthermore, representatives of Member organizations participate in W3C
+        as follows:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>In <a href="#GAGeneral">Working Groups, Interest Groups, and
+            Coordination Groups</a>.</li>
+        <li>In <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops and Symposia</a>;</li>
+        <li>On the Team, as <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellows</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>In the case (described in paragraph 5g of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
+          Agreement</a>), where a Member organization is itself a consortium,
+        user society, or otherwise has members or sponsors, the organization's
+        paid staff and Advisory Committee representative exercise all the rights
+        and privileges of W3C membership. In addition, the Advisory Committee
+        representative <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> designate up to four
+        (or more at the Team's discretion) individuals who, though not employed
+        by the organization, <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> exercise the
+        rights of <a href="#member-rep">Member representatives</a>. These
+        individuals <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> disclose their employment
+        affiliation when participating in W3C work. Provisions for <a href="#MemberRelated">related
+          Members</a> apply. Furthermore, these individuals are expected to
+        represent the broad interests of the W3C Member organization and not the
+        parochial interests of their employers.</p>
+      <p>The rights and benefits of W3C membership are contingent upon
+        conformance to the processes described in this document. The vast
+        majority of W3C Members faithfully follow the spirit as well as the
+        letter of these processes. When serious and/or repeated violations do
+        occur, and repeated attempts to address these violations have not
+        resolved the situation, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        take disciplinary action. Arbitration in the case of further
+        disagreement is governed by paragraph 19 of the Membership Agreement.
+        Refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/09/discipline">Guidelines
+          for Disciplinary Action</a> [<a href="#ref-discipline-gl">MEM14</a>].</p>
+      <h4>2.1.2 <a id="MemberRelated">Related Members</a></h4>
+      <p>In the interest of ensuring the integrity of the consensus process,
+        Member involvement in some of the processes in this document is affected
+        by related Member status. As used herein, two Members are related if:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>Either Member is a subsidiary of the other, or</li>
+        <li>Both Members are subsidiaries of a common entity, or</li>
+        <li>The Members have an employment contract or consulting contract that
+          affects W3C participation.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>A <em>subsidiary</em> is an organization of which effective control
+        and/or majority ownership rests with another, single organization.</p>
+      <p>Related Members <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> disclose these
+        relationships according to the mechanisms described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New
+          Member Orientation</a> [<a href="#ref-new-member">MEM4</a>].</p>
+      <h4>2.1.3 <a id="AC">Advisory Committee (AC)</a></h4>
+      <p>When an organization joins W3C (see "<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How
+          to Join W3C</a>" [<a href="#ref-join-w3c">PUB5</a>]), it <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        name its Advisory Committee representative as part of the Membership
+        Agreement. The <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New Member
+          Orientation</a> explains how to subscribe or unsubscribe to Advisory
+        Committee mailing lists, provides information about Advisory Committee
+        meetings, explains how to name a new Advisory Committee representative,
+        and more. Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        follow the <a href="#coi">conflict of interest policy</a> by disclosing
+        information according to the mechanisms described in the New Member
+        Orientation. See also the additional roles of Advisory Committee
+        representatives described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <p>Additional information for Members is available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/">Member
+          Web site</a> [<a href="#ref-member-web">MEM6</a>].</p>
+      <h5>2.1.3.1 <a id="ACCommunication">Advisory Committee Mailing Lists</a></h5>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide two mailing lists
+        for use by the Advisory Committee:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>One for official announcements (e.g., those required by this
+          document) from the Team to the Advisory Committee. This list is
+          read-only for Advisory Committee representatives.</li>
+        <li>One for discussion among Advisory Committee representatives. Though
+          this list is primarily for Advisory Committee representatives, the
+          Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> monitor discussion and <span
+            class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> participate in discussion when
+          appropriate. Ongoing detailed discussions <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+          be moved to other appropriate lists (new or existing, such as a
+          mailing list created for a <a href="#GAEvents">Workshop</a>).</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>An Advisory Committee representative <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        request that additional individuals from their organization be
+        subscribed to these lists. Failure to contain distribution internally <span
+          class="rfc2119">MAY</span> result in suspension of additional email
+        addresses, at the discretion of the Team.</p>
+      <h5>2.1.3.2 <a id="ACMeetings">Advisory Committee Meetings</a></h5>
+      <p>The Team organizes a <a href="#ftf-meeting">face-to-face meeting</a>
+        for the Advisory Committee <span class="time-interval">twice a year</span>.
+        The Team appoints the Chair of these meetings (generally the <a href="#def-W3CChair">W3C
+          Chair</a> or <a href="#def-COO">Chief Operating Officer</a>). At each
+        Advisory Committee meeting, the Team <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        provide an update to the Advisory Committee about:</p>
+      <dl>
+        <dt><em>Resources</em></dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>The number of Full and Affiliate W3C Members.</li>
+            <li>An overview of the financial status of W3C.</li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+        <dt><em>Allocations</em></dt>
+        <dd>
+          <ul>
+            <li>The allocation of the annual budget, including size of the Team
+              and their approximate deployment.</li>
+            <li>A list of all Activities and brief status statement about each,
+              in particular those started or terminated since the previous
+              Advisory Committee meeting.</li>
+            <li>The allocation of resources to pursuing <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons</a>
+              with other organizations.</li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+      </dl>
+      <p>Each Member organization <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> send one
+        <a href="#member-rep">representative</a> to each Advisory Committee
+        meeting. In exceptional circumstances (e.g., during a period of
+        transition between representatives from an organization), the meeting
+        Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> allow a Member organization to
+        send two representatives to a meeting.</p>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> announce the date and
+        location of each Advisory Committee meeting no later than at the end of
+        the previous meeting; <span class="time-interval">one year's</span>
+        notice is preferred. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        announce the region of each Advisory Committee meeting at least <span class="time-interval">one
+          year</span> in advance.</p>
+      <p>More information about <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Meeting/">Advisory
+Committee
+          meetings</a> [<a href="#ref-ac-meetings">MEM5</a>] is available at the
+        Member Web site.</p>
+      <h3>2.2 <a id="Team">The W3C Team</a></h3>
+      <p>The Team consists of the W3C paid staff, unpaid interns, and W3C
+        Fellows. <a id="fellows">W3C Fellows</a> are Member employees working
+        as part of the Team; see the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Recruitment/Fellows">W3C
+          Fellows Program</a> [<a href="#ref-fellows">PUB32</a>]. The Team
+        provides technical leadership about Web technologies, organizes and
+        manages W3C Activities to reach goals within practical constraints (such
+        as resources available), and communicates with the Members and the
+        public about the Web and W3C technologies.</p>
+      <p>The Team is led by the Director, W3C Chair, and Chief Operating
+        Officer. These individuals <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> delegate
+        responsibility (generally to other individuals in the Team) for any of
+        their roles described in this document.</p>
+      <p>The <a id="def-Director">Director</a> is the lead technical architect
+        at W3C and as such, is responsible for assessing <a href="#def-Consensus"
+          id="DirectorDecision">consensus</a> within W3C for architectural
+        choices, publication of <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>, and
+        new <a href="#Activities">Activities</a>. The Director appoints group <a
+          href="#GeneralChairs">Chairs</a> and has the role of "tie-breaker" for
+        questions of <a href="#good-standing">Good Standing</a> in a Working
+        Group or <a href="#WGAppeals">appeal of a Working Group decision</a>.
+        The Director is generally Chair of the <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>.</p>
+      <p>The <a id="def-W3CChair">W3C Chair</a> leads Member relations, and <a
+          href="#Liaisons">liaisons</a> with other organizations, governments,
+        and the public.</p>
+      <p>The <a id="def-COO">Chief Operating Officer</a> (<abbr>COO</abbr>)
+        leads the operation of W3C as an organization: a collection of people, <a
+          href="#hosts">Host institutions</a>, and processes.</p>
+      <p>Team administrative information such as Team salaries, detailed
+        budgeting, and other business decisions are <a href="#Team-only">Team-only</a>,
+        subject to oversight by the Host institutions.</p>
+      <p><strong>Note:</strong> W3C is not currently incorporated. For legal
+        contracts, W3C is represented by three <a id="hosts">"Host"
+          institutions</a>: the European Research Consortium for Informatics and
+        Mathematics (<abbr>ERCIM</abbr>), Keio University, and the Massachusetts
+        Institute of Technology (<abbr>MIT</abbr>). Within W3C, the Host
+        institutions are governed by joint sponsorship contracts; the Hosts
+        themselves are not W3C Members.</p>
+      <h4>2.2.1 <a id="TeamSubmission">Team Submissions</a></h4>
+      <p>Team members <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> request that the
+        Director publish information at the W3C Web site. At the Director's
+        discretion, these documents are published as "Team Submissions". These
+        documents are analogous to <a href="#Submission">Member Submissions</a>
+        (e.g., in <a href="#SubmissionScope">expected scope</a>). However,
+        there is no additional Team comment. The <a href="#DocumentStatus">document
+          status section</a> of a Team Submission indicates the level of Team
+        consensus about the published material.</p>
+      <p>Team Submissions are <strong>not</strong> part of the <a href="#Reports">technical
+          report development process</a>.</p>
+      <p>The list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/">published Team
+          Submissions</a> [<a href="#ref-team-submission-list">PUB16</a>] is
+        available at the W3C Web site.</p>
+      <h3>2.3 <a id="AB">Advisory Board (AB)</a></h3>
+      <p>Created in March 1998, the Advisory Board provides ongoing guidance to
+        the Team on issues of strategy, management, legal matters, process, and
+        conflict resolution. The Advisory Board also serves the Members by
+        tracking issues raised between Advisory Committee meetings, soliciting
+        Member comments on such issues, and proposing actions to resolve these
+        issues. The Advisory Board manages the <a href="#GAProcess">evolution
+          of the Process Document</a>. The Advisory Board hears appeals of <a href="#SubmissionNo">Member
+          Submission requests</a> that are rejected for reasons unrelated to Web
+        architecture; see also the <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>.</p>
+      <p>The Advisory Board is <strong>not</strong> a board of directors and
+        has no decision-making authority within W3C; its role is strictly
+        advisory.</p>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> make available a mailing
+        list for the Advisory Board to use for its communication, confidential
+        to the Advisory Board and Team.</p>
+      <p>The Advisory Board <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> send a summary
+        of each of its meetings to the Advisory Committee and other group
+        Chairs. The Advisory Board <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> also
+        report on its activities at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory
+          Committee meeting</a>.</p>
+      <p>Details about the Advisory Board (e.g., the list of Advisory Board
+        participants, mailing list information, and summaries of Advisory Board
+        meetings) are available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/ab/">Advisory
+Board
+          home page</a> [<a href="#ref-ab-home">PUB30</a>].</p>
+      <h4>2.3.1 <a id="ABParticipation">Advisory Board Participation</a></h4>
+      <p>The Advisory Board consists of nine elected participants and a Chair.
+        The Team appoints the Chair of the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>,
+        who is generally the <a href="#def-W3CChair">W3C Chair</a>.</p>
+      <p>The remaining nine Advisory Board participants are elected by the W3C
+        Advisory Committee following the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG
+          nomination and election process</a>.</p>
+      <p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all Advisory Board
+        participants are for <span class="time-interval">two years</span>.
+        Terms are staggered so that each year, either four or five terms expire.
+        If an individual is elected to fill an incomplete term, that
+        individual's term ends at the normal expiration date of that term.
+        Regular Advisory Board terms begin on 1 July and end on 30 June.</p>
+      <h3>2.4 <a id="TAG">Technical Architecture Group (TAG)</a></h3>
+      <p>Created in February 2001, the mission of the TAG is stewardship of the
+        Web architecture. There are three aspects to this mission:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>to document and build consensus around principles of Web
+          architecture and to interpret and clarify these principles when
+          necessary;</li>
+        <li>to resolve issues involving general Web architecture brought to the
+          TAG;</li>
+        <li>to help coordinate cross-technology architecture developments inside
+          and outside W3C.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>The TAG hears appeals of <a href="#SubmissionNo">Member Submission
+          requests</a> that are rejected for reasons related to Web
+        architecture; see also the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>.</p>
+      <p>The TAG's scope is limited to technical issues about Web architecture.
+        The TAG <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</span> consider
+        administrative, process, or organizational policy issues of W3C, which
+        are generally addressed by the W3C Advisory Committee, Advisory Board,
+        and Team. Please refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19-tag">TAG
+          charter</a> [<a href="#ref-tag-charter">PUB25</a>] for more
+        information about the background and scope of the TAG, and the expected
+        qualifications of TAG participants.</p>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> make available two mailing
+        lists for the TAG:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>a public discussion (not just input) list for issues of Web
+          architecture. The TAG will conduct its public business on this list.</li>
+        <li>a <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> list for discussions
+          within the TAG and for requests to the TAG that, for whatever reason,
+          cannot be made on the public list.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The TAG <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> also request the creation of
+        additional topic-specific, public mailing lists. For some TAG
+        discussions (e.g., an appeal of a <a href="#SubmissionNo">rejected
+          Member Submission request</a>), the TAG <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        use a list that will be <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a>.</p>
+      <p>The TAG <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> send a summary of each of
+        its <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meetings</a> to the Advisory Committee
+        and other group Chairs. The TAG <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        also report on its activities at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory
+          Committee meeting</a>.</p>
+      <p>When the TAG votes to resolve an issue, each TAG participant (whether
+        appointed, elected, or the Chair) has one vote; see also the section on
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19-tag#Voting">voting in the TAG
+          charter</a> [<a href="#ref-tag-charter">PUB25</a>] and the general
+        section on <a href="#Votes">votes</a> in this Process Document.</p>
+      <p>Details about the TAG (e.g., the list of TAG participants, mailing list
+        information, and summaries of TAG meetings) are available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/">TAG
+          home page</a> [<a href="#ref-tag-home">PUB26</a>].</p>
+      <h4>2.4.1 <a id="tag-participation">Technical Architecture Group
+          Participation</a></h4>
+      <p>The TAG consists of eight elected or appointed participants and a
+        Chair. The Team appoints the Chair of the TAG, who is generally the <a
+          href="#def-Director">Director</a>.</p>
+      <p>Three TAG participants are appointed by the Director. Appointees are <span
+          class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span> to be on the W3C Team. The
+        Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> appoint <a href="#fellows">W3C
+          Fellows</a> to the TAG.</p>
+      <p>The remaining five TAG participants are elected by the W3C Advisory
+        Committee following the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG nomination
+          and election process</a>.</p>
+      <p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all TAG participants are
+        for <span class="time-interval">two years</span>. Terms are staggered
+        so that each year, either two or three elected terms, and either one or
+        two appointed terms expire. If an individual is appointed or elected to
+        fill an incomplete term, that individual's term ends at the normal
+        expiration date of that term. Regular TAG terms begin on 1 February and
+        end on 31 January.</p>
+      <h3>2.5 <a id="AB-TAG-participation">Advisory Board and Technical
+          Architecture Group Participation</a></h3>
+      <p>Advisory Board and TAG participants have a special role within W3C:
+        they are elected by the Membership and appointed by the Director with
+        the expectation that they will use their best judgment to find the best
+        solutions for the Web, not just for any particular network, technology,
+        vendor, or user. Advisory Board and TAG participants are expected to
+        participate regularly and fully. <a href="#good-standing">Good Standing</a>
+        rules as defined for Working Group participants also apply to Advisory
+        Board and TAG participants. Advisory Board and TAG participants <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        attend <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee meetings</a>.</p>
+      <p>An individual participates on the Advisory Board or TAG from the moment
+        the individual's term begins until the term ends or the seat is <a href="#AB-TAG-vacated">vacated</a>.
+        Although Advisory Board and TAG participants do not advocate for the
+        commercial interests of their employers, their participation does carry
+        the responsibilities associated with Member representation, Invited
+        Expert status, or Team representation (as described in the section on
+        the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG nomination and election process</a>).
+        See also the licensing obligations on TAG participants in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
+          3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>], and the
+        claim exclusion process of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Exclusion">section
+          4</a>.</p>
+      <h4>2.5.1 <a id="AB-TAG-constraints">Advisory Board and Technical
+          Architecture Group Participation Constraints</a></h4>
+      <p>Given the few seats available on the Advisory Board and the TAG, and in
+        order to ensure that the diversity of W3C Members is represented:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>A Member organization is permitted at most one participant on the
+          TAG.</li>
+        <li>A Member organization is permitted at most one participant on the
+          AB.</li>
+        <li>An individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> participate on
+          both the TAG and the AB.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>If, for whatever reason, these constraints are not satisfied (e.g.,
+        because a TAG or AB participant changes jobs), one participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        cease TAG or AB participation until the situation has been resolved. If
+        after <span class="time-interval">30 days</span> the situation has not
+        been resolved, the Chair will declare one participant's seat to be
+        vacant. When more than one individual is involved, the <a href="#random">verifiable
+          random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to choose
+        one person for continued participation.</p>
+      <h4>2.5.2 <a id="AB-TAG-elections">Advisory Board and Technical
+          Architecture Group Elections</a></h4>
+      <p>The Advisory Board and a portion of the Technical Architecture Group
+        are elected by the Advisory Committee. An election begins when the Team
+        sends a Call for Nominations to the Advisory Committee. Any Call for
+        Nominations specifies the number of available seats, the deadline for
+        nominations, and the address where nominations are sent. The Director <span
+          class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> announce appointments no later than the
+        start of a nomination period, and generally as part of the Call for
+        Nominations.</p>
+      <p>Each Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>)
+        <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> nominate one individual. A nomination <span
+          class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be made with the consent of the nominee.
+        In order for an individual to be nominated as a Member representative,
+        the individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> qualify for <a href="#member-rep">Member
+          representation</a> and the Member's Advisory Committee representative
+        <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include in the nomination the (same) <a
+          href="#member-rep-info">information required for a Member
+          representative in a Working Group</a>. In order for an individual to
+        be nominated as an Invited Expert, the individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        provide the (same) <a href="#inv-expert-info">information required for
+          an Invited Expert in a Working Group</a> and the nominating Advisory
+        Committee representative <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include that
+        information in the nomination. In order for an individual to be
+        nominated as a Team representative, the nominating Advisory Committee
+        representative <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> first secure approval
+        from Team management. A nominee is <span class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span>
+        to be an employee of a Member organization, and <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        be a <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellow</a>. Each nomination <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        include a few informative paragraphs about the nominee.</p>
+      <p>If, after the deadline for nominations, the number of nominees is:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Equal to the number of available seats, those nominees are thereby
+          elected. This situation constitutes a tie for the purposes of
+          assigning <a href="#short-term">short terms</a>.</li>
+        <li>Less than the number of available seats, Calls for Nominations are
+          issued until a sufficient number of people have been nominated. Those
+          already nominated do not need to be renominated after a renewed call.</li>
+        <li>Greater than the number of available seats, the Team issues a Call
+          for Votes that includes the names of all candidates, the number of
+          available seats, the deadline for votes, and the address where votes
+          are sent.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>When there is a vote, each Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related
+          Members</a>) <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> vote for as many
+        candidates as there are available seats; see the section on <a href="#ACVotes">Advisory
+          Committee votes</a>. Once the deadline for votes has passed, the Team
+        announces the results to the Advisory Committee. The candidates with the
+        most votes are elected to the available seats. In case of a tie where
+        there are more apparent winners than available seats (e.g., three
+        candidates receive 10 votes each for two seats), the <a href="#random">verifiable
+          random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to fill
+        the available seats.</p>
+      <p id="short-term">The shortest term is assigned to the elected individual
+        who received the fewest votes, the next shortest to the elected
+        individual who received the next fewest, and so on. In the case of a tie
+        among those eligible for a short term, the <a href="#random">verifiable
+          random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to assign
+        the short term.</p>
+      <p>Refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/10/election-howto">How to
+          Organize an Advisory Board or TAG election</a> [<a href="#ref-election-howto">MEM15</a>]
+        for more details.</p>
+      <h5>2.5.2.1 <a id="random">Verifiable Random Selection Procedure</a></h5>
+      <p>When it is necessary to use a verifiable random selection process
+        (e.g., in an AB or TAG election, to "draw straws" in case of a tie or to
+        fill a short term), W3C uses the random and verifiable procedure defined
+        in <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2777.txt">RFC 2777</a> [<a href="#ref-RFC2777">RFC2777</a>].
+        The procedure orders an input list of names (listed in alphabetical
+        order by family name unless otherwise specified) into a "result order."</p>
+      <p>W3C applies this procedure as follows:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>When N people have tied for M (less than N) seats. In this case,
+          only the names of the N individuals who tied are provided as input to
+          the procedure. The M seats are assigned in result order.</li>
+        <li>After all elected individuals have been identified, when N people
+          are eligible for M (less than N) short terms. In this case, only the
+          names of those N individuals are provided as input to the procedure.
+          The short terms are assigned in result order.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <h4>2.5.3 <a id="AB-TAG-vacated">Advisory Board and Technical
+          Architecture Group Vacated Seats</a></h4>
+      <p>An Advisory Board or TAG participant's seat is vacated when either of
+        the following occurs:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the participant <a href="#resignation">resigns</a>, or</li>
+        <li>the Chair asks the participant to <a href="#resignation">resign</a>,
+          for example because the participant has failed to remain in <a href="#good-standing">Good
+            Standing</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>When an Advisory Board or TAG participant changes affiliations, as long
+        as <a href="#AB-TAG-constraints">Advisory Board and TAG participation
+          constraints</a> are respected, the individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        continue to participate until the next regularly scheduled election for
+        that group. Otherwise, the seat is vacated.</p>
+      <p>Vacated seats are filled according to this schedule:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>When an appointed TAG seat is vacated, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+          re-appoint someone immediately, but no later than the next regularly
+          scheduled election.</li>
+        <li>When an elected seat on either the AB or TAG is vacated, the seat is
+          filled at the next regularly scheduled election for the group unless
+          the group Chair requests that W3C hold an election before then (for
+          instance, due to the group's workload). The group Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD
+            NOT</span> request an exceptional election if the next regularly
+          scheduled election is fewer than three months away.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h2>3 <a id="Policies">General Policies for W3C Groups</a></h2>
+      <p>This section describes general policies for W3C groups regarding
+        participation, meeting requirements, and decision-making. These policies
+        apply to <a id="participant">participants</a> in the following groups:
+        <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>, <a href="#ABParticipation">Advisory
+          Board</a>, <a href="#tag-participation">TAG</a>, <a href="#wgparticipant">Working
+          Groups</a>, <a href="#igparticipant">Interest Groups</a>, and <a href="#cgparticipant">Coordination
+          Groups</a>.</p>
+      <h3>3.1 <a id="ParticipationCriteria">Individual Participation Criteria</a></h3>
+      <p>There are three qualities an individual is expected to demonstrate in
+        order to participate in W3C:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>Technical competence in one's role</li>
+        <li>The ability to act fairly</li>
+        <li>Social competence in one's role</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>Advisory Committee representatives who nominate individuals from their
+        organization for participation in W3C Activities are responsible for
+        assessing and attesting to the qualities of those nominees.</p>
+      <p>See also the participation requirements described in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Disclosure">section
+          6</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <h4>3.1.1 <a id="coi">Conflict of Interest Policy</a></h4>
+      <p>Individuals participating materially in W3C work <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        disclose significant relationships when those relationships might
+        reasonably be perceived as creating a conflict of interest with the
+        individual's role at W3C. These disclosures <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        be kept up-to-date as the individual's affiliations change and W3C
+        membership evolves (since, for example, the individual might have a
+        relationship with an organization that joins or leaves W3C). Each
+        section in this document that describes a W3C group provides more detail
+        about the disclosure mechanisms for that group.</p>
+      <p>The ability of an individual to fulfill a role within a group without
+        risking a conflict of interest is clearly a function of the individual's
+        affiliations. When these affiliations change, the individual's
+        assignment to the role <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be evaluated.
+        The role <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be reassigned according to
+        the appropriate process. For instance, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        appoint a new group Chair when the current Chair changes affiliations
+        (e.g., if there is a risk of conflict of interest, or if there is risk
+        that the Chair's new employer will be over-represented within a W3C
+        Activity).</p>
+      <p>The following are some scenarios where disclosure is appropriate:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Paid consulting for an organization whose activity is relevant to
+          W3C, or any consulting compensated with equity (shares of stock, stock
+          options, or other forms of corporate equity).</li>
+        <li>A decision-making role/responsibility (such as participating on the
+          Board) in other organizations relevant to W3C.</li>
+        <li>A position on a publicly visible advisory body, even if no decision
+          making authority is involved.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Individuals seeking assistance on these matters <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        contact the Team.</p>
+      <p>Team members are subject to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/06-conflictpolicy">W3C
+          Team conflict of interest policy</a> [<a href="#ref-coi">PUB23</a>].</p>
+      <h4>3.1.2 <a id="member-rep">Individuals Representing a Member
+          Organization</a></h4>
+      <p>Generally, individuals representing a Member in an official capacity
+        within W3C are employees of the Member organization. However, an
+        Advisory Committee representative <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        designate a non-employee to represent the Member. Non-employee Member
+        representatives <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> disclose relevant
+        affiliations to the Team and to any group in which the individual
+        participates.</p>
+      <p>In exceptional circumstances (e.g., situations that might jeopardize
+        the progress of a group or create a <a href="#coi">conflict of interest</a>),
+        the <a href="#def-Director">Director</a> <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        decline to allow an individual designated by an Advisory Committee
+        representative to participate in a group.</p>
+      <p>A group charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> limit the number of
+        individuals representing a W3C Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related
+          Members</a>).</p>
+      <h3>3.2 <a id="GeneralMeetings">Meetings</a></h3>
+      <p>W3C groups (including the <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee</a>,
+        <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>, <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>, and <a href="#GroupsWG">Working
+          Groups</a>) <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> observe the meeting
+        requirements in this section.</p>
+      <p>W3C distinguishes two types of meetings:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>A <a id="ftf-meeting">face-to-face meeting</a> is one where most of
+          the attendees are expected to participate in the same physical
+          location.</li>
+        <li>A <a id="distributed-meeting">distributed meeting</a> is one where
+          most of the attendees are expected to participate from remote
+          locations (e.g., by telephone, video conferencing, or <abbr title="Internet Relay Chat">IRC</abbr>).</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>A Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> invite an individual with a
+        particular expertise to attend a meeting on an exceptional basis. This
+        person is a meeting guest, not a group <a href="#participant">participant</a>.
+        Meeting guests do not have <a href="#Votes">voting rights</a>. It is
+        the responsibility of the Chair to ensure that all meeting guests
+        respect the chartered <a href="#confidentiality-levels">level of
+          confidentiality</a> and other group requirements.</p>
+      <p>Meeting announcements <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be sent to
+        all appropriate group mailing lists, i.e., those most relevant to the
+        anticipated meeting participants.</p>
+      <p>The following table lists requirements for organizing a meeting:</p>
+      <table border="1">
+        <tbody>
+          <tr>
+            <th><br>
+            </th>
+            <th>Face-to-face meetings</th>
+            <th>Distributed meetings</th>
+          </tr>
+          <tr>
+            <th>Meeting announcement (before)</th>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">eight weeks<sup>*</sup></span></td>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">one week<sup>*</sup></span></td>
+          </tr>
+          <tr>
+            <th>Agenda available (before)</th>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">two weeks</span></td>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span> (or longer if a
+              meeting is scheduled after a weekend or holiday)</td>
+          </tr>
+          <tr>
+            <th>Participation confirmed (before)</th>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">three days</span></td>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span></td>
+          </tr>
+          <tr>
+            <th>Action items available (after)</th>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">three days</span></td>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span></td>
+          </tr>
+          <tr>
+            <th>Minutes available (after)</th>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">two weeks</span></td>
+            <td><span class="time-interval">48 hours</span></td>
+          </tr>
+        </tbody>
+      </table>
+      <p><sup>*</sup> To allow proper planning (e.g., travel arrangements), the
+        Chair is responsible for giving sufficient advance notice about the date
+        and location of a meeting. Shorter notice for a meeting is allowed
+        provided that there are no objections from group participants.</p>
+      <h3>3.3 <a id="Consensus">Consensus</a></h3>
+      <p>Consensus is a core value of W3C. To promote consensus, the W3C process
+        requires Chairs to ensure that groups consider all legitimate views and
+        objections, and endeavor to resolve them, whether these views and
+        objections are expressed by the active participants of the group or by
+        others (e.g., another W3C group, a group in another organization, or the
+        general public). Decisions <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be made
+        during meetings (<a href="#ftf-meeting">face-to-face</a> or <a href="#distributed-meeting">distributed</a>)
+        as well as through email. <strong>Note:</strong> The Director, W3C
+        Chair, and COO have the role of assessing consensus within the Advisory
+        Committee.</p>
+      <p>The following terms are used in this document to describe the level of
+        support for a decision among a set of eligible individuals:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li><a id="def-Consensus">Consensus</a>: A substantial number of
+          individuals in the set support the decision and nobody in the set
+          registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.
+          Individuals in the set may abstain. Abstention is either an explicit
+          expression of no opinion or silence by an individual in the set. <a id="def-Unanimity">Unanimity</a>
+          is the particular case of consensus where all individuals in the set
+          support the decision (i.e., no individual in the set abstains).</li>
+        <li><a id="def-Dissent">Dissent</a>: At least one individual in the set
+          registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>By default, the set of individuals eligible to participate in a
+        decision is the set of group participants in <a href="#good-standing">Good
+          Standing</a>. The Process Document does not require a quorum for
+        decisions (i.e., the minimal number of eligible participants required to
+        be present before the Chair can call a question). A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        include a quorum requirement for consensus decisions.</p>
+      <p>Where unanimity is not possible, a group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        strive to make consensus decisions where there is significant support
+        and few abstentions. The Process Document does not require a particular
+        percentage of eligible participants to agree to a motion in order for a
+        decision to be made. To avoid decisions where there is widespread
+        apathy, (i.e., little support and many abstentions), groups <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        set minimum thresholds of active support before a decision can be
+        recorded. The appropriate percentage <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        vary depending on the size of the group and the nature of the decision.
+        A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include threshold
+        requirements for consensus decisions. For instance, a charter might
+        require a supermajority of eligible participants (i.e., some established
+        percentage above 50%) to support certain types of consensus decisions.</p>
+      <h4>3.3.1 <a id="managing-dissent">Managing Dissent</a></h4>
+      <p>In some cases, even after careful consideration of all points of view,
+        a group might find itself unable to reach consensus. The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        record a decision where there is dissent (i.e., there is at least one <a
+          href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>) so that the group may
+        make progress (for example, to produce a deliverable in a timely
+        manner). Dissenters cannot stop a group's work simply by saying that
+        they cannot live with a decision. When the Chair believes that the Group
+        has duly considered the legitimate concerns of dissenters as far as is
+        possible and reasonable, the group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        move on.</p>
+      <p>Groups <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> favor proposals that create
+        the weakest objections. This is preferred over proposals that are
+        supported by a large majority but that cause strong objections from a
+        few people. As part of making a decision where there is dissent, the
+        Chair is expected to be aware of which participants work for the same
+        (or <a href="#MemberRelated">related</a>) Member organizations and
+        weigh their input accordingly.</p>
+      <h4>3.3.2 <a id="WGArchiveMinorityViews">Recording and Reporting Formal
+          Objections</a></h4>
+      <p>In the W3C process, an individual may register a Formal Objection to a
+        decision. A <a id="FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a> to a group
+        decision is one that the reviewer requests that the Director consider as
+        part of evaluating the related decision (e.g., in response to a <a href="#rec-advance">request
+          to advance</a> a technical report). <strong>Note:</strong> In this
+        document, the term "Formal Objection" is used to emphasize this process
+        implication: Formal Objections receive Director consideration. The word
+        "objection" used alone has ordinary English connotations.</p>
+      <p>An individual who registers a Formal Objection <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        cite technical arguments and propose changes that would remove the
+        Formal Objection; these proposals <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be
+        vague or incomplete. Formal Objections that do not provide substantive
+        arguments or rationale are unlikely to receive serious consideration by
+        the Director.</p>
+      <p>A record of each Formal Objection <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be
+        <a href="#confidentiality-change">publicly available</a>. A Call for
+        Review (of a document) to the Advisory Committee <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        identify any Formal Objections.</p>
+      <h4>3.3.3 <a id="formal-address">Formally Addressing an Issue</a></h4>
+      <p>In the context of this document, a group has formally addressed an
+        issue when it has sent a public, substantive response to the reviewer
+        who raised the issue. A substantive response is expected to include
+        rationale for decisions (e.g., a technical explanation, a pointer to
+        charter scope, or a pointer to a requirements document). The adequacy of
+        a response is measured against what a W3C reviewer would generally
+        consider to be technically sound. If a group believes that a reviewer's
+        comments result from a misunderstanding, the group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        seek clarification before reaching a decision.</p>
+      <p>As a courtesy, both Chairs and reviewers <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        set expectations for the schedule of responses and acknowledgments. The
+        group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> reply to a reviewer's initial
+        comments in a timely manner. The group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        set a time limit for acknowledgment by a reviewer of the group's
+        substantive response; a reviewer cannot block a group's progress. It is
+        common for a reviewer to require a week or more to acknowledge and
+        comment on a substantive response. The group's responsibility to respond
+        to reviewers does not end once a reasonable amount of time has elapsed.
+        However, reviewers <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> realize that
+        their comments will carry less weight if not sent to the group in a
+        timely manner.</p>
+      <p>Substantive responses <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be recorded.
+        The group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> maintain an accurate
+        summary of all substantive issues and responses to them (e.g., in the
+        form of an issues list with links to mailing list archives).</p>
+      <h4>3.3.4 <a id="WGChairReopen">Reopening a Decision When Presented With
+          New Information</a></h4>
+      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> reopen a decision when
+        presented with new information, including:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>additional technical information,</li>
+        <li>comments by email from participants who were unable to attend a
+          scheduled meeting,</li>
+        <li>comments by email from meeting attendees who chose not to speak out
+          during a meeting (e.g., so they could confer later with colleagues or
+          for cultural reasons).</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> record that a decision
+        has been reopened, and <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> do so upon
+        request from a group participant.</p>
+      <h3>3.4 <a id="Votes">Votes</a></h3>
+      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> only conduct a vote to
+        resolve a <em>substantive issue</em> after the Chair has determined
+        that all available means of <a href="#Consensus">reaching consensus</a>
+        through technical discussion and compromise have failed, and that a vote
+        is necessary to break a deadlock. In this case the Chair <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        record (e.g., in the minutes of the meeting or in an archived email
+        message):</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>an explanation of the issue being voted on;</li>
+        <li>the decision to conduct a vote (e.g., a simple majority vote) to
+          resolve the issue;</li>
+        <li>the outcome of the vote;</li>
+        <li>any Formal Objections.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>In order to vote to resolve a substantive issue, an individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        be a group <a href="#participant">participant</a> in <a href="#good-standing">Good
+          Standing</a>. Each organization represented in the group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        have at most one vote, even when the organization is represented by
+        several participants in the group (including Invited Experts). For the
+        purposes of voting:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>A Member or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>
+          is considered a single organization.</li>
+        <li>The <a href="#Team">Team</a> is considered an organization.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Unless the charter states otherwise, <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
+          Experts</a> <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> vote.</p>
+      <p>If a participant is unable to attend a vote, that individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        authorize anyone at the meeting to act as a <a id="proxy">proxy</a>.
+        The absent participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> inform the
+        Chair in writing who is acting as proxy, with written instructions on
+        the use of the proxy. For a Working Group or Interest Group, see the
+        related requirements regarding an individual who attends a meeting as a
+        <a href="#mtg-substitute">substitute</a> for a participant.</p>
+      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> vote for other purposes than
+        to resolve a substantive issue. For instance, the Chair often conducts a
+        "straw poll" vote as a means of determining whether there is consensus
+        about a potential decision.</p>
+      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> also vote to make a process
+        decision. For example, it is appropriate to decide by simple majority
+        whether to hold a meeting in San Francisco or San Jose (there's not much
+        difference geographically). When simple majority votes are used to
+        decide minor issues, the minority are <span class="rfc2119">NOT
+          REQUIRED</span> to state the reasons for their dissent, and the group
+        is <span class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span> to record individual
+        votes.</p>
+      <p>A group charter <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> include formal
+        voting procedures (e.g., quorum or threshold requirements) for making
+        decisions about substantive issues.</p>
+      <p>Procedures for <a href="#ACVotes">Advisory Committee votes</a> are
+        described separately.</p>
+      <h3>3.5 <a id="WGAppeals">Appeal of a Chair's Decision</a></h3>
+      <p>Groups resolve issues through dialog. Individuals who disagree strongly
+        with a decision <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> register with the
+        Chair any <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objections</a> (e.g., to a
+        decision made as the result of a <a href="#Votes">vote</a>).</p>
+      <p>When group participants believe that their concerns are not being duly
+        considered by the group, they <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> ask the
+        <a href="#def-Director">Director</a> (for representatives of a Member
+        organization, via their Advisory Committee representative) to confirm or
+        deny the decision. The participants <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        also make their requests known to the <a href="#TeamContact">Team
+          Contact</a>. The Team Contact <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        inform the Director when a group participant has raised concerns about
+        due process.</p>
+      <p>Any requests to the Director to confirm a decision <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        include a summary of the issue (whether technical or procedural),
+        decision, and rationale for the objection. All counter-arguments,
+        rationales, and decisions <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be
+        recorded.</p>
+      <p>Procedures for <a href="#ACAppeal">Advisory Committee appeals</a> are
+        described separately.</p>
+      <h3>3.6 <a id="resignation">Resignation from a Group</a></h3>
+      <p>A W3C Member or Invited Expert <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> resign
+        from a group. The Team will establish administrative procedures for
+        resignation. See section 4.2. of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+Patent
+          Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>] for information
+        about obligations remaining after resignation from certain groups.</p>
+      <h2>4 <a id="dissemination">Dissemination Policies</a></h2>
+      <p>The Team is responsible for managing communication within W3C and with
+        the general public (e.g., news services, press releases, managing the
+        Web site and access privileges, and managing calendars). Members <span
+          class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> solicit review by the Team prior to
+        issuing press releases about their work within W3C.</p>
+      <p>The Team makes every effort to ensure the persistence and availability
+        of the following public information:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><a href="#Reports">W3C technical reports</a> whose publication has
+          been approved by the Director. Per the Membership Agreement, W3C
+          technical reports (and software) are available free of charge to the
+          general public; (refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">W3C
+            Document License</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-license">PUB18</a>]).</li>
+        <li>A <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission">mission statement</a>
+          [<a href="#ref-mission">PUB15</a>] that explains the purpose and
+          mission of W3C, the key benefits for Members, and the organizational
+          structure of W3C.</li>
+        <li>Legal documents, including the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
+            Agreement</a> [<a href="#ref-member-agreement">PUB6</a>]) and
+          documentation of any legal commitments W3C has with other entities.</li>
+        <li>The Process Document.</li>
+        <li>Public results of W3C Activities and <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>To keep the Members abreast of W3C meetings, Workshops, and review
+        deadlines, the Team provides them with a regular (e.g., weekly) news
+        service and maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Eventscal">calendar</a>
+        [<a href="#ref-calendar">MEM3</a>] of official W3C events. Members are
+        encouraged to send schedule and event information to the Team for
+        inclusion on this calendar.</p>
+      <h3>4.1 <a id="confidentiality-levels">Confidentiality Levels</a></h3>
+      <p>There are three principal levels of access to W3C information (on the
+        W3C Web site, in W3C meetings, etc.): public, Member-only, and
+        Team-only.</p>
+      <p>While much information made available by W3C is public, <a id="Member-only">"Member-only"
+          information</a> is available to authorized parties only, including
+        representatives of Member organizations, <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
+          Experts</a>, the Advisory Board, the TAG, and the Team. For example,
+        the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a> of some Working Groups may specify
+        a Member-only confidentiality level for group proceedings.</p>
+      <p><a id="Team-only">"Team-only" information</a> is available to the Team
+        and other authorized parties.</p>
+      <p>Those authorized to access Member-only and Team-only information:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> treat the information as
+          confidential within W3C,</li>
+        <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> use reasonable efforts to maintain
+          the proper level confidentiality, and</li>
+        <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> release this information to
+          the general public or press.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide mechanisms to
+        protect the confidentiality of Member-only information and ensure that
+        authorized parties have proper access to this information. Documents <span
+          class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> clearly indicate whether they require
+        Member-only confidentiality. Individuals uncertain of the
+        confidentiality level of a piece of information <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        contact the Team.</p>
+      <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        authorize Member-only access to <a href="#member-rep">Member
+          representatives</a> and other individuals employed by the Member who
+        are considered appropriate recipients. For instance, it is the
+        responsibility of the Advisory Committee representative and other
+        employees and official representatives of the organization to ensure
+        that Member-only news announcements are distributed for internal use
+        only within their organization. Information about Member mailing lists
+        is available in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New Member
+          Orientation</a>.</p>
+      <h4>4.1.1 <a id="confidentiality-change">Changing Confidentiality Level</a></h4>
+      <p>As a benefit of membership, W3C provides some Team-only and Member-only
+        channels for certain types of communication. For example, Advisory
+        Committee representatives can send <a href="#ACReview">reviews</a> to a
+        Team-only channel. However, for W3C processes with a significant public
+        component, such as the technical report development process, it is also
+        important for information that affects decision-making to be publicly
+        available. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> need to
+        communicate Team-only information to a Working Group or the public.
+        Similarly, a Working Group whose proceedings are Member-only <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        make public information pertinent to the technical report development
+        process.</p>
+      <p>This document clearly indicates which information <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        be available to Members or the public, even though that information was
+        initially communicated on Team-only or Member-only channels. Only the
+        Team and parties authorized by the Team change the level of
+        confidentiality of this information. When doing so:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> use a version of the
+          information that was expressly provided by the author for the new
+          confidentiality level. In Calls for Review and other similar messages,
+          the Team <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> remind recipients to
+          provide such alternatives.</li>
+        <li>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> attribute the
+          version for the new confidentiality level to the author without the
+          author's consent.</li>
+        <li>If the author has not conveyed to the Team a version that is
+          suitable for another confidentiality level, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+          make available a version that reasonably communicates what is
+          required, while respecting the original level of confidentiality, and
+          without attribution to the original author.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <h2>5 <a id="Activities">Activities</a></h2>
+      <p>This section describes the mechanisms for establishing consensus within
+        the areas of Web development the Consortium chooses to pursue. An <a id="def-Activity">Activity</a>
+        organizes the work necessary for the development or evolution of a Web
+        technology.</p>
+      <p>W3C starts an Activity based on interest from the Members and Team. W3C
+        Members build interest around new work through discussions among
+        Advisory Committee representatives, Chairs, and Team, and through the <a
+          href="#Submission">Submission process</a>. The Team tracks Web
+        developments inside and outside W3C, manages <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons</a>,
+        and organizes <a href="#EventsW">Workshops</a>.</p>
+      <p>Based on input from the Team and Members about the structure and scope
+        of an Activity, the Team sends an <a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity
+          Proposal</a> to the Advisory Committee. This is a proposal to dedicate
+        Team and Member resources to a particular area of Web technology or
+        policy, and when there is consensus about the motivation, scope, and
+        structure of the proposed work, W3C starts a new Activity.</p>
+      <p>Each Activity has its own structure that generally includes Working
+        Groups, Interest Groups, and Coordination Groups. Within the framework
+        of an Activity, these groups produce technical reports, review the work
+        of other groups, and develop sample code or test suites.</p>
+      <p>The progress of each Activity is documented in an <a id="ActivityStatement">Activity
+          Statement</a>. Activity Statements describe the goals of the Activity,
+        completed and unfinished deliverables, changing perspectives based on
+        experience, and future plans. At least before each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory
+          Committee meeting</a>, the Team <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        revise the Activity Statement for each Activity that has not been
+        closed.</p>
+      <p>Refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/activities">list of
+          W3C Activities</a> [<a href="#ref-activity-list">PUB9</a>]. <strong>Note:</strong>
+        This list <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include some Activities that
+        began prior to the formalization in 1997 of the Activity creation
+        process.</p>
+      <h3>5.1 <a id="ActivityDevelopment">Activity Proposal Development</a></h3>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> notify the Advisory
+        Committee when a proposal for a new or modified Activity is in
+        development. This is intended to raise awareness, even if no formal
+        proposal is yet available. Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        express their general support on the <a href="#ACCommunication">Advisory
+          Committee discussion list</a>. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        incorporate discussion points into an Activity Proposal. Refer to
+        additional <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/05/rec-tips">tips on getting
+          to Recommendation faster</a> [<a href="#ref-rec-tips">PUB27</a>].</p>
+      <h3>5.2 <a id="ActivityCreation">Advisory Committee Review</a> of an
+        Activity Proposal</h3>
+      <p>The Director <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> solicit <a href="#ReviewAppeal">Advisory
+          Committee review</a> of every proposal to create, substantively
+        modify, or extend an Activity.</p>
+      <p>After a Call for Review from the Director, the Advisory Committee <a href="#ACReview">reviews</a>
+        and comments on the proposal. The review period <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        be at least <span class="time-interval">four weeks</span>.</p>
+      <p>The Director announces to the Advisory Committee whether there is
+        consensus within W3C to create or modify the Activity (possibly with
+        changes suggested during the review). For a new Activity, this
+        announcement officially creates the Activity. This announcement <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        include a <a href="#cfp">Call for Participation</a> in any groups
+        created as part of the Activity.</p>
+      <p>If there was <a href="#def-Dissent">dissent</a>, Advisory Committee
+        representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a>
+        a decision to create, modify, or extend the Activity. <strong>Note:</strong>
+        There is no appeal of a decision <em>not</em> to create an Activity; in
+        general, drafting a new Activity Proposal will be simpler than following
+        the appeal process.</p>
+      <h3>5.3 <a id="ActivityModification">Modification of an Activity</a></h3>
+      <p>Activities are intended to be flexible. W3C expects participants to be
+        able to adapt in the face of new ideas (e.g., Member Submission
+        requests) and increased understanding of goals and context, while
+        remaining true to the intent of the original Activity Proposal. If it
+        becomes necessary to make substantive changes to an Activity (e.g.,
+        because significant additional resources are necessary or because the
+        Activity's scope has clearly changed from the original proposal), then
+        the Director <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> solicit <a href="#ActivityCreation">Advisory
+          Committee review</a> of a complete <a href="#BPCreation">Activity
+          Proposal</a>, including rationale for the changes.</p>
+      <h3>5.4 <a id="ActivityExtension">Extension of an Activity</a></h3>
+      <p>When the Director solicits <a href="#ActivityCreation">Advisory
+          Committee review</a> of a proposal to extend the duration of an
+        Activity with no other substantive modifications to the composition of
+        the Activity, the proposal <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> indicate
+        the new duration and include rationale for the extension. The Director
+        is <span class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span> to submit a complete <a href="#BPCreation">Activity
+          Proposal</a>.</p>
+      <h3>5.5 <a id="ActivityTermination">Activity Closure</a></h3>
+      <p>An Activity Proposal specifies a duration for the Activity. The
+        Director, subject to <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> by Advisory
+        Committee representatives, <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> close an
+        Activity prior to the date specified in the proposal in any of the
+        following circumstances:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Groups in the Activity fail to produce chartered deliverables.</li>
+        <li>Groups in the Activity produce chartered deliverables ahead of
+          schedule.</li>
+        <li>There are insufficient resources to maintain the Activity, according
+          to priorities established within W3C.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Director closes an Activity by announcement to the Advisory
+        Committee.</p>
+      <h3>5.6 <a id="ActivityProposal">Activity Proposals</a></h3>
+      <p>An Activity Proposal defines the initial scope and structure of an
+        Activity. The proposal <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include or
+        reference the following information:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>An Activity summary. What is the nature of the Activity (e.g., to
+          track developments, create technical reports, develop code, organize
+          pilot experiments, or for education)? Who or what group wants this
+          (providers or users)?</li>
+        <li>Context information. Why is this Activity being proposed now? What
+          is the situation in the world (e.g., with respect to the Web
+          community, market, research, or society)? within the scope of the
+          proposal? Who or what currently exists that is pertinent to this
+          Activity? Is the community mature/growing/developing a niche? What
+          competing technologies exist? What competing organizations exist?</li>
+        <li>A description of the Activity's scope. How might a potential
+          Recommendation interact and overlap with existing international
+          standards and Recommendations? What organizations are likely to be
+          affected by potential overlap (see the section on <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons
+            with other organizations</a>)? What should be changed if the
+          Activity is approved?</li>
+        <li>A description of the Activity's initial deployment, including:
+          <ul>
+            <li>The duration of the Activity.</li>
+            <li>What <a href="#GAGroups">groups</a> will be created as part of
+              this Activity and how those groups will be coordinated. For each
+              group, the proposal <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include a
+              provisional charter. Groups <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be
+              scheduled to run concurrently or sequentially (either because of a
+              dependency or an expected overlap in membership and the
+              desirability of working on one subject at a time). These charters
+              <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be amended based on review
+              comments before the Director issues a <a href="#cfp">Call for
+                Participation</a>.</li>
+            <li>The expected timeline of the Activity, including proposed
+              deliverable dates and scheduled <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops and
+                Symposia</a>.</li>
+            <li>If known, the date of the first <a href="#ftf-meeting">face-to-face
+                meeting</a> of each proposed group. The date of the first
+              face-to-face meeting of a proposed group <span class="rfc2119">MUST
+                NOT</span> be sooner than <span class="time-interval">eight
+                weeks</span> after the date of the <a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity
+                Proposal</a>.</li>
+          </ul>
+        </li>
+        <li>A summary of resources (Member, Team, administrative, technical, and
+          financial) expected to be dedicated to the Activity. The proposal <span
+            class="rfc2119">MAY</span> specify the threshold level of effort
+          that Members are expected to pledge in order for the Activity to be
+          accepted.</li>
+        <li>Information about known dependencies within W3C or outside of W3C.</li>
+        <li>Intellectual property information. What are the intellectual
+          property (including patents and copyright) considerations affecting
+          the success of the Activity? In particular, is there any reason to
+          believe that it will be difficult to meet the Royalty-Free licensing
+          goals of section 2 of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]?</li>
+        <li>A list of supporters and references. What community is expected to
+          benefit from this Activity? Are members of this community part of W3C
+          now? Are they expected to join the effort?</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h2>6 <a id="GAGeneral">Working Groups, Interest Groups, and Coordination
+          Groups</a></h2>
+      <p><a id="GAGroups">This document defines three types of groups:</a></p>
+      <ol>
+        <li><a href="#GroupsWG">Working Groups.</a> Working Groups typically
+          produce deliverables (e.g., <a href="#rec-advance">Recommendation
+            Track technical reports</a>, software, test suites, and reviews of
+          the deliverables of other groups). There are <a href="#good-standing">Good
+            Standing</a> requirements for Working Group participation as well as
+          additional participation requirements described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</li>
+        <li><a href="#GroupsIG">Interest Groups.</a> The primary goal of an
+          Interest Group is to bring together people who wish to evaluate
+          potential Web technologies and policies. An Interest Group is a forum
+          for the exchange of ideas.</li>
+        <li><a href="#GroupsCG">Coordination Groups.</a> A Coordination Group
+          manages dependencies and facilitates communication with other groups,
+          within or outside of W3C.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>Neither Interest Groups nor Coordination Groups publish <a href="#RecsW3C">Recommendation
+          Track technical reports</a>; see information about <a href="#WGNote">maturity
+          levels for Interest Groups and Coordination Groups</a>.</p>
+      <h3>6.1 <a id="ReqsAllGroups">Requirements for All Working, Interest, and
+          Coordination Groups</a></h3>
+      <p>Each group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have a charter.
+        Requirements for the charter depend on the group type. All group
+        charters <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be public (even if other
+        proceedings of the group are <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a>).
+        Existing charters that are not yet public <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        be made public when next revised or extended (with attention to <a href="#confidentiality-change">changing
+          confidentiality level</a>).</p>
+      <p>Each group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have a <a id="GeneralChairs">Chair</a>
+        (or co-Chairs) to coordinate the group's tasks. The Director appoints
+        (and re-appoints) Chairs for all groups. The Chair is a <a href="#member-rep">Member
+          representative</a>, a <a href="#Team">Team representative</a>, or an
+        <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited Expert</a> (invited by the
+        Director). The requirements of this document that apply to those types
+        of participants apply to Chairs as well. The <a href="/Guide/chair-roles">role
+          of the Chair [MEM14]</a> is described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/">Member
+          guide</a> [<a href="#ref-guide">MEM9</a>].</p>
+      <p>Each group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have a <a id="TeamContact">Team
+          Contact</a>, who acts as the interface between the Chair, group
+        participants, and the rest of the Team. The <a href="/Guide/staff-contact">role
+          of the Team Contact</a> is described in the Member guide. The Chair
+        and the Team Contact of a group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</span>
+        be the same individual.</p>
+      <p>Each group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have an archived mailing
+        list for formal group communication (e.g., for meeting announcements and
+        minutes, documentation of decisions, and <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal
+          Objections</a> to decisions). It is the responsibility of the Chair
+        and Team Contact to ensure that new participants are subscribed to all
+        relevant mailing lists. Refer to the list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Mail/">group
+mailing
+          lists</a> [<a href="#ref-mailing-lists">MEM2</a>].</p>
+      <p>A Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> form task forces (composed of
+        group participants) to carry out assignments for the group. The scope of
+        these assignments <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> exceed the
+        scope of the group's charter. A group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        document the process it uses to create task forces (e.g., each task
+        force might have an informal "charter"). Task forces do not publish <a
+          href="#Reports">technical reports</a>; the Working Group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        choose to publish their results as part of a technical report.</p>
+      <h3>6.2 <a id="GroupsWG">Working Groups</a> and <a id="GroupsIG">Interest
+          Groups</a></h3>
+      <p>Although Working Groups and Interest Groups have different purposes,
+        they share some characteristics, and so are defined together in the
+        following sections.</p>
+      <h4>6.2.1 <a id="group-participation">Working Group and Interest Group
+          Participation Requirements</a></h4>
+      <p>There are three types of individual <a id="wgparticipant">participants
+          in a Working Group</a>: <a href="#member-rep">Member representatives</a>,
+        <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited Experts</a>, and <a href="#Team">Team
+          representatives</a> (including the <a href="#TeamContact">Team
+          Contact</a>).</p>
+      <p>There are four types of individual <a id="igparticipant">participants
+          in an Interest Group</a>: the same three types as for Working Groups
+        plus, for an Interest Group where the only <a href="#ig-mail-only">participation
+          requirement is mailing list subscription</a>, <a id="public-participant-ig">public
+          participants</a>.</p>
+      <p>Except where noted in this document or in a group charter, all
+        participants share the same rights and responsibilities in a group; see
+        also the <a href="#ParticipationCriteria">individual participation
+          criteria</a>.</p>
+      <p>A participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> represent at most one
+        organization in a Working Group or Interest Group.</p>
+      <p>An individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> become a Working or
+        Interest Group participant at any time during the group's existence. See
+        also relevant requirements in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-join">section
+          4.3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <p>On an exceptional basis, a Working or Interest Group participant <span
+          class="rfc2119">MAY</span> designate a <a id="mtg-substitute">substitute</a>
+        to attend a <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meeting</a> and <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        inform the Chair. The substitute <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> act
+        on behalf of the participant, including for <a href="#Votes">votes</a>.
+        For the substitute to vote, the participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        inform the Chair in writing in advance. As a courtesy to the group, if
+        the substitute is not well-versed in the group's discussions, the
+        regular participant <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> authorize
+        another participant to act as <a href="#proxy">proxy</a> for votes. For
+        the purposes of <a href="#good-standing">Good Standing</a>, the regular
+        representative and the substitute are considered the same participant.</p>
+      <p>To allow rapid progress, Working Groups are intended to be small
+        (typically fewer than 15 people) and composed of experts in the area
+        defined by the charter. In principle, Interest Groups have no limit on
+        the number of participants. When a Working Group grows too large to be
+        effective, W3C <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> split it into an
+        Interest Group (a discussion forum) and a much smaller Working Group (a
+        core group of highly dedicated participants).</p>
+      <p>See also the licensing obligations on Working Group participants in <a
+          href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
+          3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>], and the
+        patent claim exclusion process of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Exclusion">section
+          4</a>.</p>
+      <h5>6.2.1.1 <a id="member-rep-wg">Member Representative</a> in a Working
+        Group</h5>
+      <p>An individual is a Member representative in a Working Group if all of
+        the following conditions are satisfied:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the Advisory Committee representative of the Member in question has
+          designated the individual as a Working Group participant, and</li>
+        <li>the individual qualifies for <a href="#member-rep">Member
+            representation</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p><a id="member-rep-info">To designate an individual as a Member
+          representative in a Working Group</a>, an Advisory Committee
+        representative <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide the Chair and
+        Team Contact with all of the following information, in addition to any
+        other information required by the <a href="#cfp">Call for Participation</a>
+        and charter (including the participation requirements of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]):</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>The name of the W3C Member the individual represents and whether the
+          individual is an employee of that Member organization;</li>
+        <li>A statement that the individual accepts the participation terms set
+          forth in the charter (with an indication of charter date or version);</li>
+        <li>A statement that the Member will provide the necessary financial
+          support for participation (e.g., for travel, telephone calls, and
+          conferences).</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>A Member participates in a Working Group from the moment the first
+        Member representative joins the group until either of the following
+        occurs:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the group closes, or</li>
+        <li>the Member <a href="#resignation">resigns</a> from the Working
+          Group; this is done through the Member's Advisory Committee
+          representative.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h5>6.2.1.2 <a id="member-rep-ig">Member Representative</a> in an
+        Interest Group</h5>
+      <p>When the participation requirements exceed <a href="#ig-mail-only">Interest
+Group
+          mailing list subscription</a>, an individual is a Member
+        representative in an Interest Group if all of the following conditions
+        are satisfied:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the Advisory Committee representative of the Member in question has
+          designated the individual as an Interest Group participant, and</li>
+        <li>the individual qualifies for <a href="#member-rep">Member
+            representation</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>To designate an individual as a Member representative in an Interest
+        Group, the Advisory Committee representative <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        follow the instructions in the <a href="#cfp">Call for Participation</a>
+        and charter.</p>
+      <p>Member participation in an Interest Group ceases under the same
+        conditions as for a Working Group.</p>
+      <h5>6.2.1.3 <a id="invited-expert-wg">Invited Expert</a> in a Working
+        Group</h5>
+      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> invite an individual with a
+        particular expertise to participate in a Working Group. This individual
+        <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> represent an organization in the group
+        (e.g., if acting as a liaison with another organization).</p>
+      <p>An individual is an Invited Expert in a Working Group if all of the
+        following conditions are satisfied:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the Chair has designated the individual as a group participant,</li>
+        <li>the Team Contact has agreed with the Chair's choice, and</li>
+        <li>the individual has provided the <a href="#inv-expert-info">information
+required
+            of an Invited Expert</a> to the Chair and Team Contact.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>To designate an individual as an Invited Expert in a Working Group, the
+        Chair <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> inform the Team Contact and
+        provide rationale for the choice. When the Chair and the Team Contact
+        disagree about a designation, the <a href="#def-Director">Director</a>
+        determines whether the individual will be invited to participate in the
+        Working Group.</p>
+      <p><a id="inv-expert-info">To be able to participate in a Working Group as
+          an Invited Expert</a>, an individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        do all of the following:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>identify the organization, if any, the individual represents as a
+          participant in this group,</li>
+        <li>agree to the terms of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/collaborators-agreement">invited
+            expert and collaborators agreement</a> [<a href="#ref-invited-expert">PUB17</a>],</li>
+        <li>accept the participation terms set forth in the charter (including
+          the participation requirements of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
+            3</a> (especially 3.4) and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Disclosure">section
+            6</a> (especially 6.10) of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]). Indicate
+          a specific charter date or version,</li>
+        <li>disclose whether the individual is an employee of a W3C Member; see
+          the <a href="#coi">conflict of interest policy</a>,</li>
+        <li>provide a statement of who will provide the necessary financial
+          support for the individual's participation (e.g., for travel,
+          telephone calls, and conferences), and</li>
+        <li>if the individual's employer (including a self-employed individual)
+          or the organization the individual represents is not a W3C Member,
+          indicate whether that organization intends to join W3C. If the
+          organization does not intend to join W3C, indicate reasons the
+          individual is aware of for this choice.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</span> designate as an
+        Invited Expert in a Working Group an individual who is an employee of a
+        W3C Member. The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> use Invited
+        Expert status to circumvent participation limits imposed by the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a>.</p>
+      <p>An Invited Expert participates in a Working Group from the moment the
+        individual joins the group until any of the following occurs:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the group closes, or</li>
+        <li>the Chair or Director withdraws the invitation to participate, or</li>
+        <li>the individual <a href="#resignation">resigns</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h5>6.2.1.4 <a id="invited-expert-ig">Invited Expert</a> in an Interest
+        Group</h5>
+      <p>When the participation requirements exceed <a href="#ig-mail-only">Interest
+Group
+          mailing list subscription</a>, the participation requirements for an
+        Invited Expert in an Interest Group are the same as those for an <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
+          Expert in a Working Group</a>.</p>
+      <h5>6.2.1.5 <a id="team-rep-wg">Team Representative in a Working Group</a></h5>
+      <p>An individual is a Team representative in a Working Group when so
+        designated by W3C management.</p>
+      <p>An Team representative participates in a Working Group from the moment
+        the individual joins the group until any of the following occurs:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the group closes, or</li>
+        <li>W3C management changes Team representation by sending email to the
+          Chair, cc'ing the group mailing list.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Team participates in a Working Group from the moment the Director
+        announces the creation of the group until the group closes.</p>
+      <h5>6.2.1.6 <a id="team-rep-ig">Team Representative in an Interest Group</a></h5>
+      <p>When the participation requirements exceed <a href="#ig-mail-only">Interest
+Group
+          mailing list subscription</a>, an individual is a Team representative
+        in an Interest Group when so designated by W3C management.</p>
+      <h5>6.2.1.7 <a id="good-standing">Good Standing in a Working Group</a></h5>
+      <p>Participation by an individual in a Working Group on an ongoing basis
+        implies a serious commitment to the charter, including all of the
+        following:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>attending most meetings of the Working Group.</li>
+        <li>providing deliverables or drafts of deliverables in a timely
+          fashion.</li>
+        <li>being familiar with the relevant documents of the Working Group,
+          including minutes of past meetings.</li>
+        <li>following discussions on relevant mailing list(s).</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>At the first Working Group meeting that follows any <a href="#cfp">Call
+          for Participation</a>, all participants are in Good Standing. If a
+        Member or Invited Expert joins the Working Group after the end of that
+        meeting, the Member Representative or Invited Expert does not attain
+        Good Standing until the start of the second consecutive meeting that
+        individual attends.</p>
+      <p>When the Chair and the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a> agree,
+        the Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> declare that a participant
+        is no longer in Good Standing (henceforth called "Bad Standing"). If
+        there is disagreement between the Chair and the Team Contact about
+        standing, the Director determines the participant's standing. The Chair
+        <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> declare a Team participant to be in Bad
+        Standing, but it is clearly preferable for the Chair, Team participant,
+        and W3C management to resolve issues internally.</p>
+      <p>A participant <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be declared in Bad
+        Standing in any of the following circumstances:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>the individual has missed more than one of the last three <a href="#distributed-meeting">distributed
+            meetings</a>.</li>
+        <li>the individual has missed more than one of the last three <a href="#ftf-meeting">face-to-face
+            meetings</a>.</li>
+        <li>the individual has not provided deliverables in a timely fashion
+          twice in sequence.</li>
+        <li>the individual has not followed the <a href="#coi">conflict of
+            interest policy</a> by disclosing information to the rest of the
+          group.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Although all participants representing an organization <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        attend all meetings, attendance by one representative of an organization
+        satisfies the meeting attendance requirement for all representatives of
+        the organization.</p>
+      <p>The above criteria <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be relaxed if the
+        Chair and Team Contact agree that doing so will not set back the Working
+        Group. For example, the attendance requirement can be relaxed for
+        reasons of expense (e.g., cost of travel) or scheduling (for example, an
+        exceptional teleconference is scheduled at 3:00 a.m. local time for the
+        participant). It is the responsibility of the Chair and Team Contact to
+        apply criteria for Good Standing consistently.</p>
+      <p>When a participant risks losing Good Standing, the Chair and Team
+        Contact are expected to discuss the matter with the participant and the
+        participant's Advisory Committee representative (or W3C management for
+        the Team) before declaring the participant in Bad Standing.</p>
+      <p>The Chair declares a participant in Bad Standing by informing the
+        participant's Advisory Committee representative and the participant of
+        the decision. If the Advisory Committee representative and Chair differ
+        in opinion, the Advisory Committee representative <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        ask the <a href="#def-Director">Director</a> to confirm or deny the
+        decision. <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited Experts</a> declared in
+        Bad Standing <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> appeal to the Director.</p>
+      <p>The Chair and Team Contact restore Good Standing and <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        do so when the individual in Bad Standing satisfies the above criteria.
+        The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> inform the individual's
+        Advisory Committee representative of any change in standing.</p>
+      <p>When a Member representative permanently replaces another (i.e., is not
+        simply a temporary <a href="#mtg-substitute">substitute</a>), the new
+        participant inherits the standing of the departing participant.</p>
+      <p>Changes in an individual's standing in a Working Group have no effect
+        on the obligations associated with Working Group participation that are
+        described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <p><strong>Note:</strong> In general, the time commitment for
+        participating in an Interest Group is less than that for a Working
+        Group; see the section on <a href="#ig-charter-participation">participation
+          provisions in an Interest Group charter</a>.</p>
+      <h4>6.2.2 <a id="WGCharterDevelopment">Working Group and Interest Group
+          Charter Development</a></h4>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> notify the Advisory
+        Committee when a charter for a new Working Group or Interest Group is in
+        development. The suggestions for building support around an <a href="#ActivityDevelopment">Activity
+          Proposal</a> apply to charters as well.</p>
+      <p>W3C <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> begin work on a Working Group or
+        Interest Group charter at any time. A Working Group or Interest Group <span
+          class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be part of an approved <a href="#def-Activity">Activity</a>.</p>
+      <h4>6.2.3 <a id="CharterReview">Advisory Committee Review</a> of a
+        Working Group or Interest Group Charter</h4>
+      <p>The Director <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> solicit <a href="#ReviewAppeal">Advisory
+          Committee review</a> of every new or substantively modified Working
+        Group or Interest Group charter. The Director is <span class="rfc2119">NOT
+          REQUIRED</span> to solicit Advisory Committee review prior to a
+        charter extension or for minor changes.</p>
+      <p>The Director's Call for Review of a substantively modified charter <span
+          class="rfc2119">MUST</span> highlight important changes (e.g.,
+        regarding deliverables or resource allocation) and include rationale for
+        the changes.</p>
+      <h4>6.2.4 <a id="cfp">Call for Participation in a Working Group or
+          Interest Group</a></h4>
+      <p>After Advisory Committee review of a Working Group or Interest Group
+        charter, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> issue a Call for
+        Participation to the Advisory Committee. For a new group, this
+        announcement officially creates the group. The announcement <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        include a reference to the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a>, the
+        name(s) of the group's <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chair(s)</a>, and the
+        name of the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a>.</p>
+      <p>After a Call for Participation, any <a href="#member-rep">Member
+          representatives</a> and <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited Experts</a>
+        <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be designated (or re-designated).</p>
+      <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> <a
+          href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> creation or substantive modification of a
+        Working Group or Interest Group charter.</p>
+      <h4>6.2.5 <a id="charter-extension">Working Group and Interest Group
+          Charter Extension</a></h4>
+      <p>To extend a Working Group or Interest Group charter with no other
+        substantive modifications, the Director announces the extension to the
+        Advisory Committee. The announcement <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        indicate the new duration, which <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span>
+        exceed the duration of the Activity to which the group belongs. The
+        announcement <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> also include rationale
+        for the extension, a reference to the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a>,
+        the name(s) of the group's <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chair(s)</a>, the
+        name of the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a>, and instructions
+        for joining the group.</p>
+      <p>After a charter extension, Advisory Committee representatives and the
+        Chair are <span class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span> to re-designate <a
+          href="#member-rep">Member representatives</a> and <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
+          Experts</a>.</p>
+      <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> <a
+          href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> the extension of a Working Group or
+        Interest Group charter.</p>
+      <h4>6.2.6 <a id="WGCharter">Working Group and Interest Group Charters</a></h4>
+      <p>A Working Group or Interest Group charter <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        include all of the following information.</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>The group's mission (e.g., develop a technology or process, review
+          the work of other groups);</li>
+        <li>The scope of the group's work and criteria for success;</li>
+        <li>The duration of the group (typically from six months to two years);</li>
+        <li>The nature of any deliverables (technical reports, reviews of the
+          deliverables of other groups, or software), expected milestones, and
+          the process for the group participants to approve the release of these
+          deliverables (including public intermediate results). A charter is <span
+            class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span> to include the schedule for a
+          review of another group's deliverables;</li>
+        <li>Any dependencies by groups within or outside of W3C on the
+          deliverables of this group. For any dependencies, the charter <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+          specify the mechanisms for communication about the deliverables;</li>
+        <li>Any dependencies of this group on other groups within or outside of
+          W3C. For example, one group's charter might specify that another group
+          is expected to review a technical report before it can become a
+          Recommendation. For any dependencies, the charter <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+          specify when required deliverables are expected from the other groups.
+          The charter <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> set expectations
+          about how coordination with those groups will take place; see the
+          section on <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons with other organizations</a>.
+          Finally, the charter <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> specify
+          expected conformance to the deliverables of the other groups;</li>
+        <li>The <a href="#confidentiality-levels">level of confidentiality</a>
+          of the group's proceedings and deliverables;</li>
+        <li>Meeting mechanisms and expected frequency;</li>
+        <li>Communication mechanisms to be employed within the group, between
+          the group and the rest of W3C, and with the general public;</li>
+        <li>An estimate of the expected time commitment from participants;</li>
+        <li>The expected time commitment and level of involvement by the Team
+          (e.g., to track developments, write and edit technical reports,
+          develop code, or organize pilot experiments).</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>See also the charter requirements of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Licensing">section
+          2</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
+          3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <p id="ig-charter-participation">An Interest Group charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        include provisions regarding participation, including specifying that
+        the <a id="ig-mail-only">only requirement for participation (by anyone)
+          in the Interest Group</a> is subscription to the Interest Group
+        mailing list. This type of Interest Group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        have <a href="#public-participant-ig">public participants</a>.</p>
+      <p>A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include additional voting
+        procedures, but those procedures <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span>
+        conflict with the <a href="#Votes">voting requirements</a> of the
+        Process Document.</p>
+      <p>A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include provisions other
+        than those required by this document. The charter <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        highlight whether additional provisions impose constraints beyond those
+        of the W3C Process Document (e.g., limits on the number of individuals
+        in a Working Group who represent the same Member organization or group
+        of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>).</p>
+      <h4>6.2.7 <a id="three-month-rule">Working Group "Heartbeat" Requirement</a></h4>
+      <p>It is important that a Working Group keep the Membership and public
+        informed of its activity and progress. To this end, each Working Group <span
+          class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> publish in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">W3C
+          technical reports index</a> a new draft of <em>each active technical
+          report</em> at least once every three months. An active technical
+        report is a Working Draft, Candidate Recommendation, Proposed
+        Recommendation, or Proposed Edited Recommendation. Each Working Group <span
+          class="rfc2119">MUST</span> publish a new draft of <em>at least one
+          of its active technical reports</em> on the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">W3C
+          technical reports index</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-list">PUB11</a>] at
+        least once every three months.</p>
+      <p>Public progress reports are also important when a Working Group does
+        not update a technical report within three months (for example, when the
+        delay is due to a challenging technical issue) or when a Working Group
+        has no active technical reports (for example, because it is developing a
+        test suite).</p>
+      <p>In exceptional cases, the Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> ask
+        the Director to be excused from this publication requirement. However,
+        in this case, the Working Group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> issue
+        a public status report with rationale why a new draft has not been
+        published.</p>
+      <p>There are several reasons for this Working Group "heartbeat"
+        requirement:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>To promote public accountability;</li>
+        <li>To encourage Working Groups to keep moving forward, and to
+          incorporate their decisions into readable public documents. People
+          cannot be expected to read several months of a group's mailing list
+          archive to understand where the group stands;</li>
+        <li>To notify interested parties of updated work in familiar a place
+          such as the W3C home page and index of technical reports.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>As an example, suppose a Working Group has one technical report as a
+        deliverable, which it publishes as a Proposed Recommendation. Per the
+        heartbeat requirement, the Working Group is required to publish a new
+        draft of the Proposed Recommendation at least once every three months,
+        even if it is only to revise the status of the Proposed Recommendation
+        document (e.g., to provide an update on the status of the decision to
+        advance). The heartbeat requirement stops when the document becomes a
+        Recommendation (or a Working Group Note).</p>
+      <h4>6.2.8 <a id="GeneralTermination">Working Group and Interest Group
+          Closure</a></h4>
+      <p>A Working Group or Interest Group charter specifies a duration for the
+        group. The Director, subject to <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> by
+        Advisory Committee representatives, <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        close a group prior to the date specified in the charter in any of the
+        following circumstances:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>There are insufficient resources to produce chartered deliverables
+          or to maintain the group, according to priorities established within
+          W3C.</li>
+        <li>The group produces chartered deliverables ahead of schedule.</li>
+        <li>The Activity to which the group belongs terminates.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Director closes a Working Group or Interest Group by announcement
+        to the Advisory Committee.</p>
+      <p>Closing a Working Group has implications with respect to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <h3>6.3 <a id="GroupsCG">Coordination Groups</a></h3>
+      <p>W3C Activities interact in many ways. There are dependencies between
+        groups within the same Activity or in different Activities. There are
+        also dependencies between W3C Activities and the activities of other
+        organizations. Examples of dependencies include the use by one
+        technology of another being developed elsewhere, scheduling constraints
+        between groups, and the synchronization of publicity for the
+        announcement of deliverables. Coordination Groups are created to manage
+        dependencies so that issues are resolved fairly and the solutions are
+        consistent with W3C's mission and results.</p>
+      <p>Where a Coordination Group's scope covers two groups with unresolved
+        disputes or tensions, it is the first locus of resolution of these
+        disputes.</p>
+      <h4>6.3.1 <a id="CGParticipation">Coordination Group Participation
+          Requirements</a></h4>
+      <p>There are four types <a id="cgparticipant">participants in a
+          Coordination Group</a>: the <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chair</a>, the
+        Chair of each coordinated group (to promote effective communication
+        among the groups), Invited Experts (e.g., liaisons to groups inside or
+        outside W3C), and Team representatives (including the <a href="#TeamContact">Team
+          Contact</a>). The requirements for Invited Expert participation are
+        the same as for an <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited Expert in a
+          Working Group</a>.</p>
+      <p>Coordination Group participants <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        follow the <a href="#coi">conflict of interest policy</a> by disclosing
+        information to the rest of the group.</p>
+      <p>There are no Good Standing requirements for Coordination Group
+        participation; regular participation in a relevant Coordination Group is
+        one of the <a href="/Guide/chair-roles">roles of a group Chair [MEM14]</a>.</p>
+      <h4>6.3.2 <a id="CGCreation">Coordination Group Creation and Closure</a></h4>
+      <p>The Director creates or modifies a Coordination Group by sending the <a
+          href="#CGCharter">Coordination Group charter</a> to the Advisory
+        Committee. A Coordination Group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be
+        created as part of an <a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity Proposal</a>
+        (for example to coordinate other groups in the Activity or to draw up
+        charters of future groups), or during the life of an Activity when
+        dependencies arise. A Coordination Group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        operate as part of several W3C Activities.</p>
+      <p>A Coordination Group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> close when
+        there is no longer a perceived need for coordination.</p>
+      <h4>6.3.3 <a id="CGCharter">Coordination Group Charters</a></h4>
+      <p>A Coordination Group charter <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include
+        all of the following information:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>The group's mission;</li>
+        <li>The scope of the group's work, including the names of coordinated
+          groups and contact information for those groups;</li>
+        <li>Any dependencies by groups within or outside of W3C on this group;</li>
+        <li>Any dependencies of this group on other groups within or outside of
+          W3C; see the section on <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons with other
+            organizations</a>.</li>
+        <li>The <a href="#confidentiality-levels">level of confidentiality</a>
+          of the group's proceedings;</li>
+        <li>Meeting mechanisms and expected frequency;</li>
+        <li>Communication mechanisms to be employed within the group, between
+          the group and the rest of W3C, and with the general public;</li>
+        <li>An estimate of the expected time commitment from participants;</li>
+        <li>The expected level of involvement by the Team.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include additional voting
+        procedures, but those procedures <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span>
+        conflict with the <a href="#Votes">voting requirements</a> of the
+        Process Document.</p>
+      <p>A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include provisions other
+        than those required by this document. The charter <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        highlight whether additional provisions impose constraints beyond those
+        of the W3C Process Document.</p>
+      <h2 id="Reports">7 W3C Technical Report Development Process</h2>
+      <p>The W3C technical report development process is the set of steps and
+        requirements followed by W3C <a href="#GroupsWG">Working Groups</a> to
+        standardize Web technology. The W3C technical report development process
+        is designed to </p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>support multiple specification development methodologies</li>
+        <li>maximize <a href="#def-Consensus" rel="glossary" title="Definition of Consensus"><span
+              class="dfn-instance">consensus</span></a> about the content of
+          stable technical reports</li>
+        <li>ensure high technical and editorial quality</li>
+        <li>promote consistency among specifications</li>
+        <li>facilitate royalty-free, interoperable implementations of Web
+          Standards, and</li>
+        <li>earn endorsement by W3C and the broader community.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>See also the licensing goals for W3C Recommendations in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Licensing">section
+          2</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]. </p>
+      <h3 id="rec-advance">7.1 W3C Technical Reports</h3>
+      <p>Please note that <dfn>publishing</dfn> as used in this document refers
+        to producing a version which is listed as a W3C Technical Report on its
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">Technical Reports page
+          http://www.w3.org/TR</a>.</p>
+      <p>This chapter describes the formal requirements for publishing and
+        maintaining a W3C Recommendation or Note.</p>
+      <p>Typically a series of Working Drafts are published, each of which
+        refines a document under development to complete the scope of work
+        envisioned by a Working Group's charter. For a technical specification,
+        once review suggests the Working Group has met their requirements
+        satisfactorily for a new standard, there is a Candidate Recommendation
+        phase. This allows the entire W3C membership to provide feedback on
+        whether the specification should become a W3C Recommendation, while the
+        Working Group formally collects&nbsp; implementation experience to
+        demonstrate that the specification works in practice. The next phase is
+        a Proposed Recommendation, to finalize the review of W3C Members. If the
+        Director determines that W3C member review supports a specification
+        becoming a standard, W3C publishes it as a Recommendation.</p>
+      <p>Groups may also publish documents as W3C Notes, typically either to
+        document information other than technical specifications, such as use
+        cases motivating a specification and best practices for its use, or to
+        clarify the status of work that is abandoned. </p>
+      <p>Some W3C Notes are developed through successive Working Drafts, with an
+        expectation that they will become Notes, while others are simply
+        published. There are few formal requirements to publish a document as a
+        W3C Note, and they have no standing as a recommendation of W3C but are
+        simply documents preserved for historical reference.</p>
+      <p>Individual Working Groups and Interest Groups may adopt additional
+        processes for developing publications, so long as they do not conflict
+        with the requirements in this chapter.</p>
+      <h4 id="recs-and-notes">7.1.1 Recommendations and Notes</h4>
+      <p>W3C follows these steps when advancing a technical report to
+        Recommendation.</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>Publication of the <a href="#first-wd">First Public Working Draft</a>,</li>
+        <li>Publication of zero or more revised <a href="#revised-wd">Public
+            Working Drafts</a>.</li>
+        <li>Publication of a <a href="#last-call">Candidate Recommendation</a>.</li>
+        <li>Publication of a <a href="#rec-pr">Proposed Recommendation</a>.</li>
+        <li>Publication as a <a href="#rec-publication">W3C Recommendation</a>.</li>
+        <li>Possibly, Publication as an <a href="#rec-edited">Edited
+            Recommendation</a></li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>
+        <svg xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
+          viewBox="0 0 450 60" height="5em" width="45em">
+          <g id="ToFPWD" stroke="black" fill="black">
+            <a xlink:href="#first-wd"><text font-size="8" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="38" x="66" text-anchor="start" stroke="none">First WD</text></a>
+            <path d="M66,40h33"></path>
+            <polygon points="98,36 108,40 98,44"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="nodeWD">
+            <ellipse ry="18" rx="38" cy="40" cx="147" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+            <a xlink:href="#RecsWD"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="44" x="147" text-anchor="middle">WD</text></a> </g>
+          <g id="repeatWD" stroke="black">
+            <path d="M128,24C123,14 129,4 147,4 158,4 165,8 167,14" fill="none"
+              stroke-dasharray="6 1"></path>
+            <polygon points="170,14 166,24 164,13"></polygon> </g>
+          <g class="edge" id="toCR" stroke="black" fill="black">
+            <path d="M185,40h31"></path>
+            <polygon points="211,36 221,40 211,44"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="nodeCR">
+            <ellipse ry="18" rx="38" cy="40" cx="260" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+            <a xlink:href="#RecsCR"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="44" x="260" text-anchor="middle">CR</text></a> </g>
+          <g class="edge" id="repeatCR" stroke="black" fill="black">
+            <path d="M242,24C238,14 244,4 260,4 271,4 277,8 279,14" stroke-dasharray="5 3"
+              fill="none"></path>
+            <polygon points="282,14 277,24 275,13"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="backToWD" stroke="#666" fill="#666">
+            <path d="M190,47h34" stroke-dasharray="4 4"></path>
+            <polygon points="190,45 183,47 190,49"></polygon> </g>
+          <g class="edge" id="ToPR" stroke="black" fill="black">
+            <path d="M298,40h27"></path>
+            <polygon points="324,36 334,40 324,44"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="nodePR">
+            <ellipse ry="18" rx="28" cy="40" cx="363" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+            <a xlink:href="#RecsPR"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="44" x="363" text-anchor="middle">PR</text></a> </g>
+          <g id="BackToCR" stroke="#aaa" fill="#aaa">
+            <path d="M301,47h38" stroke-dasharray="2 5"></path>
+            <polygon points="301,45 296,47 301,49"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="ToRec" stroke="black" fill="black">
+            <path d="M391,40h20"></path>
+            <polygon points="404,36 414,40 404,44"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="nodeRec">
+            <ellipse ry="18" rx="28" cy="40" cx="443" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+            <a xlink:href="#RecsW3C"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="44" x="443" text-anchor="middle">REC</text></a> </g> </svg>
+      </p>
+      <p>W3C <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#tr-end">end work on a
+          technical report</a> at any time.</p>
+      <p>The Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> decline a request to advance
+        in maturity level, requiring a Working Group to conduct further work,
+        and <em class="rfc2119">may</em> require the specification to return to
+        a lower <a href="#maturity-levels">maturity level</a>. The Director <em
+          class="rfc2119">must</em> inform the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>
+        and Working Group Chairs when a Working Group's request for a
+        specification to advance in maturity level is declined and the
+        specification is returned to a Working Group for further work.</p>
+      <h4 id="maturity-levels">7.1.2 Maturity Levels</h4>
+      <dl>
+        <dt id="RecsWD">Working Draft (WD)</dt>
+        <dd>A Working Draft is a document that W3C has published for review by
+          the community, including W3C Members, the public, and other technical
+          organizations. Some, but not all, Working Drafts are meant to advance
+          to Recommendation; see the <a href="#DocumentStatus">document status
+            section</a> of a Working Draft for the group's expectations. Any
+          Working Draft not, or no longer, intended to advance to Recommendation
+          <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be published as a Working Group Note.
+          Working Drafts do not necessarily represent a consensus of the Working
+          Group, and do not imply any endorsement by W3C or its members beyond
+          agreement to work on a general area of technology.</dd>
+        <dt id="RecsCR">Candidate Recommendation (CR)</dt>
+        <dd class="changed">A Candidate Recommendation is a document that
+          satisfies the Working Group's technical requirements, and has already
+          received wide review. W3C publishes a Candidate Recommendation to
+          <ul>
+            <li>signal to the wider community that a final review should be done</li>
+            <li>gather <a href="#implementation-experience">implementation
+                experience</a></li>
+            <li>begin formal review by the Advisory Committee, who <em class="rfc2119">may</em>
+              recommend that the document be published as a W3C Recommendation,
+              returned to the Working Group for further work, or abandoned.</li>
+            <li>Provide an exclusion opportunity as per the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+                Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]. A
+              Candidate Recommendation under this process corresponds to the
+              "Last Call Working Draft" discussed in the Patent Policy.</li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+        <dd><strong>Note:</strong> Candidate Recommendations are expected to be
+          acceptable as Recommendations. Announcement of a different next step <em
+            class="rfc2119">should</em> include the reasons why the change in
+          expectations comes at so late a stage.</dd>
+        <dt id="RecsPR">Proposed Recommendation</dt>
+        <dd>A Proposed Recommendation is a document that has been accepted by
+          the W3C Director as of sufficient quality to become a W3C
+          Recommendation. This phase establishes a deadline for the Advisory
+          Committee review which begins with Candidate Recommendation.
+          Substantive changes <span class="rfc2119">must</span> not be made to
+          a Proposed Recommendation except by publishing a new Working Draft or
+          Candidate Recommendation.</dd>
+        <dt id="RecsW3C">W3C Recommendation (REC)</dt>
+        <dd>A W3C Recommendation is a specification or set of guidelines or
+          requirements that, after extensive consensus-building, has received
+          the endorsement of W3C Members and the Director. W3C recommends the
+          wide deployment of its Recommendations as standards for the Web. The
+          W3C Royalty-Free IPR licenses granted under the Patent Policy apply to
+          W3C Recommendations.</dd>
+        <dt id="WGNote">Working Group Note, Interest Group Note (NOTE) </dt>
+        <dd>A Working Group Note or Interest Group Note is published by a
+          chartered Working Group or Interest Group to provide a stable
+          reference for a useful document that is not intended to be a formal
+          standard, or to document work that was abandoned without producing a
+          Recommendation.</dd>
+        <dt id="RescindedRec">Rescinded Recommendation</dt>
+        <dd>A Rescinded Recommendation is an entire Recommendation that W3C no
+          longer endorses. See also clause 10 of the licensing requirements for
+          W3C Recommendations in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Requirements">section
+            5</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</dd>
+      </dl>
+      <p>Working Groups and Interest Groups <em class="rfc2119">may</em> make
+        available "Editor's drafts". Editor's drafts have no official standing
+        whatsoever, and do not necessarily imply consensus of a Working Group or
+        Interest Group, nor are their contents endorsed in any way by W3C.</p>
+      <h3 id="requirements-and-definitions">7.2 General requirements and
+        definitions</h3>
+      <p>Please note that <dfn>publishing</dfn> as used in this document refers
+        to producing a version which is listed as a W3C Technical Report on its
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">Technical Reports page
+          http://www.w3.org/TR</a>.</p>
+      <h4 id="general-requirements">7.2.1 General requirements for Technical
+        Reports</h4>
+      <p>Every document published as part of the technical report development
+        process <em class="rfc2119 old">must</em> be a public document. The <a
+          href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">index of W3C technical reports</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-list">PUB11</a>]
+        is available at the W3C Web site. W3C strives to make archival documents
+        indefinitely available at their original address in their original form.</p>
+      <p>Every document published as part of the technical report development
+        process <em class="rfc2119 old">must</em> clearly indicate its <a href="#maturity-levels">maturity
+          level</a>, and <em id="DocumentStatus" class="rfc2119">must</em>
+        include information about the status of the document. This status
+        information</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> be unique each time a specification is
+          published,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> state which Working Group developed
+          the specification, </li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> state how to send comments or file
+          bugs, and where these are recorded, </li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> include expectations about next steps,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> explain how the technology relates
+          to existing international standards and related work inside or outside
+          W3C, and</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> explain or link to an explanation of
+          significant changes from the previous version.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Every Technical Report published as part of the Technical Report
+        development process is edited by one or more editors appointed by a
+        Group Chair. It is the responsibility of these editors to ensure that
+        the decisions of the Group are correctly reflected in subsequent drafts
+        of the technical report. An editor <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be a
+        participant, as a Member representative, Team representative, or Invited
+        Expert in the Group responsible for the document(s) they are editing. </p>
+      <p>The Team is <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to publish a
+        Technical Report that does not conform to the Team's <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/pubrules">Publication
+          Rules</a> (e.g., for <a id="DocumentName">naming</a>, status
+        information, style, and <a id="document-copyright">copyright
+          requirements</a>). These rules are subject to change by the Team from
+        time to time. The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> inform group
+        Chairs and the Advisory Committee of any changes to these rules.</p>
+      <p>The primary language for W3C Technical Reports is English. W3C
+        encourages the translation of its Technical Reports. <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Translation/">Information
+          about translations of W3C technical reports</a> [<a href="#ref-translations">PUB18</a>]
+        is available at the W3C Web site.</p>
+      <h4 id="transition-reqs">7.2.2 Advancement on the Recommendation Track</h4>
+      <p>For <em>all</em> requests to advance a specification to a new maturity
+        level other than Note the Working Group:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> record the group's decision to request
+          advancement.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must </em> obtain Director approval.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119 ">must</em> provide public documentation of all <a
+            href="#substantive-change">substantive changes</a> to the technical
+          report since the previous publication.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> <a href="#formal-address">formally
+            address</a> all issues raised about the document since the previous
+          maturity level.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> provide public documentation of any <a
+            href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objections</a>.</li>
+        <li><span class="rfc2119">should</span> provide public documentation of
+          changes that are not substantive.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> report which, if any, of the Working
+          Group's requirements for this document have changed since the previous
+          step.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> report any changes in dependencies
+          with other groups.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> provide information about
+          implementations known to the Working Group.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>For a First Public Working Draft there is no "previous maturity level",
+        so many requirements do not apply, and approval is normally fairly
+        automatic. For later stages, especially transition to Candidate or
+        Proposed Recommendation, there is generally a formal review meeting to
+        ensure the requirements have been met before Director's approval is
+        given.</p>
+      <h4 id="doc-reviews">7.2.3 Reviews and Review Responsibilities</h4>
+      <p>A document is available for review from the moment it is first
+        published. Working Groups <em class="rfc2119">should</em> <a href="#formal-address">formally
+          address</a> <em>any</em> substantive review comment about a technical
+        report in a timely manner. </p>
+      Reviewers <em class="rfc2119">should</em> send substantive technical
+      reviews as early as possible. Working Groups are often reluctant to make <a
+        href="#substantive-change">substantive changes</a> to a mature document,
+      particularly if this would cause significant compatibility problems due to
+      existing implementation. Working Groups <em class="rfc2119">should</em>
+      record substantive or interesting proposals raised by reviews but not
+      incorporated into a current specification.
+      <h5>7.2.3.1 <a id="wide-review">Wide Review</a></h5>
+      <p>The requirements for <dfn>wide review</dfn> are not precisely defined
+        by the W3C Process. The objective is to ensure that the entire set of
+        stakeholders of the Web community, including the general public, have
+        had adequate notice of the progress of the Working Group and thereby an
+        opportunity to comment on the specification. Before approving
+        transitions, the Director will consider who has been explicitly offered
+        a reasonable opportunity to review the document, who has provided
+        comments, the record of requests to and responses from reviewers,
+        especially groups identified as dependencies in the charter, and seek
+        evidence of clear communication to the general public about appropriate
+        times and which content to review. </p>
+      <p>For example, inviting review of new or significantly revised sections
+        published in Working Drafts, and tracking those comments and the Working
+        Group's responses, is generally a good practice which would often be
+        considered positive evidence of wide review. Working Groups <span class="rfc2119">should</span>
+        announce to other W3C Working Groups as well as the general public,
+        especially those affected by this specification, a proposal to enter
+        Candidate Recommendation (for example in approximately four weeks). By
+        contrast a generic statement in a document requesting review at any time
+        is likely not to be considered as sufficient evidence that the group has
+        solicited wide review. </p>
+      <p>A Working Group could present evidence that wide review has been
+        received, irrespective of solicitation. But it is important to note that
+        receiving many detailed reviews is not necessarily the same as wide
+        review, since they may only represent comment from a small segment of
+        the relevant stakeholder community.</p>
+      <h4 id="implementation-experience">7.2.4 Implementation Experience</h4>
+      <p>Implementation experience is required to show that a specification is
+        sufficiently clear, complete, and relevant to market needs, to ensure
+        that independent interoperable implementations of each feature of the
+        specification will be realized. While no exhaustive list of requirements
+        is provided here, when assessing that there is <dfn>adequate
+          implementation experience</dfn> the Director will consider (though not
+        be limited to):</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>is each feature of the current specification implemented, and how is
+          this demonstrated?</li>
+        <li>are there independent interoperable implementations of the current
+          specification?</li>
+        <li>are there implementations created by people other than the authors
+          of the specification?</li>
+        <li>are implementations publicly deployed?</li>
+        <li>is there implementation experience at all levels of the
+          specification's ecosystem (authoring, consuming, publishing…)?</li>
+        <li>are there reports of difficulties or problems with implementation?</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Planning and accomplishing a demonstration of (interoperable)
+        implementations can be very time consuming. Groups are often able to
+        work more effectively if they plan how they will demonstrate
+        interoperable implementations early in the development process; for
+        example, they may wish to develop tests in concert with implementation
+        efforts.</p>
+      <h4 id="correction-classes">7.2.5 Classes of Changes</h4>
+      <p>This document distinguishes the following 4 classes of changes to a
+        specification. The first two classes of change are considered <dfn id="editorial-change">editorial
+          changes</dfn>, the latter two <dfn id="substantive-change">substantive
+          changes</dfn>.</p>
+      <dl>
+        <dt>1. No changes to text content</dt>
+        <dd>These changes include fixing broken links, style sheets or invalid
+          markup.</dd>
+        <dt>2. Corrections that do not affect conformance</dt>
+        <dd>Editorial changes or clarifications that do not change the technical
+          content of the specification.</dd>
+        <dt>3. Corrections that do not add new features</dt>
+        <dd>These changes <span class="rfc2119">may</span> affect conformance
+          to the specification. A change that affects conformance is one that:
+          <ul>
+            <li>makes conforming data, processors, or other conforming agents
+              become non-conforming according to the new version, or</li>
+            <li>makes non-conforming data, processors, or other agents become
+              conforming, or</li>
+            <li>clears up an ambiguity or under-specified part of the
+              specification in such a way that data, a processor, or an agent
+              whose conformance was once unclear becomes clearly either
+              conforming or non-conforming.</li>
+          </ul>
+        </dd>
+        <dt>4. New features</dt>
+        <dd>Changes that add a new functionality, element, etc.</dd>
+      </dl>
+      <h3 id="working-draft">7.3 Working Draft</h3>
+      <p>A Public Working Draft is published on the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">W3C's
+          Technical Reports page</a> [TR] for review, and for simple historical
+        reference. For all Public Working Drafts a Working Group</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li> <em class="rfc2119">should</em> document outstanding issues, and
+          parts of the document on which the Working Group does not have
+          consensus, and</li>
+        <li> <em class="rfc2119">may</em> request publication of a Working
+          Draft even if its content is considered unstable and does not meet all
+          Working Group requirements.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h4 id="first-wd">7.3.1 First Public Working Draft</h4>
+      <p>To publish the First Public Working Draft of a document, a Working
+        Group must meet the applicable <a href="#transition-reqs">general
+          requirements for advancement</a>.</p>
+      <p>The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> announce the publication of
+        a First Public Working Draft publication to other W3C groups and to the
+        public. </p>
+      <p>Publishing the First Public Working Draft triggers a Call for
+        Exclusions, per <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/#sec-Exclusion">section
+          4</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <h4 id="revised-wd">7.3.2 Revising Public Working Drafts</h4>
+      <p>A Working Group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> publish a Working
+        Draft to the W3C Technical Reports page when there have been significant
+        changes to the previous published document that would benefit from
+        review beyond the Working Group. </p>
+      <p>If 6 months elapse without significant changes to a specification a
+        Working Group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> publish a revised Working
+        Draft, whose status section <em class="rfc2119">should</em> indicate
+        reasons for the lack of change. </p>
+      <p>To publish a revision of a Working draft, a Working Group </p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> record the group's decision to request
+          publication. Consensus is not required, as this is a procedural step,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> provide public documentation of <a href="#substantive-change">substantive
+            changes</a> to the technical report since the previous Working
+          Draft,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> provide public documentation of
+          significant <a href="#editorial-change">editorial changes</a> to the
+          technical report since the previous step,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> report which, if any, of the Working
+          Group's requirements for this document have changed since the previous
+          step,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> report any changes in dependencies
+          with other groups,</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Possible next steps for any Working Draft:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Revised <a href="#revised-wd">Public Working Draft</a></li>
+        <li><a href="#last-call">Candidate recommendation</a>.</li>
+        <li><a href="#Note">Working Group Note</a></li>
+      </ul>
+      <h4 id="tr-end">7.3.3 Stopping Work on a specification</h4>
+      <p>Work on a technical report <em class="rfc2119">may</em> cease at any
+        time. Work <em class="rfc2119 new">should</em> cease if W3C or a
+        Working Group determines that it cannot productively carry the work any
+        further. If the Director <a href="#GeneralTermination">closes a Working
+          Group</a> W3C <em class="rfc2119">must </em> publish any unfinished
+        specifications on the Recommendation track as <a href="#Note">Working
+          Group Notes</a>. If a Working group decides, or the Director requires,
+        the Working Group to discontinue work on a technical report before
+        completion, the Working Group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> publish
+        the document as a <a href="#Note">Working Group Note</a>. </p>
+      <h3 id="candidate-rec"><a id="last-call">7.4 Candidate Recommendation </a></h3>
+      <p>To publish a Candidate recommendation, in addition to meeting the <a href="#transition-reqs">general
+          requirements for advancement</a> a Working Group:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the specification has met
+          all Working Group requirements, or explain why the requirements have
+          changed or been deferred,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> document changes to dependencies
+          during the development of the specification,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> document how adequate <a href="#implementation-experience">
+            implementation experience</a> will be demonstrated,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> specify the deadline for comments,
+          which <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be <strong>at least</strong>
+          four weeks after publication, and <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be
+          longer for complex documents,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the specification has
+          received <a href="#wide-review">wide review</a>, and</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">may</em> identify features in the document as
+          "at risk". These features <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be removed
+          before advancement to Proposed Recommendation without a requirement to
+          publish a new Candidate Recommendation.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> announce the publication of
+        a Candidate Recommendation to other W3C groups and to the public, and <em
+          class="rfc2119">must</em> begin an Advisory Committee Review on the
+        question of whether W3C should publish the specification as a W3C
+        Recommendation.</p>
+      <p> A Candidate Recommendation corresponds to a "Last Call Working Draft"
+        as used in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]. Publishing
+        a Candidate Recommendation triggers a Call for Exclusions, per <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/#sec-Exclusion">section
+          4</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <p>Possible next steps:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Return to <a href="#revised-wd">Working Draft</a></li>
+        <li>A revised <a href="#last-call">Candidate Recommendation</a></li>
+        <li><a href="#rec-pr">Proposed Recommendation</a> (The expected next
+          step)</li>
+        <li><a href="#Note">Working Group Note</a></li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>If there was any <a href="#def-Dissent" rel="glossary" title="Definition of Dissent"><span
+            class="dfn-instance">dissent</span></a>&nbsp;to the Working Group
+        decision to request advancement <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>
+        representatives <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a>
+        the decision to advance the technical report.</p>
+      <h4 id="revised-cr">7.4.1 Revising a Candidate Recommendation</h4>
+      <p>If there are any <a href="#substantive-change">substantive changes</a>
+        made to a Candidate Recommendation other than to remove features
+        explicitly identified as "at risk", the Working Group <em class="rfc2119">must</em>
+        obtain the Director's approval to publish a revision of a Candidate
+        Recommendation. This is because substantive changes will generally
+        require a new Exclusion Opportunity per <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/#sec-Exclusion">section
+          4</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>]. Note that
+        approval is <em>expected</em> to be fairly simple compared to getting
+        approval for a transition from Working Draft to Candidate
+        Recommendation.</p>
+      <p>In addition the Working Group:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the revised specification
+          meets all Working Group requirements, or explain why the requirements
+          have changed or been deferred,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> specify the deadline for further
+          comments, which <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be <strong>at least</strong>
+          four weeks after publication, and <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be
+          longer for complex documents,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> document the changes since the
+          previous Candidate Recommendation, </li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the proposed changes have
+          received <a href="#wide-review">wide review</a>, and</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">may</em> identify features in the document as
+          "at risk". These features <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be removed
+          before advancement to Proposed Recommendation without a requirement to
+          publish a new Candidate Recommendation.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Director <span class="rfc2119">must</span> announce the
+        publication of a revised Candidate Recommendation to other W3C groups
+        and the Public.</p>
+      <h3 id="rec-pr">7.5 Proposed Recommendation</h3>
+      <p>In addition to meeting the <a href="#transition-reqs">general
+          requirements for advancement</a>,</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>The status information <em class="rfc2119">must</em> specify the
+          deadline for Advisory Committee review, which <em class="rfc2119">must</em>
+          be <strong>at least</strong> 28 days after the publication of the
+          Proposed Recommendation and <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be at
+          least 10 days after the end of the last Exclusion Opportunity per <a
+            href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/#sec-Exclusion">section
+            4</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>A Working Group:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show adequate <a href="#implementation-experience">implementation
+            experience</a> except where an exception is approved by the
+          Director,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the document has received <a
+            href="#wide-review">wide review,</a></li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that all issues raised during the
+          Candidate Recommendation review period other than by Advisory
+          Committee representatives acting in their formal AC representative
+          role have been <a href="#formal-address">formally addressed</a>,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must </em>identify any substantive issues
+          raised since the close of the Candidate Recommendation review period
+          by parties other than Advisory Committee representatives acting in
+          their formal AC representative role,</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">may</em> have removed features identified in the
+          Candidate Recommendation document as "at risk" without republishing
+          the specification as a Candidate Recommendation.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Director:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> announce the publication of a Proposed
+          Recommendation to the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>, and</li>
+        <li><span><em class="rfc2119">may</em> approve a Proposed Recommendation
+            with minimal implementation experience where there is a compelling
+            reason to do so. In such a case, the Director <em class="rfc2119">should</em>
+            explain the reasons for that decision.</span></li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Since a W3C Recommendation <span class="rfc2119">must not</span>
+        include any substantive changes from the Proposed Recommendation it is
+        based on, to make any substantive change to a Proposed Recommendation
+        the Working Group <span class="rfc2119">must</span> return the
+        specification to Candidate Recommendation or Working Draft.</p>
+      <p>Possible Next Steps:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Return to <a href="#revised-wd">Working Draft</a></li>
+        <li>Return to <a href="#last-call">Candidate Recommendation</a></li>
+        <li><a href="#rec-publication">Recommendation status</a> (The expected
+          next step)</li>
+        <li><a href="#Note">Working Group Note</a></li>
+      </ul>
+      <h3 id="rec-publication">7.6 W3C Recommendation</h3>
+      <p>The decision to advance a document to Recommendation is a <a href="#def-w3c-decision">W3C
+          Decision</a>.</p>
+      <p>In addition to meeting the <a href="#transition-reqs">general
+          requirements for advancement</a>,</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>A Recommendation <em class="rfc2119">must</em> identify where
+          errata are tracked, and</li>
+        <li>A Recommendation <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> include any
+          substantive changes from the Proposed Recommendation on which it is
+          based.</li>
+        <li>If there was any <a href="#def-Dissent" rel="glossary" title="Definition of Dissent"><span
+              class="dfn-instance">dissent</span></a> in Advisory Committee
+          reviews, the Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> publish the
+          substantive content of the dissent to W3C and the general public, and
+          <em class="rfc2119">must</em> <a href="#formal-address">formally
+            address</a> the comment at least 14 days before publication as a W3C
+          Recommendation. In this case the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>
+          <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> the
+          decision,</li>
+        <li>The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> announce the publication
+          of a W3C Recommendation to <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>,
+          other W3C groups and to the public.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Possible next steps:</p>
+      <p>A W3C Recommendation normally retains its status indefinitely. However
+        it</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">may</em> be republished as an <a href="#rec-modify">(Edited)
+
+            Recommendation</a>, or</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">may</em> be <a href="#rec-rescind">rescinded</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h3 id="rec-modify">7.7 Modifying a W3C Recommendation</h3>
+      <p>This section details the management of errors in, and the process for
+        making changes to a Recommendation. Please see also the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/republishing/">Requirements
+          for modification of W3C Technical Reports</a> [<a href="#in-place-tr-mod">PUB35</a>].</p>
+      <p>
+        <svg xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
+          viewBox="0 0 500 160" height="12em" width="50em">
+          <g id="basicProcess" opacity=".6">
+            <g id="Modif-nodeWD">
+              <ellipse ry="18" rx="38" cy="40" cx="147" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+              <a xlink:href="#RecsWD"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                  y="44" x="147" text-anchor="middle">WD</text></a> </g>
+            <g id="Modif-repeatWD" stroke="black">
+              <path d="M128,24C123,14 129,4 147,4 158,4 165,8 167,14" fill="none"
+                stroke-dasharray="6 1"></path>
+              <polygon points="170,14 166,24 164,13"></polygon> </g>
+            <g class="edge" id="Modif-toCR" stroke="black" fill="black">
+              <path d="M185,40h31"></path>
+              <polygon points="211,36 221,40 211,44"></polygon> </g>
+            <g id="Modif-nodeCR">
+              <ellipse ry="18" rx="38" cy="40" cx="260" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+              <a xlink:href="#RecsCR"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                  y="44" x="260" text-anchor="middle">CR</text></a> </g>
+            <g class="edge" id="Modif-repeatCR" stroke="black" fill="black">
+              <path d="M242,24C238,14 244,4 260,4 271,4 277,8 279,14" stroke-dasharray="5 3"
+                fill="none"></path>
+              <polygon points="282,14 277,24 275,13"></polygon> </g>
+            <g id="Modif-backToWD" stroke="#666" fill="#666">
+              <path d="M190,47h34" stroke-dasharray="4 4"></path>
+              <polygon points="190,45 183,47 190,49"></polygon> </g>
+            <g class="edge" id="Modif-ToPR" stroke="black" fill="black">
+              <path d="M298,40h27"></path>
+              <polygon points="324,36 334,40 324,44"></polygon> </g>
+            <g id="Modif-nodePR">
+              <ellipse ry="18" rx="28" cy="40" cx="363" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse>
+              <a xlink:href="#RecsPR"><text font-size="14" font-family="Times,serif"
+                  y="44" x="363" text-anchor="middle">PR</text></a> </g>
+            <g id="Modif-BackToCR" stroke="#aaa" fill="#aaa">
+              <path d="M301,47h38" stroke-dasharray="2 5"></path>
+              <polygon points="301,45 296,47 301,49"></polygon> </g>
+            <g id="Modif-ToRec" stroke="black" fill="black">
+              <path d="M391,40h20"></path>
+              <polygon points="404,36 414,40 404,44"></polygon> </g> </g>
+          <g id="Modif-nodeRec" stroke="black">
+            <ellipse ry="18" rx="28" cy="40" cx="443" fill="none" stroke-width="2"></ellipse>
+            <a xlink:href="#RecsW3C"><text font-size="16" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="44" x="443" text-anchor="middle" stroke-width=".3">REC</text></a></g>
+          <g id="changeARec" stroke="black">
+            <path d="M443,58 v20"></path><polygon points="443,78 441,71 445,71"></polygon>
+            <polygon points="443,78 486,103 443,128 400,103" fill="none"></polygon>
+            <text x="445" y="68" font-size="10" stroke="none">Changes to text</text>
+            <text x="443" y="103" text-anchor="middle" font-size="10" stroke-width="0.2"><tspan>Substantive</tspan><tspan
+                x="443" y="113" text-anchor="middle">changes?</tspan></text></g>
+          <g id="RecToPR">
+            <text x="370" y="100" font-size="10" stroke="none">No</text>
+            <path d="M400,103h-37v-45" stroke="black" fill="none"></path><polygon
+              stroke="black" points="363,58 361,65 365,65"></polygon></g>
+          <g id="Modif-RecSubstantiveChanges" stroke="black">
+            <text x="488" y="100" font-size="10" stroke-width="0.2">Yes</text>
+            <path d="M486,103h20v40h-246v-15" fill="none"></path>
+            <polygon points="260,128 262,133 258,133"></polygon>
+            <polygon points="260,128 300,103 260,78 220,103" fill="none"></polygon>
+            <text font-size="10" stroke-width="0.2" x="260" y="98" text-anchor="middle">New<tspan
+                x="260" y="108" text-anchor="middle">Features?</tspan></text></g>
+          <g id="Modif-NoNewFeatures">
+            <path d="M260,78v-20" stroke="black"></path>
+            <text x="262" y="75" font-size="10">No</text>
+            <polygon points="260,58 262,63 258,63" stroke="black"></polygon> </g>
+          <g id="Modif-BackToFPWD" stroke="black">
+            <a xlink:href="#first-wd"><text font-size="8" font-family="Times,serif"
+                y="38" x="66" stroke="none">First WD</text></a>
+            <path d="M220,103h-160v-63h43" fill="none"></path>
+            <text x="200" y="100" stroke-width="0.2" fill="black" font-size="10">Yes</text>
+            <polygon points="103,38 108,40 103,42"></polygon> </g> </svg></p>
+      <h4 id="errata">7.7.1 Errata Management</h4>
+      <p>Tracking errors is an important part of a Working Group's ongoing care
+        of a Recommendation; for this reason, the scope of a Working Group
+        charter generally allows time for work after publication of a
+        Recommendation. In this Process Document, the term "erratum" (plural
+        "errata") refers to any class of mistake, from mere editorial to a
+        serious error that may affect the conformance with the Recommendation by
+        software or content (e.g., content validity).</p>
+      <p>Working Groups <em class="rfc2119">must</em> track errata on an
+        "errata page." An errata page is a list of enumerated errors, possibly
+        accompanied by corrections. Each Recommendation links to an errata page;
+        see the Team's <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/pubrules">Publication
+          Rules</a>.</p>
+      <p>A correction is first "proposed" by the Working Group. A correction
+        becomes part of the Recommendation by the process for Revising a
+        Recommendation described in the next section.</p>
+      <p>A Working Group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> keep their errata
+        pages up-to-date, as errors are reported by readers and implementers. A
+        Working Group <em class="rfc2119">must</em> report errata page changes
+        to interested parties, notably when corrections are proposed or
+        incorporated into an Edited Recommendation, according to the Team's
+        requirements.</p>
+      <h4 id="revised-rec">7.7.2 Revising a Recommendation</h4>
+      <p>A Working group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> request republication of
+        a Recommendation, or W3C <em class="rfc2119">may</em> republish a
+        Recommendation, to make corrections that do not result in any changes to
+        the text of the specification.</p>
+      <p><a href="#editorial-change">Editorial changes</a> to a Recommendation
+        require no technical review of the proposed changes. A Working Group <span
+          class="rfc2119">may</span> request publication of a <a href="#rec-pr">Proposed
+          Recommendation</a>&nbsp; or W3C <span class="rfc2119">may</span>
+        publish a <a href="#rec-pr">Proposed Recommendation</a> to make this
+        class of change without passing through earlier maturity levels. Such
+        publications are <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be called a <dfn>Proposed
+          Edited Recommendation</dfn>.</p>
+      <p>To make corrections to a Recommendation that produce <a href="#substantive-change">substantive
+          changes</a> but do not add new features, a Working Group <span class="rfc2119">may</span>
+        request publication of a <a href="#last-call">Candidate Recommendation</a>,
+        without passing through earlier maturity levels.</p>
+      <p>In the latter two cases, the resulting Recommendation <em class="rfc2119">may</em>
+        be called an <dfn id="rec-edited">Edited Recommendation</dfn>.</p>
+      <p>When requesting the publication of an edited Recommendation as
+        described in this section, in addition to meeting the requirements for
+        the relevant maturity level, a Working Group</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the changes to the document
+          have received <a href="#wide-review">wide review</a>, and </li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> address all recorded errata.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>For changes which introduces a new feature or features, W3C <span class="rfc2119">must</span>
+        follow the full process of <a href="#rec-advance">advancing a technical
+          report to Recommendation</a> beginning with a new First Public Working
+        Draft.</p>
+      <h3 id="Note">7.8 Publishing a Working Group or Interest Group Note</h3>
+      <p>Working Groups and Interest Groups publish material that is not a
+        formal specification as Notes. This includes supporting documentation
+        for a specification such as explanations of design principles or use
+        cases and requirements, non-normative guides to good practices, as well
+        as specifications where work has been stopped and there is no longer
+        consensus for making them a new standard.</p>
+      <p>In order to publish a Note, a Working Group or Interest Group: </p>
+      <ul>
+        <li> <em class="rfc2119">may</em> publish a Note with or without its
+          prior publication as a Working Draft.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> record the group's decision to request
+          publication as a Note, and</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> publish documentation of significant
+          changes to the technical report since any previous publication.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Possible next steps:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>End state: A technical report <em class="rfc2119">may</em> remain a
+          Working Group Note indefinitely</li>
+        <li>A Working Group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> resume work on
+          technical report within the scope of its charter at any time, at the
+          maturity level the specification had before publication as a Note</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C Patent
+          Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>] does not specify
+        any licensing requirements or commitments for Working Group Notes.</p>
+      <h3 id="rec-rescind">7.9 Rescinding a W3C Recommendation</h3>
+      <p>W3C <em class="rfc2119">may</em> rescind a Recommendation, for example
+        if the Recommendation contains many errors that conflict with a later
+        version or if W3C discovers burdensome patent claims that affect
+        implementers and cannot be resolved; see the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>] and in
+        particular <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Requirements">section
+          5</a> (bullet 10) and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-PAG-conclude">section
+          7.5</a>. A Working Group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> request the
+        Director to rescind a Recommendation which was a deliverable, or the
+        Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> directly propose to rescind a
+        Recommendation. </p>
+      <p>W3C only rescinds entire specifications. To rescind some <em>part</em>
+        of a Recommendation, W3C follows the process for <a href="#rec-modify">modifying
+          a Recommendation</a>.</p>
+      <p>Once W3C has published a Rescinded Recommendation, future W3C technical
+        reports <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> include normative references
+        to that technical report.</p>
+      <p id="proposed-rescinded-rec">To propose rescinding a W3C Recommendation,
+        a Working Group or the Director</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> publish rationale for rescinding the
+          Recommendation.</li>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> document known implementation.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>In addition a Working Group requesting to rescind a Recommendation</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the request to rescind has
+          received <a href="#wide-review">wide review</a></li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>In addition the Director, if proposing to rescind a Recommendation</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> show that the request to rescind is
+          based on public comment</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> announce the proposal to
+        rescind a W3C Recommendation to other W3C groups, the public, and the <a
+          href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>. The announcement <em class="rfc2119">must</em>:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>indicate that this is a Proposal to Rescind a Recommendation</li>
+        <li>specify the deadline for review comments, which <em class="rfc2119">must</em>
+          be at least <span class="time-interval">four weeks after announcing</span>
+          the proposal to rescind.</li>
+        <li>identify known dependencies and solicit review from all dependent
+          Working Groups;</li>
+        <li>solicit public review.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>If there was any <a href="#def-Dissent" rel="glossary" title="Definition of Dissent"><span
+            class="dfn-instance">dissent</span></a> in Advisory Committee
+        reviews, the Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> publish the
+        substantive content of the dissent to W3C <strong>and the public</strong>,
+        and <em class="rfc2119">must</em> <a href="#formal-address">formally
+          address</a> the comment at least 14 days before publication as a
+        Rescinded Recommendation. In this case the <a href="#AC">Advisory
+          Committee</a> <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a>
+        the decision.</p>
+      <p> A Rescinded Recommendation <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be published
+        with up to date status. The updated version <em class="rfc2119">may</em>
+        remove the rescinded content (i.e. the main body of the document).</p>
+      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span> the original
+        Recommendation document will continue to be available at its
+        version-specific URL.</p>
+      <h3 id="further-reading">Further reading</h3>
+      <p>Refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/Transitions">"How to
+          Organize a Recommendation Track Transition"</a> in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/">Member
+          guide</a> for practical information about preparing for the reviews
+        and announcements of the various steps, and <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/05/rec-tips">tips
+          on getting to Recommendation faster</a> [<a href="#ref-rec-tips">PUB27</a>].</p>
+      <h2>8 <a id="ReviewAppeal">Advisory Committee Reviews, Appeals, and Votes</a></h2>
+      <p>This section describes how the Advisory Committee reviews proposals
+        from the Director and how Advisory Committee representatives appeal W3C
+        decisions and decisions by the Director. A <a id="def-w3c-decision">W3C
+          decision</a> is one where the Director (or the Director's delegate)
+        has exercised the role of assessing consensus after an <a href="#ACReview">Advisory
+          Committee review</a> of an <a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity
+          Proposal</a>, after a <a href="#cfr">Call for Review of a Proposed
+          Recommendation</a>, after a <a href="#cfr-edited">Call for Review of
+          a Proposed Recommendation</a>, after a <a href="#proposed-rescinded-rec">Proposal
+          to Rescind a W3C Recommendation</a>, and after a <a href="#GAProcess">Proposed
+Process
+          Document</a> review.</p>
+      <h3>8.1 <a id="ACReview">Advisory Committee Reviews</a></h3>
+      <p>The Advisory Committee reviews:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>proposals for <a href="#ActivityCreation">new</a>, <a href="#ActivityModification">modified</a>,
+          and <a href="#ActivityExtension">extended Activities</a>,</li>
+        <li><a href="#CharterReview">new and modified Working and Interest
+            Groups</a>,</li>
+        <li><a href="#cfr">Proposed Recommendations</a>, <a href="#cfr-edited">Proposed
+            Edited Recommendations</a>, <a href="#proposed-rescinded-rec">Proposal
+            to Rescind a Recommendation</a>, and</li>
+        <li><a href="#GAProcess">Proposed changes to the W3C process</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <h4>8.1.1 <a id="ACReviewStart">Start of a Review Period</a></h4>
+      <p>Each Advisory Committee review period begins with a Call for Review
+        from the Team to the Advisory Committee. The <a id="reviewform">review
+          form</a> describes the proposal, raises attention to deadlines,
+        estimates when the decision will be available, and includes other
+        practical information. Each Member organization <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        send one review, which <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be returned by
+        its Advisory Committee representative.</p>
+      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide two channels for
+        Advisory Committee review comments:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>an archived <a href="#Team-only">Team-only</a> channel; this is the
+          default channel for reviews.</li>
+        <li>an archived <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> channel.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>Reviewers <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> send information to either
+        or both channels. They <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> also share
+        their reviews with other Members on the <a href="#ACCommunication">Advisory
+          Committee discussion list</a>.</p>
+      <p>A Member organization <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> modify its
+        review during a review period (e.g., in light of comments from other
+        Members).</p>
+      <h4>8.1.2 <a id="ACReviewAfter">After the Review Period</a></h4>
+      <p>After the review period, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        announce to the Advisory Committee the level of support for the proposal
+        (<a href="#def-Consensus">consensus</a> or <a href="#def-Dissent">dissent</a>).
+        The Director <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> also indicate whether
+        there were any Formal Objections, with attention to <a href="#confidentiality-change">changing
+          confidentiality level</a>. This <a href="#def-w3c-decision">W3C
+          decision</a> is generally one of the following:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>The proposal is approved, possibly with minor changes integrated.</li>
+        <li>The proposal is approved, possibly with <a href="#substantive-change">substantive
+            changes</a> integrated. In this case the Director's announcement <span
+            class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include rationale for the decision to
+          advance the document despite the proposal for a substantive change.</li>
+        <li>The proposal is returned for additional work, with a request to the
+          initiator to <a href="#formal-address">formally address</a> certain
+          issues.</li>
+        <li>The proposal is rejected.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>This document does not specify time intervals between the end of an
+        Advisory Committee review period and the <a href="#def-w3c-decision">W3C
+          decision</a>. This is to ensure that the Members and Team have
+        sufficient time to consider comments gathered during the review. The
+        Advisory Committee <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</span> expect an
+        announcement sooner than <span class="time-interval">two weeks</span>
+        after the end of a Proposed Recommendation review period. If, after <span
+          class="time-interval">three weeks</span>, the Director has not
+        announced the outcome, the Director <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        provide the Advisory Committee with an update.</p>
+      <h3>8.2 <a id="ACAppeal">Appeal by Advisory Committee Representatives</a></h3>
+      <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        appeal certain decisions, though appeals are only expected to occur in
+        extraordinary circumstances.</p>
+      <p>When Advisory Committee review immediately precedes a decision,
+        Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        only appeal when there is <a href="#def-Dissent">dissent</a>. These
+        decisions are:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><a href="#rec-publication">Publication of a Recommendation</a> or <a
+            href="#proposed-rescinded-rec">Publication of a Rescinded
+            Recommendation</a>,</li>
+        <li><a href="#ActivityProposal">Activity creation</a>, <a href="#ActivityModification">modification</a>,
+          or <a href="#ActivityExtension">extension</a>,</li>
+        <li><a href="#cfp">Working or Interest Group creation</a> or <a href="#charter-extension">extension</a>,</li>
+        <li>Changes to the <a href="#GAProcess">W3C process</a>.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        always appeal the following decisions:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li><a href="#ActivityTermination">Activity closure</a>,</li>
+        <li><a href="#charter-extension">Working or Interest Group extension</a>
+          or <a href="#GeneralTermination">closure</a>,</li>
+        <li><a href="#candidate-rec">Call for Implementations</a>, <a href="#cfr">Call
+            for Review of a Proposed Recommendation</a>, <a href="#cfr-edited">Call
+            for Review of an Edited Recommendation</a>, or <a href="#proposed-rescinded-rec">Proposal
+            to Rescind a Recommendation</a></li>
+        <li>the Director's intention to sign a <a href="#mou">Memorandum of
+            Understanding</a> with another organization.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>In all cases, an appeal <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be initiated
+        within <span class="time-interval">three weeks</span> of the decision.</p>
+      <p>An Advisory Committee representative initiates an appeal by sending a
+        request to the Team (explained in detail in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New
+          Member Orientation</a>). The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        announce the appeal process to the Advisory Committee and provide an
+        address for comments from Advisory Committee representatives. The
+        archive of these comments <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be
+        Member-visible. If, within <span class="time-interval">one week</span>
+        of the Team's announcement, 5% or more of the Advisory Committee support
+        the appeal request, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> organize
+        an appeal vote asking the Advisory Committee to approve or reject the
+        decision.
+        <!-- Voting procedure to be determined --></p>
+      <h3>8.3 <a id="ACVotes">Advisory Committee Votes</a></h3>
+      <p>The Advisory Committee votes in <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">elections
+          for seats on the TAG or Advisory Board</a>, and in the event of a
+        formal appeal of a <a href="#def-w3c-decision">W3C decision</a>.
+        Whenever the Advisory Committee votes, each Member or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related
+          Members</a> has one vote. In the case of <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">Advisory
+          Board and TAG elections</a>, "one vote" means "one vote per available
+        seat".</p>
+      <h2>9 <a id="GAEvents">Workshops and Symposia</a></h2>
+      <p>The Team organizes <a id="EventsW">Workshops</a> and <a id="EventsS">Symposia</a>
+        to promote early involvement in the development of W3C Activities from
+        Members and the public.</p>
+      <p>The goal of a Workshop is usually either to convene experts and other
+        interested parties for an exchange of ideas about a technology or
+        policy, or to address the pressing concerns of W3C Members. Organizers
+        of the first type of Workshop <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> solicit
+        position papers for the Workshop program and <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        use those papers to choose attendees and/or presenters.</p>
+      <p>The goal of a Symposium is usually to educate interested parties about
+        a particular subject.</p>
+      <p>The Call for Participation in a Workshop or Symposium <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        indicate participation requirements or limits, and expected deliverables
+        (e.g., reports and minutes). Organization of an event does not guarantee
+        further investment by W3C in a particular topic, but <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        lead to proposals for new Activities or groups.</p>
+      <p>Workshops and Symposia generally last one to three days. If a Workshop
+        is being organized to address the pressing concerns of Members, the Team
+        <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> issue the Call for Participation no
+        later than <span class="time-interval">six weeks</span> prior to the
+        Workshop's scheduled start date. For other Workshops and Symposia, the
+        Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> issue a Call for Participation
+        no later than <span class="time-interval">eight weeks</span> prior to
+        the meeting's scheduled start date. This helps ensure that speakers and
+        authors have adequate time to prepare position papers and talks.</p>
+      <p><strong>Note:</strong> In general, W3C does not organize <a id="EventsC">conferences</a>.
+        Currently, W3C presents its work to the public at the annual World Wide
+        Web Conference, which is coordinated by the <a href="http://www.iw3c2.org/">International
+          World Wide Web Conference Committee</a> (<abbr>IW3C2</abbr>).</p>
+      <h2>10 <a id="Liaisons">Liaisons</a></h2>
+      <p>W3C uses the term "liaison" to refer to coordination of activities with
+        a variety of organizations, through a number of mechanisms ranging from
+        very informal (e.g., an individual from another organization
+        participates in a W3C Working Group, or just follows its work) to mutual
+        membership, to even more formal agreements. Liaisons are not meant to
+        substitute for W3C membership.</p>
+      <p>All liaisons <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be coordinated by the
+        Team due to requirements for public communication; patent, copyright,
+        and other IPR policies; confidentiality agreements; and mutual
+        membership agreements.</p>
+      <p>The W3C Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> negotiate and sign a
+        <a id="mou">Memorandum of Understanding (<abbr>MoU</abbr>)</a> with
+        another organization. Before signing the MoU, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        inform the Advisory Committee of the intent to sign and make the MoU
+        available for Advisory Committee review; the Advisory Committee <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a>. Once approved, a Memorandum of
+        Understanding <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be made public.</p>
+      <p>Information about <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/11/StdLiaison">W3C
+          liaisons with other organizations</a> and the guidelines W3C follows
+        when creating a liaison [<a href="#ref-liaison-list">PUB28</a>] is
+        available on the Web.</p>
+      <h2>11 <a id="Submission">Member Submission Process</a></h2>
+      <p>The Member Submission process allows Members to propose technology or
+        other ideas for consideration by the Team. After review, the Team <span
+          class="rfc2119">MAY</span> publish the material at the W3C Web site.
+        The formal process affords Members a record of their contribution and
+        gives them a mechanism for disclosing the details of the transaction
+        with the Team (including IPR claims). The Team also publishes review
+        comments on the Submitted materials for W3C Members, the public, and the
+        media.</p>
+      <p>A <a id="MemberSubmission">Member Submission</a> consists of:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>One or more documents developed outside of the W3C process, and</li>
+        <li>Information about the documents, provided by the Submitter.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>One or more Members (called the "Submitter(s)") <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        participate in a Member Submission. Only W3C Members <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        be listed as Submitter(s).</p>
+      <p>The Submission process consists of the following steps:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>One of the Submitter(s) sends a request to the Team to acknowledge
+          the Submission request. The Team and Submitter(s) communicate to
+          ensure that the Member Submission is complete.</li>
+        <li>After Team review, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+          either acknowledge or reject the Submission request.
+          <ul>
+            <li>If <a href="#SubmissionYes">acknowledged</a>, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+              publish the Member Submission at the public W3C Web site, in
+              addition to Team comments about the Member Submission.</li>
+            <li>If <a href="#SubmissionNo">rejected</a>, the Submitter(s) <span
+                class="rfc2119">MAY</span> appeal to either the <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>
+              or the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>.</li>
+          </ul>
+        </li>
+      </ol>
+      <p><strong>Note:</strong> To avoid confusion about the Member Submission
+        process, please note that:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Documents in a Member Submission are developed outside of W3C. These
+          documents are <strong>not</strong> part of the <a href="#Reports">technical
+            report development process</a> (and therefore are not included in
+          the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">index of W3C technical reports</a>).
+          Members wishing to have documents developed outside of W3C published
+          by W3C <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> follow the Member Submission
+          process.</li>
+        <li>The Submission process is <strong>not</strong> a means by which
+          Members ask for "ratification" of these documents as <a href="#RecsW3C">W3C
+            Recommendations</a>.</li>
+        <li>There is no requirement or guarantee that technology which is part
+          of an acknowledged Submission request will receive further
+          consideration by W3C (e.g., by a W3C Working Group).</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>Publication of a Member Submission by W3C does not imply endorsement by
+        W3C, including the W3C Team or Members. The acknowledgment of a
+        Submission request does not imply that any action will be taken by W3C.
+        It merely records publicly that the Submission request has been made by
+        the Submitter. A Member Submission published by W3C <span class="rfc2119">MUST
+          NOT</span> be referred to as "work in progress" of the W3C.</p>
+      <p>The list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Submission/">acknowledged
+          Member Submissions</a> [<a href="#ref-submission-list">PUB10</a>] is
+        available at the W3C Web site.</p>
+      <h3>11.1 <a id="SubmissionRights">Submitter Rights and Obligations</a></h3>
+      <p>When more than one Member jointly participates in a Submission request,
+        only one Member formally sends in the request. That Member <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        copy each of the Advisory Committee representatives of the other
+        participating Members, and each of those Advisory Committee
+        representatives <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> confirm (by email to
+        the Team) their participation in the Submission request.</p>
+      <p>At any time prior to acknowledgment, any Submitter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        withdraw support for a Submission request (described in "<a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/submission">How
+          to send a Submission request</a>"). A Submission request is
+        "withdrawn" when no Submitter(s) support it. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST
+          NOT</span> make statements about withdrawn Submission requests.</p>
+      <p>Prior to acknowledgment, the Submitter(s) <span class="rfc2119">MUST
+          NOT</span>, <strong>under any circumstances</strong>, refer to a
+        document as "submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium" or "under
+        consideration by W3C" or any similar phrase either in public or Member
+        communication. The Submitter(s) <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span>
+        imply in public or Member communication that W3C is working (with the
+        Submitter(s)) on the material in the Member Submission. The Submitter(s)
+        <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> publish the documents in the Member
+        Submission prior to acknowledgment (without reference to the Submission
+        request).</p>
+      <p>After acknowledgment, the Submitter(s) <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span>,
+        <strong>under any circumstances</strong>, imply W3C investment in the
+        Member Submission until, and unless, the material has been adopted as
+        part of a W3C <a href="#def-Activity">Activity</a>.</p>
+      <h4>11.1.1 <a id="SubmissionScope">Scope of Member Submissions</a></h4>
+      <p>When a technology overlaps in scope with the work of a chartered
+        Working Group, Members <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> <a href="#group-participation">participate
+          in the Working Group</a> and contribute the technology to the group's
+        process rather than seek publication through the Member Submission
+        process. The Working Group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> incorporate
+        the contributed technology into its deliverables. If the Working Group
+        does not incorporate the technology, it <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD
+          NOT</span> publish the contributed documents as Working Group Notes
+        since Working Group Notes represent group output, not input to the
+        group.</p>
+      <p>On the other hand, while W3C is in the early stages of developing an
+        Activity Proposal or charter, Members <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
+        use the Submission process to build consensus around concrete proposals
+        for new work.</p>
+      <p>Members <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</span> submit materials
+        covering topics well outside the scope of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission">W3C's
+          mission</a> [<a href="#ref-mission">PUB15</a>].</p>
+      <h4>11.1.2 <a id="SubmissionReqs">Information Required in a Submission
+          Request</a></h4>
+      <p>The Submitter(s) and any other authors of the submitted material <span
+          class="rfc2119">MUST</span> agree that, if the request is
+        acknowledged, the documents in the Member Submission will be subject to
+        the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">W3C
+          Document License</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-license">PUB18</a>] and will
+        include a reference to it. The Submitter(s) <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        hold the copyright for the documents in a Member Submission.</p>
+      <p>The request must satisfy the Member Submission licensing commitments of
+        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-submissions">section
+          3.3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
+      <p>The Submitter(s) <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> include the
+        following information:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>The list of all submitting Members.</li>
+        <li>Position statements from all submitting Members (gathered by the
+          Submitter). All position statements must appear in a separate
+          document.</li>
+        <li>Complete electronic copies of any documents submitted for
+          consideration (e.g., a technical specification, a position paper,
+          etc.) If the Submission request is acknowledged, these documents will
+          be published by W3C and therefore must satisfy the Communication
+          Team's <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/pubrules">Publication Rules</a>
+          [<a href="#ref-pubrules">PUB31</a>]. Submitters may hold the copyright
+          for the material contained in these documents, but when published by
+          W3C, these documents <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be subject to
+          the provisions of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">W3C
+            Document License</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-license">PUB18</a>].</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>The request <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> also answer the
+        following questions.</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>What proprietary technology is required to implement the areas
+          addressed by the request, and what terms are associated with its use?
+          Again, many answers are possible, but the specific answer will affect
+          the Team's decision.</li>
+        <li>What resources, if any, does the Submitter intend to make available
+          if the W3C acknowledges the Submission request and takes action on it?</li>
+        <li>What action would the Submitter like W3C to take if the Submission
+          request is acknowledged?</li>
+        <li>What mechanisms are there to make changes to the specification being
+          submitted? This includes, but is not limited to, stating where change
+          control will reside if the request is acknowledged.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>For other administrative requirements related to Submission requests,
+        see "<a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/submission">How to send a
+          Submission request</a>" [<a href="#ref-member-sub">MEM8</a>].</p>
+      <h3>11.2 <a id="TeamSubmissionRights">Team Rights and Obligations</a></h3>
+      <p>Although they are not technical reports, the documents in a Member
+        Submission <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> fulfill the requirements
+        established by the Team, including the Team's <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/pubrules">Publication
+          Rules</a>.</p>
+      <p>The Team sends a <a id="validation-notice">validation notice</a> to
+        the Submitter(s) once the Team has reviewed a Submission request and
+        judged it complete and correct.</p>
+      <p>Prior to a decision to <a href="#SubmissionYes">acknowledge</a> or <a
+          href="#SubmissionNo">reject</a> the request, the request is <a href="#Team-only">Team-only</a>,
+        and the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> hold it in the strictest
+        confidentiality. In particular, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span>
+        comment to the media about the Submission request.</p>
+      <h3>11.3 <a id="SubmissionYes">Acknowledgment of a Submission Request</a></h3>
+      <p>The Director <a href="#SubmissionYes">acknowledges</a> a Submission
+        request by sending an announcement to the Advisory Committee. Though the
+        announcement <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be made at any time, the
+        Submitter(s) can expect an announcement between <span class="time-interval">four
+          to six weeks</span> after the <a href="#validation-notice">validation
+          notice</a>. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> keep the
+        Submitter(s) informed of when an announcement is likely to be made.</p>
+      <p>Once a Submission request has been acknowledged, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>Publish the Member Submission.</li>
+        <li>Publish Team comments about the Submission request.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>If the Submitter(s) wishes to modify a document published as the result
+        of acknowledgment, the Submitter(s) <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        start the Submission process from the beginning, even just to correct
+        editorial changes.</p>
+      <h3>11.4 <a id="SubmissionNo">Rejection of a Submission Request</a></h3>
+      <p>The Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> reject a Submission
+        request for a variety of reasons, including any of the following:</p>
+      <ul>
+        <li>The ideas expressed in the request overlap in scope with the work of
+          a chartered Working Group, and acknowledgment might jeopardize the
+          progress of the group.</li>
+        <li>The IPR statement made by the Submitter(s) is inconsistent with the
+          W3C's <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">Patent
+            Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>], <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">Document
+            License</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-license">PUB18</a>], or other IPR
+          policies.</li>
+        <li>The ideas expressed in the request are poor, might harm the Web, or
+          run counter to <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission">W3C's
+            mission</a>.</li>
+        <li>The ideas expressed in the request lie well outside the scope of
+          W3C's mission.</li>
+      </ul>
+      <p>In case of a rejection, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        inform the Advisory Committee representative(s) of the Submitter(s). If
+        requested by the Submitter(s), the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
+        provide rationale to the Submitter(s) about the rejection. Other than to
+        the Submitter(s), the Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> make
+        statements about why a Submission request was rejected.</p>
+      <p>The Advisory Committee representative(s) of the Submitters(s) <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
+        appeal the rejection to the <a href="#TAG">TAG</a> if the reasons are
+        related to Web architecture, or to the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>
+        if the request is rejected for other reasons. In this case the Team <span
+          class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> make available its rationale for the
+        rejection to the appropriate body. The Team will establish a process for
+        such appeals that ensures the appropriate <a href="#confidentiality-levels">level
+          of confidentiality</a>.</p>
+      <h2>12 <a id="GAProcess">Process Evolution</a></h2>
+      <p>The <a id="ProcessDoc">W3C Process Document</a> undergoes similar
+        consensus-building processes as technical reports, with the <a href="#AB">Advisory
+          Board</a> acting as the sponsoring Working Group.</p>
+      <p>The Advisory Board initiates review of a Process Document as follows:</p>
+      <ol>
+        <li>The Team sends a Call for Review to the Advisory Committee and other
+          W3C groups.</li>
+        <li>After comments have been <a href="#formal-address">formally
+            addressed</a> and the document possibly modified, the Team seeks
+          endorsement from the Members by initiating an <a href="#ACReview">Advisory
+            Committee review</a> of a Proposed Process Document. The review
+          period <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> last at least <span class="time-interval">four
+            weeks</span>.</li>
+        <li><a href="#ACReviewAfter">After the Advisory Committee review</a>, if
+          there is consensus, the Team enacts the new process officially by
+          announcing the <a href="#def-w3c-decision">W3C decision</a> to the
+          Advisory Committee. If there was <a href="#def-Dissent">dissent</a>,
+          Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> <a
+            href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> the decision.</li>
+      </ol>
+      <p>W3C <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> also modify a Process Document by
+        following the processes for <a href="#rec-modify">modifying a
+          Recommendation</a>.</p>
+      <p>Reviews of the Process Document are not public reviews.</p>
+      <h2>13 <a id="references">References</a></h2>
+      <h3>13.1 <a id="public-refs">Public Resources</a></h3>
+      <p>The following public information is available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C
+          Web site</a>.</p>
+      <dl>
+        <dt><a id="ref-join-w3c"><b>[PUB5]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How to Join W3C</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-member-agreement"><b>[PUB6]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
+              Agreement</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-current-mem"><b>[PUB8]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List">The list of
+              current W3C Members</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-activity-list"><b>[PUB9]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/activities">The list of
+              W3C Activities</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-submission-list"><b>[PUB10]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Submission/">The list of
+              acknowledged Member Submissions</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-doc-list"><b>[PUB11]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">The W3C technical reports
+              index</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-submission-overview"><b>[PUB13]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Submission/1996/Template/">Submission
+              request overview</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-people"><b>[PUB14]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/People/">The W3C Team</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-mission"><b>[PUB15]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/">About the World Wide
+              Web Consortium</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-team-submission-list"><b>[PUB16]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/">The list of
+              published Team Submissions</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-invited-expert"><b>[PUB17]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/collaborators-agreement">Invited
+              expert and collaborators agreement</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-doc-license"><b>[PUB18]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">W3C
+Document
+              License</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-software-license"><b>[PUB19]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-software">W3C
+Software
+              Notice and License</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-translations"><b>[PUB20]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Translation/">Translations
+              of W3C technical reports</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-pub-mailing-lists"><b>[PUB21]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Mail/">Public W3C mailing lists</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-coi"><b>[PUB23]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/06-conflictpolicy">Conflict
+              of Interest Policy for W3C Team Members Engaged in Outside
+              Professional Activities</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-tag-charter"><b>[PUB25]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19-tag">Technical
+              Architecture Group (TAG) Charter</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-tag-home"><b>[PUB26]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/">The TAG home page</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-rec-tips"><b>[PUB27]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/05/rec-tips">Tips for Getting
+              to Recommendation Faster</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-liaison-list"><b>[PUB28]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/11/StdLiaison">W3C liaisons
+              with other organizations</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-ab-home"><b>[PUB30]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/ab/">The Advisory Board home
+              page</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-pubrules"><b>[PUB31]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/pubrules">Publication Rules</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-fellows"><b>[PUB32]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Recruitment/Fellows">W3C
+              Fellows Program</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-patentpolicy"><b>[PUB33]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5
+              Feb 2004 version of the W3C Patent Policy</a></cite>. The <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/">latest
+            version of the W3C Patent Policy</a> is available at
+          http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/.</dd>
+        <dt><a id="in-place-tr-mod">[PUB35]</a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/republishing/">In-place
+              modification of W3C Technical Reports</a></cite></dd>
+      </dl>
+      <h3>13.2 <a id="member-refs">Member-only Resources</a></h3>
+      <p>The following <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> information is
+        available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C Web site</a>.</p>
+      <dl>
+        <dt><a id="ref-current-ac"><b>[MEM1]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/ACList">Current Advisory
+              Committee representatives</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-mailing-lists"><b>[MEM2]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Mail/">Group mailing lists</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-calendar"><b>[MEM3]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd>The <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Eventscal">calendar of
+              all scheduled official W3C events</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-new-member"><b>[MEM4]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd>The <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New Member
+              Orientation</a></cite>, which includes an introduction to W3C
+          processes from a practical standpoint, including relevant email
+          addresses.</dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-ac-meetings"><b>[MEM5]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Meeting/">Advisory Committee
+              meetings</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-member-web"><b>[MEM6]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/">Member Web site</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-member-sub"><b>[MEM8]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/submission">How to send a
+              Submission request</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-guide"><b>[MEM9]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/">The Art of Consensus</a></cite>,
+          a guidebook for W3C Working Group Chairs and other collaborators</dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-discipline-gl"><b>[MEM14]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/09/discipline">Guidelines for
+              Disciplinary Action</a></cite></dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-election-howto"><b>[MEM15]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/10/election-howto">How to
+              Organize an Advisory Board or TAG election</a></cite></dd>
+      </dl>
+      <h3>13.3 <a id="other-refs">Other References</a></h3>
+      <dl>
+        <dt><a id="ref-RFC2119"><b>[RFC2119]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">"Key words for
+              use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels"</a></cite>, S.
+          Bradner, March 1997.</dd>
+        <dt><a id="ref-RFC2777"><b>[RFC2777]</b></a></dt>
+        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2777.txt">"Publicly
+              Verifiable Nomcom Random Selection"</a></cite>, D. Eastlake 3rd,
+          February 2000.</dd>
+      </dl>
+      <h2>14 <a id="acks">Acknowledgments</a></h2>
+      <p>The following individuals, either through the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising
+          W3C Process Community Group</a> or independently, have contributed to
+        the development of this version of the Process: Dan Appelquist
+        (Telefonica), Art Barstow (Nokia), Robin Berjon (W3C), Wayne Carr
+        (Intel), Marcos Cáceres (Mozilla), Mark Crawford (SAP), Fantasai
+        (Mozilla), Virginie Galindo (Gemalto), Daniel Glazman (Disruptive
+        Innovations), Joe Hall (CDT), Ivan Herman (W3C), Ian Hickson (Google),
+        Ian Jacobs (W3C), Jeff Jaffe (W3C), Cullen Jennings (Cisco), Chris
+        Lilley (W3C), Giri Mandyam (Qualcomm), Larry Masinter (Adobe Systems),
+        TV Raman (Google), David Singer (Apple), Ralph Swick (W3C), Anne van
+        Kesteren, Steve Zilles (Adobe Systems).</p>
+      <p>The following individuals participated in the preparation of W3C
+        Process Documents, including this draft, while serving (at different
+        times) on the W3C Advisory Board: Jean-François Abramatic (IBM, and
+        previously ILOG and W3C), Ann Bassetti (The Boeing Company), Jim Bell
+        (HP), Klaus Birkenbihl (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft), Carl Cargill (Sun
+        Microsystems), Michael Champion (Microsoft), Paul Cotton (Microsoft),
+        Tantek Çelik (Mozilla), Don Deutsch (Oracle), David Fallside (IBM), Paul
+        Grosso (Arbortext), Eduardo Gutentag (Sun Microsystems), Steve Holbrook
+        (IBM), Renato Iannella (IPR Systems), Jeff Jaffe (W3C), Ken Laskey
+        (MITRE), Ora Lassila (Nokia), Håkon Wium Lie (Opera Software), Larry
+        Masinter (Adobe Systems), Bede McCall (MITRE), Qiuling Pan (Huawei),
+        Thomas Reardon (Microsoft), Claus von Riegen (SAP AG), David Singer
+        (IBM), Jean-Charles Verdié (MStar), Chris Wilson (Google), Lauren Wood
+        (unaffiliated), and Steve Zilles (Adobe Systems).</p>
+      <p>Early drafts of the W3C Process Document were prepared by a special <a
+          id="erb">Process Working Group</a>. The Working Group was elected by
+        the Advisory Committee representatives on 16 September 1996 and closed
+        in November 1997. The following individuals participated in the Process
+        Working Group (with their affiliations at that time): Carl Cargill
+        (Netscape), Wendy Fong (Hewlett-Packard), John Klensin (MCI), Tim
+        Krauskopf (Spyglass), Kari Laihonen (Ericsson), Thomas Reardon
+        (Microsoft), David Singer (IBM), and Steve Zilles (Adobe). The Team
+        members involved in the Process Working Group were: Jean-François
+        Abramatic, Tim Berners-Lee, Ian Jacobs, and Sally Khudairi.</p>
+      <p>Thanks also to Don Brutzman (Web3D) for earlier work on liaisons.</p>
+      <h2 id="changes">15 Changes</h2>
+      <p>This document is effectively the same as the 1 August 2014 Process<a href="#Reports"></a>.
+        <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/">Detailed change logs</a> are
+        available.</p>
     </div>
   </body>
 </html>